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Main article: Federalism in the Philippines

In 2014, Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte initiated the holding of a summit: "I am calling on all
responsible leaders in the island, from government and civil society organizations, from the business
and academe sectors, the leaders of the Church, the military and the youth, let us all forge a wellinformed, united front, so we could craft a collective plan of action for Mindanao's true identity
reflective of what its peoples and tribes truly wish and aspire for", Duterte said in a statement.[40]
Among those who were invited to attend were former President Fidel V. Ramos, Msgr. Fernando
Capalla, Ateneo de Davao University President Fr. Joel Tabora, former Mindanao Economic
Development Council chair Paul G. Dominguez, and retired General Hermogenes Esperon. Local
government heads from Mindanao cities, towns and provinces were also expected to attend, as well
as Catholic bishops and Muslim religious leaders.[40]
In September 2014, Duterte met with former mayors and governors in an initial effort to revive calls
for a federal form of government. The group, which called itself Mindanao Council of Leaders, made
their position public after an informal caucus. Present during the said meeting
were Bukidnon Governor Jose Maria Zubiri, former Cagayan de Oromayors Reuben Canoy and
Vicente Emano, former Zamboanga del Norte congressman Romeo Jalosjos, and former Davao del
Norte representative Pantaleon Alvarez.[41]
A month later, Duterte was in Cebu City and met with Cebu officials. The event was sponsored by
the Federal Movement for a Better Philippines and coincided with the induction of its new set of
officers held at the Sacred Heart Center in Cebu City.[42]

Presidential bid