-Intelligence encompasses a number of mental
abilities such as reasoning, planning and problem-solving. The topic of intelligence is
one of the biggest and most debated in psychology. Learn more about some of the
many theories of intelligence, the history of intelligence testing and much more.
While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects within psychology, there is
no standard definition of what exactly constitutes 'intelligence.' Some researchers
have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability, while other believe that
The following are some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last 100 years.
Charles Spearman - General Intelligence:
British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred to as general
intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to to examine a number of
mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People who
performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly
on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that
could be measured and numerically expressed.
Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities:
Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing
intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental
abilities." The abilities that he described were:

Verbal comprehension


Perceptual speed

Numerical ability

Word fluency

Associative memory

Spatial visualization

Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligences:
One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Instead of
focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence
are not a full and accurate depiction of people's abilities. His theory describes eight distinct intelligences
that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within different cultures.
The eight intelligences Gardner described are:

Visual-spatial Intelligence

Verbal-linguistic Intelligence

Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence

Logical-mathematical Intelligence

Interpersonal Intelligence

Musical Intelligence

2001). ===================================================================== What Factors Determine Intelligence? Answer: In addition to disagreements about the basic nature of intelligence. 1993). Evidence of environmental influences:  Identical twins reared apart have IQ's that are less similar than identical twins reared in the same environment (McGue & others. Today. 2008).  School attendance has an impact on IQ scores (Ceci. the exact height the person reaches can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrition and disease. 2004). The debate focuses on one of the major questions in psychology: Which is more important .Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to. psychologists often account for the many different theoretical viewpoints when discussing intelligence and acknowledge that this debate is ongoing. For example. real-world environments relevant to one’s life. However. it is likely that the individual will also grow to be tall. psychologists have spent a great amount of time and energy debating the various influences on individual intelligence. 1993). he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents." While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single. selection and shaping of.nature or nurture? Today. nearly all psychologists recognize that both genetics and the environment play a role in determining intelligence. no definitive conceptualization has emerged. First.  Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.  Siblings reared together in the same home have IQ's that are more similar than those of adopted children raised together in the same environment (McGue & others.  Children who are breastfed during the first three to five months of life score higher on IQ tests at age 6 than same-age children who were not breastfed (Reinberg. It now becomes matter of determining exactly how much of an influence each factor has. Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence.  Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills. Intra personal Intelligence  Naturalistic Intelligence Robert Sternberg .' which is comprised of three different factors:  Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities. if a person has tall parents. general ability. Evidence of genetic influences:  Twin studies suggest that identical twins IQ's are more similar than those of fraternal twins (Promin & Spinath. Final Thoughts: While there has been considerable debate over the exact nature of intelligence. it is important to note that genetics and the environment interact to determine exactly how inherited genes are expressed. ===================================================================== Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales Stanford–Binet Intelligence scales .

for example.Exceptionally gifted  180 and up . Many experts suggest that other important elements contribute to intelligence. scores tend to become less common.  115 to 129 . it has little to do with rational intelligence.Moderately gifted  145 to 159 . by which individual scores can be compared. The standardization process involves administering the test to a representative sample of the entire population that will eventually take the test. rational thought. As you look further toward the extreme ends of the distribution. and irrational thinking. bright  130 to 144 . at Stanford University. In order to adequately assess and interpret test scores. psychometritians use a process known as standardization. . it is important to remember that IQ tests are only one measure of intelligence. The test originated in France. but the time required to test many people would be excessive. What Is Considered a High IQ?The following is a rough breakdown of various IQ score ranges. including social and emotional factors. As Binet indicated. How Are Scores on IQ Tests Calculated? Answer: While people often talk about test scores. For example. Each test taker completes the test under the same conditions as all other participants in the sample group.Diagnostics ICD-9-CM MeSH 94. while much intelligence goes into the production of great works of art and literature. In 1916. many people are confused about exactly what these test scores mean. a bell-shaped curve in which the majority of scores lie near or around the average score. the majority of scores (about 68%) on the WAIS-III tend to lie between plus 15 or minus 15 points from the average score of 100.Above average. Part of the difficulty of explaining the world of art and literature is that the verbal tools of explanation belong to the realm of linear thought in which the rational intelligence operates. This process allows psychometricians to establish norms. case studies might be more detailed and helpful. requires nonrational intelligence to appreciate it fully. The world of art and aesthetics. whom the French government commissioned with developing a method of identifying intellectually challenged children for their placement in special education programs. The Stanford–Binet test started with the French psychologist Alfred Binet.2%) receive a score of more than 145 (indicating a very high IQ) or less than 55 (indicating a very low IQ) on the test. Irrational thinking negates rational thinking. and nonrational thinking operates according to a different intelligence than logical. Very few individuals (approximately 0. nonrational. the psychologist Lewis Terman released a revised examination which became known as the "Stanford–Binet test".Highly gifted  160 to 179 . Intelligence test scores typically follow what is known as a normal distribution.01 D013195 The development of the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales initiated the modern field of intelligence testing and was one of the first examples of an adaptive test. However. or standards. then was revised in the United States.Profoundly gifted It is important to recognize the difference between rational.