You are on page 1of 8

Yanis Varoufakis

1 Early life and education

Yanis Varoufakis (Greek: "" Ioannis Gianis Varoufakis,[1] pronounced


[anis varufacis]; born 24 March 1961)[2] is a Greek
economist, academic and politician, who served as the
Greek Minister of Finance from January to July 2015,
when he resigned. Varoufakis was also a Syriza Member of the Hellenic Parliament (MP) for Athens B from
January to September 2015.

Varoufakis was born in Palaio Faliro,[3] Athens, on 24


March 1961, to George and Eleni Varoufakis.
Varoufakiss father, George Varoufakis, emigrated from
Cairo to Greece in the 1940s, arriving in the midst of
the Greek Civil War. One day, he was roughed up by
the police and asked to sign a denunciation of communism. In response, he said: Look I am not a Buddhist,
but I would never sign a denunciation of Buddhism.[4]
He therefore ended up spending several years imprisoned
on the island of Makronisos, which was used for the political re-education of people who fought on the communist
side in the war.[5] After being released in 1950, he completed his university studies and found employment as the
personal assistant to the owner of Halyvourgiki, Greeces
biggest steel producer. He is now, at the age of 90, Chairman of Halyvourgikis Board of Directors.[5][6]

Born in Athens in 1961, Varoufakis attended Moraitis


School before moving to the United Kingdom where he
studied mathematics at the University of Essex, a postgraduate degree in mathematical statistics at University
of Birmingham and a PhD in economics back at Essex.
Whilst at university, he was a supporter of various radical causes. Following university, he began a career in
academic economics, teaching at the universities of Essex, East Anglia, and Cambridge between 1982 and 1988.
Following Margaret Thatcher's third election victory in
1987, Varoufakis left the UK and moved to Australia,
where he taught at the University of Sydney until 2000.
He returned to Greece that year to teach at the University
of Athens, where he led a doctoral program and was promoted to full professor in 2005. Following this, Varoufakis had periods of advising George Papandreou and
working as the economist-in-residence for Valve Corporation before moving to the United States to teach at the
University of Texas at Austin. Varoufakis has published
a number of academic and more accessible texts on economics and game theory, such as The Global Minotaur.

Varoufakiss mother, also a student at the University of


Athens School of Chemistry at the time she met George,
abandoned her conservative background[3] after meeting
her husband who was, at the time, allied to United Democratic Left (EDA). In the mid 1970s Eleni Varoufaki
became an activist for the Womens Union of Greece,
which promoted gender equality and had been set up by
members of PASOK.[5] By the early 1980s, the couple
had converged politically to the same political centre-left
ground and engaged with the socialist PASOK.[3] Eleni
In January 2015, Varoufakis was appointed as the Min- was elected Deputy Mayor of Palaio Faliro a few years
ister of Finance, and led negotiation with Greeces cred- before she died in 2008.
itors during the Greek government-debt crisis. However, Varoufakis was six years old when the military coup
he failed to reach an agreement with creditors, leading to d'tat of April 1967 took place. Varoufakis later said
the 2015 Greek bailout referendum. The day following that the military junta showed him a sense of what it
the referendum, on 6 July 2015, Varoufakis resigned as means to be both unfree and, at once, convinced [me]
Minister of Finance and was replaced by Euclid Tsakalo- that the possibilities for progress and improvement are
tos. On 24 August, Varoufakis voted against the third endless. The junta collapsed when Varoufakis was in jubailout package, and in the ensuing September snap elec- nior high school.[7] Attending the private Moraitis School,
tion, did not stand for re-election. Varoufakis has since Varoufakis decided early to spell his rst name with one
appeared in numerous debates, lectures, and interviews. 'n', rather than the standard two, for "aesthetic" reasons.
In February 2016, he launched the Democracy in Europe When his teacher gave him a low mark for that, he beMovement 2025 (DiEM25), and subsequently backed a came angry and has continued spelling his rst name with
Remain vote in the UKs European Union membership one 'n' ever since.[8]
referendum 2016.
Varoufakis nished his secondary education around
1976, when his parents deemed it too dangerous for
him to continue his education in Greece. Therefore, he
moved to the United Kingdom in 1978 where he joined
the University of Essex. His initial urge was to study
physics but he decided that the lingua franca of political
1

3 MINISTER OF FINANCE AND THE SYRIZA GOVERNMENT (JANUARY AUGUST 2015)

discourse was economics. He therefore enrolled in the


economics course at Essex, but it has also been suggested
that he decided to enroll in economics after meeting
Andreas Papandreou.[5] After only a few weeks of lectures, Varoufakis switched his degree to mathematics.[7]
Whilst at the University of Essex he joined a variety
of political organisations including ComSoc (the University Communist Society) and the Troops Out Movement, which campaigned for a British withdrawal from
Northern Ireland. He also became involved with the
African National Congress, Palestine Liberation Organization, and other organisations such as those in solidarity
with Chile. Varoufakis was also elected as secretary of
the Black Students Alliance, a choice that caused some
controversy (given that he is not black) to which he responded by telling them, according to his PhD supervisor
Monojit Chatterjee, that black was a political term and,
as a Greek, on the grounds of ethnicity he had as much
reason to be there as anyone else.[6] Varoufakis also took
part in student debates, where one of his rivals was John
Bercow, who later became the Speaker of the House of
Commons.[6]

his time in Sydney, had his own slot on a local television show where he was critical of John Howard's conservative government, and he also acquired Australian
citizenship.[5][10]
In 2000, a combination of nostalgia and abhorrence of
the conservative turn of the land Down Under, led Varoufakis to return to Greece where he was unanimously
elected an associate professor of economic theory at the
University of Athens.[5] In 2002, Varoufakis established
The University of Athens Doctoral Program in Economics
(UADPhilEcon), which he directed until 2008. In 2005
he was promoted to full professor of economic theory.[10]
From January 2004 to December 2006, Varoufakis
served as economic advisor to George Papandreou, of
whose government he was to become an ardent critic a
few years later.[11]

Beginning in March 2012, Varoufakis became


Economist-in-Residence at Valve Corporation.
He
researched the virtual economy on the Steam digital
delivery platform, specically looking at exchange rates
and trade decits. In June 2012, he began a blog about
He moved to the University of Birmingham in October his research at Valve. In February 2013 his function at
1981, obtaining a MSc in mathematical statistics in Oc- Valve was to work on a game for predicting trends in
[12][13][14][15]
From January 2013 he taught at
tober 1982. He completed his PhD in economics back gaming.
the
Lyndon
B.
Johnson
School of Public Aairs at the
at the University of Essex, where his PhD supervisor was
[9]
University
of
Texas
at
Austin
as a visiting professor. In
Monojit Chatterjee. He completed his PhD in 1987.
November 2013, he was appointed guest professor at
Stockholm University, Department of Computer and
Systems Sciences, to work within game and decision
2 Academic career
theory at the eGovLab.[16] In 2013, he was appointed
the Athens desk editor of the online magazine WDW
Review,[17] in which he contributed until January 2015.
On 22 January 2015, the International University
College of Turin awarded to Varoufakis a Honorary
Professorship in Comparative Law Economics and
Finance for his extraordinary theoretical contribution to
the understanding of the global economic crisis.[18]

3 Minister of Finance and the


Syriza government (January
August 2015)
Varoufakis at Subversive Festival 2013 in Zagreb, Croatia

Varoufakis was elected to the Greek parliament, gathering the largest number of votes (more than 142 thousand)
of any Greek MP, representing Syriza,[19] and took oce
in the new government of Alexis Tsipras two days later,
on 27 January 2015.[20] He was appointed nance minister by Tsipras shortly after the election victory. The
party promised to renegotiate Greeces debt and signicantly curtail the austerity measures which had led to the
longest recession in post-war global history.[21][22]

Between 1982 and 1988, Varoufakis taught economics


and econometrics at the University of Essex and the
University of East Anglia. After Margaret Thatcher's
third election victory in 1987, he decided to leave. He
did not wish to return to Greece for fear of conscription,
and so accepted an oer to lecture at the University of
Sydney, where he remained until 2000. So from 1989
to 2000, he taught as senior lecturer in economics at
the Department of Economics of the University of Syd- The new government had to negotiate an extension on
ney, with short stints at the University of Glasgow and its loan agreement, which was expiring on 28 February
the Universit catholique de Louvain. Varoufakis, during 2015. Had it expired without renewal, the European Cen-

3
tral Bank would have pulled its liquidity provisions from
Greeces commercial banks, ensuring that they closed
their doors to the public. Varoufakis led this negotiation at the Eurogroup and with the International Monetary
Fund. On 20 February, at the Eurogroup, an agreement
to extend the Greek loan facility for four months, until 30 June 2015, was struck and Varoufakis hailed it as
crucial - because it represented a fresh start by specifying that the terms of the loan would be renegotiated and
the conditionalities would be re-drawn on the basis of a
new list of reforms to be provided by the Greek government. That list was submitted by Varoufakis on 23 February and was approved by the Eurogroup of 24 February.
On those grounds, Varoufakis signed the ocial document by which the loan agreements expiry date was to
be extended from 28 February to 30 June 2015 - a fourmonth period during which a new agreement was to be
negotiated.

the U.K. and the U.S. even before they called on the European Left.[24]

Varoufakis view on Greeces public debt, and the crisis which began in 2010 as a result of the Greek governments inability to service it, had been the same since
2010: the Greek state has become insolvent in early 2010
and the bailouts that followed were attempts to extend
and pretend - to take on the largest loan in history (in order to keep making repayments on older loans) on condition of austerity measures that would shrink the incomes
from which the old, un-serviceable loans, and the new
bailout debts would have to be repaid. In that sense, Varoufakis argued, taking on the bailout loans in 2010 and
2012, before restructuring the debt properly and putting
in place a proper developmental program (including reforming the oligarchy, creating a development bank and
dealing with the banks non-performing loans) would lead
to deeper bankruptcy, a great depression and a harder default in the future. His explanation of why the troika of
Greeces lenders (the IMF, the ECB and the European
Commission) insisted on these bailout loans was that they
represented a transfer of losses from the private banks
to Greeces and Europes taxpayers. In his view, the 20
February 2015 Eurogroup agreement, that he negotiated,
was an excellent opportunity to move forward.[23]

After many weeks of negotiations during which the


Greek government, often against Varoufakis advice,
made many concessions to the troika of Greeces lenders,
no agreement was in sight. One reason was that the members of the troika did not have a unied position. For
example, the IMF insisted that the Greek governments
demand for a public debt restructure should be granted,
while powerful nance ministers in the Eurogroup (Germanys, for instance) refused this. Another reason was
that, with elections approaching in Spain, Ireland and
Portugal, many power brokers in Brussels and Frankfurt did not want to see Greeces radical new government
emerge as successful.

In a discussion with Nobel laureate Joseph Stiglitz on invitation of U.S. economic think tank Institute for New
Economic Thinking, Varoufakis stated on 9 April 2015
that the Greek state does not have the capacity to develop public assets. Therefore, he announced that his
government was restarting the privatization process.
However, unlike the former governments they would insist on establishing publicprivate partnerships with the
state retaining a minority stake to generate state revenues.
They would also require a minimum investment on behalf
of the bidder, and decent working conditions for the
workers.[25] Varoufakis also said that although the government needed to avoid a primary budget decit, the
bailout programs target of a surplus of 4.5 percent of
GDP was outlandish and should be reduced to no more
than 1.5%.[26]

On 25 June 2015, Varoufakis was presented with an ultimatum in the Eurogroup. It comprised a scal proposal,
a reform agenda and a funding formula that Varoufakis,
his government and, indeed, several other ministers of
nance sitting in the Eurogroup, considered to be nonviable. The next day, the Greek Prime Minister, Alexis
Tsipras, called for a referendum on 5 July so that the
Greek people could decide for themselves. Two days later
the European Central Bank took steps that ensured the
closure of Greeces banks, which Varoufakis (as nance
However, the troika of lenders were not happy to let the minister) had to administer.
new Greek government change the previous conditionalities, nor to agree to a debt restructuring. Varoufakis On 5 July 2015, the bailout referendum took place. Varoclaims that, soon after the extension was granted at the ufakis had campaigned vigorously in favour of the 'No'
end of February, the troika reneged on its promise to con- vote, against the united support for the 'Yes of Greeces
sider a new scal and reform program for Greece, de- media and of Europes leadership. To make his position
manding of the Greek government that it implements the clear, he declared on television that he would resign as
[27]
old one (which the Syriza government was elected to re- Finance Minister if Greeks voted 'Yes. The outcome
of
the
vote
was
a
resounding
61.5%
vote
in favour of
write. In March 2015, the Wall Street Journal pointed
'No'.
Varoufakis
went
on
television,
soon
after
the reto several tensions between Greece and the other Eurosult
was
announced,
to
celebrate
the
Greeks
outstanding
zone countries, saying that some countries feel they have
taken the tough medicine and the 195 billion owed is courage and to declare that the government was deternot insignicant. Further, they stated other governments mined to honour this new mandate for a sensible, honhave philosophical dierences with Varoufakis and his ourable agreement with its creditors. However, a few
Anglosphere and Keynesian leanings. Peter Ludlow said hours later, late into the night, Varoufakis resigned. In
Varoufakis and his colleagues turned instinctively... to his resignation statement the following morning he said:

5 PERSONAL LIFE

that other European participants had expressed a wish


for his absence.[28] Later he explained that he decided
to resign during a meeting with the Prime Minister, on
the night of the referendum, during which he discovered
that the Prime Minister, instead of being energised by
the No vote, declared to Varoufakis his decision to acquiesce to the troikas terms. Unwilling to sign such a
surrender document, Varoufakis chose to resign.

3.1 Commentary on appointment

In a 16 July teleconference with private investors that


was later made public, Varoufakis described a ve-month
clandestine project he ran as nance minister involving
hacking into Greeces independent tax services computers. The projects goal was to develop a parallel payment
system that could be implemented as a contingency plan
if the Greek system failed, and was dubbed Plan B.
In it, individuals private identication numbers were accessed and copied to a computer controlled by a childhood friend of Varoufakis.[29]

4 Later political career (2015


present)

On Friday 14 August, the government (without Varoufakis) pushed successfully through Parliament the 3rd
Greek bailout agreement - the one that Varoufakis had
described as a surrender document. The bailout Bill received 222 votes to 64 (as the conservative opposition
voted in favour). Up to 40 Syriza members including
Varoufakis voted against the bailout.[30] Just prior to that
vote, Varoufakis rose in Parliament to oer the Prime
Minister to resign his parliamentary seat, saying that this
was the only way he knew how to combine his strong opposition to the new bailout with loyalty to the party and
the Prime Minister. On 20 August, the Prime Minister of Greece resigned and called a snap election due to
the loss of support from rebelling Syriza MPs.[31] Varoufakis had already declared that he was not interested in
standing again for Syriza. At the same time, Syriza announced that any MP who voted against the bailout package would not be standing for the party. Varoufakis did
not go on to represent Popular Unity, unlike many of
his ex-Syriza colleagues, as he considered the party too
isolationist. Varoufakis choose not to stand in the election, saying he would focus on creating European network that would 'restor[e] democracy' in Europe.[32] A
month later, the national election was held and despite a
low voter turnout, Tsipras and his Syriza Party won just
over 35% of the vote. Combining with the Independent
Greeks Party, a majority was achieved and Tsipras was
returned to power.[33]

Varoufakis attended an event in London hosted by The


Guardian on 23 October 2015, where he spoke about
the UKs upcoming European Union membership referendum. He said that the UK should remain in the EU, but
also campaign to democratise it: My message is simple
yet rich: those of us who disdain the democratic decit
in Brussels, those of us who detest the authoritarianism
of a technocracy which is incompetent and contemptuous of democracy, those of us who are most critical of
Europe have a moral duty to stay in Europe, ght for
it, and democratise it.[37] On 9 February 2016, Varoufakis launched the Democracy in Europe Movement
2025 (DiEM25) at the Volksbhne in Berlin.[38]

The Adam Smith Institute, a leading free-market think


tank in the United Kingdom, enthusiastically supported Varoufakiss debt-swap plan and asked the then
British Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to
support it. Varoufakis had proposed debt swap measures, including bonds pegged to economic growth, which
the existing bonds of the European bailout
His explanation, published later by Harry Lambert, New would replace
[34]
programme.
Statesman, 13 July 2015, was this: Im not going to betray my own view, that I honed back in 2010, that this Bloomberg said that Varoufakis was a brilliant
country must stop extending and pretending, we must economist, but he had dicult interactions with other
stop taking on new loans pretending that weve solved the politicians and the media.[35] Galbraith, referring to
problem, when we havent; when we have made our debt Varoufakiss expertise in game theory, has said that he
even less sustainable on condition of further austerity that knows as much about this subject as anyone on the
even further shrinks the economy; and shifts the burden planet, and that "[he] will be thinking more than a few
further onto the have nots, creating a humanitarian crisis. steps ahead in any interactions with the Troika.[35]
Its something Im not going to accept, Im not going to
be party to.

In September 2015, Varoufakis appeared on the British


topical debate show, Question Time, and was praised for
his performance by Mark Lawson in The Guardian, who
wrote: "...several of the sentences he spoke in a second
language were more impressive than most that his fellow
panellists managed in their native tongue.[36]

On 2 April 2016, in reaction to tension between German


Chancellor Angela Merkel and the IMF, Varoufakis said
there was underway an attrition war between a reasonably numerate villain (the IMF) and a chronic procrastinator (Berlin)" as to Greek debt relief.
In April 2016, Varoufakis publicly supported the idea of
a basic income.[39]

5 Personal life
Varoufakis is married to installation artist Danae Stratou
and has a daughter who is growing up in Sydney, from his
rst marriage to academic Margarite Anagnostopoulou

6.3

The Globalizing Wall

(Poulos). Although born into Greeces Orthodox Christian community and culture, his family was never religious and he considers himself an atheist. He is a
motorcycle enthusiast. Varoufakis has admitted that his
wife may indeed by the subject of the song Common
People by Pulp.[40][41]

Works

5
Modern Political Economics: Making sense of the
post-2008 world. London and New York: Routledge, 2011 (with Joseph Halevi and Nicholas Theocarakis)
(ed.): Game Theory: Critical Perspectives. Volumes
15, London and New York: Routledge, 2001
Foundations of Economics: A beginners companion.
London and New York: Routledge, 1998 (translation in Mandarin)

Varoufakis is the author of several books on the European


debt crisis, the nancial imbalance in the world and game
theory. He is also a recognised speaker and often appears
as an analyst for national news media.

Game Theory: A critical introduction. London


and New York: Routledge, 1995 (with Shaun
Hargreaves-Heap), ISBN 978-0415094023. 2nd revised edition 2004 (Game Theory: A critical text),
ISBN 978-0415250955 (translated also in Japanese)

6.1

Rational Conict. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991

A Modest Proposal

(ed.): Conict in Economics. Hemel Hempstead:


In November 2010, he and Stuart Holland, a former
Harvester Wheatsheaf and New York: St Martins
British Labour Party MP and economics professor at the
Press, 1990 (with David P. T. Young)
University of Coimbra (Portugal), published A Modest
Proposal, a set of economic policies aimed at overcoming
the euro crisis.[42]
6.3 The Globalizing Wall
In 2013, Version 4.0 of A Modest Proposal appeared with
the American economist James K. Galbraith as a third coauthor. This version was published in late 2013 in French
with a supporting foreword by Michel Rocard, former
Prime Minister of France. Since September 2011, Truman Factor features select articles by Varoufakis in English and in Spanish. Varoufakis compares the role of the
US economy since the 1970s in relation to the rest of the
world with the minotaur.[43]

6.2

Books in English

In 2005 and 2006, Varoufakis travelled extensively with


his partner, artist Danae Stratou, along seven dividing
lines around the world (in Palestine, Ethiopia-Eritrea,
Kosovo, Belfast, Cyprus, Kashmir and the USMexico
border). Stratou produced the installation CUT: 7 dividing lines, while Varoufakis wrote texts that then became
a political-economic account of these divisions, entitled
The Globalizing Wall. In 2010 Stratou and Varoufakis
founded the project Vital Space.[46]

6.4 Essays

U.S. edition: And the Weak Suer What They


How I became an erratic Marxist published in The
Must? Europes crisis, Americas economic fuGuardian, 18 February 2015
ture New York: Nation Books, 2016 (ISBN
9781568585048); UK edition: And The Weak Suffer What They Must?: Europe, Austerity and the 6.5 Selected interviews and reviews
Threat to Global Stability London: The Bodley
Head, 2016 (ISBN 9781847924032)[44]
Europes Greek Moment, interview by Luis Martin,
29 September 2011
The Global Minotaur: America, the True Origins
The Great Shock, review by Brian Collins in the Los
of the Financial Crisis and the Future of the World
Angeles Review of Books, 17 October 2011
Economy. London and New York: Zed Books,
2011 (translations in German, Greek, Italian, Span "Varoufakis mini documentary on the Euro Crisis
ish, Czech, Finnish, French, Norwegian and Polish);
for Channel 4, February 2012" produced and presecond edition 2013; third edition 2015[45]
sented by Yanis Varoufakis, February 2012
Europe after the Minotaur: Greece and the Future of
the Global Economy. London and New York: Zed
Books, 2015 (ISBN 9781783606085)

The Global Minotaur: An Interview with Yanis Varoufakis conducted by Philip Pilkington at Naked Capitalism, 13 February 2012

Economic Indeterminacy: A personal encounter with


the economists most peculiar nemesis. London and
New York: Routledge, 2013 (ISBN 0415668492)

The New Priesthood: An Interview with Yanis Varoufakis conducted by Philip Pilkington at Naked Capitalism, 1 March 2012 (Part II, 7 March 2012)

7
Interviewed by Christian Amanpour on CNN International of Europes continued experiment with
Austerity, April 2012

Between 2004 and 2007 Mr Varoufakis served as economic adviser to George Papandreou, before he became
Prime Minister of Greece.

Roberts, Russ (25 February 2013). Varoufakis on


Value, Spontaneous Order, and the European Crisis. EconTalk. Library of Economics and Liberty.

[12] Yanis Varoufakis (15 February 2013). Yanis Varoufakis


Twitter. Retrieved 14 July 2013.

Interviewed on CBCs Writers by Eleanor Wachtel,


April 2013
Greece will neither want to leave the euro nor
threaten to do so, interview by Luis Martin, 12 January 2015
Interview on the ABC Channel (Australia) on 11
October 1993 concerning the Greek Elections.

REFERENCES

References

[1] ocially (Ioannis


Georgiou Varoufakis), Hellenic Parliament: MPs contact
details
[2] Curriculum Vitae of Yanis Varoufakis (PDF). UOA
Economics department.
[3] iefimerida.gr:
. .
.... Emerida (in Greek). 4 February 2013.
Retrieved 13 April 2015.

[13] Yanis Varoufakis (14 June 2012). It All Began With a


Strange Email. Valve Corporation. Retrieved 14 June
2012.
[14] Daniel Nye Griths: The Value of Fun: Valve Software
Appoints In-House Economist. In: Forbes. 15 June 2012
[15] Real lessons from virtual worlds. Financial Times. Retrieved 31 January 2015. (subscription required (help)).
[16] http://dsv.su.se/en/research/profilearea/egov/
yanis-varoufakis-will-be-guest-professor-at-dsv-1.
152364
[17] WdW Review. wdwreview.org.
[18] YANIS VAROUFAKIS. International University College Of Turin. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
[19] Helena Smith (26 January 2015). The Guardian. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
[20] Prarthito Maity (27 January 2015), Valve Economist Yanis
Varoufakis Appointed Finance Minister of Greece, International Business Times
[21] Greece election: Anti-austerity Syriza wins election.
BBC. Retrieved 22 September 2015.

[4] Hansen, Suzy (20 May 2015). A Finance Minister Fit


for a Greek Tragedy?". The New York Times Magazine.
Retrieved 24 October 2015.

[22] Syriza Win in Greek Election Sets Up New Europe


Clash. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 September
2015.

[5] Barber, Tony; Hope, Kerin (6 February 2014). Yanis


Varoufakis, Greek nance minister. The Financial
Times. Retrieved 24 October 2015.

[23] Varoufakis, Yanis. Of Greeks and Germans: Reimagining our shared future. Varoufakis. Retrieved 21
March 2015.

[6] Usborne, Simon (3 February 2015). Yanis Varoufakis:


The Finance Minister who cooks a mean Thai meal, chats
about art, and shoots hoops. The Independent. Retrieved
24 October 2015.

[24] Fidler, Stephen (19 March 2015). In Greeces Bailout


Talks, Why Its 18 Eurozone Countries Versus One.
WSJ. Retrieved 21 March 2015.

[7] Varoufakis, Yanis. Beginnings: From the dictatorship of


the Colonels to the tyranny of economics. Yanis Varoufakis. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
[8] Christides, Giorgos (13 February 2015). Prole: Yanis
Varoufakis, Greek bailout foe. BBC.
[9] Varoufakis, Yanis.
IT ALL BEGAN WITH A
STRANGE EMAIL. Valve Economics. Valve Software.
Retrieved 18 May 2015.
[10] Varoufakis, Yanis. Early academic path: From England
to Australia to Greece. Yanis Varoufakis. Retrieved 24
October 2015.
[11] Reuters (2015-01-28): Prole: Greek Finance Minister
Yanis Varoufakis: Varoufakis was an adviser to former
centre-left Prime Minister George Papandreou until he
resigned in 2006. OECD Observer: Yanis Varoufakis
(2013-03-01): There is no such thing as a debt crisis:

[25] Yanis Varoufakis and Joseph Stiglitz on YouTube, live


stream, 9 April 2015
[26] Melander, Ingrid (9 April 2015). Greece to restart privatization program: Varoufakis. Reuters. Retrieved 13
April 2015.
[27] Varoufakis Says he Will Quit if Greeks Vote 'Yes".
Bloomberg. 2 July 2015.
[28] Fletcher, Nick; Farrell, Paul; Davidson, Helen. Greek
referendum: nance minister Yanis Varoufakis resigns
live. The Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
[29] Spiegel, Peter (27 July 2015). Yanis Varoufakis defends
'Plan B' tax hack via Financial Times.
[30] Jon Henley. Alexis Tsipras hit by Syriza rebellion as
Greece approves bailout deal. the Guardian.
[31] Greece crisis: PM Alexis Tsipras quits and calls early
polls. BBC News. Retrieved 20 August 2015.

[32] Greece crisis: Former nance minister Yanis Varoufakis


will not stand in 'sad' election next month as Syriza 'kicks
out' traitors. The Independent. Retrieved 21 September
2015.
[33] Greece election: Alexis Tsipras hails 'victory of the people'". BBC News.
[34] Bentley, Guy. Adam Smith Institute calls on Osborne
to back Varoufakiss Greek debt-swap plan. cityam.com.
Greeces nance minister Yanis Varoufakis has found an
enthusiastic backer for his debt restructuring plans in one
of Britains premier free-market think-tanks.

9 External links
Ocial website (English)
Personal blog at Valve Corporation, analysis of digital economies (English)
Personal commentary published at Project Syndicate, analysis of Greece and Europe (English)

[35] Carol Matlack (2 February 2015). Greeces New Finance


Minister Is Brilliant. So Why Does He Make Everyone So
Nervous?". Bloomberg News.
[36] Lawson, Mark (25 September 2015). Question Time review Yanis Varoufakis wins the audience vote. The
Guardian. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
[37] Keenan, John (24 October 2015). EU referendum: Yanis
Varoufakis says Britons should vote to stay in union. The
Guardian. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
[38] Oltermann, Philip (10 February 2016). Yanis Varoufakis
launches pan-European leftwing movement DiEM25.
The Guardian. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
[39] Varoufakis: Basic income is an essential approach for social democracy. 4 April 2016.
[40] http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/
yanis-varoufakis-responds-to-reports-that-his-wife-inspired-pulps-common-people-10244100.
html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
[41] Prole: Yanis Varoufakis, Greek bailout foe. BBC. 17
February 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
[42] Yanis Varoufakis: Euro Crisis
[43] Russell Shorto: The Way Greeks Live Now. In: The New
York Times. 13 February 2012
[44] Yanis Varoufakis. AND THE WEAK SUFFER WHAT
THEY MUST?". Retrieved 2016-09-02.
[45] Graeme Wearden. Greece debt crisis: ECB tightens
screw ahead of emergency eurozone summit - as it happened. the Guardian.
[46] Vital Space: Mission and Biographies

Further reading
Parker, Ian (3 August 2015). The Greek warrior.
Proles. The New Yorker. 91 (22): 4457. Retrieved 22 March 2016.

10

10
10.1

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Yanis Varoufakis Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yanis_Varoufakis?oldid=740508510 Contributors: Gabbe, Skysmith, Kaihsu,


Tpbradbury, Topbanana, Mjmcb1, Bearcat, Jpbrenna, David Gerard, Ich, Everyking, Yazman, Discospinster, Bender235, Wikidea, Dhartung, Stefanomione, Koavf, Yug, Czar, Wavelength, Sandpiper, Rsrikanth05, Joel7687, PanchoS, Smaines, Jezzabr, Victor falk, Aschmidt,
A bit iy, Cassandro, Rastapopoulos, Kintetsubualo, Yamaguchi , Hmains, Pavlos03, Ph7ve, Cplakidas, Ohconfucius, Phinn, Carnby,
Microchip08, Robosh, JorisvS, Dr.K., Dl2000, Iridescent, Sinaloa, Cydebot, Jackyd101, Therequiembellishere, Heroeswithmetaphors,
Mmortal03, Gossamers, Guy Macon, Rothorpe, NMaia, Flaming Ferrari, CommonsDelinker, Ontarioboy, KylieTastic, Philip Trueman,
Martinevans123, Darth Viller, DarthBotto, GirasoleDE, Phil Bridger, Sitush, Clivemacd, All Hallows Wraith, Unbuttered Parsnip, Der
Golem, Niceguyedc, JasonCarswell, Doprendek, Aprock, Jeremysee, XLinkBot, Optfx, Addbot, Buster7, Yobot, JJARichardson, MrBlueSky, AnomieBOT, Bigsofo, Sunwin1960, Whiteboycat, Srich32977, Omnipaedista, The Interior, Lefschetz, FrescoBot, Vagrand,
Skull33, HRoestBot, Elekhh, Lotje, Diannaa, Stanjourdan, RjwilmsiBot, John of Reading, Japs 88, Jmv2009, Winner 42, ZroBot,
Jonpatterns, , Brandmeister, Helpsome, ClueBot NG, IgnorantArmies, BG19bot, Ymblanter, Yerevantsi, Zhu Haifeng, Jlmartins, BattyBot, Miszatomic, SandalFoot15, Delotrooladoo, FoCuSandLeArN, Steinsplitter, O omorfos, Opa2299, NFLisAwesome,
Yanisv, GabeIglesia, Freedvr, Koskoros, Eelamme, AlexisZam, Lee Bunce, Cc4re, Sol1, D Eaketts, FuzRohDah, GvacWP, Zagreb1234,
Kind Tennis Fan, Jbley, Nizolan, Tommy Douglas, Lordtobi, Tigercompanion25, Ares Paraskevopoulos, Nabokovsky, HMSLavender,
, Spumuq, Piledhighandeep, Crystallizedcarbon, FourViolas, Andrewdwilliams, Izkala, SoSivr, BraedenMayer, Thanmad,
Graaf Statler, Vaze50, Anorthosis1908, MP 2142, ML Ouranou, Nkkenbuer, KasparBot, Fiscalwaterboarder, AusLondonder, JJMC89,
, Punokrokodila, Ta daaaaaaaaaa, Finchkin, Gaussrad and Anonymous: 145

10.2

Images

File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?


File:Wikiquote-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Rei-artur
File:Yanis_Varoufakis_on_Subversive_Festival.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Yanis_
Varoufakis_on_Subversive_Festival.jpg License: FAL Contributors: Subversive festival media Original artist: Robert Crc

10.3

Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0