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Traditional First Nations

Groups in Canada
Cluster 1 First Peoples and Nouvelle-France (to 1763)

British Columbia
PACIFIC COAST
Tribes in This
Group
Haida

Tsimshian

Salishan

Kwakiutl

Tlinkit

Bellacoola

PACIFIC COAST

Location

British
Columbia

PACIFIC COAST
Means Of
Transport
Long Dugout Canoe:
Used for fishing and
transportation.

PACIFIC COAST
Food Sources
Seal
Otter
Halibut
Salmon
Whales

PACIFIC COAST
Homes
Large Cedar Plank
Homes
Permanent Homes

PACIFIC COAST
Miscellaneous
-Leisure Time: Painting,
Weaving, Totem Poles, Carving
-Best Carpenters in the New
World
-Social System
-Religious Ceremonies (Potlach)
- Traded a lot with other tribes

Plains
Tribes in This
Group
Assiniboines
Plains Cree
Blackfoot
Dakota

Plains
Location
Western Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta

PLAINS
MEANS OF
TRANSPORT
By Foot
(18th century by
Horse)
canoes

Plains
Food Sources
Buffalo
Caribou

Plains
Homes

The women set up the tipi in less than an


hour.

Three or four long poles (made from pine


trees) formed the basic frame.

Once these poles were set firmly in the


ground, the other poles were placed
against the frame in the form of a circle.

The poles leaned together at the top and


were fastened with narrow strips of hides
to form a cone shape.

Plains
Homes (cont)

The poles were covered with


bison hides and an opening
(smoke hole) was left at the top.
The average tipi was five meters
(sixteen feet) in diameter
(width). There was enough
sleeping room for five to seven
people.
A fire-pit inside was for cooking
and for heat

Plains
Miscellaneous

-Used Buffalo For


Everything
-Very Powerful with Horses
& Guns (post 18th century)Bison almost became
extinct

Eastern Woodland
Tribes in This Group
Montagnais
Naskapi
Algonquin
Ojibwe
Iroquois

Eastern Woodland
Location

-Central, South Quebec


Ontario
- Eastern Manitoba

Eastern Woodland
Means of Transport

Winter:
Snowshoes Sleds
Summer:
Birch-bark Canoe

Eastern Woodland
Food Sources
- Fish
- Animals which migrated
within the season
-Berries/Fruit
-Corn, Beans, & Squash

Eastern Woodland
Homes

The Eastern woodland people lived


in permanent villages.

Houses were called longhouses


because they were longer than they
were wide. The houses were made
from elm bark with door openings at
both ends.

Eastern Woodlands
Miscellaneous

-Frequently fought
other tribes
-Spoke Many
Different Dialects

Atlantic Coast
Tribes in This
Group
At this time the Micmacs had
their own territory, a civilization
with a distinct system of
government, education and
economy.
Beothuk (Newfoundland)

Atlantic Coast
Location
Maritime Provinces:
Newfoundland
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
Prince Edward
Island

Atlantic Coast
Means of Transport

Canoe making, the Micmac used the largest


birch trees from which to obtain bark for an 18
to 24 foot canoe which was about two feet
wide in the middle. Micmacs used the
brightness of the firefly as the sign when the
bark would be the easiest to remove. Cedar
slats were used for the inside lining and for
the ribs. The thread to sew the canoe came
from fir roots. For waterproofing, the Micmac
used fir gum which had been chewed daily by
the women and girls. The paddles were of
beech. One of the important features of the
Micmac canoe was the elevated gunwale
which prevented waves from splashing
inward.

Atlantic Coast
Food Sources
Fish:
Cod
Salmon
Sturgeon
Whale
Seal

Meat:
Moose
Caribou
Beaver

Atlantic Coast
Homes
There were two types. The small cone-shaped
style, that could hold up to 10-12 people, and the
large oval shelter, which could hold as many as 24
occupants. In both cases, the structure is based on
a pole frame, covered with birch bark or, more
rarely, hides. Because of the effort required to
harvest birch bark sheets, the coverings were
usually packed and carried from location to location
as the tribe moved seasonally. A circle of rocks
acted as a fireplace in the centre, Vented at the top
to provide heat and light. The floor was generally
covered with soft fir boughs, which provided a
comfortable surface for sitting or sleeping.

Atlantic Coast
Miscellaneous

- Clothing was made of animal


hide
- Clothing had elaborate colouring
- Clothing skin was tanned using
animal brain, bird liver and oils
- Animal bones were used for
weapons and tools