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10-5

Multiplication Principle, Permutations, and Combinations

761

54. Can you guess what the next two rows in Pascals triangle, shown at right, are? Compare the numbers in the triangle with the binomial coefcients obtained with the binomial formula.

1

1

1

121

1331

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SECTION 10-5

Multiplication Principle, Permutations, and Combinations

Multiplication Principle

Permutations

Combinations

We may expand the binomial form (a b) n in two steps: rst, expand into a sum of

2 n terms, each with coefcient 1; second, group together those terms in which b

appears to the same power, obtaining the sum of the n 1 terms of the binomial for-

mula. For example,

(a b) 3 (a b)(a b) 2 (a b)(aa ab ba bb)

aaa aab aba abb baa bab bba bbb

a 3 3a 2 b 3ab 2 b 3

Step 2

Step 1

Consider the term aba of step 1: The rst a comes from the rst factor of a b, the

b comes from the second factor of a b, and the nal a from the third factor. There-

fore,

3

1

3, the coefcient of a 2 b in step 2, is the number of ways of choosing

b from exactly one of the three factors of a b in (a b) 3 .

In the same way,

52

5

2,598,960 is the number of ways of choosing b from

exactly ve

of

the

52 factors of

a

b

in

(a

b) 52 . Analogously, 2,598,960 is

the number of 5-card hands which can be chosen from a standard 52-card deck. In

this section we study such counting techniques that are related to the sequence

0 , n

n

1

, n

2 ,

, n n

, and we develop important counting tools that form the foun-

dation of probability theory.

Multiplication Principle

We start with an example.

EXAMPLE 1

Combined Outcomes

Suppose we ip a coin and then throw a single die (see Fig. 1). What are the possi-

ble combined outcomes?

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10

Sequences and Series

Solution

To solve this problem, we use a tree diagram:

Heads Tails
Heads
Tails

Coin outcomes

762 10 Sequences and Series Solution To solve this problem, we use a tree diagram: Heads

Die outcomes

FIGURE 1 Coin and die outcomes.

Coin Die Combined Outcomes Outcomes Outcomes 1 (H, 1) 2 (H, 2) 3 (H, 3) H
Coin
Die
Combined
Outcomes
Outcomes
Outcomes
1
(H, 1)
2
(H, 2)
3
(H, 3)
H
4
(H, 4)
(H, 5)
5
(H, 6)
6
Start Start
1
(T, 1)
2
(T, 2)
3
(T, 3)
T
4
(T, 4)
5
(T, 5)
6
(T, 6)

Thus, there are 12 possible combined outcomestwo ways in which the coin can

come up followed by six ways in which the die can come up.

Matched Problem 1

Use a tree diagram to determine the number of possible outcomes of throwing a sin-

gle die followed by ipping a coin.

Now suppose you are asked, From the 26 letters in the alphabet, how many ways

can 3 letters appear in a row on a license plate if no letter is repeated?To try to

count the possibilities using a tree diagram would be extremely tedious, to say the

least. The following multiplication principle, also called the fundamental counting

principle, enables us to solve this problem easily. In addition, it forms the basis for

several other counting techniques developed later in this section.

Multiplication Principle

  • 1. If two operations O 1 and O 2 are performed in order, with N 1 possible out- comes for the rst operation and N 2 possible outcomes for the second oper- ation, then there are

N 1 N 2

possible combined outcomes of the rst operation followed by the second.

  • 2. In general, if n operations O 1 , O 2 ,

, O n are performed in order, with pos-

, N n , respectively, then there are

...

N n

N 1 N 2
N 1 N 2

sible number of outcomes N 1 , N 2 ,

possible combined outcomes of the operations performed in the given order.

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Multiplication Principle, Permutations, and Combinations

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In Example 1, we see that there are two possible outcomes from the rst opera-

tion of ipping a coin and six possible outcomes from the second operation of throw-

ing a die. Hence, by the multiplication principle, there are 2 6 12 possible com-

bined outcomes of ipping a coin followed by throwing a die. Use the multiplication

principle to solve Matched Problem 1.

To answer the license plate question, we reason as follows: There are 26 ways the

rst letter can be chosen. After a rst letter is chosen, 25 letters remain; hence there

are 25 ways a second letter can be chosen. And after 2 letters are chosen, there are 24

ways a third letter can be chosen. Hence, using the multiplication principle, there are

26 25 24 15,600 possible ways 3 letters can be chosen from the alphabet with-

out allowing any letter to repeat. By not allowing any letter to repeat, earlier selections

affect the choice of subsequent selections. If we allow letters to repeat, then earlier

selections do not affect the choice in subsequent selections, and there are 26 possible

choices for each of the 3 letters. Thus, if we allow letters to repeat, there are 26 26

26 26 3 17,576 possible ways the 3 letters can be chosen from the alphabet.

EXAMPLE 2

Computer-Generated Tests

Many universities and colleges are now using computer-assisted testing procedures. Sup-

pose a screening test is to consist of 5 questions, and a computer stores 5 equivalent

questions for the rst test question, 8 equivalent questions for the second, 6 for the third,

5 for the fourth, and 10 for the fth. How many different 5-question tests can the com-

puter select? Two tests are considered different if they differ in one or more questions.

Solution

O 1 :

Select the rst question

N 1 :

5 ways

O 2 :

Select the second question

N 2 :

8 ways

O 3 :

Select the third question

N 3 :

6 ways

O 4 :

Select the fourth question

N 4 :

5 ways

O 5 :

Select the fth question

N 5 :

10 ways

Thus, the computer can generate

5 8 6 5 10 12,000 different tests

Matched Problem 2

Each question on a multiple-choice test has 5 choices. If there are 5 such questions

on a test, how many different response sheets are possible if only 1 choice is marked

for each question?

EXAMPLE 3

Counting Code Words

How many 3-letter code words are possible using the rst 8 letters of the alphabet if:

  • (A) No letter can be repeated?

(B) Letters can be repeated?

  • (C) Adjacent letters cannot be alike?

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10

Sequences and Series

Solutions

(A) No letter can be repeated.

O 1 :

Select rst letter

N 1 :

8 ways

O 2 :

Select second letter

N 2 :

7 ways

Because 1 letter has been used

O 3 :

Select third letter

N 3 :

6 ways

Because 2 letters have been used

Thus, there are

 
 

8

7 6 336 possible code words

  • (B) Letters can be repeated.

 
 

O 1 :

Select rst letter

N 1 :

8 ways

O 2 :

Select second letter

N 2 :

8 ways

Repeats are allowed.

O 3 :

Select third letter

N 3 :

8 ways

Repeats are allowed.

Thus, there are

 
 

8 8 8 8 3 512 possible code words

  • (C) Adjacent letters cannot be alike.

 

O 1 :

Select rst letter

N 1 :

8 ways

O 2 :

Select second letter

N 2 :

7 ways

Cannot be the same as the rst

O 3 :

Select third letter

N 3 :

7 ways

Cannot be the same as the second,

 

but can be the same as the rst

Thus, there are

 
 

8

7 7 392 possible code words

Matched Problem 3

How many 4-letter code words are possible using the rst 10 letters of the alphabet

under the three conditions stated in Example 3?

EXPLORE-DISCUSS 1 The postal service of a developing country is choosing a ve-character postal code

consisting of letters (of the English alphabet) and digits. At least half a million

postal codes must be accommodated. Which format would you recommend to make

the codes easy to remember?

The multiplication principle can be used to develop two additional methods for

counting that are extremely useful in more complicated counting problems. Both of

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Multiplication Principle, Permutations, and Combinations

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Permutations

Suppose 4 pictures are to be arranged from left to right on one wall of an art gallery.

How many arrangements are possible? Using the multiplication principle, there are 4

ways of selecting the rst picture. After the rst picture is selected, there are 3 ways

of selecting the second picture. After the rst 2 pictures are selected, there are 2 ways

of selecting the third picture. And after the rst 3 pictures are selected, there is only

1 way to select the fourth. Thus, the number of arrangements possible for the 4 pic-

tures is

4

3

2 1 4!

or

24

In general, we refer to a particular arrangement, or ordering, of n objects with-

out repetition as a permutation of the n objects. How many permutations of n objects

are there? From the reasoning above, there are n ways in which the rst object can

be chosen, there are n 1 ways in which the second object can be chosen, and so

on. Applying the multiplication principle, we have Theorem 1:

Theorem 1

Permutations of n Objects

The number of permutations of n objects, denoted by P n ,n , is given by

P n ,n n (n 1)

1 n!

Now suppose the director of the art gallery decides to use only 2 of the 4 avail-

able pictures on the wall, arranged from left to right. How many arrangements of 2

pictures can be formed from the 4? There are 4 ways the rst picture can be selected.

After selecting the rst picture, there are 3 ways the second picture can be selected.

Thus, the number of arrangements of 2 pictures from 4 pictures, denoted by P 4,2 , is

given by

P 4,2 4 3 12

Or, in terms of factorials, multiplying 4 3 by 1 in the form 2!/2!, we have

P 4, 2 4 3

4 3 2!

4!

 

2!

2!

This last form gives P 4,2 in terms of factorials, which is useful in some cases.

A permutation of a set of n objects taken r at a time is an arrangement of the

r objects in a specic order. Thus, reasoning in the same way as in the example above,

we nd that the number of permutations of n objects taken r at a time, 0 r n,

denoted by P n , r , is given by

P n , r n(n 1)(n 2)

...

(n r 1)

Multiplying the right side of this equation by 1 in the form (n r)!/(n r)!, we

obtain a factorial form for P n ,r :

P n , r n(n 1)(n 2)

...

(n r 1) (n r)!

(n r)!

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Sequences and Series

But

n(n 1)(n 2)

...

(n r 1)(n r)! n!

Hence, we have Theorem 2:

Theorem 2

Permutation of n Objects Taken r at a Time

The number of permutations of n objects taken r at a time is given by

P n , r n(n 1)(n 2)

(n r 1)

 

agggggggbgggggggc

 

r factors

or

 

n!

 

P n , r

(n r)!

  • 0 r n

Note that if r n, then the number of permutations of n objects taken n at a

time is

P n ,n

 

n!

n!

n!

 

(n n)!

0!

Recall, 0! 1.

which agrees with Theorem 1, as it should.

The permutation symbol P n ,r also can be denoted by

P n , n P r ,

r

or P(n, r). Many

calculators use n P r to denote the function that evaluates the permutation symbol.

EXAMPLE 4

Selecting Officers

From a committee of 8 people, in how many ways can we choose a chair and a vice-

chair, assuming one person cannot hold more than one position?

Solution

We are actually asking for the number of permutations of 8 objects taken 2 at a time

that is, P 8,2 :

P 8, 2

 

8!

8!

  • 8 7 6!

56

(8 2)!

6!

6!

Matched Problem 4

From a committee of 10 people, in how many ways can we choose a chair, vice-chair,

and secretary, assuming one person cannot hold more than one position?

10-5

Multiplication Principle, Permutations, and Combinations

767

CAUTION

Remember to use the denition of factorial when simplifying fractions involving

factorials.

6!

6!

6

5

4 3!

 

2!

 

120

 

3!

3!

3!

EXAMPLE 5

Evaluating P n ,r

Find the number of permutations of 25 objects taken 8 at a time. Compute the answer

to 4 signicant digits using a calculator.

Solution

P 25,8

 

25!

25!

4.361 10 10

A very large number

(25 8)!

17!

Matched Problem 5

Find the number of permutations of 30 objects taken 4 at a time. Compute the answer

exactly using a calculator.

Combinations

Now suppose that an art museum owns 8 paintings by a given artist and another art

museum wishes to borrow 3 of these paintings for a special show. How many ways

can 3 paintings be selected for shipment out of the 8 available? Here, the order of

the items selected doesnt matter. What we are actually interested in is how many

subsets of 3 objects can be formed from a set of 8 objects. We call such a subset a

combination of 8 objects taken 3 at a time. The total number of combinations is

denoted by the symbol

C 8,3

or

8

3

To nd the number of combinations of 8 objects taken 3 at a time, C 8,3 , we make

use of the formula for P n ,r and the multiplication principle. We know that the num-

ber of permutations of 8 objects taken 3 at a time is given by P 8,3 , and we have a

formula for computing this quantity. Now suppose we think of P 8,3 in terms of two

operations:

O 1 :

N 1 :

O 2 :

N 2 :

Select a subset of 3 objects (paintings)

C 8,3 ways

Arrange the subset in a given order

3! ways

The combined operation, O 1 followed by O 2 , produces a permutation of 8 objects

taken 3 at a time. Thus,

P 8,3 C 8,3 3!

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10

Sequences and Series

To nd C 8,3 , we replace P 8,3 in the above equation with 8!/(8 3)! and solve for C 8,3 :

8!

(8 3)! C 8,3 3!

  • C 8,3

 

8!

  • 8 7

6 5!

56

3!(8 3)!

  • 3 2

1

5!

Thus, the museum can make 56 different selections of 3 paintings from the 8 available.

A combination of a set of n objects taken r at a time is an r-element subset

of the n objects. Reasoning in the same way as in the example, the number of com-

binations of n objects taken r at a time, 0 r n, denoted by C n ,r , can be obtained

by solving for C n ,r in the relationship

P n , r C n , r r!

 
  • C n , r

 

P n , r

 

r!

 

n!

n!

 

 

r!(n r)!

P n ,r

(n r )!

Theorem 3

Combination of n Objects Taken r at a Time

 

The number of combinations of n objects taken r at a time is given by

C

n , r

n

r

P n , r

n!

 

0 r n

r!

r!(n r)!

 

Note that we used the combination formula in Section 10-4 to represent binomial

coefcients.

The combination symbols C n , r and

C(n, r).

n

r

also

can be denoted by

C

n

r

,

n C r ,

or

EXAMPLE 6

Selecting Subcommittees

From a committee of 8 people, in how many ways can we choose a subcommittee of

2 people?

Solution

Notice how this example differs from Example 4, where we wanted to know how

many ways a chair and a vice-chair can be chosen from a committee of 8 people. In

Example 4, ordering matters. In choosing a subcommittee of 2 people, the ordering

does not matter. Thus, we are actually asking for the number of combinations of 8

objects taken 2 at a time. The number is given by

C 8,2

  • 8
    2

8!

  • 8 7 6!

28

2!(8 2)!

  • 2

1

6!

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Multiplication Principle, Permutations, and Combinations

769

Matched Problem 6

How many subcommittees of 3 people can be chosen from a committee of 8 people?

EXAMPLE 7

Evaluating C n ,r

Find the number of combinations of 25 objects taken 8 at a time. Compute the answer

to 4 signicant digits using a calculator.

Solution

  • C 25,8

25

8

25!

25!

1.082 10 6

8!(25 8)!

8!17!

Compare this result with that obtained in Example 5.

Matched Problem 7

Find the number of combinations of 30 objects taken 4 at a time. Compute the answer

exactly using a calculator.

Remember: In a permutation, order counts. In a combination, order

does not count.

To determine whether a permutation or combination is needed, decide whether

rearranging the collection or listing makes a difference. If so, use permutations. If not,

use combinations.

EXPLORE-DISCUSS 2

Each of the following is a selection without repetition. Would you consider the

selection to be a combination? A permutation? Discuss your reasoning.

  • (A) A student checks out three books from the library.

  • (B) A baseball manager names his starting lineup.

  • (C) The newly elected President names his Cabinet members.

  • (D) The President selects a delegation of three Cabinet members to attend the funeral of a head of state.

  • (E) An orchestra conductor chooses three pieces of music for a symphony program.

A standard deck of 52 cards involves four suits, hearts, spades, diamonds, and

clubs, as shown in Figure 2. Example 8, as well as other examples and exercises in

this chapter, refer to this standard deck.

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Sequences and Series

FIGURE 2 A standard deck of

cards.

K A Q J 10 A K Q J 9 A 10 K Q 8 J
K
A
Q
J
10
A
K
Q
J
9
A
10
K
Q
8
J
9
A
K
10
7
Q
8
J
9
10
7
6
8
9
6
7
5
8
6
7
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
4
2
3
2
3
2
2
A
A
A
A

EXAMPLE 8

Counting Card Hands

Out of a standard 52-card deck, how many 5-card hands will have 3 aces and 2 kings?

Solution

O 1 :

N 1 :

Choose 3 aces out of 4 possible

C 4,3

Order is not important.

O 2 : Choose 2 kings out of 4 possible Order is not important.

N 2 :

C 4,2

Using the multiplication principle, we have

Number of hands C 4,3 C 4,2 4 6 24

Matched Problem 8

From a standard

52-card

deck,

how

many

5-card

hands

will

have

3

hearts and 2

spades?

EXAMPLE 9

Counting Serial Numbers

Serial numbers for a product are to be made using 2 letters followed by 3 numbers.

If the letters are to be taken from the rst 8 letters of the alphabet with no repeats

and the numbers from the 10 digits 0 through 9 with no repeats, how many serial

numbers are possible?

Solution

O 1 :

N 1 :

Choose 2 letters out of 8 available

P 8,2

Order is important.

O 2 : Choose 3 numbers out of 10 available Order is important.

N 2 :

P 10,3

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Multiplication Principle, Permutations, and Combinations

771

Using the multiplication principle, we have

Number of serial numbers P 8,2 P 10,3 40,320

Matched Problem 9

Repeat Example 9 under the same conditions, except the serial numbers are now to

have 3 letters followed by 2 digits with no repeats.

Answers to Matched Problems 1. H T HT HT HT HT HT 123456 Start 3. (A)
Answers to Matched Problems
1.
H T
HT
HT
HT
HT
HT
123456
Start
3.
(A)
10 9 8 7 5,040
(B)
  • 2. 5 5 , or 3,125

10 10 10 10 10,000

4.

P 10,3

10!

(10 3)!

720

5.

P 30,4

30!

(30 4)!

657,720

(C)

10 9 9 9 7,290

6.

C 8,3

8!

56

3!(8 3)!

7.

C 30,4

30!

4!(30 4)!

27,405

8.

C 13,3 C 13,2 22,308

9.

P 8,3 P 10,2 30,240

EXERCISE 10-5

A

Evaluate Problems 116.

  • 1. 15!

 

2.

20!

3.

32!

12!

 

18!

0!32!

  • 4. 25!

 

5.

9!

6.

7!

24!1!

 

6!3!

5!2!

16!

  • 7. 8.

18!

9.

P

4!(16 4)!

 

3!(18 3)!

8,5

  • 10. C

8,5

11. P 52,3

12. P 13,5

  • 13. C

13,5

14. C 13,4

15. C 52,5

  • 16. P 20,4

 
  • 17. A particular new car model is available with 5 choices of color, 3 choices of transmission, 4 types of interior, and 2 types of engine. How many different variations of this model car are possible?

  • 18. A deli serves sandwiches with the following options: 3 kinds of bread, 5 kinds of meat, and lettuce or sprouts. How many different sandwiches are possible, assuming one item is used out of each category?

  • 19. In a horse race, how many different nishes among the rst 3 places are possible for a 10-horse race? Exclude ties.

  • 20. In a long-distance foot race, how many different nishes among the rst 5 places are possible for a 50-person race? Exclude ties.

  • 21. How many ways can a subcommittee of 3 people be se- lected from a committee of 7 people? How many ways can a president, vice president, and secretary be chosen from a committee of 7 people?

  • 22. Suppose 9 cards are numbered with the 9 digits from 1 to 9. A 3-card hand is dealt, 1 card at a time. How many hands are possible where:

    • (A) Order is taken into consideration?

    • (B) Order is not taken into consideration?

  • 23. There are 10 teams in a league. If each team is to play every other team exactly once, how many games must be scheduled?

  • 24. Given 7 points, no 3 of which are on a straight line, how many lines can be drawn joining 2 points at a time?

  • B

    • 25. How many 4-letter code words are possible from the rst 6 letters of the alphabet, with no letter repeated? Allowing letters to repeat?

    772

    10

    Sequences and Series

    26.

    A small combination lock on a suitcase has 3 wheels, each labeled with digits from 0 to 9. How many opening combi- nations of 3 numbers are possible, assuming no digit is re- peated? Assuming digits can be repeated?

    27.

    From a standard 52-card deck, how many 5-card hands will have all hearts?

    28.

    From a standard 52-card deck, how many 5-card hands will have all face cards? All face cards, but no kings? Consider only jacks, queens, and kings to be face cards.

    29.

    How many different license plates are possible if each con- tains 3 letters followed by 3 digits? How many of these license plates contain no repeated letters and no repeated digits?

    30.

    How many 5-digit zip codes are possible? How many of these codes contain no repeated digits?

    31.

    From a standard 52-card deck, how many 7-card hands have exactly 5 spades and 2 hearts?

    32.

    From a standard 52-card deck, how many 5-card hands will have 2 clubs and 3 hearts?

    33.

    A catering service offers 8 appetizers, 10 main courses, and

    • 7 desserts. A banquet chairperson is to select 3 appetizers,

    • 4 main courses, and 2 desserts for a banquet. How many ways can this be done?

    34.

    Three research departments have 12, 15, and 18 members, respectively. If each department is to select a delegate and an alternate to represent the department at a conference, how many ways can this be done?

    35.

    • (A) Use a graphing utility to display the sequences P 10,0 , P 10,1 ,

    , P 10,10 and 0!, 1!,

    , 10! in table form, and , 10.

    . . .

    . . . show that P 10,r r! for r 0, 1,

    . . .

    • (B) Find all values of r such that P 10,r r!

    • (C) Explain why P n ,r r! whenever 0 r n.

    36.

    (A) How are the sequences

    P 10,0

    0! ,

    P 10,1

    1!

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    P 10,10

    10!

    and C 10,0 ,

    C 10,1 ,

    . . .

    , C 10,10 related?

    • (B) Use a graphing utility to graph each sequence and con- rm the relationship of part A.

    C

    37.

    A sporting goods store has 12 pairs of ski gloves of 12 dif- ferent brands thrown loosely in a bin. The gloves are all the same size. In how many ways can a left-hand glove and a right-hand glove be selected that do not match relative to brand?

    38.

    A sporting goods store has 6 pairs of running shoes of 6 dif- ferent styles thrown loosely in a basket. The shoes are all the same size. In how many ways can a left shoe and a right shoe be selected that do not match?

    • 39. Eight distinct points are selected on the circumference of a circle.

      • (A) How many chords can be drawn by joining the points in all possible ways?

      • (B) How many triangles can be drawn using these 8 points as vertices?

      • (C) How many quadrilaterals can be drawn using these 8 points as vertices?

  • 40. Five distinct points are selected on the circumference of a circle.

    • (A) How many chords can be drawn by joining the points in all possible ways?

    • (B) How many triangles can be drawn using these 5 points as vertices?

  • 41. How many ways can 2 people be seated in a row of 5 chairs? 3 people? 4 people? 5 people?

  • 42. Each of 2 countries sends 5 delegates to a negotiating con- ference. A rectangular table is used with 5 chairs on each long side. If each country is assigned a long side of the table, how many seating arrangements are possible? [Hint: Operation 1 is assigning a long side of the table to each country.]

  • 43. A basketball team has 5 distinct positions. Out of 8 players, how many starting teams are possible if:

    • (A) The distinct positions are taken into consideration?

    • (B) The distinct positions are not taken into consideration?

    • (C) The distinct positions are not taken into consideration, but either Mike or Ken, but not both, must start?

  • 44. How many committees of 4 people are possible from a group of 9 people if:

    • (A) There are no restrictions?

    • (B) Both Juan and Mary must be on the committee?

    • (C) Either Juan or Mary, but not both, must be on the committee?

  • 45. A 5-card hand is dealt from a standard 52-card deck. Which is more likely: the hand contains exactly 1 king or the hand contains no hearts?

  • 46. A 10-card hand is dealt from a standard 52-card deck. Which is more likely: all cards in the hand are red or the hand contains all four aces?

  • 47. A parent is placing an order for ve single-dip ice cream cones. If todays avors are vanilla, chocolate, and straw- berry, how many orders are possible? Explain. (Note: This type of selection, in which repetition is allowed but order is irrelevant, is neither a combination nor a permutation.)

  • 48. One dozen identical doughnuts are to be distributed among nine students. If each student must receive at least one doughnut, how many distributions are possible? Explain.

  • Chapter 10 Review

    773

    CHAPTER 10 GROUP ACTIVITY Sequences Specied by Recursion Formulas

    The recursion formula a n 5a n 1

    6a n 2 , together with the initial values a 1 4, a 2 14, species the

    sequence {a n } whose rst several terms are 4, 14, 46, 146, 454, 1394,

    . . . .

    The sequence {a n } is neither arith-

    metic nor geometric. Nevertheless, because it satises a simple recursion formula, it is possible to obtain an

    nth-term formula for {a n } that is analogous to the nth-term formulas for arithmetic and geometric sequences.

    Such an nth-term formula is valuable because it allows us to estimate a term of a sequence without computing

    all the preceding terms.

    If the geometric sequence {r n } satises the recursion formula above, then r n 5r n 1 6r n 2 . Dividing

    by r n 2 leads to the quadratic equation r 2 5r 6 0, whose solutions are r 2 and r 3. Now it is easy

    to check that the geometric sequences {2 n } 2, 4, 8, 16,

    . . .

    and {3 n } 3, 9, 27, 81,

    . . .

    satisfy the recursion

    formula. Therefore, any sequence of the form {u2 n v3 n }, where u and v are constants, will satisfy the same

    recursion formula.

    We now nd u and v so that the rst two terms of {u2 n v3 n } are a 1 4, a 2 14. Letting n 1 and

    n 2 we see that u and v must satisfy the following linear system:

    2u 3v 41

    4u 9v 14

    Solving the system gives u 1, v 2. Therefore, an nth-term formula for the original sequence is a n

    ( 1)2 n (2)3 n .

    Note that the nth-term formula was obtained by solving a quadratic equation and a system of two linear

    equations in two variables.

    • (A) Compute ( 1)2 n (2)3 n for n 1, 2,

    . . .

    , 6, and compare with the terms of {a n }.

    • (B) Estimate the one-hundredth term of {a n }.

    • (C) Show that any sequence of the form {u2 n v3 n }, where u and v are constants, satises the recursion for- mula a n 5a n 1 6a n 2 .

    • (D) Find an nth-term formula for the sequence {b n } that is specied by b 1 5, b 2 55, b n 3b n 1 4b n 2 .

    • (E) Find an nth-term formula for the Fibonacci sequence.

    • (F) Find an nth-term formula for the sequence {c n } that is specied by c 1

    3, c 2

    15, c 3

    99, c n

    6c n 1 3c n 2 10c n 3 . (Since the recursion formula involves the three terms which precede c n , our method

    will involve the solution of a cubic equation and a system of three linear equations in three variables.)

    Chapter 10 Review

    10-1

    SEQUENCES AND SERIES

    A sequence is a function with the domain a set of successive in- tegers. The symbol a n , called the nth term, or general term, represents the range value associated with the domain value n. Unless specied otherwise, the domain is understood to be the set of natural numbers. A nite sequence has a nite domain, and an innite sequence has an innite domain. A recursion formula denes each term of a sequence in terms of one or more of the preceding terms. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is dened by a n a n 1 a n 2 for n 3, where

    a 1 a 2 1. If a 1 , a 2 ,

    , a n ,

    is a sequence, then the ex-

    pression a 1 a 2

    a n

    is called a series. A nite

    sequence produces a nite series, and an innite sequence pro- duces an innite series. Series can be represented using sum- mation notation:

    n

    a k a m a m 1

    k m

    ...

    a n

    where k is called the summing index. If the terms in the series are alternately positive and negative, the series is called an

    alternating series.