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Ecology and Personality 1

Ecology and Personality:


A Review of the Literature

Christian Joseph J. Paraiso

General Psychology, PSY 1Y1-3


Professor Carlo Certeza
October 8, 2014

Ecology and Personality 2

Ecology and Personality:


A Review of the Literature

Personalities in a wide variety of species are organized by behavioral


differences among individuals. Hypothesis for the coexistence of behavioral
differences fall into three categories: Variation in Selection, Frequency-Dependent
Selection, and Behavioral Plasticity. Results are best interpreted either as evolved
divergences, although a candidate-gene approach could not identify genetic
correlates of behavior, or as long-term behavioral plasticity (e.g., effects of
rearing environment). In the latest invasion, geographic differences in ecology
and behavior equate to repeated and fast changes over time (Carvalho, Leitao,
Funghi, Batalha, Reis, Mota et al. 2013).
They conducted a research in an animal to indicate that behavior is
related to personality using a recent biological invasion as a natural experiment
where divergence over space can be used as a proxy for divergence over time. A
small finch nature to sub-Saharan Africa, the common waxbill (Estrilda Astrild).
They tested if the differences among sites product behavior and assessed if
behavior changes plastically with season or if it is differs among individuals of
different sex and age classes (Fidler et al. 2007; Korsten et al. 2010; Kluen et al.
2012).
In two breeding season, they conducted a fieldwork. There sites were
visited in order to not affect the date with ecological differences. They performed
four test in the field, targeting different behavioral context. This open-field test
was conducted only for sites visited in 2011. It was applied to all waxbills, except
for occasional logistic impediments, and conducted between 0800 and 1400h
(Carvalho et al. 2013),
Another experiment was conducted, held in Laboratory using 78 adult
waxbills to assess within individual repeatability. Also, they tried to obtained data
on demography and on climate, and geography for each field site. Last method

Ecology and Personality 3


that they used to collect information is the Genetic Data. A blood sample from
each bird was used by puncturing the brachial vein (Carvalho et al. 2013, Pg.
1086).
The result of their analyses using the three methods. First, fieldwork has
an effect of age, sex, date, and possible confounding factors with a General Linear
Model (GLM) for each behavioral test. Second, the climate with a multiple linear
regression of an average behavior for site on the two demography and climate
PCs. And the third, the genetic data was used for looking only at behavioral
differences among sites using residuals from an additional GLM with site as the
single random factor (Carvalho et al. 2013, Pg,1086).
As conclusion, their results suggest that adaptive geographic differences,
likely as part of a behavioral syndrome. Ecological changes has a significant role
which can affect the fitness of behavioral phenotypes (e.g., Reale and FestaBlanchet, 2003; Diagemanse et al. 2004; Quinn et al. 2009), and fixed or plastic
adaptive geographic difference in behavior have also been reported (e.g., Chiba et
al. 2007; Urban, 2007; Atwell et al. 2012; Magahagen et al. 2012). Fluctuations in
ecological conditions and selective optima are common in nature (Halley, 1996;
Bell, 2010). This suggest that varying conditions through time (or through space
plus migration) can cause selection or long-term plastic effects that help maintain
behavioral and personality differences among individuals.

References
Aplin L.M, Farine DR, Morand-Ferron J., Sheldon BC. 2012. Social networks
predict patch discovery in a wild population of songbirds. Proc R Soc B. 279:
4199-4205.
Atwell JW, Gardoso GC, Whittaker DJ, Campbell-Nelson S, Robertson KW,
Ketterson ED. 2012. Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban
environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation. Behav Ecol.
23:960-969.

Ecology and Personality 4


Batalha HR, Ramos JA, Cardoso GC, 2013. A successful avian invasion occupies
a marginal ecological niche. Acta Oecol. 49:92-98.
Bell G. 2010. Fluctuating Selection: The perpetual renewal of adaptation in
variable environments. Phil Trans R Soc B.365: 87-89
Biro PA, Dingemanse NJ. 2009. Sampling bias resulting from animal personality.
Trends Ecol Evol. 42; 66-67
Boehmler W, Carr T, Thisse C, Thisse B, Canfield VA, Levenson R. 2007. D4
dopamine receptor genes of zebrafish and effects of the antipsychotic clozapine
on larval swimming behavior. Genes Brain Behav. 6:155-166.
Boissy A. 1995. Fear and Fearfulness in animals. Q Rev Biol. 70:165-191.
Carere C., Caramaschi D, Fawcet TW. 2010. Covariation between personalities
and individual differences in coping with stress: converging evidence and
hypotheses. Curt Zool. 56:728-740.
Chiba S, Arnott SA, Conover DO. 2007. Coevolution of foraging behavior with
intrinsic growth rate: risk taking in naturally and artificially selected growth
genotypes of Menidia menidia. Oecologia. 154:237-246.
Clement P, Harris A, Davies J. 1993. Finches and Sparrows. Princeton: Princeton
University Pres.
Cote J, Clobert J. 2007. Social Personalities influence natal dispersal in a lizard.
Proc R Soc B. 274:383-390.
Cote J, Clobert J, Brodin T, Fogarty S, Sih A. 2010. Personality-dependent
dispersal: characterization, ontogeny and consequences for spatially structured
populations. Phil Trans R Soc B. 365:4065-4076.
Cote J, Dreiss A, Clobert J. 2008. Social Personality trait and fitness. Proc R Soc
B. 275:2851-2858.

Social Dominance Orientation and Personality 1

Social Dominance Orientation and


Personality:
A Review of the Literature

Christian Joseph J. Paraiso

General Psychology, PSY 1Y1-3


Professor Carlo Certeza
October 8, 2014

Social Dominance Orientation and Personality 2

Social Dominance Orientation and Personality:


A Review of the Literature

This research talks about the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) as


related to personality trait. Whereas, the ones degree of preference for inequality
among social groups is introduced. It is distinguished from interpersonal
dominance, conservatism, and authoritarianism and was negatively correlated
with empathy, communality, and altruism. This literature review about this
research will sum up all the studies that they conducted, which was unfortunately
done in the past years (Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, and Malle, 1994).
The acceptance of legitimizing myths has significant influence on the
degreeof inequality in societies. Social Dominance postulates that a significant
factor is an individual difference variable called Social Dominance Orientation
(SDO), or the extent to which one desires that ones group dominate and be
superior to at groups. To those who higher on SDO will tend to favor hierarchyenhancing ideologies and policies. Whereas, those who lower on SDO will tend to
favor hierarchy-attenuating ideologies and policies (Pratto et al. 1994).
They tested the first set of hypothesis that derived from social
dominance theory and focus to those variables to which SDO should strongly
relate, termed Predictive Validity. It comprises the Gender; Ethnic Prejudice;
Nationalism; Cultural Elitism; Sexism; Political-Economic Conservation;
Noblesse Oblique; Meritocracy; Social Policy Attitude; Social Welfare, Civil
Rights, and Environmental Policies; Military Policy; and Punitive Policies.
In Gender, men are more superior and hierarchy-enhancing attitudes
than women. Ethnic Prejudice, it is all about the discrimination of superior people
to the inferior. For example, the anti-black racism. Nationalism, postulated with
this and other procountry feelings would all be significantly related to SDO.
Cultural Elitism, the ideas and responsibility of a human who belong to the group
to exercise their roles as part of the culture. Sexism, they believe that men and

Social Dominance Orientation and Personality 3


women are naturally different and should have different work roles outside and
inside as an individual. Political-Economic Conservation, considered to be a
hierarchy-enhancing legitimizing myth and should positively correlate with SDO.
Noblesse Oblige, a hierarchy-attenuating ideology that which expected to be
negatively correlated. Meritocracy, all equal opportunity are given to all but the
wealth and social values is based on the deservingness of the recipients. Social
Policy Attitude, this depends on how socially dominant a person is. It may vary
through society. Social Welfare, Civil Rights, and Environmental Policies, all of
this used to maintain equality and the social dominance. Military Policy, a symbol
of nationalism, in that case it should be positively correlated. Last the Punitive
Policies, is an enact equality before the law. Best example is the law and order
(Pratto et al. 1994).
On the other hand the second set of hypothesis, termed Discriminant
Validity. It states that either SDO should have predictive value in addition to the
effects of these other variables. It comprises Interpersonal Dominance;
Authoritarinism; Consevatism; and Stanard Personality Variable.
In Interpersonal Dominance, the differences of an individual as a human
depending on social dominance. Authoritarisnism, this personality can lead to
relatively conservative, racist, ethnocentric, and prejudiced base on the theory that
they have conducted. And the last, Standard Personality Variable, this influences
by a social norms. (Pratto et al. 1994)
As conclusion, this research indicates that SDO, the desire for group
dominance, is a significant predictor of social and political attitudes pertaining to
intergroup relations and also of hierarchy roles. In the reality individuals and
institutions reinforce each others hierarchy-enhancing tendencies, which we
expected that discriminatory behaviors becomes powerful and difficult to change.
Social Dominance Theory suggest that the confluence of this individualdifference variable and a number of social factors (Pratto et al. 1994).

Social Dominance Orientation and Personality 4

References
Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The
Authoritarian Personality. New York: Norton
Altemeyer, B. (1981). Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Manitoba: University of
Manitoba Pres.
Avery, P. G. (1988). Political Tolerance among Adolescents. Theory and Research
in Social Education, 16, 183-201.
Benson, P.L., & Vincent, S. (1980). Development and Validation of the Sexist
Attitudes toward Women Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5, 276-291.
Bienen, L., Alan, N., Denno, D.W., Allison, P.D., & Mills, D.L. (1998). The
Reimposition of Capital Punishment in New Jersey: The Role of Prosecutorial
Discretion. Rutgers Law Review (Fall).
Bobo, L. (1983). Whites Opposition to Busing: Symbolic Racism or Realistic
Group Conflict? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 45, 1196-1210.
Brown, D.E. (1991). Human Universals. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Burt, M.R. (1980). Cultural Myths and Supports for Rape. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 38, 217-230.
Carmines, E.G., & McIver, J.D. (1981). Analyzing Models with Unobserved
Variables: Analysis of Covariance Structures. In G.W. Bohinstedt & E.F. Borgatta
(Eds.), Social Measurements: Current Issues (pp.65-115). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
Christopher, W., Arguellas, J.A., Anderson, R.A., Barnes, W.R., Estrada, L.F.,
Kantor, M., Mosk, R.M., Ordin, A.S., Slaughter, J.B., & Traquada, R.E. (1991).
Report of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department.
Suite 1910, 400 South Hope Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071-2899.
Self-Regulation and Personality 1

Self-Regulation and Personality:


A Review of the Literature

Christian Joseph J. Paraiso

General Psychology, PSY 1Y1-3


Professor Carlo Certeza
October 8, 2014
Self-Regulation and Personality 2

Self-Regulation and Personality:


A Review of the Literature

Regular exercises in self-regulation can broad improvements in selfregulation, making us flawless to ego depletion. In addition, it shows that ego
depletion lessen the outcome of many traits of its behaviors., particularly in wide
differences in socially disapproved motivations or norms produces higher level
differences in behavior when it is weakens the customary inner restraints
(Baumeister, Gailliot, DeWall, & Oaten, 2006).
Self-Regulation is a very significant process of personality by which
many of us seek to exert self-control over our thoughts, feelings, impulses and
appetite, and task performances. It is more extensive in human rather than
animals. Even if human beings are more capalble for self-regulation, however, if
far less than what many would regard as ideal self-regulation then, failures are
central to the majority of personal and social problems that plague citizens in
modern societies (Baumeister, Gailliot, DeWall, & Oaten, 2006).
How does Self-Regulation operates?
When this limited strength has been extremely used. The person falls
into a state of ego depletion. By which, their efforts are far more than a normal
successful do. They have suggested that self-regulation operates on the basis of an
energy or strength that can become depleted. This strength resources may be
considered an important aspect of personality not least because of its long-term
power to promote positive, desirable outcomes (Baumeister, Gaillot, DeWall, &
Oaten, 2006).
Self-Regulation is a multifaceted process, as indicated by the different
emphasis of various theoretical models (Baumeister et al. 2006). First, SelfRegulation as Strength. They accumulated findings that self-regulation operates
with a limited resource that resembles a form of strength or energy. Second,
Self-Regulation and Personality 3

Validating the Construct of Ego Depletion. It was in the beginning when they had
to contend with alternative explanations or converging evidence just to have a
research about the construct of an ego depletion. Not necessarily the effect of ego
depletion will be the difficult and effortful task that a will perform every now and
then. Another explanation was headed that ego depletion is somewhat part of a
state of General Mental Fatigue. Because according to this study, Fatigue causes a
person to to work less. But this study is no longer exists because of its weak
evidences (Baumeister et al. 2006).
How can we increase Strength via Exercise?
Self-Regulation resembles as a muscle in that it seems to become tired after
exertion, resulting in temporarily diminished power or capacity. By repeating
exercises it will strengthen the self-regulation in the long run. There are many
evidences on how to increase the strength. First, Posture; Affect Regulation and
Dietary Monitoring; Physical Exercise as Self-Regulation Exercise; Money
Management; Study Habits and Exam Stress; Interpreting the findings; and
Switching Hands, Verbal Regulation and Stereotyping. By these studies, it does
appear possible ways to improve self-regulation via regular exercise. In addition,
there is always a room for improvements that fits the strength model in an
important manners: Increasing of Strength can also increase a general core
capacity (Baumeister et al. 2006).
Whats on with the Depletion and Individual Differences?
Enabling the individuals to bring their behaviors into rooms is the major purpose
of self-regulation. Many studies was conducted just to know what is on with the
depletion and individual differences that they needed to find out. Dieters;
Stereotype Suppression; Temptation to Drink; Gender, Socio-sexual Orientation
and Sexual infidelity; Sexual History and Sexual Restraint; Social Anxiety and
Social Interactions; and Attachment Style and Optimal Self-Presentation.
Multiple Studies have found that interactions between ego depletion and
personality traits have a factor to individual differences (Baumeister et al. 2006).

Self-Regulation and Personality 4

As conclusion, the ideals, moral values, social norms, laws and other standards
are very important key for us to success in our lives and one thing that we must
consider is the distinctively personality traits of human (Baumeister et al. 2006)

References
Allgeier, A.R., & Algeier, E.R. (1995). Sexual Interactions (4th Ed.). Lexington,
MA: D.C. Health.
Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1973). Social Penetration: The Development of
Interpersonal Relationships. New York: Holt, Reinhart, & Winston.
Amir, O., Dhar, R., Pocheptsova, A., & Baumeister, R.F. (2005). Deciding
without Resources: Psychological Depletion and Choice in Context. Manuscript
submitted for publications.
Baumeister, R.F. (1998). The Self. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey
(Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (4th Ed., pp. 680-740). New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Baumeister, R.F. (2005). The Cultural Animal: Human Nature, Meaning, and
Social Life. New York: Oxford University Pres.
Baumeister, R.F., & Bratslavsky, E. (1999). Passion, Intimacy, and Time:
Passionate Love as a Function of Change in Intimacy. Personality and Social
Psychology Review, 3, 49-67.
Gailliot, M.T., & Baumeister, R.F. (2005). Self-Regulation and Sexual Restraint.:
Dispositionally and Temporarily Poor Self-Regulatory Abilities Contribute to
Failures at Restraining Sexual Behavior. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Oaten, M., & Cheng, K. (2004a). Longitudinal Gains in Self-Control from
Regular Physical Exercise. Manuscript submitted for publication, Macquarie
University.
Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal Construal. Psychological Review.
Early Experience and Personality 1

Early Experience and Personality:


A Review of the Literature

Christian Joseph J. Paraiso

General Psychology, PSY 1Y1-3


Professor Carlo Certeza
October 8, 2014
Early Experience and Personality 2

Early Experience and Personality:


A Review of the Literature

Personalities in a wide variety of species are organized by behavioral