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Sardar Patel University
Vallabh Vidyanagar – 388 120

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It is very gratifying for me to pen this message for a book “Plants in Sanskrit Literature”. It also
gives credit to the Postgraduate Department of Sanskrit and Prakrit Languages of this University to sponsor
its publication by Sardar Patel University.
The book represents a sincere and dedicated effort of a Professor of Botany and Head of the then
Postgraduate Department of Biosciences of this University, who retired in the year 1984. Professor J.J.
Shah who is a fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, the only one till now from the University,
obtained financial assistance without any pecuniary benefit to him from the History Section of the Academy
to undertake this project in the year 2013. As he is settled in Vadodara he requested the Department of
Botany of the M.S. University to sponsor his project for administrative facility. Professor Shah requested me
to arrange for consultation on Sanskrit citations of the book for the translation of the book. The book is
written by late Shri Bapalal Vaidya (Shah) ) and published in the year 1953 by B.J. Vidyabhavan, Gujarat
Vidyasabha with the financial assistance of Gujarat Sahitya Academy. The book entitled “Sanskrit
Sahityamon Vanaspati” contains an account of about 213 plants mentioned in our ancient Sanskrit
literature like the Ramayan , the Mahabharata and works of Kalidas, Bhavabhuti , Magh, Bhartahari and
many Nighantus. It contains abundant citations of Sanskrit shlokas and phrases with their Gujarati
translation related to plants. It is a very important researched book for Botanists and scholars interested in
our ancient cultural, religious and social ethos related with plants.
Professor Shah showed great enthusiasm in translating this book of about 400 printed pages in
English and the university arranged necessary academic assistance for him requesting Professor Niranjan
Patel, Head of the Postgraduate Department of Sanskrit and Prakrit languages of our University. I
appreciate Prof. Shah’s endeavour to make available this book in English for Scientists and other scholars
of India and elsewhere.
Sardar Patel University in general and Professor Niranjan Patel were very much pleased to be
associated with this project of Professor Shah. This was a project he rightly thought was important not for
his Department but also for the Sardar Patel University. We therefore decided to publish his manuscript and
requested Professor Shah to agree the publication of his manuscript by the University. Indian National
Science Academy, New Delhi permitted him to publish it.
I thank Professor Shah, a retired faculty member of this University who retired 30 years ago and
still actively contributing in bringing academic credit to the Sardar Patel University. Such an effort is a role
model for all the academic faculty of the University.
15th March 2015

Harish Padh;
Vice Chancellor;
Sardar Patel University;
Vallabh Vidhyanagar

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Bhavabhuti. College at Surat. Gujarati and very good knowledge of plants. writers and critics related to plants. my desire in jumping into this adventure prompted me to undertake this translation assignment. Y. M. I had a sincere longing to translate this book in English but hesitated with my elementary knowledge of Sanskrit and Gujarati translation of Sanskrit words. Whenever I looked at the book. I received a letter from Mr. Gujarat. The biography was written in Gujarati in 1931 by late Bapalal G. Ahmedabad with financial assistance of Gujarat Sahitya Academy. T. Nighantu and health. Sardar Patel University. Mohan Ram was also attending this session. B. after fifteen years of my retirement as a Professor of Botany and Head of Postgraduate Department of Biosciences.. The book was published in the year 1953 by a well known research Institute. Kalidas. Madhvendra Narayan. no collegiate with a smattering of English learned in early high school days but a brilliant Botanist the late Jaykrishnabhai born in the year 1849 in Kutch. buy a license. B. It reflects upon cultural. While casually discussing mutual interest of Plant Science in India. I mentioned the importance of translating this book in English. I had then read his book of biography of Botanist Jaykrishnabhai which I translated in English with the financial assistance of Indian National Science Academy.Magh. I ventured to translate in English this important researched contribution for a wider enlightened scientific world and other interested scholars. Bapalal had published several books on Ayurved. I had absolutely forgotten this fact as it was an unintended talk between two friends whiling away sometime on mutual interest in an accidental meeting. He translated in Gujarati all these Sanskrit citations with his comments in the book. To remove the line. Bhartrhari and various Nighantus. religious and social ethos of those times vis a vis plants. Exec. University of Baroda Professor H. I used to meet him in fifties when was a lecturer in Botany in the then M. Asst. Gujarat Vidyasabha. Gujarat in the year 1999. J. stating if I am interested in translating Bapalal’s Book on plants in Sanskrit Literature. Gujarat. Mahabharata. When I was in Surat in the 1950’s. Gandhinagar.PREFACE BY TRANSLATOR AND ADAPTOR I am overjoyed to write these few lines of my preface as I look at it as my fulfillment of a long distance dream that was pestering me till my eighties. New Delhi. I used to make use of his personal library freely. In the year 2012 the Indian Botanical Society held its Conference at Vadodara organized by the Department of Botany. The book contains abundant citations of Sanskrit Slokas and phrases from varying Sanskrit works authored by eminent poets . Vidyabhavan. I translated into English the Biography of a self made. The project was sanctioned in July 2013 for a period of one and half year ending December 2014. S. Director (History of Science). Vallabh Vidyanagar. Vaidya (Shah). . But I was interested in the contents of the book because it deals with our ancient plants mentioned in most of the important works of Oriental Literature like Ramayana. New Delhi and it was published by Charutar Vidyamandal. AcroPDF . medicinal plants and their uses. He was then a Principal of the new Ayurvedic College. After my retirement in 1984. Among them was a scholarly book of about four hundred pages entitled “Sanskrit Sahityama Vanaspati” (Plants in Sanskrit Literature) in Gujarati. He has mentioned about 223 plants as described in various Sanskrit works and researched mentioning their scientific names. I showed my interest and applied for necessary financial grant for this project without claiming any pecuniary personal benefit. This longing went on till I was nearing my nineties. I had read this book and was deeply impressed with its very well researched contributions in plant Science and creative Sanskrit Literature. Indian National Science Academy. Sanskrit and Gujarati scholar and who learned plant taxonomy under Jaykrishnabhai. To my surprise. I had great hesitation to accept this assignment.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF. At certain places he has mentioned eminent Gujarati and English poets and plant taxonomists with the literary flavor. an Ayurved expert and educationist. Vallbh Vidyanagar. It abundantly reflects his scholarship in Sanskrit.

Niranjan Patel. with diacritical marks and transferred it with proper editing in the book form. To remove the line. New Delhi for financial assistance and permission to publish my manuscript in the book form. (6) Dr. (7) Typists Mrs. Head of the postgraduate Department of Sanskrit and Prakrit languages. Piyush Joshi one of the participating experts in English and Sanskrit promised me assistance regarding Sanskrit words and phrases of the text. (8) My members of the family for their support and valuable computer related assistance.The project required some assistance from Sanskrit scholars. (5) Dr. (9) Professor Susy Albert and Mrs. buy a license. This was part of my objective of necessary adaptation of the original text. My handwritten translated English matter was also typed. Niranjan Patel. 29. Shah AcroPDF . Head of the Postgraduate Department of Sanskrit and Prakrit languages and Dr. I started translating all Gujarati matter in English leaving blank spaces for Sanskrit Shlokas and phrases. Ahmedabad for permission to translate the book into English and publish it. With the help of a Sanskrit computer typist I obtained all the Sanskrit matter typed page wise and obtained the soft copy of the entire Sanskrit citations. Vice Chancellor of Sardar Patel University who evinced great interest in my work and requested Dr. (2) Gujarat Vidyasabha.J. Vice chancellor. Dhara Gandhi. Fortunately after about six months I could obtain very good assistance from Professor Harish Padh. because of abundant citations in Sanskrit even though the author translated them in Gujarati with profuse use of Sanskrit words. . Subhanpura. Niranjan Patel. (4) Professor Harish Padh. Gujarati and Sanskrit. Later on the recommendation of Dr. He organized a small workshop inviting Sanskrit experts to have a general review of my two hundred pages of translation and suggest some guidelines regarding coordination of Sanskrit citations of the text in my manuscript. (3) M. Joshi with doctorate in Sanskrit. It was difficult to get such a scholar locally knowing English. University and technical assistance. Sneha Shastra Bodhini and Late Mr. Department of Botany for facilitating administrative matter with The M. Sunil Tiwari. I sincerely thank: (1) Indian National Science Academy.S. University of Baroda and Head. jjshah87@yahoo. Sardar Patel University for his support to my project and sponsoring the publication of my manuscript by the University. Sardar Patel University to offer whatever help I require from him. He was also proficient in computer related technology.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF.S. With my own efforts I could overcome this difficulty for sometime using Sanskrit dictionaries. Freedom Fighter Nagar. Milindkumar Joshi for his Sanskrit and computer related expertise. While translating the Gujarati text of the book in English I have omitted the author’s few citations of Gujarati and English poetry and other literary paragraphs or sentences which in my opinion were not of any scientific or plant related significance. Milindkumar S. Dr. Vadodara 3900023. He recast my English manuscript inserting all Sanskrit citations of the main text. I could obtain the services of J. Piyush Joshi for very useful assistance and facilitation for my project. Department of Botany for their sponsorship for this project. Near Samta Society.

I wish that the translated text reaches the scholars and researchers and enlightens them. I also extend my sense of gratitude to Prof. S P University. Mahesh Patel and Dr. Mahesh Yagnik. Vallabh Vidyanagar) decided to translate the text into English. Bapalal G Vaidya. Niranjan Patel (Head. ShantikumarPandya. has deliberately omitted a few ornamental and erotic passages. Prof. On behalf of the department I extend a deep sense of thankfulness to him. It is said that such a text dealing with flora/plants is a unique one and other languages of India perhaps do not have such a rich text. the Gujarat Vidyasabhaprepared a volume of these articles which also carried in it the editorial remarks by Shri. He was drawn towards Sanskrit literature and he undertook a study of trees. it was decided that an authentic translation of the text should be prepared. Prof. ShreeVaidya was also scholar of Ayurveda. I extend my sense of gratitude to Hon’ble Vice chancellor Prof. I also take an opportunity to extend my gratefulness to Principal Dr. Shah.BuddhiPrakash. Prof. Shah saheb undertook the challenging task. Vallabh Vidyanagar) AcroPDF . Shri. is also well. Out of his love for research and reverence for Shri. P S Joshi. Milind Joshi. In the year 2008 the volume was reprinted. Harish Padh for granting us the permission to publish the book. He has. plants. Prof. JatinbhaiSomani (the press manager). Prof. . buy a license. Shri. creepers and climbers represented in it. J J Shah (the former head. In order to make such a scholarly text available to scholars and researchers. In the year 1953. The translated version of the text has been mainly prepared with a view to helping the scholars and researchers in the field of Botany. Rasiklal C Parikh. To remove the line.Dr. therefore meticulously translated the text and it has been by and large faithful to the original one. R K Mandalia. I think. Department of Biosciences. Prof. Dr. Mohanbhai Patel (OSD) and Shri. Post Graduate Department of Pali and Sanskrit.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF.The aforesaid book embodies the essence of his efforts. Prof. To my mind they do not seriously harm the overall design of the text.Editorial Flora / Plants in Sanskrit literatureis a monumental work in Gujarati language by Bapalal GVaidya. Later on a series of articles entitled Flora/plants in Kalidas’s literary textswaspublished in the well-known Journal.versed in Sanskrit literary texts and its rich heritage. Shah a renowned scholar of Botany and a man of science.

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Heeow: cetuew: efHeyeefle Fefle HeeoHe: the one that sucks (water) from the earth with (foot) root is a plant. One end of that reality is the earth and the second is the man. All life sucks the essence of earth to live. there is no food. The animals and the man have no ability to obtain straight from the earth to live. For the mankind and all other moving and non-moving life forms it is the mother earth.PREFACE Our ancient sages have given to earth an important place among the five elements because the entire reality depends upon it . preserving and destroying agency of the modern world. It is a wife of all pervading Vi¾´u. All animals obtain this essence from the plants which obtain it from the earth and transform it to make its own which the animals take to live. efJeéebYeje-efJeéeb efyeYeefle& Fefle efJeéebYeje~ Bh¦ (earth): That originates or arises everything from it. Compare synonyms of earth and its etymology Yet-YeJel³emceelmeJe&efceefle Yet:~ #eerjmJeeefce jmee-jmee: meefvle Dem³eeb jm³eles Jee jmee~~ #eerj. that which allays the bodily pain is O¾adhi (medicine). Dees<eb ©peb Oe³eefle Fefle Dees<eefOe: 1. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. We identify the plants as p¢dapa.e-pdfconverter. O¾adhyaª is the one that is obtained after the fruits die (Amarakoºa) Dees<eO³e: HeÀueHeekeÀ to remove this message. Rasyate i ti . It is the plants that flow the life for all from the earth. Without earth. The eternal spirit is expressed in the earth.1 that gives food.where or what is relished is rasa: the creating. . that is why the plants are breasts of the mother earth and form a bridge between the earth and the man. It is called rasa because it contains rejuvenation commonly use (rasyate) it. Without food no existence of life.

“mJeefmle osefJe lejeefce lJeeb Heej³esvces HeefleJe´leced” Bhavabh¦ti makes R¢ma to say “³e$e êgcee DeefHe ce=iee: DeefHe yeevOeJees ces” (where the plants and animals live that place do I love as they are like my kinsmen”. The ancient Bh¢rata had understood this fact and arranged accordingly the social structure. D¦rv¢ are sacred.2 In life’s triangle . sacred and revered in our epics are associated with the recollection of our ancient Tapovana.1 They lack the spirit expressed in “F&MeeJeem³eefceob meJe¥ ³eled efkebÀ®e peiel³eeb peieled”. Banyan. this whole circle of nature is fully pervaded by God. There is life in plants but it is covered by Tamogu´a (ignorance) but capable of experiencing the sensibility like us. Whatever is great. whatsoever the created world is. clothes and soul to obtain you”. In poems of other countries such unison between the forest life and man’s mind is not expressed. are internally conscious yet deprived of proper manifestation.ii iii In Vedas medicines (O¾hadhi) have been prayed “Oh! O¾adhi! You are our mother and I pray. The centres of our pilgrimages are evidences of our love and worship of nature. Realising this relationship the idea of Tapovana (forest for penance) was created.e-pdfconverter. any break in this fitness life becomes unsteady. and says to the Ga¬g¢ “Oh Goddess! Adieu! I am crossing you! Let my husband complete his vow”. In ancient age there were big cities. cows. 1. I give away horses. either the spirit of victory or rejection is found. have poems about nature but they show the man’s mastery over nature. In Western poems the God’s World is praised but man’s life and eternal nature appear separate. Pupal. belongs to Him. For this reason the love for nature described in our poems is unique in which our friendliness is expressed. The greatest part of our Vedas is the product of the forests and plants such as Ocimum (Tulas¤). Midsummer Nights Dream and As You Like It. Bh¢rata has considered Tapovana venerable along with creating big to remove this message. being proceeds of actions of previous birth. In them man’s nature has shown the eternal pervading nature to attempt to free from it and show one’s own pride. astonishing. earth. The penance has been honoured. §gveda 2. S¤t¢ with folded hands worships the Banyan “vecemlesçmleg ceneJe=#e Heej³esvces HeefleJe´leced (Ayodhy¢k¢´²a: Chapter-55) (Oh! Great tree! Obeisance to you! Let my husband complete his vow). our great poet has in his poems beautifully described Tapovans. lecemee yengªHesCe Jesefälee: keÀce&nslegvee~ Devle:meb%ee YeJevl³esles megKeog:KemeceeqvJelee:~~ (Manusm¨ti 1/49) These trees owing to excessive Tamogu´a (ignorance). harmony with nature is not seen. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. rivers and forests are considered sacred. In our great epics the most beautiful picture of Tapovana is present. Shakespeare’s plays The Tempest. In our culture the mountains. The description of Ayodhy¢ and La¬k¢ in R¢m¢ya´a are the witnesses. vegetation and man are three angles. K¢lid¢sa. .

The first stage of Abhij®¢naº¢kuntalam opens with the beauty of the forest and the poet describes its gentle atmosphere. When ¹akuntal¢ departs for her in law’s house. But anguish still torments me as I grieve over Bharata’s sorrow and the abduction of Vaidehi. The rivers with varying trees: meJe&keÀeueHeÀuee ³e$e HeeoHee ceOegjñeJee:~ HeÀueeYeejveleemle$e ceneefJeìHeOeeefjCe:~ MeesYevles meJe&lemle$e~~ like young beautiful Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. R¢ma (lover of the forest).v iv The first sarga of Raghuvaïºa opens with Dilipa and Sudak¾i´¢ going to Vasi¾°ha hermitage (¢ºrama). . All this is shining very much with bluish. fruits and trees JemeveeYejCeesHesleeÒeceosJeeY³euebke=Àlee all anew. forgets his grief and experiences immense pleasure seeing the Pamp¢ lake R¢ma senses get thrilled with joy and he says to Lak¾ama´a to share his joy: meewecf e$es MeesYeles HecHee Jewo³t e&eJf eceueesokeÀe~ HegÀuueHe¨eeslHeueJeleer MeeseYf elee efJeefJeOewêc&g ew:~~ MeeskeÀele&m³eeefHe ces HecHee MeesYeles ef®e$ekeÀevevee~ J³eJekeÀerCee& yengefJeOew: Heg<Hew: MeerleesokeÀe efMeJee~~ veefuevewjefHe mebíVee ¿el³eLe&MegYeoMe&vee~ meHe&J³eeueeveg®eefjlee ce=ieefÜpemeceekegÀuee~~ to remove this message. Saumitre. her love for nature expressed by the poet is heart rending. The King asks them the names of the roadside trees: nw³ebieJeerveceeoe³e Iees<eJe=×evegHeefmLeleeved~ veeceOes³eeefve He=®ívleew Jev³eeveeb ceeie&MeeefKeveeced~~ (Raghuvaïºa 1/45) When the guest arrives at the courtyard. This auspicious Pamp¢ is pleasant to me with its delightful forests overspread with many diverse flowers and cool waters. flowers. the aged cowherds came with leaf cups filled with ghee to welcome the King and the Queen.e-pdfconverter. like clouds releasing showers of rain (Ki¾kindh¢k¢´²a 3-11). seeing the forest of Citrak¦°a and Prasrava´a. though they are wholly embraced by climbers and their apices. the female ascetics watering the plants with affection and feeding deer with grass. beautiful flowering thickets are pouring down showers of blossoms. On the way. see how lovely the forest is on every side of the lake Pamp¢. And look. Everywhere the treetops are fully flowered and the onus of those flowers is on the rise. Raghuvaïºa 5/6 DeefOekebÀ ÒeefJeYeem³esleVeerueHeerleb leg MeeÜueced~ êgceeCeeb efJeefJeOew: Heg<Hew: Heefjmleescewejf JeeefHe&leced~~ Heg<HeYeejmece=×eefve efMeKejeefCe mecevlele:~ ueleeefYe: Heg<HeleeûeeefYe: GHeiet{eefve meJe&le:~~ megKeeefveueesç³eb meewecf e$es keÀeue: Òe®egjcevceLe:~ ievOeJeevmegjefYecee&mees peeleHeg<HeHeÀueêgce:~~ HeM³e ªHeeefCe meewefce$es Jeveeveeb Heg<HeMeeefueveeced~ me=peleeb Heg<HeJe<ee&eCf e Je<e¥ lees³eceg®eeefceJe~~ (Ki¾kindh¢. Pleasing is this breeze Oh! Saumitre and Manmatha. the love God prevails at this time and prideful is this month with fragrance. yellowish grassland with a variety of trees and with flowers covering like a flowery bed sheet with variegated colours. Adhy¢ya 1) Saumitre. he first inquires about the well-being of plants 1 .

e-pdfconverter. I am indebted to Shri Mohanlal Parvatishankar Dave who inspite of his old age and weakness of the eyesight has thoroughly gone through the script and made useful suggestions before it went for print. vii women ornamented with beautiful dresses and jewelleries or that river appears like a dame finely bedecked with raiment and ornaments (4. the daughter of king Janaka was pleased to see the river Yamun¢ with wonderful sands and water re-echoing the sounds of swans and cranes. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. College.27. Jivenlal Parikh. Surat who at my request traced the plant references from K¢dambar¤. Professor of Sanskrit. I am also thankful to Shri. The Sanskrit literature is extensive. In short. How they are bent with fruits and leaves.19).T. the Kinºuka trees are in full bloom. we shall sport in the forest of Citrak¦°a. He has spent considerable time for me. I know I shall live or survive. Ram¢ forgets all the grief with flowered trees and the forests:__________________________ are wherein the trees bear all seasonal fruits that exude the sweet juice. Tapovana (forests for penance) was an important part of ¡ryan culture. . I have not been able to review the all. Ara´yak¢´²a 3-73-8. R¢ma also frequently says to S¤t¢ and Lak¾ma´a DeeoerHleeefveJe Jewosefn meJe&le: Hegef<HeleeVeieeved~ mJew: Heg<Hew: efkebÀMegkeÀevHeM³e ceeefueve: efMeefMejel³e³es~~ HeM³e YeuueelekeÀeeqvyeuJeeVejwjvegHemeseJf eleeved~ HeÀueHeg<HewjJeveleeVetveb Me#³eece peereJf elegced~~ Heg<Hew jbm³eecens leele ef®e$eketÀìm³e keÀeveves~~ “Look Vaidehi. I am pleased to thank him here. garlanded with their red flowers they almost seem to be on fire. S¤t¢ frequently asks R¢ma the names of the trees she has not seen before: SkewÀkebÀ HeeoHeb ieguceb ueleeb Jee Heg<HeMeeefueveerced~ De¢äªHeeb HeM³evleer jeceb HeÒe®í meeyeuee~~ jceCeer³eevyengeJf eOeevHeeoHeevkegÀmegceeslkeÀjeved~ meerleeJe®evemebjyOe Deeve³eeceeme ue#ceCe:~~ efJeef®e$eyeeuegkeÀpeueeb nbmemeejmeveeefoleeced~ jsces pevekeÀjepem³e meglee Òes#³e leoe veoerced~~ Ayodhy¢k¢´²a 55/29-31 Duly grasping S¤t¢’s words. “Everywhere such tree will shine” Ara´yak¢´²a 9.B. Then S¤t¢. Look at the m¢rkaing nut trees and wood apple trees in bloom untended by man. Wherein the trees bear enormous branches which bend under the weight of their own fruits. The Vedas and Upani¾ad have been manifested in Tapovana. now that winter is past. Lak¾ma´a brought to her many kinds of beautiful twigs of trees with flowers. Whatever I have seen has been examined for plants which are mentioned here. I request the learned to inform me the examples they have come across and which I have not mentioned here. Oh! to remove this message.

. Kali did not think of attacking him. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. J. Vaidya AK½A Terminalia belerica (Gaertn. Shri. Be²¢ Belerica or yellow myrobalan Ak¾a reminds me of the first verse ºloka of Nai¾adha (Nai¾adh¤yacaritam) : efveHeer³e ³em³e eq#eeflejef#eCe: keÀLeemleLeeefê³evles ve yegOee: megOeeceefHe~~ Separating two words “K¾iti” ef#eefle: Deef#eCe:and “Akºi´a” Deef#eCe:. Rasiklal Chotalal Parikh. I took this project with his suggestion and approval. Vidyabhavan of Gujarat Vidyasabha had expressed a desire that I should obtain all such references of plants in Sanskrit literature and publish them in a book form. Family : Combretaceae Bahe²¢. I thank him for this help.. Bahe²¢ in Sanskrit is “Kalidruma” (Kali tree). Hitopadeºa. ¹loka 213) The Bibh¤taka (Bahe²¢) tree became a divine tree (Kalpav¨k¾a) for Kali as it was the only hiding place for him. etc.e-pdfconverter. resident at Gurukul Kangadi who showed lot of interest in my literature and frequently sent me examples from Panchatantra. N¢r¢ya´a Ak¾a De#e: efyeYeerlekeÀ: efveJeemeesçm³eemleerefle De#eer keÀefue:~ interprets “Ak¾i´a” as.) Roxb. Sheth to remove this message. The demon (Kali) coming out of the body of the King Nala hid himself in the Bahe²¢ tree. This fact is mentioned in the following verse of Nai¾adh¤yacaritam.viii Vedalan¬k¢ra Shri Shankardev. I received a lot of admiration and praise. one who hears the story of Nala destroys the evil period (kaliyuga) in oneself. efve<Heom³e keÀuesmle$e mLeeveoeveeod efyeYeerlekeÀced~ keÀefueêgce: Hejb veemeeroemeerlkeÀuHeêgceesçefHe me:~~ (Sarga 17. Afterwards. When a series of my articles on “K¢lid¢sa’s Plants” were published in “Buddhiprak¢ºa”. President. efyeYeerlekeÀceefOeÿe³e leLeeYetlesve efleÿlee~ lesve YeerceYegJeesçYeerkeÀ: me jepeef<e&jOeef<e& ve~~ (Nai¾adha. As no part of Bahe²¢ tree efyeYeerlekebÀ ooMeezkebÀ kegÀìb OecexçH³ekeÀce&þced is used for any religious practice. sarga17/216) The passionate king of Bh¤msut¢ Nala saw Kali (the demon) hiding in Bahe²¢ tree and appeared like a sage. it is considered useless for the deities as mentioned in Nai¾adh¤yacaritam. I am thankful that the prestigious institute like the Vidyabhavan agreed to publish this book as a part of a series of research publications of Gujarat Vidyasabha. Surat Date 19-3-1953 Bapalal G.

Saovarcala (kind of salt). K¢vyaprak¢ºa mentions Yemcees×tueveYeêcemleg YeJeles ©êe#eceeues MegYeced~ About the S¢dhu (saints) having a Tripu´²ra (m¢rka of three lines) of ash at the forehead and garlands of Rudr¢k¾a on the hand and neck. In Nalacamp¦ referring to the sage T¨t¤ya Ucchv¢sa ‘©êe#eJeue³esve efJejeefpeleJeeceHeeefCeHeuueJe:’ specifically refers to his young leaf like delicate hand decorated with the garland of Rudr¢k¾a. The poet has beautifully expressed the childhood feeling of ¡ryas in this ºloka. Rudr¢k¾a fruit of Bahe²¢. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta. among its many names. Dhar¤ (axle). Kar¾a (weight of one tola). ¹aka°a (cart). Sarpa R¢va´¤. the critic of Amarakoºa mentions following terms for Ak¾a : De#ees %eeveelceMekeÀìJ³eJenejs<eg HeeMekesÀ~ ©êe#es jeJeCeew meHex efyeYeerlekeÀlejew DeefHe~ ®e¬esÀ keÀ<ex Hegceeved keÌueeryeb leglLes meewJe®e&ueseqvê³es~~ (knowledge). Caraka Suºrut’s V¢gbha°a has no reference of Rudr¢k¾a. R¢va´a’s son Indrajita. Rudr¢k¾a is not mentioned in Amarakoºa. has a garland of Ak¾a on his right hand scratching the deer and removing the tip of the Kuºa grass. the garland of Ak¾a is referred to Rudr¢k¾a as the garland of Bahed¢ fruit is usually not put on. In the English translation of Raghuvaïºam. De#eyeerpeJeue³esve efveye&Yeew oef#eCeÞeJeCe mebemf Lelesve ³e:~ #eef$e³eevlekeÀjCewkeÀefJebMeles: J³eepeHetJe&ieCeveeefceJeesÜnve~~ This refers to Paraºur¢ma having a garland of Ak¾a on his right ear. senses.e-pdfconverter. tuth (blue vitriol).2 3 The author of R¢janigha´°u (glossary) has named Bahe²¢. Even at present the recluses and saints put on garlands of Rudr¢k¾a. wheel. but of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudr¢k¾a). Bhavabh¦ti. . “Dharmaghna” (Oece&Ive). Paº¢ (dice). mentions Paraºur¢ma having an arrow and a garland of Rudr¢k¾a HeeCeew yeeCe: mHegÀjefle Jeue³eerYetleueesuee#emet$eced~ Jes<e: MeesYeeb J³eeflekeÀjJeleercegûeMeevlemleveeself e~~ In Uttarar¢macarita the celibate young boy Lava having a bow and a braclet of Rudr¢k¾a is mentioned (4/20). Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. S<eesç#eceeueeJeue³eb ce=ieeCeeb keÀC[te³f eleejb kegÀMemete®f eueeJeced~ meYeepeves ces YegpecetOJe&yeeng: meJ³eslejb ÒeeOJeefcele: Òe³eg*kd eÌles~~ The ¹loka refers to the sage Sut¤k¨¾´a who usually keeps his left hand raised high and points his right hand (towards the chariot). Only two references of Bahe²¢ (Ak¾a) are found in the works of K¢lid¢sa. so it is not recognized in the ancient period. ¹loka 40). In Mah¢v¤racarita (Sarga 2. the mountain slopes having garlands of Bahe²¢ fruits and Rudr¢k¾a are mentioned. It is therefore proper to consider Ak¾am¢l¢ as a garland of Rudr¢k¾a. In the same reference me©êe#ee#eceeuew ½ e. This garland (m¢l¢) of Ak¾a is not of Bahed¢. not of Bahe²¢ to remove this message. ¡tm¢ (soul). Vyavah¢ra (business). Ak¾a as Rudr¢k¾a is well accepted.

(Family: Papilionaceae). Har¢k¾a. “ef m eleHeer l eveer u euees e f n lekeg À meg c eefJeMes<ee®®elegeJf e&Oeesçieefmle:~”. row 29). kar¾a means one tola of weight. Ak¾a tree is DeejC³eYetefceefceJee#eleªHemebHeVeeced She was shining as the Bahe²¢ tree shines in the desert. etc. Sanskrit names of Bahe²¢ are Ak¾a. Vakrapu¾pa and D¤rghaphala suggest its flower shape and long capsular fruit respectively. (family: Elaeocarpaceae). ¹iv¢k¾a. Kar¾afala. (family:Combretaceae) and Rudr¢k¾a is Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. etc. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita has shown that “efyeYeerlekeÀm³e yens[e Fefle K³eelem³e” Bahe²¢ name was prevalent in the ancient time. Kalidruma. AGAST£ Sesbania grandiflora (L.e-pdfconverter. Many names of Rudr¢k¾a used later end with Ak¾a. also called Agathiyo. cegevf eêgce: keÀesjefkeÀle: efMeefleÐegelf e Je&vesçcegveecev³ele efmebenf keÀemegle:~ leefcem$eHe#e$egefìketÀìYeef#eleb keÀueekeÀueeHeb efkeÀue JewOeJeb Jeceved~~ (1-96) It is named after the saint ¡gastya. Vra´¢ri suggests the use of its leaves to heal wounds. Vakrapu¾pa. Agast¤ is Sesbania grandiflora L. Agast¤. In Dhanvantari’s Nigha´°u. the name Bahe²akaª (yens[keÀ:) is also mentioned. Bh¤taka. blue and red colour of flowers. Bahe²¢ is Terminalia belerica Roxb. In Sanskrit. hence its another name is Munidruma. References in R¢m¢ya´a are 2/91-49.sometimes the plant names are suggestive of their familiarity and uses. ¹¤ghrapu¾pa. The word ¹¤ghrapu¾pa is suggestive of its rapid growth and flowering. Tu¾a. Agathio Its only reference is in Nai¾¢dha. K¢dambar¤ (early.) Poir Family : Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) Humming bird. para 216) mentions nails (claws) of the lion resembling the flowers of Agast¤. Bahe²¢ has another name. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.6/ 22-55. equivalents of Agast¤ are as follows: Agastya . In aryuvedic preparation Triphal¢. Narhari’s R¢janigha´°u mentions white. keÌJeef®eoieefmlekegÀ*dceuew: kesÀmeefjCeeefceJe keÀjpew:”.4 5 Dhanvantari and R¢janigha´°u have no reference of Rudr¢k¾a. Vra´¢ri.. In R¢janigha´°u. Munidruma. In K¢dambar¤ (early part. It means the danger of the disease does not exist against it. N¤laka´°hak¾a. referring the untouchable girl. para 8. Bh¦v¢sa. Surapriya. Bahe²¢ fruit is one of the three constituents. D¤rghaphala. It is not mentioned in Amarakoºa Deieml³e: MeerIe´Heg<He: m³eeoieefmlemleg cegefveêgce:~ Je´CeeefjoerI& e&HeÀuekeÀes Je¬eÀHeg<He: megjefÒe³e:~~ The King Nala saw wide opened white shining open flowers of Agast¤ tree like R¢hu who had eaten a dark half of the moon of the lunar month and vomitted sixteenth part of it. In Gujarat Bahe²¢ tree is also called Bahe²o. . Vibh¤taka (efJeYeerlekeÀ) “efJeieleb Yeerleb jesieYe³ecemceeled”. among many names of Bahe²¢. Sarva¾ to remove this message. yellow.

” (Nalacamp¦ later 1). Indumat¤ after being beautifully dressed was consumed in Aguru and C¢ndana pyre.megieefvOekeÀeueeieg©OeteHf eleeefve. The incense of K¢l¢guru was coming from the mansion of the King.. The wild buffaloes were rubbing their bodies against the trunks of Aguru and other fragrant trees. The entire bedroom was made fragrant by Aguru to remove this message. Therefore for the Agar wood..) Family : Thymelaeaceae Eagle wood Deieg©efjefle Jeoleg ueeskeÀes ieewjJece$ewJe Hegvejnb cev³es~ oefMe&leiegCewJe Je=efÊe³e&m³e peves peefveleoensçefHe~~ meb®eeefjles ®eeieg©meej³eesveew OetHes meceglmeHe&elf e Jewpe³evleer:~ Raghuvaïºa 6/8 The incense of Aguru passes through and above the flags. Its Sanskrit name is Loham ueesnb (iron) also. . The hair of the head were scented with K¢l¢guru and the body was anointed with K¢l¢guru and C¢ndana. efMejebefme keÀeueeieg©OetefHeleeefve kegÀJe&efvle vee³e&: megjleeslmeJee³e~ §tusaïhara 4/5.. efJememepe& ke=Àleevl³eceC[veeceveuee³eeieg©®evovewOemes~ Raghuvaïºa 8/71 Sanskrit name Aguru-Agar raises some doubts. A-guru (Deieg©) which means not heavy is not appropriate. the word guru means heavy.. The streaks of incense were rising above and scattered by the wind.6 7 AGURU Aquilaria malaccensis L. were resembling the garland of Nagar deity. ce& j w : Deieg©OetHeieefvOeefYe: Raghuvaïºa 19/41 ÒeemeeokeÀeueeieg©Oetcejeefpemlem³ee: Hegjes Jee³egJeMesve efYeVee~ JeveeefVeJe=Êesve jIetÜnsve cegkeÌlee mJe³eb JeseCf eefjJeeJeYeemes~~ Raghuvaïºa 14/12 Let the people consider Agar wood inferior/ untouchable... iegªefCe Jeemeebefme efJene³e letCe¥. ÒekeÀecekeÀeueeieg©OetHeJeeefmeleb efJeMeefvle Me³³eeie=nceglmegkeÀe: efm$e³e:~ §tusaïhara 5/5. ceefn<e#eleeieg©leceeueveueomegjefYe: meoeieefle:~ J³emleMegkeÀefveYeefMeueekegÀmegce: ÒeCegovJeJeew Jevemeoeb HeefjÞececed~~ (13/50) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The small pieces of wood are buried under the moist soil and after sometime. The fragrance flowing from them was carried away by the wind. but we feel proud of it. The clothes were also incensed with Aguru wood. Deieg©megjefYeOetHeeceeseof leb kesÀMeHeeMeb ieefuelekegÀmegceceeueb levJeleer kegÀáeerleeûeced~ §tusaïhara 5-12 K¢lid¢sa describes in §tusaïhara the knot of hair made fragrant by the incense of Aguru wood. (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. OeÊes peve: keÀececeoeuemee²:~ §tusaïhara 6/ 13. The wood is costly and its resin has very pleasant smell. People burned or be restless with excessive heat have shown its virtues (Subh¢shitaratnabh¢´²¢g¢ra).e-pdfconverter. “ke=À<Ceeieg©®evoveeceesoyenguekegÀ®eeYeesieYet<eCee. but any wood floats on water but Agar wood is the only one which sinks in water. The clothes were perfumed with the incense. The other names based on its medicinal use are Krumijagdham and Krumijam. when they are dug out their pleasant smell increased. keÀeueeieg©Òe®egj®evove®eef®e&lee²îe: (§tusaïh¢ra 2/21).



The wind carrying the fragrance produced from the
injured barks of Agura, Tamal (Garcinia species) and
Jatamansi and other trees and moistened by the lichens
growing on trees soothen the tired foresters.
®ekeÀcHes leerCe&ueewenf l³es leeqmcevÒeeip³eeself e<eséej:~
leÃpeeueeveleeb ÒeeHlew: men keÀeueeieg©êgcew:~~ (Raghuvaïºa 4-8)
When Raghu crossed the river Lohit, the king of
Pr¢gjyoti¾a trembled with fear, the trees of K¢l¢guru were
shaken with the fear that the elephants would be tied with
them. This ºloka shows that the Aguru trees were so strong
that elephants could be tied to them.
Authors of Nigha´°u have described five kinds of Agar,
(1) K¢l¢guru or K¨¾´¢guru (2) D¢h¢guru (3) K¢¾at¢guru
(4) Ma¬galya (5) Sv¢du. Among them K¨¾´¢guru, based
on its medicinal properties and fragrance is the best.’ ke=À<Ceb
iegCeeefOekebÀ leÊeg ueesnJeÜeefj ceppeefle’ (Bh¢vaprak¢ºa). Amar has named
Mangaly¢ as Malligandhi which means it has fragrance
similar to Jasmine. Dhanvantri’s Nigha´°u has described
the properties of D¢h¢guru as follows:
oeneieg© keÀìgkeÀes<Ceb kesÀMeeveeb JeOe&veb ®e JeC³e¥ ®e~
DeHeve³eefle kesÀMeoes<eeveelevegles mebleleb ®e meewievO³eced~~

®evoveeieg©mebHe=keÌleOetHemebcete®f í&leesçceue:~
ÒeJeeefle HeJeve: ÞeerceeeeqvkebÀ ve veeÐe ³eLee Hegje~~
Why does the clean and pure wind with the fragrance of
C¢ndana and Aguru not flow in Ayodhy¢?
During the last rites performed for the king Daºaratha,
C¢ndana, Aguru and other fragrant materials were a part
of the pyre (R¢m¢ya´a, 2/76-16;3/35-21;7/42-9)1
When the king Nala was praying Vi¾´u on whose flag
was an eagle, snakes of the ¹iva temple seeing the
reverence of the eagle became black with fear (though
variegated) ran like the incense.
jeef%e ke=À<CeueIegOetHeveOetcee: Hetpe³el³eefnefjHegOJepeceeqmceved~
efve³e&³eg: YeJeOetlee Yegpeiee Yeero³g e&Meesceefueefvelee FJe peeuew:~~
(Nai¾adha 21-47)
Har¾a here has used the word “small” (ueIeg) instead of
Aguru. The former is a synonym of the latter.
DeveefYe%ees ³eLee peel³eb onsoieg©keÀeÿJeled~
Dev³ee³esve ceveg<³elJecegHenv³eeefoob leLee~~
(Saundarananda K¢vya sarga 15)

For the hair growth and treatment of hair problems,
D¢h¢guru is the best. This type is not found now. Only
two references have been found in Sanskrit literature
about Aguru and K¢l¢guru or K¨¾´¢guru.

The foolish burn Agar as a fuel (wood) as the ignorant
by injustice destroys the manhood given by God.

Bharata, (R¢m¢ya´a, 2/71.....28) coming from the
maternal grandfather’s house finds the Ayodhy¢ desolate,
the poet describes:

1. 2/76,16 means 2nd section, 76, Adhy¢ya (chapter), and 16th ºloka

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Semecarpus anacardium L. f.
Family: Anacardiaceae
M¢rking nut
Balltaka or Bhilama or Bhilv¢
JeerjJe=#eesç©<keÀjesçeqivecegKeer YeuueelekeÀer ef$e<eg~ (Amarako¾a)
Bh¤l¢m¢ has four synonyms, V¤rav¨k¾a, Aruk¾ara,
Agnimukh¤, Bhall¢tak¤.
R¢ma seeing Bhil¢m¢ trees in the forest says to Sit¢ that
they will be able to live there. (2/56-7)1. The trees are big
with large leaves. One gets burning sensation touching its
exudation; hence its name is Aruk¾ara - means forming
Alangium lamarckii Thw.
Family : Alangiaceae
Looking at the pleasant scene of the Citrak¦°a mountain
R¢maacandra said:
ve jep³eYe´bMeveb Yeês ve megËefÓ: efJeveeYeJe:~
cevees ces yeeOeles ¢äJee jceCeer³eefceceb efieefjced~~

1.HeM³e YeuueelekeÀeeqvyeuJeeVejwjvegHemes efJeleeved~
HeÀueHeg<HewjJeveleeVetveb Me#³eece peerefJelegced~~ jecee³eCe
DeeqivecegK³ee DeMeeskeÀe½e megjkeÌlee: HeeefjYeêkeÀe: jecee³eCe 3/73-5
DeeqivecegK³eesç©<keÀj: Tilaka. Lecturer
2. R¢m¢ya´a, 2/94-8, 4/1-80, 6/4-81

“The grief I had in my mind because of the downfall of
the kingdom or separation of the relatives has vanished after
seeing the beautiful mountain. I feel indescribable
pleasure”. In describing the forest trees the poet mentions
the A¬kola tree. The poet has mentioned this tree in the
description of Pamp¢ lake and in the chapter of the battle,
has remembered it in description of the Sahy¢dri. This
tree is thorny, with dark shining green leaves and flowers
with sweet fragrance of jasmine. The ripe fruits are bluish
or dark red with edible aril. In Nigha´°u, because of its
long strong thorns, its identifying name is D¤rghak¤laka,
for its red fruits, the name is T¢mraphala, for its fragrant
flowers, Gandhapu¾pah, for its yellowish wood, P¤tas¢ra,
for its thorns and jasmine like fragrance,
Madanoguhmallika. According to K¾¤rasv¢m¤, glossarial
meaning of Ankola is ‘DeM³eles keÀeruekewÀ: ue#³eles Fefle De¹esue: ankola’
that which is identified by its thorns”. In times of Bh¢nuj¤
D¤k¾¤ta A¬kola was identified as ±hera. A¬kol is not
referred to in any other Sanskrit literature except the
Hardwickia pinnata Roxb.
Family: Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)
DeOe&mHeÀeefìlees De¡eveJe=#eoe©ce³e: mlecYe: KeefojkeÀeruekesÀve ceO³eefveefnlesve efleÿefle~~
Anjana tree grows in Central India. It has nice large
leaves. Its wood is strong and durable, externally white and
internally blackish. The author of Pa®catantra has shown

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the sawed wood and kept a small peg of Acacia catechu
inside it to keep it open.

(Dalbergia latifolia). Its resin is known as Punjab kino.
Atimuktaka reference is only in the R¢m¢ya´a.

Ougeinia dalbergioides Benth.
Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae)

Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz.
(Hiptage madablota Gaertn.)
Family: Malphighiaceae
V¢sant¤, Madhum¢lat¤

In Amarakoºa Atimuktaka is mentioned as a separate
species from Atimukt¢. Its meaning is Tanacha. Next to
this plant, Atimukta climber (Lat¢) is also described.
DeefleMeef³elees cegkeÌlees efJemleejesçm³e Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta has given this
reference which means the Atimuktaka is a widely spread
tree. Amarsinh has given the synonyms, Syandana, Tiniºa,
Nemi, Rathadruª, Atimukataka, Va®jula. In R¢ma¢ya´a1,
the poet has described Pamp¢ lake is shown looking
beautiful like a young voluptuous woman with Tilaka,
B¤jp¦raka, Lothra, Karvir, Aºoka, Saptapar´a,
Atimuktaka and other trees. The poet describes the
Pr¢c¤nav¢hin¤ river, ‘JemeveeYejCeesHeslee ÒeceosJeeY³euebke=Àlee’ as a well
dressed and ornamented enchantress beautified with
Candana, Tilaka, S¢la, Tam¢la, Atimuktaka and other
trees in the forest of Prasrava´a mount.
Therefore Atimuktaka is a tree and the reference Tiniºa
given by Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta is appropriate. In Gujarati Tiniºa
is Ta´acha. Its wood is strong and solid like ¹¤ºama

1.The footnote in Amarakaoºa has noted DeeflejkeÌlelJeeled Fefle YeÆ#eerjmJeeceer,
but the flower of M¢dhav¤ is not dark red therefore this meaning
does not appear to be proper.

“Deefle¬eÀevlees cegkeÌleeb MeewkedÀu³eeled~”1 (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta)
One which blossoms in the spring is Vas¢nti. Madhu
means spring, one which flowers in spring is M¢dhav¤.
Atimukta, V¢sant¤ and M¢dhav¤ are synonyms. Bh¢nuj¤
D¤k¾¤ta, the critic of Amara has considered it as
This citation in Jaydeva’s G¤tagovinda “mejmeJemevlemece³eJeCe&ve”
(1/9) is reminiscent of the following:
Je=voeJeveefJeefHeves HeefjmejHeefjiele³ecegveepeueHetles~~
(G¤tagovinda - 1)
The mango tree is thrilled in joy with the close embrace
(entwining) of the Atimukataka climber, flowered in full
splendour. In spring the mango is in full bloom and
Atimukta climber also flowers. In the description of the
spring M¢dhav¤ and mango are always mentioned. In
¹akuntal¢, the citation “keÀ FoeveeR menkeÀejcevlejsCe DeeflecegkeÌleueleeb HeuueefJeleeb
1. 3/75-24,4/27-17,7/42-4

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(3/95) describes “who else but the mango tree is ready to
have a conjugal union with the blossomed Atimukta
“S<e ceefCeefMeueeHeÆkeÀmeveeLees DeeflecegkeÌleueleeceC[Hees Ye´cejmebIeÆHeeflelew: kegÀmegcew: mJe³ecesJe
ke=ÀleesHe®eejes YeJevleb Òeleer®íefle~” (Vikramorvaº¤yama, act 2)
Here K¢lid¢sa has described the bower of Atimukta
climber with a platform of crystal white stone. It means
for the sitting place a platform of white stone is made in
the pandal. The clown tells the king that the bower of
Atimukta climber itself with the flowers dropped by the
attack of bees along with other items of worship welcomes
One synonymn for Atimukta is the “festival of
bees”(bhramarotsavah). Once the climber flowers it
becomes a place of festivity for bees and the dropped
flowers due to the “embrace” of the bees. This is a minute
observation of the poet.
In Vikramorvaº¤yama, the clown requests the king to
sit in the pandal and see beautiful Atimukta climbers and
drive away the contactual longing arisen due to the
departure of Urvaº¤. The poet has compared the beautiful
climbers with attractive women as the attractive women
adorned with flowers and putting on new dresses with
enchanting loveliness attract the men, the lovely Atimukta
climbers allay the grief of separated people. This purport
is expressed in ¹akuntal¢, act 6. P.151,
“meKes keÌJeesHeefJeä: efÒe³ee³ee: efkebÀef®eovegkeÀeefjCeer<eg ueleemeg ¢efä efJeueesYe³eeefce~”

Despite this king does not get peace from “this flowered
tenderly twined forest climber”, the word flowered
indicates implied ornamentation and pleasantness to the
eye. The word tender implies characteristic modesty and
mobility befitting the women. In M¢lavik¢gnimitra (Act 4,
ºloka -13)
efJeme=pe megvoefj mebiecemeeOJemeb leJe ef®ejelÒeYe=elf e ÒeCe³eesvcegKes~
Heefjie=neCe ieles menkeÀejleeb lJeceeflecegkeÌleuelee®eefjleb ceef³e~~
“Oh beautiful woman, do not have any fear in having
union with me. I have been longing for your love for some
time. When I am now as a mango tree, play your part as
Atimukta climber which twines round the tree. Embrace
Refer the following ºloka
efveef<eáevceeOeJeercesleeb ueleeb keÀewvoeR ®e vele&³eced~
mvesnoeef#eC³e³ees³eexieelkeÀeceerJe ÒeefleYeeefle ces~~
(Vikramorvaº¤yama Act.2)
Here the wind is compared with a lustful man with two
wives. One of them is young M¢dhav¤ and the other elderly
aged Kaund¤. The man shows more attachment to the new
one and dislikes the elderly (oeef#eC³eb keÀeefceveeref®eÊeevegJele&veced). The
lustful wind loves M¢dhav¤ where as he treats the other
one with chivalry. So wind makes the new wife sweet and
pregnant while sways the Kaund¤ because of its dislike.
1. Compare
ueleeb ÒeHegÀuueeceeflecegkeÌlekeÀm³e ®etlem³e Heeéex HeefjjY³e peeleced~
efveMeec³e ef®evleeceieceÊeowJeb eqMueäeYeJevceeceefHe megvojerelf e~(Saundar¢nanda k¢vya sarga 7)

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Urvaº¤ transformed into a V¢sant¤ climber because of a
curse Jeemevleeruelee mebJe=Êee (Vikramorvaº¤yama, 4).
Jaydev has compared R¢dh¢ with flowers of Atimuktaka
and mentioned her chanting K¨¾´a’s name wandering in
the forest with a delicate body.
“Jemevles JeemevleerkegÀmegcemegkegÀceejwJe³eJew:
Ye´cevleerb keÀevleejs yengefJeefnleke=À<CeevegmejCeeced~~” (G¤tagovinda 1/1)
Atimukta flowers in the spring, they are faint rosy or
white and irregularly shaped and very sweet smelling. The
bees flock them, because of this fact, composers of
Nigha´°u have named the climber as a Festivity of bees
and a beloved of bees (Ye´cejeslmeJee, Ye=²efÒe³ee).
The name of the climber ‘Dhammil¢modin¤’
(Oeeqcceueeceeseof veer)
has been used by the poet as the lovely women wearing
the sweet smelling flowers as the hair braid.
Three words Atimukta, M¢dhav¤ and V¢sant¤ are found
in the works of K¢lid¢sa and they are all synonyms. The
critic Dalha´a refers Atimukta as “DeeflecegkeÌlekeÀ: ceeOeJeeruelee DeJeslekeÀ
Fefle ueeskesÀ~” (Suºrutasa¼hit¢, Uttarasth¢na), Following ºloka
from M¢gha is interesting.
ceOegj³ee ceOegyeeseOf eleceeOeJeer ceOegmece=e×
f meceseOf elecesOe³ee~
ceOegkeÀje²ve³ee cegn©g vceoOJeefveYe=lee efveYe=lee#ejcegppeies~~20~~ (ºloka-20)
1 “The beauty of the whole plant is very striking, and the want of
symmetry in the flowers and the fruitless so” Nairne, P.41.

Looking fascinating, blooming by the spring, the
M¢dhav¤ climber, splendorous by the abundance of bees
and because of this, intoxicated with the loud song of the
female bees. Really this is a beautiful and delicate
arrangement of words in a poem.
Jayadeva’s beautiful verse Jemevles JeemevleerkegÀmegcemegkegÀceejwjJe³eJew: Ye´cevleeR
keÀevleejs is interesting. At the end, remembering ¹akuntal¢
in the following reference of K¢dambar¤ is worth
mentioning: Heg$ekeÀm³e ces YeJeevee²Ces menkeÀejHeeslem³e lJe³ee ceeq®®evle³ewJe ceeOeJeeruele³ee
menesÜence²ueb mJe³ecesJe efveJe&le&veer³eced~ (K¢dambar¤ later, p. 536)
In K¢dambar¤ (para 215) at one place“ceeefueveerueleeceC[Hew:
ceC[efuelele©KeC[³ee” Reference to M¢lin¤ climber entwined
round the trees is not observed anywhere. But I think
M¢lat¤ also here stands for M¢dhav¤.
Clitoria ternatea L.
Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae)
Blue-pea, Butterfly pea,Gar´¤, Gokar´¤
Sarvadamana was playing with a young lion. While he
was putting his hand into the lion’s mouth the protective
amulet on his hand fell down. Du¾yanta who was watching
him immediately picked it up and handed over it to two
female ascetics who were searching it with agitation. They


ceeOeJeercegkegÀueÎefä<eg JesefCeyevOees.....leeqmcevceOeg: me YeieJeeved ieg©j²veeveeced~”

(K¢vaymim¢ns¢). This ºloka justifies the synonym Bhramarotsav¢ for M¢dhav¤ .

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put their hands on their chest and shouted with
astonishment “He has picked it”. The king asked the reason
why he should not have picked it up? They said to the king
“This is a plant known as Apar¢jit¢ which was given by
God M¢r¤ca during the sacred religious rites performed at
the birth of the child. Only child’s parents could pick it up
if it had fallen on to the ground. If somebody else picked it
up, it would turn it into a snake and sting him/her”. In the
seventh act of ¹akuntala, plant Apar¢jit¢ is mentioned
twice. This plant seems to be divine.
On the other hand Apar¢jit¢ generally means a filter.
Apar¢jit¢, Girikrnik¢, Vi¾´ukrant¢, Yon¤pu¾pa and
¡spho°a are synonyms. In Gujarati it is known as Gar´i or
Koyala. It is of two types. One with white flowers and the
other with blue ones. The flower shape resembles that of
the vagina. Authors of the Nigha´°u name it as Yon¤pu¾pa.
In the books on sex, the plant is referred as Bhagnaºiºnik¢,
Madan¢tapatra, Madan¢¬kura, K¢machtra.
At present nobody is using Apar¢jit¢ as a protective
amulet on the wrist. It is speculative to consider the
protective amulet worn by Sarvdamana is of Clitoria. In the
R¢m¢ya´a when Viºv¢mitra asks Lak¾ma´a to accompany
him, Kauºaly¢ ties Vi¾lyaviºalyakar´a plant, see
There are people who catch the snake keeping some
plant in one hand. In Aºvagho¾a’s Saundr¢nandak¢vya,
there is relevant reference:

³eLeew<eOewn&mleielew: meefJeÐees ve oM³eles keÀ½eve HeVeiesve~
leLeeveHes#ees efpeleueeskeÀceesnes ve oM³eles MeeskeÀYegpebiecesve~~ (Sarga 5-31)
Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.
Family: Asclepiadaceae
megj³egJeeflemebYeJeb efkeÀue cegvesjHel³eb leogepq PeleeefOeieleced~
Deke&Àm³eesHeefj efMeefLeueb ®³egleefceJe veJeceeefuekeÀekegÀmegceced~~
(¹¢kuntala 2/8)
The child of the sage is from the celestial damsel
Menak¢ who abadoned him. The sage then adopted him.
The detached flower of Navam¢lik¢ climber fell on the
tree of ¡rka(Calotropis).
The king has compared the sage Ka´va with the ¡rka
tree, not deliberately but unknowingly. Navam¢lik¢ flower
manifests tenderness and beauty. The poet seems to
believe that the ¡rka tree is useless. This is the only
reference of the plant noted by me in all the works of
K¢lid¢sa. In Sanskrit literature there are as many names
of ¡rka as those of the sun. In Amarakaoºa there are 37
names of the Sun. The word ¡rka, De®e& Hetpee³eeced ³eÜe Deke&À mleJeves
has been derived from this verbal root. The worship of
the sun is well known.
The famous ºloka of Lolimbar¢ja,
YeieJeved YeemkeÀj#eerj~ Heeceeçnb DeefYeJeeo³es~
³e$e osMes YeeJevÒeeHle: leÎsMes ve Je´peec³enced~~

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Oh God Bh¢skarak¾ira! ¡rka milk! This p¢ma (eczema)
salutes you. The country where you go, I do not enter.
From medicinal view ¡rka is a valuable medicine. Every
part of it is useful. ¡rka is known as vegetable mercury. In
Hindi ¡rka is called Mad¢ra. Amarkao¾a has mentioned its
synonym Mand¢ra but Mand¢ra is not ¡rka.
Bhart¨hari (N¤tiºataka, ºloka 96): who is that unfortunate
man who having obtained the human birth on this earth
does not perform penance? What kind of that man is foolish
who does not perform good deed or penance? He is like a
man who tills the land with the golden plough to obtain the
cotton pubescence of ¡rka?
meewJeCezuee&²ueeûeweJf e&euf eKeefle JemegOeeceke&Àletuem³e nslees:~
K¢dambar¤ (Prologue, para30) compares the fruits of
¡rka resembling the young ones of parrots: keÀebef½eoke&ÀHeÀueme¢Meeved
³eceeefÞel³e ve efJeÞeeceb #egOeelee& ³eeefvle mesJekeÀe:~
meesçke&ÀJeVe=Heefleml³eep³e: meoeHeg<HeHeÀueesçefHe meved~~ (Pa®catantra)
¡rka has a synonym in Sad¢pu¾pa. The kings under
whose shelter the servants agitated with hunger do not
feel alleviated deserve to be forsaken like ever flowering
and fruiting ¡rka trees.

Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) wight & Arn.
Family: Combretaceae
1. R¢m¢ya´a 3/60-14; 4/27-10; 4/28-4; 9,34,41; 4/1-81; 6/2252; 6/4-80; 6/39-4; 7/42-4; 7/26-5

When R¢va´a abducted Sit¢, R¢ma asked everybody
frantically for whereabouts of Sit¢, he had asked Arjuna
tree and directions (Diº¢):
DeLeJeeçpe&vg e Mebme lJeb efÒe³eeb leecepe&vg eefÒe³eeced~
keÀkegÀYe: keÀkegÀYees©b leeb J³ekeÌleb peeveeefle ceweLf eueerced~~
uelee HeuueJeHeg<Hee{îees Yeeefle ¿es<e JevemHeefle:~~
In Sanskrit Arjuna means white. The bark of Arjuna is
white like the tree K¢²h¢y¢.
R¢ma speaks to Arjuna tree,
“Oh Arjuna! Tell me the whereabouts of my wife who
liked very much the Arjuna trees. Oh! Directions(Diº¢)!
You know very well the Maithil¤ with her fair thigh.
kakabhoru(keÀkegÀYees©) a nice comparison of the breast with
the colour of the Arjuna tree!”
Arjuna tree has nice leaves, flowers and fruits. The
flowers at the tips of the branches are like those in a mango
tree. The sweet fragrance emits from the white clusters
of flowers during the rains due to which there is a
reference of Arjuna in the rainy season. “S<e HegÀuueepe&gve: Mewue:
kesÀlekeÀw: DeefYeJeeefmele:~ megûeerJe FJe Meevleeefj: OeejeefYe: DeefYeef<e®³eles~~” (4/28-4)
This mountain is perfumed with opened flowers of
Arjuna and shaded by light yellow coloured flowers
resembling Ketak¤ and drenched by rain showers. The
mountain was shining like Sugr¤va who was coronated after
V¢li was killed. In the fine description of the rainy season
“®ejefvle veerHeepe&gveJeeefmeleeefve iepee: megjc³eeefCe JeveevlejeefCe~” Nipa (Kadamba)
and Arjuna (S¢dad¢) trees have perfumed the forest area
where the elephants roam about.

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GlHeM³eeefce êgleceefHe meKes ceeflÒe³eeLe ef³e³eemees:~
keÀeue#esHeb keÀkegÀYemegjYeew HeJe&les HeJe&les les~~

K¢lid¢sa, describing the rainy season (§tusaïh¢ra,
sarga 2-20) keÀCee&vlejs<eg keÀkegÀYeêgcece¡ejerefYe: F®íevegketÀuejef®eleeveJelebmekeÀeb½e~
means the women, instead of the earrings wear the cluster
of young flowers of Arjuna. In Raghuva¼a, the description
of clusters of flowers of Arjuna is interesting:

Though you desire to hasten, for my sake you will have
to pass sometime on the mountain filled with the fragrance
of flowering Arjuna trees.

DeeefHe¡ejeye×jpe: keÀCelJeevce¡e³e&og eje MegMegcesçpe&vg em³e~
oiOJeeefHe osnb efieefjMesve jes<eeled, KeC[erke=Àlee p³esJe ceveesYeJem³e~~ (Sarga16-51)

Following ºloka shows that K¢lid¢sa knew that Arjuna
flowers during monsoon.

The broken string of the bow, after ¹iva had killed
K¢madeva in anger, appeared like the beautiful clusters of
Arjuna flowers dimmed because of pollen grains fallen on
Even the men, like the women were putting Arjuna
flower clusters on the ears. K¢lid¢sa mentions this fact
while describing the wandering in flurry (Vih¢ravibhrama)
of the king Agnimitra.
DebmeueeqcyekegÀìpeepe&vg eñepe: lem³e veerHejpemee²jeefieCe:~
ÒeeJe=e<f e ÒeceoyeefnC& es<JeYetled ke=Àef$eceeefê<eg efJenejefJeYe´ce:~~ (Sarga19/37)
The king had smeared his body with the pollen of Nipa
and had earrings of cluster of Arjuna flowers swinging on
his shoulders, such a king was wandering in artificial
mountains like the passionate peacocks in such
mountains. Nipa is Dh¢r¢kadamba ( Anthocephalous ).
Such a king perfuming his body with the pollen of
Kadamba and wearing garlands of Ku°aja and Arjuna
flowers must be a real artist.
Kadamba, Ku°aja, Sarja and other trees flower in the
rainy season and mountains are filled with their fragrance.
In Meghad¦ta:

cegkeÌlJee keÀocyekegÀìpeepe&vg emepe&veerHeevmeHle®íoevegHeielee kegÀmegceesoieceÞeer:~~
Leaving Kadamba, Ku°aja, Arjuna, Sarja and Nipa
trees Kusumodagamshree went to Saptapar´a tree
(Alstonia) as it flowers in autumn.
The following is the famous ºloka of Uttarar¢macharita
(In chapter1)
meesç³eb Mewue: keÀkegÀYemegjefYe: ceeu³eJeeVeeceece ³eeqmceved~
veerue: eqmveiOe: Þe³eefle efMeKejb vetlevemlees³eJeen:~~
The bluish tender cloud filled with water was overlooking
the summit of the mountain M¢lyav¢na pervading the full
fragrance of Arjuna trees.
GlHegÀuueepe&vg emepe&JeeefmeleJenlHeewjml³ePe_Peeefveue:~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava 9/17)
The poet above shows the meeting period of the eastern
stormy wind filled with fragrance of blossomed flowers of
Arjuna and the transition period between the summer and
rainy season. ‘Oecee&cYeesefJeieceeieceJ³eeflekeÀjÞeerJeeefnCees Jeemeje:’.
The following ºloka from Kir¢tarjuniya (10/21) mentions:
ÒeefleefoMeceefYeie®íleeefcece=ä: keÀkegÀYeefJekeÀememegieefvOeveeefveuesve~
veJe FJe efJeyeceew meef®elepevcee ieleOe=elf ejekegÀefuele½e peerJeueeskeÀ:~~

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This reference of insecticidal property of neem leaves is noteworthy.e-pdfconverter. Neem. Juss. etc. Nimb. the pregnant woman Vil¢savat¤ sitting on the sleeping bed DeemekeÌlenefjleeefjäHeuueJeced had a reference of green neem leaves hanging. It is one of the constituents of the famous “Daºam¦la”. Family: Meliaceae Ari¾°a has two meanings (The R¢m¢ya´a 2/94-9. According to Tilak¢vyakhy¢ Ari¾°a is neem. In addition (K¢dambar¤. Clerodendron multiflorum Burm. Karav¤raka. Other synonyms are Agnimonths. V¤radru. Family: Verbenaceae Dele Deenle&eg cf e®íeefce HeeJe&leerceelcepevceves~ GlHeÊe³es nefJeYeexkeÌleg: ³epeceeve FJeejefCeced~~ (Kumara Sarga. Ari¾°a in flowers looks beautiful. Ga´ik¢rik¢. F¢lguna. early 61). if he does not respond then there is no hope of his life. fire was produced by rubbing two pieces of wood. . Limbdo Azadirachta indica A. Kir¤°¤. In Sanskrit Ari¾°a has a meaning of “symbol of death”. ARA³I Clerodendron phlomoides Hort. one who proclaims a victory. I wish to marry P¢rvat¤ to have a son. Arjuna in Gujarati is called S¢da²o or S¢ja²o. one from whom there is no room for fear is Ari¾°a. ARI½¯A ARI½¯AKA. ex DC. Sapindus trifoliatus L.1) Neem (2) Ar¤°h¤. Dhana®jaya. P¢rtha. Arjuna has: Arjuna. In the description of the rainy season Prachi Òeef®elece¡eefjkeÀepe&gve: (Rajaºekhara) the rainy season is filled with cluster of flowers of Arjuna.) Family: Sapindaceae 2. P¢´²ava. Its name is also Vaijayant¤k¢. 6/28) As the donor (one who performs a religious rite) brings the wood of Ara´i for fire. Arjuna tree has as many names as the son of P¢´²u. and as the poet adds. likewise. (Sapindus emarginata Vahl. Tark¢r¤. Ara´i is a valuable aryuvedic medicine. both trees are beautiful.24 25 The wind carrying the fragrance of the fully blossomed flowers of Arjuna was blowing in all directions and due to this the world of humanity got unbalanced and agitated with erotic feelings. The opening of Arjuna flowers signals the on coming of the rainy season1. 1.Ital. Nirmanthad¢ru. The word Ari°h¢ is derived from Rith¢.com to remove this message. Fenilahsamau (Amarkaoºa) and Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta Üs Deefjäm³e jerþe Fefle K³eelem³e. Name Ari¾°a is thus suggested as its bubbling juice is put in the nose of a dying unconscious to verify his status. It flowers in the month of K¢rttika with white flowers. The synonymn of Nimb (Neem) is also Ari¾°a. Deefjä ve efjäcemceeled. ARI½¯AHAKA 1. The name Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Whether Ari¾°a is neem or Ar¤°hi. The reference of Neem is made in K¢dambar¤ (early para 64) describing the S¦tik¢g¨ha (chamber where a woman recently delivered is lying) ‘DeveueHueg < ³eceeCeeef j äle©HeuueJeesuueefmelej#eeOetceievOeced’ in insecticidal smoke arising due to the burning of neem leaves was coming from S¦tik¢g¨ha. In ancient time. the mind pleasing and lustful.

M¢lvi. Vikramo. 6-13. besmeared with ‘Alaktak’ will mark their beautiful foot prints on it. DeuekeÌlekeÀe¹eb HeoJeeR leleeve~ jkeÌleeMeeskeÀ©®ee efJeMese<f eleiegCees efyecyeeOejeuekeÌlekeÀ:~ The brilliant red colour of Alaktak applied on the Bimblips (lips as red as Coccinia (Bimba) fruits). ¹anku. 1-15. L¢k¾a. ‘Alaktak’ applied on the foot soles will mark red foot prints on the water soaked ground while walking. ºloka 58) needs comparison. 4-5) Some one tree gave moon like white silken clothe (or cloth made from flex). there as if. #eewceb kesÀveef®eefovogHeeC[gle©Cee cee²u³eceeefJe<ke=Àleb~ efve<þîetle½ejCeesHeYeesiemegueYees uee#eejme: kesÀveef®eled~ (¹¢kuntala Act. suggesting auspiciousness. uee#eejeieb ®ejCekeÀceuev³eeme³eesi³eb ®e ³em³eeceskeÀ: metlt es mekeÀceueceyeueeceC[veb keÀuHeJe=#e:~1 (Meghad¦ta. 7-58. 77) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. a dream v¨k¾a is created for beautifying all the women. The following ºloka from Kum¢rsa¼bhava (sarga 7. iegªefCeJeemeebemf e efJene³e letCe¥ levetevf e uee#eejmejef¡eleeefve~ megieefvOekeÀeueeieg©OetefHeleeefve OeÊes peve: keÀececeoeuemee²:~~ (§tu. . 6-13) 1. Here they are neuter. From the following it appears that clothes dyed with L¢k¾a were prevalent. Kum¢ra. Megha.e-pdfconverter. ÒemeeefOekeÀeueeqcyeleceûeHeeoceeef#eH³e keÀeef®eod êJejeiecesJe~ Glme=äueerueeieeflejeieJee#eeouekeÌlekeÀe¹eb HeoJeeR leleeve~~ 1. their soles. Another tree oozed L¢k¾a exudation to be easily useable for the feet. ALAKTAKA1 Lac or Lack. L¢kº¢ Amarakoºa mentions that Alaktaka is L¢kº¢. Later. §tu.26 27 Ari¾°a therefore indicates no hurt or fear (Ri¾°a) remains against it. jeseif eCees cejCeb ³emceeoJeM³ebYeeefJe ue#³eles~ leuue#eCeceefjäb m³eeefêäceH³eefYeOeer³eles~~ Ri¾°a or Ari¾°a are two synonymns. jeiesCe yeeuee©Ce keÀesceuesve ®etleÒeJeeueesÿceueb®ekeÀej~~ (Kumara. 4-49 The foot prints marked with Alaktak were set.3-52. Uttaramegha. 12) Where (in city of deity of wealth) the L¢k¾a secretion is present to be offered to the lotus like feet. sarga 3-90) The lips like the tender mango leaves were decorated with tender colour of the early rising sun. In Gujarat the word “Adato” is prevalent. but Arith¢ or Nimb is in masculine gender. HeÓ³eeb mHe=MesÜmegceleeR ³eefo mee megiee$eer cesIeeefYeJe=äefmekeÀleemeg JevemLeueer<eg~ He½eeVelee ieg©efvelecyele³ee leleesçm³ee ¢M³esle ®ee©HeoHeef¹lejuekeÌlekeÀe¹e~~ When feet of the belles with attractive faces will touch the rain soaked ground of the forests. to remove this message. In ancient time the red resin was used to colour the sole of the foot and lips. due to the heaviness of their buttocks.

Look at this west which somebody had mixed with Alaktak and later rubbed it. je#ee uee#ee peleg keÌueeryes ³eeJeesçuekeÌlees êgceece³e:~~ (Amarakoºa) That one which protects is ‘L¢k¾¢’. tinkling sound of their anklets. The part that was rubbed has been filled with abundance of saffron or look at the beauty of the evening redness equal to that of saffron. Rangmat¢. one type of insects makes L¢k¾a on the tree. ®ejCekeÀceueieueouekeÌlekeÀefmekeÌleefceob leJe Ëo³ecegoejced~ oMe&³eleerJe yeefnce&oveêgceveJeefkeÀmeue³eHeefjJeejced~~ (Gitagovinda) Oh K¨¾´a! Your heart is charming like the cluster of new leaves of the cupid like tree. How is it? It is moistened with Alaktaka by the touch of the lotus like feet of the enjoyed women. in other meaning. copper coloured Alkatak and new leaf like feet are shown and these feet as if they are new lotuses. Here the colour of the young leaves and redness of the Alaktaka is interwoven. 22-3) Oh Dear! Oblige me through the presiding deity of water or looking towards the west. ‘L¢k¾a’ has another name ‘Drumavyadhi’ meaning ‘disease of the tree’. L¢k¾¢ is a product of insect infection (Drumamaya). efveleevleuee#eejmejeiejef¡elewevf e&leeqcyeveerveeb ®ejCew: mevetHegj:w ~ Heos Heos nbme©leevegkeÀeefjefYe: pevem³e ef®eÊeb ef¬eÀ³eles mecevceLeced~~ The women’s feet dyed with deep colour of the L¢k¾a. G¤tagovinda has reference of ‘y¢vakasharanam’ (sarg 7-6) ®ejCeefkeÀmeue³es keÀceueeefveue³es veKeceefCeieCeHetepf eles~ yeefnjHeJejCeb ³eeJekeÀYejCeb peve³eefle Ëefo ³eesepf eles~~ ¹r¤ K¨¾´a (arranges ‘Y¢vakabhara´am’) fills Alktaka on the render red feet of R¢dh¢. whose mind will not be passionate? ‘Adr¢lakta’ (M¢lavi.e-pdfconverter. Following lines also show the similar sentiment. during the dances of celestial damsels who had gone to tempt Arjuna. DeefYeve³eceveme: megje²vee³ee efveefnleceuekeÌlekeÀJele&veeefYeleece´ced~ ®ejCeceefYeHeHeele <eìdHeoeueer Oe=leveJeueesenf le He¹peeefYeje¹e~~ In Kir¢ta (10-42-43) . Jatu. (Krimij¢). he creates additional redness on R¢dh¢’s red feet by applying Alkataka. 3-52) Amarakoºa. 5-23) efJeueeskeÀvesveevegie=neCe leeJeefÎMeb peueeveeceefOeHem³e oejeved~ De#eeefue uee#eeHe³emesJe ³es³eceHetefj He¹wefjJe kegÀ¹§cem³e~~ (Nai¾adha. . one that apprehends is ‘L¢k¾¢’. wasps are shown moving around Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. K¾atadhvni are other names. Act. Drum¢maya are synonyms. efÒe³eeHeeoeuekeÌle®ígefjlece©CeÐeesefle Ëo³eced~~ (G¤tago.29 28 Men whose bodies are indolent because of passion have abandoned heavy clothing and worn thin clothes dyed with L¢k¾a and incensed with K¢laguru wood (sandal). Y¢vaka. Dhanvantri and R¢janigha´°u consider ‘Alaktaka’ and ‘L¢k¾a’ as synonyms. showing their specific qualities. 8-2) efoJ³em$eerCeeb me®ejCeuee#eejeiee jeiee³eeles~ (Kir¢ to remove this message. following at their every step the tunes of the swans. Alaktaka.

sarga 13.54.94. The poet has shown here the feet of dancing damsels copper coloured with application of Alkatak during their movements here and there. Al¢bu is tied to a fishing net and people use it to learn swimming.48. sarga 7. Part 4-68.32 ¹¢kuntala-Part 7-240 Vikramorvaº¤yam-Act 2-38. Flowers of Aºoka are red. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 56.49.e-pdfconverter. There are many references in his poemdramas1.77. 1. those of Ka¬keli are white.44.) Family: Cucurbitaceae Bitter gourd (Mah¢v¤racaritama 1/29) Having seen T¢°ak¢ been instanly killed by R¢macandra the demon speaks “Yees Dee³ex leeìkesÀ. But in the description of the autumn “keÀ¹sefueHeg<He©ef®eje veJeceeueleer ®e~” (§itu3-18). para 216) of describing a dull religious man like Dravid (Non-¡ryan) who uses the heated leaves of a bitter gourd and applies to cure his dental disease. Ka¬keli is referred. The word Al¢bub¤´¢ occurs in K¢dambar¤ (early para 216). But ‘Alkatka’ may represent the red resin obtained from Aquilaria agallocha ( A.55. sarga 9.92. Also there is a reference in K¢dambar¤ (early Dee cetuelees efJeêgcejeieleece´b meHeuueJee: Heg<He®e³eb oOeevee:~ kegÀJe&vl³eMeeskeÀe Ëo³eb meMeeskebÀ efvejer#³eceeCee veJe³eewJeveeveeced~~ (§tu. Act 5-119 Meghad¦ta-later 86.63.95. M¢lavik¢gnimitra-Part 3. A¹OKA Saraca asoca (Roxb.47.08.) Family: Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae) Sanskrit poets have loved Aºoka tree. efkebÀ efn veecewleled~ Decyegefve ceppevl³eueeyetefve. their hearts are filled with grief. and their redness has been compared with freshly bloomed red lotuses.50. Òel³enb keÀìgkeÀeueeyegmJesoÒeejyOeovlegjleeÒeleerkeÀejsCe (K¢dambar¤ early para 216) Note by the translator : The author has used two words ‘Lak¾¢’ and ‘Alkataka’ to describe the red pigment and in Sanskrit literature mostly they are used as synonyms. The term ‘Lak¾¢’ is also mentioned in Vedas.3-4-5) AL¡BU Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl (Lageneria vulgaris Ber.87. M¢lat¤ or Cameli and its flowers are white like there of Ka¬keli.104.58. but Aºoka flowers in the spring.42. The bitter gourd is medically useful. It grows in forests. Ka¬keli§tusaïh¢ra 3-18.36. 6/5.93. Kum¢rsaïbhva-sarga 3-26.95.88.) Wilde (Saraca indica L. 6-16) In the beginning of the spring when youth look at the Aºoka tree with full of leaves and coral red clusters of flowers.53 Raghuvaïºa sarga -862.31. Even today it is used in making musical instrument (Tambur¢).21. Part 5-84. Family : to remove this message. K¢lid¢sa is fascinated with it. malaecensis ) (Agarwood). . §tusaïh¢ra-6/16. One synonymn of Aºoka is Ka¬keli and Medini and other lexicographers have agreed with it. Aºoka has played an important part in the drama M¢lavik¢gnimitra (M¢lavi. 90. Its synonymn is £k¾v¢ku.30 31 them. ûeeJeeCe: HueJevles~~” Oh! ¡rye T¢°ke! What is happening! The gourd sinks in water and the stones float?”It means R¢macandra makes what is impossible possible.

whether this is a reality or a poet’s fantasy one cannot say. 4 34) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Raghuvaïºa sarga and ºloka 21 also mentions : ‘DevevlejeMeeskeÀueleeÒeJeeueb ÒeeH³esJe ®etle: ÒeefleHeuueJesve’. Act 4 : yeeueeMeeskeÀJe=#em³e HeuueJeeefve etc.95 etc.) is a big tree which in Gujarat is known as Harf¢reva²¤. The redness of a diamond is compared with that of Aºoka flowers : De³es jkeÌleeMeeskeÀmleyekeÀmecejeiees ceefCej³eced~ (Vikra. 3-50. ‘Aºokadohada’ (desire at the budding time) is a subject dear to Sanskrit poets. 2. The poet is also attracted to tender reddish leaves (the Sanskrit poets call them “kisalaya”).32 33 The beautiful women used to put the flowers in their bluish hair. This name refers to Aºoka trees’ dark red flowers leHeveer³eeMeeskeÀkegÀmegcemleyekewÀ: oÊevesHeL³e: M¢la. ®eues<eg veerues<JeguekesÀ<JeMeeskeÀced (§tu. 5-93. The reference to Tapniya Aºoka (red hot gold like). How Aºoka flowers which were to be used for hair could be used for another ceremony? Further. The stem of Aºokalat¢ that comes in contact with the mango leaves shines splendidly and leìeMees k eÀuelee (Raghu. kegÀmegcecesJe ve kesÀJeueceeÊe&Jeb veJeceMeeskeÀlejes: mcejoerHeveced~ efkeÀmeue³eÒemeJeesçefHe efJeueemeerveeb ceoef³elee oef³eleeÞeJeCeeefHe&le:~~ (Raghu. Vikra. Act. 590. The poets looking at the hanging branches with newly emerged leaves of Lavli. K¢lid¢sa notes the cluster of leaves arising at the tips of the branches: DeMeeskeÀMeeKeeJeueeqcyeHeuueJeieg®í: M¢lvi. Act. The affection of K¢lid¢sa towards trees prompts him to write sentences like DeMeeskeÀkegÀmegceJe=Êeevle (M¢la. Aºoka weeping because of separation from its relatives. The women fulfilled the budding desire of Aºoka2. Aºokakisalayprasava (Aºoka blossom of leaves) is considered inflaming the passion. There is also reference to ‘Young Aºoka: to remove this message. 3-56. 13-32) attracts our attention.e-pdfconverter. 3-55 has a good canopy with shade DeMeeskeÀHeeoHe®íe³ee M¢lvi. Aºoka sheds tears: Decegvee kegÀmegceeÞegJeef<e&Cee lJeceMeeskesÀve megieeef$e Mees®³emes~ (Raghu. Act 5) Aºoka dark red flowers1 and red leaves have endeared Sanskrit poets. have expressed their tenderness by considering them as climbers. K¢lid¢sa has put following words as spoken by Aja. Sanskrit poets have shown at many places. Sanskrit poets have compared the hanging branches as “climbers”.68. . 8-63). sarga 8-62) K¨tadohda-Aºoka whose desire is fulfilled by Indumat¤ is ready to blossom. because of separation of Indumat¤ . 6-5) in §tusaïh¢ra Many references of clusters of flowers of Aºoka are present: DeMeeskeÀmleyekeÀ: M¢lavi. as an example lavang alavalilat¢ Lavli (Phyllanthus sp. kegÀmegceb ke=ÀleoesnomlJe³ee ³eoMeeskeÀesç³ecegoerjef³e<³eefle~ DeuekeÀeYejCeb keÀLeb veg leÊeJe ves<³eeefce efveJeeHeceeu³eleeced~~ (Raghu. 8-28) Aºoka is described at places as a climber. Aºoka used to blossom with the touch of the feet of beautiful women. DeMeeskeÀJe=#em³e Òemetveue#ceer M¢lavi. 92.

etc. K¢nt¢¬ghridohada.. 5. “Òeleer®íl³eeMeeskeÀeR efkeÀmeue³eHeje Je=efÊeceOej:~” (R¢jaºekhara). Aºoka leaves appear as dark red as the lower lips with wounded teeth of B¢hlika women. Beautiful Aºoka trees are welcomed: DeMeeskeÀmelkeÀejJ³eeHe=le³ee osJ³ee Dee%eHleeeqmce M¢la.3) Aºoka dark red leaves have been compared with the redness of the lower lips. There are many names of Aºoka in Sanskrit. Hemapu¾paka. Aºoka flowers are darker red than those of Bimbi (Coccinia) or cherry coloured lower lips jkeÌleeMeeskeÀ©®ee efJeMesef<eleiegCees efyecyeeOejeuekeÌlekeÀ:~ (M¢la. a sleeping bed of young Aºoka trees’ leaves “leHeefle ve mee efkeÀmeue³eMe³evesve~” (G¤tagovinda 7/1). 1. Raktaka in addition to other names. page 94). Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Va®julama. Act. When Aºoka flowers in clusters then the king and queen would go to look at the goddess of prosperity under the tree: Dee³e&Heg$esCe men DeMeeskeÀJe=#em³e Òemetveue#ceeR Òel³e#eer keÀle&gefceefle M¢la. 5. ‘yee¼erkeÀeroMeveJe´Cee©Celejw: He$ewjMeeskeÀesçef®e&le:~’ (R¢jaºekhara). . names are worth remembering. Act. DeMeeskeÀefveYe&eqlme&leHe¨ejeieced Kum¢ra. For the young ladies Aºoka tree is called a rendezvous. In a saying these young leaves (Kisalaya) ‘levJeerkeÀj®ejCeueeJeC³emegYeieb’have been 1. 3-53 2. Heeoenle: Òeceo³ee efJekeÀmel³eMeeskeÀ:~~ Kum¢ra 3-26. But I have not seen such a reference in Dhanvantari’s Nighan°u. Raktapallavaka. Act5. There is no objection if from above reference Ka¬keli is considered as white Aºoka. Kar´ap¦raka. These names suggest red Aºoka. Aºoka young tender leaves or reddish leaves (kisalaya) or cluster of leaves have been an object of poems of kisalaya efkeÀmeue³eMe³eveleues kegÀ© keÀeefceefve ®ejCeveefueveefJeefveJesMeced (G¤tagovinda 12/1). Here the lips are compared as reflections of Aºoka leaves. Red. K¢dambar¤ (early para190) refers blue Aºoka in “veerueeMeeskeÀJevee³eceeveb kegÀmegceÒekeÀj HeefleleceOegkeÀjJe=voevOekeÀejw:~”. 3 ºloka 5). therefore Ka¬keli is a different tree from Aºoka is very evident. as ¹okan¢ºana. Three types of Aºoka are referred to in the following ºloka: “®ew$es ef®e$eew jkeÌleveerueeJeMeeskeÀew mJeCee&MeeskeÀmleÊe=leer³e½e Heerle:~” (R¢jaºekhara). Otherwise Dhanvantari’s. Young leaves are passion arousers. Such abundant love towads the trees shown here is found now no to remove this message. It is mentioned in Sa®j¤van¤ of Meghad¦tam. The life of Aryans was intimately blended with the trees: lemcew Jeoev³eiegjJes lejJes veceesçmleg Salutations to Aºoka tree like a master or noble Guru with generosity. But I have not seen its reference anywhere. White Aºoka is “much prosperity giver (Bahusidhikara)” and red Aºoka is “passion arouser”are noteworthy suggestions. In Meghad¦tam (later Megha) ‘jkeÌleeMeeskeÀ½eueefkeÀmeue³e:’ is called “JeeceHeeoeefYeuee<eer. ½a°padama¬jar¤. Madhupu¾pa.34 35 and ÒeYeeHeuueefJelesveemeew keÀjeself e ceefCevee Keie:~ DeMeeskeÀmleyekesÀvesJe efo*dcegKem³eeJelebmekeÀced~~ (Vikra.e-pdfconverter. Smar¢dhiv¢sa. Sir William Jones remarked about Aºoka: “No other tree is in the universe of flora (vegetation) exhibits richer sight as Aºoka does when it is in full bloom”. DemceeefYe: le©Ceerpevemeefnlem³e DeMeeskeÀ: mebkesÀleie=nb keÀefuHele: (M¢la. Nighan°u and R¢janigha°u also refer Aºoka as R¢g¤. ‘HeeoeIeeleeoMeeskeÀ:’ is a well known saying. R¢janigha°u and anywhere. critic Mallin¢tha. blue and yellow are three species of Aºoka with light deep colours of the flowers1. 5-page 90).

3/15-16. sweet spoken and fine hairy. “®ejCesefkeÀmeue³es” (G¤tagovinda 7/6) The poet of the R¢m¢ya´a has given it proper pride.6/ 39-3.7/42-3.7/26-5. be my wife and make me Aºoka (free from grief). the tree which excites the cupid: DeMeeskeÀmleyekeÀe²ej: <eìdHeomJeveefve:mJeve:~ ceeb efn HeuueJe-leece´eef®e&: Jemevleeeqive: ÒeOe#³eefle~ ve efn leeb met#ceHe#cee#eeR megkesÀMeeR ce=oYg eeef<eCeerced~ DeHeM³elees ces meewecf e$es peereJf elesçefmle Òe³eespeveced~~ 4-1 The spring season is fire.5/22-28.4/27-17 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. R¢ma sees Aºoka. R¢ma seeing the Pamp¢ Lake becomes passionate. he had earrings shining like dark red rising sun: mecetueHeg<Hejef®elew: DeMeeskewÀ: MeeskeÀveeMevew:~ Heg<HeYeejeefleYeejw½e mHe=MeefÓefjJe ceseof veerced~ The poet has described the pleasant looking forests of La¬k¢: jkeÌleHeuueJeHeg<HeeY³eeceMeeskeÀeY³eefceJee®eue:~ The poet has described R¢va´a as an embodiment of spring but to Sit¢ he appeared frightening like a monument decked with flowers in a crematorium: “mceMeeve®ewl³eÒeeflecees Yetef<eleesçefHe Ye³ebkeÀj:~”. DeMeeskeÀ MeeskeÀeHevego MeeskeÀesHenle®esleveced~ lJeVeeceeveb kegÀ© ef#eÒeb efÒe³eemeboMe&vesve ceeced~~ R¢ma in search of Sit¢ asks.10-11. . meJe&legk& egÀmegcew jc³ew: HeÀueJeefÓ½e HeeoHew:~ Hege<f HeleeveeceMeeskeÀeveeb efÞe³ee met³eexo³e ÒeYeeced~ ÒeoerHleeefceJe le$emLees cee©efle: mecegow#³ele~~ 5/15-5 When R¢va´a visited Sit¢ at Aºokav¢°ik¢.6/4-81.3/7516. The place where Sit¢ was kept in La¬k¢ was Aºokav¢°ik¢ where alongwith Aºoka there were many other fine trees. keÀeefceveece³ecel³evleceMeeskeÀ: MeeskeÀJeOe&ve:~ mleyekewÀ: HeJeveeself #eHlew: lepe&³eefVeJe ceeb efmLele:~ 4/1-59.6/4-73. I see no purpose in keeping myself alive without sweet-spoken wife with delicate eyelashes and beautiful hair.5/15-5. The poet describes the flower clusters swinging and touching the ground. Its flowers are without fragrance.e-pdfconverter. Aºoka! One like me whose spirit has been taken away. The feet have been compared with the leaves.3/73-5. Only its leaves are beautiful. R¢ma says to Lak¾ma´a “I have no interest to live without seeing my wife having delicate eyelashes.6/22-53. DeMeeskeÀmleyekeÀe²ej: and sparks represent dark red tender leaves. R¢m¢ya´a 5/14-3.36 37 compared with the loveliness of the hand and the leg of the delicate ladies as the following ºloka shows: ce=ovt eeb mJeeotveeb ueIegjefHe HeÀueeveeb ve efJeYeJe: leJeeMeeskeÀmleeskeÀ: mleyekeÀceefncee meesçH³emegjefYe:~ ³eosleVees levJeerkeÀj®ejCeueeJeC³emegYeieb Òeyeeueb yeeueb m³eeÊe©<eg me keÀue¹: efkeÀceHej:~~ Fruits of Aºoka are not edible. Aºoka’s clusters appear like embers. When Hanum¢na visited Aºokav¢°ik¢ for the first time he was astonished with the beauty of the place.3/60-17. This Aºoka increases the grief of the love stricken ones.4/ to remove this message. “Oh! Destroyer of grief. After Sit¢ was abducted. OR The fire is in the form of the spring season. It stands here disrespecting (ignoring) me with moving up and down its flower clusters. The fire of fire spring burns R¢ma. 1.3/62-3.3/75-24. Aºoka cluster of leaves is spark.

He mentions trees like Campaka. For proud ones or arrogant beauties. The poet M¢gha of Gujarat has also mentioned Aºoka in spring season.e-pdfconverter. etc. S<eesçMeeskeÀJe=#ees veleefveie&cekegÀmegceHeuueJees Yeeefle~ megYeì FJe mecejceO³es IeveueesefnleHebkeÀ®eeef®e&keÀ:~~ M¨cchaka°ika Aºoka bent with the weight of its dark red flowers and leaves shine like a soldier (warrior) soiled with mud and blood. R¢macandra on seeing unconscious S¤t¢ speaks the following ¹loka addressed to Aºoka: eqmveiOeeMeeskeÀêgce efvepemeKeeR letCe&cegoyeesOe³ewveeb efmekeÌlJee efmekeÌlJee efkeÀmeue³ekeÀjeñebemf evee meerkeÀjsCe~ Slem³ee: efkebÀ ve³evekeÀceuem³eefvoefYe: meevêmeevêwyee&<HeeslHeer[wjvegefoveceefHe lJeb ve efmekeÌleeueJeeue:~~ (Act. . Aºoka trees growing among the golden champak (Magnolia) trees appear as dark red flowers surrounded by yellowish flowers. Aºoka. OR Amidst white yellowish flowers and red flowers the saperated hearts tormented and charred by the fire of passion. (K¢dambar¤ early para141) DeMeeskeÀle©lee[veejefCelejceCeer³eceefCevegHetjPebkeÀejmenñecegKejs<eg ueesefnlee³eceeveb keÀCe&HetjeMeeskeÀHeuueJew: (para 190) in description of the spring season DeeueesuejkeÌleHeuueJeÒeeuecyeevkeÀcHe³eVeMeeskeÀMeeefKeve: Òeeuecyee: the clusters of buds are described as “shaking red leaves”. it increases their grief.38 39 The poet has not forgotten to describe the pleasant looking forests of La¬k¢: “mecemeewc³eeefve jc³eeefCe efJeMeeueeefve Dee³eleveeefve ®e~ ¢efäjc³eeefCe-GHeJeveeefve 6/39-2. but because of its wide canopy like of a mango tree. Bakula. But here Nila (Blue) Aºoka is not meant. 79. MeeskeÀm³e nlee& MejCeeieleeveeb MeeskeÀm³e keÀlee& ÒeefleieefJe&leeveeced~ DeMeeskeÀceeuecy³e me peeleMeeskeÀ: efÒe³eeb efÒe³eeMeeskeÀJeveeb MegMees®e~~ Saundar¢nandak¢vya sarga 7-5 Aºoka takes away the grief from one who seeks its refuge. mHegÀìefceJeesppeuekeÀeáevekeÀeefvleefYe: ³egleceMeeskeÀceMeesYele ®ecHekewÀ:~ efJejefnCees Ëo³em³e efYeoece=le: keÀefHeefMeleb efHeefMeleb ceoveeeqivevee~~ In Prasannar¢ghava. Has not my beloved watered you with abundant tears from her lotus like eyes? Is not your soil of flower bed watered? The following ¹lok is addressed by S¤t¢: Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. T¢ to remove this message. but for the sad aggrieved beloved. on the other hand adds more grief. ¹¢la. At two or three places there is mention of N¤l¢ºoka (Blue Aºoka) (4/7. Aºoka. the adjective Nila (Blue) is used for it. 6-20) Oh! Affectionate Aºoka tree! Awaken my wife by sprinkles of your tender leaves. The poet fancies as the separated hearts tormented with intoxicating fire appearing as flesh. 3/73-4) in the R¢m¢ya´a.


This intention is well expressed in the following ¹loka : ieJee&³emes efJekeÀ®ekeÀesjkeÀce¡egieg¡eod GÜ=Êe<eodHeoIeìeefJeYeJesve efkebÀ veg~ JeeceYe´gJee¥ ®ejCelee[veoesnoeefve efkebÀ veece ve mcejefme leeJeoMeeskeÀ leeefve~~ Bh¢ravi has remembered the green barks of Aºoka ce=eof leefkeÀmeue³e: megje²veeveeb memeefueueJeukeÀueYeejYegiveMeeKe:~ yengceefleceefOekeÀeb ³e³eeJeMeeskeÀ: HeefjpeveleeefHe iegCee³e meodiegCeeveeced~~ (Kir¢ta. 4-27-17. 6/28-2. DeMeeskeÀ is also mentioned in Nai¾adacaritam (1/101) DeMeeskeÀceLee&eqvJeleveeceleeMe³ee ielee_MejC³eb ie=nMeesef®eveesçOJeieeved~ Decev³eleeJevleefceJew<e HeuueJew: ÒeleerÿkeÀecepJeueoñepeeuekeÀced~~ The travellers who have been grieved due to long separation of their dear wives went to Aºoka (who removes the grief of others ) with a hope to get their grief removed. 10/9) Aºoka was thankful to the celestial maidens (Apsar¢s) because they were easily able to catch and crush its tender shoot apices because their branches were bent due to their barks soaked with water became heavy.. Why do you not ignite for me? R¢ma also says: De³es keÀLeceMeeskeÀesçefHe cecee³eb MeeskeÀlee& iele:~ The poet of Prasannar¢ghava has referred to the rising sun J³eesceeMeeskeÀlejesve&JeervekeÀefuekeÀeieg®í: mecegpPe=eqcYele:~ (Act. Avalokit¢ says to Buddha Rak¾ita “I have been asked to bring M¢dhava to the dense thickets of red Aºoka near the Kubjaka bower in Kusum¢kara garden near the Shiv temple” (M¢ltim¢dhava 3/62) 1. producing new leaves bring forth fire flame to torment estranged men and women. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.84) pictured as a sky (clouds) like Aºoka sitting with a cluster of new red buds. 7.e-pdfconverter.. Instead cluster of dark red flowers of Aºoka which is considered one of the five arrows of Madana (K¢madeva) acted upon them. . 2/99-19.3/15-16. Bhavabh¦ti refers ³em³e keÀejCeeled GlKeefC[leyevOeveefceJe keÀ¹sefueHeuueJeb keÌueeY³eVeJeceeefuekeÀekegÀmegYeefve:mene HeefjefKeÐemes. 3/11-7-74. Here the poet describes as if Aºoka acts as the Madana. you. M¢dhava (her lover) also experiences the similar mental condition. 6/22-52 .40 41 kegÀ© mekeÀ©Ceb ®esle: ÞeerceVeMeeskeÀJevemHeles onvekeÀefCekeÀeceskeÀeb leeJevcece ÒekeÀìerkegÀ©~ veveg efJejefnCeeb mebleeHee³e mHegÀìerkegÀ©les YeJeeved veJeefkeÀmeue³eÞeseCf eJ³eepeelkegÀMeevegeMf eKeeJeefueced~~ (Act 6-37) Oh! Aºoka tree! Have mercy on me and ignite for me sparks of fire.. The desire of Aºoka at the budding stage is to get kicked by young to remove this message. 3/60-21. 4/50-254/8-1214-15..5/14-3. Sanskrit ‘grah’ means a woman and ‘grahºaochin’ means one who grieves for women. Lava¬gik¢ tells her friend M¢lati “You are emaciating like a withering flower of Navam¢lik¢ and you are reducing like a drying leaf detached from a branch of Aºoka. 6/39-3.

Bauhinia species have no such use. The mutual relationships among those with abundant of virtues lead to their prosperity and progress. ³eceueHe$ekeÀ). In Aºvagho¾a’s poem Saundarananda. Yamalpatrak. 4/94-8. the tree like a hero strongly kissing the lower lip of the heroine and the bride with her hands/ leaves wishing to separate them believed such a heroine imitating.e-pdfconverter. The Aºoka leaves are the weapons of Madana. R¢m¢ya´a 4/30-8. Jagadhdare in his comments has referred to Dhara´i “Deece´elekesÀ DeeeqcuekeÀe³eeced DeMcevlekeÀes JeerjCesçefHe ®e~ efMebefMeHeeMcevlekesÀ Òeeng: Fefle OejefCe:~ It means the word Madana is also named ¡mr¢taka (Amb¢do). 5/2-10. Viran. But there is a tree (A¾°¢) which appears 1. “DeMeeskeÀ³eefä (Aºokaya¾°i) word shows tenderness of Aºoka. meewvojvevo Hue#eceJeefve©nceieceled The crow leaving the K¢shmari (¹ivan) tree sits on the K¨tam¢la tree where the new leaves have appeared and water fowls kissing Madana tree or climber go away into water. 8/6) When the brides saw the Aºoka with bees sipping its clusters of flowers and red leaves fluttering with the wind. 56. Seeing leaves of Aºoka their minds are excited. Also the word Shimbi means efMeeqcye: efMeKee ueleeYeso: Fefle efJeée:~ It means “crown” and “climber”. The brides saw in Aºoka lip bite with sipping of flowers. fluttering of leaves as handshake. waterfowls can kiss it. . Madana has bilobed leaves with sour taste. then they imagined.42 43 Bh¢rvi is famous for his maxims: iegCecenleeb cenles iegCeeJe ³eesie:~ 10/25. In Dhanvantri Nigha´°u DeMcevlekeÀ synonymns of Madana are Amlapatrak and Yamalpatrak (DecueHe$ekeÀ. keÀeseJf eoej keÀeáeveej ³egiceHe$ekeÀ In determining the identity of Madana. Madana (DeMcevlekeÀ) word is not found in Am¢rakoºa. Aºmantaka) DeMcevlekeÀ. If it is a tree then it can be Bauhinia racemosa (Bidi leaf tree. Amlik¢ (¢mbli). Shimshipa (Sisam). Caraka statement Jeceves DeMcevlekebÀ efJeÐeeled. A¹MANTAKA Kapeetana. this trouble of heroine the brides saw in Aºoka.62. but if it is a tree this possibility is remote. efveHeer³eceevemleyekeÀe efMeueercegKewjMeeskeÀ³eefä½eueyeeueHeuueJee~ efJe[cye³evleer o¢Mees JeOetpevewjcevooäesÿkeÀjeJeOetveveced~~ (Kir¢ta. Yugmpatra) but if it is a climber then it can be Bauhinia vahlii (M¢lu creeper. It becomes difficult to mean the word ‘DeMcevlekeÀef M eeq c ye (Aºmantakaºimbi)’ If Madana is a climber hanging in water . use Madana for to remove this message. 52. Parisha At midday description keÀeMce³ee&: ke=Àleceeuecegoileueb keÀes³eefäkeÀäerkeÀles~ leerjeMcevlekeÀefMeeqcye®egecq yelecegKee OeeJevl³eHe: HeteCf e&keÀe:~~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava 9/7 ) 1. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. o¢MegefjJe megje²vee efve<eCCeb meMejceve²ceMeeskeÀHeuueJes<eg~ 10/32 The celestial damsels saw the Aºoka with arrows of Madana (cupid). Parisa.

6/39-3. Sarga and S¢la are the same but Aºvakar´a is not S¢la meeue. who are described as giant like Banyan trees growing at the banks of the Ga¬g¢ and S¢la trees at the Himalayas. The monkeys uprooted the big Aºvakar´a trees and had beaten the demons with them in the battle. 3/15-18. 3/11-7-74. In the R¢m¢ya´a both are separately mentioned: meeueleeueeéekeÀCee&veeb HeCez: yengefYe: DeeJe=leeced 2/99-19 This occurs in the description of the cottage R¢ma built. Sugr¤va broke a branch of S¢la meeue and gave it to R¢ma to sit on it. but Aºvakar´a is not S¢la. Its leaves are fine and large. Aºvakar´a and other trees. 6/22-52 . 4-27-17. in Amarakoºa.6/76-65 me ooMe& lele: meeueceefJeotjs njeréej:~ megHeg<Heceer<elHe$ee{îeb Ye´cejw: GHeMeeseYf eleced~~ lem³ewkeÀeb HeCe&yengueeb MeeKeeb Yeg¹lJee megMeeseYf eleeced~ jecem³eemleer³e& megûeerJees efve<emeeo mejeIeJe:~~ 4/8-1-13 S¢la1 is a big tree. 2/99-19.. but Vaids mostly accept Madana as A¾°¢ (Ficus species). The cottage was covered with the leaves of S¢la. (There seems to be resemblance between the S¢la and the Aºvakar´a. Many believe that it is a S¢la tree (Shorea robusta) . It is left to the general reader to decide which is which.44 45 similar to Pipal tree. Leaves of Aºvakar´a must be large. Kaºarya. 3/60-21.3/15-16. Aºvakar´a. “meeues leg mepe&keÀeM³ee&éekeÀCe&keÀe: mem³emebJej:~”: names of S¢la.3/99-19. R¢m¢ya´a : 1/24-15. In the description of the army of monkeys. There is difference between them.) A¹VAKAR³A1 S¢la meeue is mentioned at many places in the R¢m¢ya´a. Sasyasmavar´a etc. flowers are but a few and bees are humming on them. les meeuew½ee½ekeÀCez½e OeJew: JebMes½e Jeeveje:~ 6/22-52 1. That is why Vaids believe that it is Ficus arnottiana. 6/56-20. 6/76-65). 5/14-3. It produces milky juice which induces vomitting. are given. 6/ 59-75. In Nai¾¢dha (1/89) jmeeueMeeue: mece¢M³eleecegvee mepe& 1. After breaking a fine S¢la branch with abundant leaves and R¢ma and Sugr¤va sat on it. 6/28-2. Despite. 4/50-254/8-12-14-15. 2/99-19. It is apparent that both trees are different. Abundant leaves grow on branches (He$ee{îeced ). leb ie=nerlJee cenemkeÀvOeb meesçéekeÀCe¥ ceneÐegefle:~ Òeie=¿e Hej³ee Òeerl³ee Ye´ece³eeceeme Yetleues~~ 6/56-21 At other place the similar reference is mentioned (6/5975. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. .e-pdfconverter. T¢la. Aºvakar´a must be a big tree. S¢la abundantly grows in the Himalayas “v³eûeesOeeefveJe iee²s³eeved meeueeved nwceJeleeefveJe~ 6/ to remove this message. Sarga.

Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Touching it everyday destroys enemies. Lord Krishna says in the G¤t¢”among trees I am Aºvattha’(Chapter 10). Hence its synonymns are. ºloka-6) mentions ‘Plaka’ tree but it is not Pipal. 9/ 177) has also mentioned Aºvakar´a (DeéekeÀCe&) in the list of trees growing in the girdle area of the mountains of the Southern Indian forests.e-pdfconverter. Nai¾¢dha has mentioned the tree: JevekesÀueew mcejeéelLeoueb YetHeefleleb Òeefle~ osefn ce¿ecegom³esefle ceefÃje Je´eref[leeefme ³eled~~ 20-96 Nala says to Damayant¤ “ Once while resting and seeing a fallen pipal to remove this message. JeefOe&lew: mesefJelew: efkebÀ lew: mel³eéelLesçv³eHeeoHew:~ JeefOe&lees vejkeÀeê#esjmHe=äesçefjäeefve nefvle ³e:~~ Where pipal tree grows.‘Pavitraka’. Do you remember?” Begging of the pipal leaf suggests a request for the woman(sexual intimacy). ‘¹ubhada’.46 47 S¢la trees. ‘¹ucidruma. hence its one name is ‘elephant’s food’ kegÀ¡ejeMeve (Ku¬jar¢ºana). Lord Buddha had had enlightenment under the pipal tree. me meuuekeÀermeeueefMeueervOe´³etLeerÒemetveo: Hege<f Heleuee²ueerkeÀ:~ mepe& This tree flowers in monsoon. hence called yeesefOeêgce: “Bodhiv¨k¾a”1 ‘Pippalaª’ is another Sanskrit name” efHeHHeueb peue Dem³e Deefmle Fefle efHeHHeue:~ “There is always water near its root. It is abode of Keºava (God). Aºvattha also means water: DeéelLe ³eÜe DeéelLeb peuecem³eeefmle (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta). considered very sacred by Hindus. DeéelLeHeÀuecetuelJekeÌMeg²efme×b He³ees vej:~ HelJee meMeke&Àje#eewêb kegÀefue² FJe Ë<³eefle~~ 1. A¹VATTHA Ficus religiosa L. (Sarga 3. Its second meaning is DeéelLe MeeuceueerJeìeÐeHes#e³ee ve ée: ef®ejb efleÿefle Fefle~ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta) means its life is comparatively short. which were similar to Ras¢la trees. Bhavabh¦ti (M¢. 9/17) A cyclone coming from the east and carrying the fragrance of Arjuna and Sarja flowers. The sexologists have compared the beautiful vulva of the woman with the pipal leaf. but is Pimpadi. I told you to pluck a leaf with a raised hand and you were ashamed. but is Pimpadi. DeéelLeHe$eme¢Meb efJeHegueb ®e ieg¿eced~ Such a woman is considered very lucky and worthy to be queens. ‘M¢¬galya’. Family: Moraceae Pipal Aºvattha is a pipal tree. De +ée +lLe but it is not correct. ºloka-6) mentions ‘Plaka’ tree but it is not Pipal. Pipal young leaves appear tender and lovely. In Aºvaghoºa’s poem Saundarananda. The elephant loves to eat pipal leaves. . Growing it gives freedom from going to hell. there is no purpose of growing other trees. ‘plaka (Sarga 3. Bhavabh¦ti (M¢lat¤m¢dhva 6/152) has mentioned S¢la: GlHegÀuueepe&gvemepe&JeeefmeleJenlHeewjml³ePebPeeefveueced (M¢.

4/94-8. 56. J¤ to remove this message. Synonyms of Biyo are P¤tas¢laka Sarjaka. Seeing Asana flowers in full bloom. Bh¢rav¤ has described the Asana flowers with green stalk and filled with bees: efÒe³eceOegjmeveeefve <eìdHeoeueer ceefueve³eefle mce efJeveerueyevOeveeefve~ 10/26 Bees which love honey were rushing towards the green stalked flowers of Asana. 52. efÒe³ekeÀ. Hege<f Heleeb½eemeveevÎädJee keÀeáeveeefveJe efvece&ueeved~ keÀLeb mee jceles yeeuee HeM³evleer ceeceHeM³eleer~~ R¢m¢ya´a 4/30-8 Asana means Biyo. efJeot<ekeÀ: kegÀ$e ve Keueg ielee le$eYeJeleer He¨eeJeleer~ ueleeceC[Heb ielee YeJesled~ Gleener Demeve-kegÀmegcemeefáeleb J³eeIe´®ecee&JeiegeCq þleefceJe HeJe&leefleuekebÀ veece efMeueeHeÆkebÀ ielee YeJesled. 5/2-10. “HeerlemeeuekeÀ mepe&keÀ. DeLeJee DeefOekeÀìgkeÀievOemeHle®íoJeveb ÒeefJeäe YeJesled~ mJeHveJeemeJeoÊeced What originates in autumn for the trees begins in early winter season is stated in following ¹loka Here the Asana flowers are described as the colours of the tiger skin. DeéelLeJe=#em³e HeÀueeefve HekeÌJeev³eleerJe ËÐeeefve ®e Meerleueeefve~ yeesefOeêgcekeÀ<ee³emleg efHeyesÊeb ceOegvee men~ JeelejkeÌleb pe³el³eeMeg ef$eoes<eceefHe oe©Ceced~~ nefmleJewÐekeÀ kegÀ_pejeMeve efme×Yes<epeceefCeceeuee ®eueouele©cetue®íuuepeele: keÀ<ee³e: ueJeCeieg[mene³ees cee$e³ee Heerlecee$e:~ DeefOekeÀefveefye[cetueb og:menb kegÀef#eMetueb jece³eefle ³eefo Me¹e leefn& olJee Hejer#³e:~~ DeéelLeÒeYe=leervegHeHeeefoleHetpeevceneJevemHeleervke=ÀleÒeoef#eCee JeJevos~~ ASANA1 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. R¢m¢ya´a 4/30-8. Asana. “How difficult it must have been for Sit¢ to pass her days in my absence”. yevOetkeÀHeg<He. The tiger skin colour thus was compared with the green leaves and flowers of Asana. These tigers appeared as the broken apical branches with flowers of Asana. 1. Demeve. The poet describes the clean golden yellow flowers of Asana. Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) Indian kino On seeing the autumn moon R¢ma remembers Sit¢. he said. the tree has yellow flowers. MejÓJeeveecevegJe=efÊej$e yeeCeemeveeveeb mekegÀ©CìkeÀeveeced~ nscevleJekeÌ$es ³eefo ¢M³elesçefHe ve ¢M³eles yevOeefJeefOe: keÀJeerveeced~~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. . observing the tigers jumping from their den and forwarding towards him hurled many arrows fully filling the tigers’ mouth. peerJekeÀ Heerle: meej: Dem³e jue³ees: SkeÌlJeced~” (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta) shows that its wood is yellow.e-pdfconverter. J³eeIe´eveYeerjefYecegKeerlHeefleleeviegneY³e: HegÀuueemeveeûeefJeìHeeefveJe Jee³eg©iCeeved~ efMe#eeefJeMes<e ueIegnmlele³ee efveces<eeled letCeer®ekeÀej MejHetefjleJekeÌ$ejvOe´eved~~ 9-63 The fearless king whose hands were trained by practise. Aºvattha is mentioned in places in the R¢m¢ya´a (3/73-3: 2/91-49). R¢jaºekhara in §tu. description “mee Yeeefle Heg<HeeefCe efveJesMe³evleer yevOetkeÀyeeCeemevekegÀ¹§ces<eg” describes Asana flowers in autumn.48 49 Its fruits are nutritious and stimulating. Bandh¦kapu¾pa.62. Priyaka.

The sugarcane is also named Asipatra for its leaves are sharp edged but it is not a tree. beautiful red stamens with fine dust (pollen grain) and removers of the anger of the displeased and insulted ones by their lovers have justified the name Asana (Dem³eefvle Fefle Demeveeefve ) ASIPATRAV§K½A mee veer³eceevee ©ef®ejevÒeosMeeefvÒe³ebkeÀjes ces efÒe³e Fl³evevoled~ veeyeg× keÀuHeêgceleeb efJene³e peeleb leceelcev³eefmeHe$eJe=#eced~~ Raghuva¼ºa Sarga 14-48 DeefmeHe$eJe=#e: Ke[diekeÀejouees veejkeÀes veece keÀesçH³eHetJees& Je=#eefJeMes<e:~ DeefmeHe$ees YeJeslkeÀes<eekeÀejs ®e vejkeÀevlejs Fefle efJeée:~ commentary Mallin¢tha.e-pdfconverter. rejected by flowers. M¢gha has made a simple acquaintance of Asana keÀvekeÀYe²ouewo&Oes mejpemee©CekesÀMej®ee©efYe:~ efÒe³eefJeceeefveleceeveJeleer ©<eeb efvejmevewjmevewjJe=LeeLe&lee~~ (M¢gha. ‘Asi’ means a sharped edged like a sword. As she goes forward seeing beautiful places she thinks about this. creating trouble. for other. not giving fruits). false form). Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. sarga 6-47) Asana flowers with their yellow petals like golden pieces. for ¡k¢ºavela. how can he accept ¡k¢ºvela (khavela) There are two claimants for ¡k¢ºavela. the climber has no flowers and fruits.Asipatra tree is difficult to identify. ¡k¢ºavela. ¡K¡¹AVELA OR AMARAVELA The great poet of Gujarat. So the nature is like a sharp sword or a sword like Ap¦rva tree which was Asipatra. As he describes (not correctly from the known facts now). She considers herself fortunate as her obedient husband fulfils all her to remove this message. Some believe to be Asana but it is not correct. (for the wicked. not giving shade). M¢gha is the only poet in Sanskrit Literature who has commented on ¡k¢ºavela or Amaravela. ¡k¢ºavela. lat¢=climber) is ¡k¢ºavela and khalat¢ means wickedness. These two meanings are applicable as mentioned below: DeefveMeb ke=ÀleleeHemebHeob HeÀuenerveeb megceveesefYe©eqpPeleeced~ Keueleeb KeueleeefceJeemeleea ÒeefleHeÐesle keÀLeb yegOees peve:~~ Sarga 16-24 One who cannot prevent the abundance of grief/heat (for the wicked. Asana is Bridelia montana. unchaste. it is useless as a cunning and wicked man. (for the wicked rejected by the intelligent. The leaves of Darbha grass are also sharp and probably it could be Asipatra. The following ºloka states the above fact. kha-lat¢ (kha=sky. ¡k¢ºavela without flowers).50 51 There is another tree named Asana. (for the wicked. Family Euphorbiaceae. ¡K¡¹AVALL£. . known as N¢raka tree. not obliging in this and other world. one is Cuscuta hyalina or reflexa of the family Cuscutaceae and the second is Cassitha filiformis of the family Lauraceae. But she does not know that her dear husband has left his nature of Kalp¢druma (tree which fulfils all desires) and accepted the nature of Asiptra V¨k¾a. R¢ma at the wish of Sit¢ sent her to see the forest. This Apurva tree. immoral. As a person with judgement of truth and untruth will not accept the wicked (khalat¢ vel). without fruits.

Aºvattha trees acted as dancers. ‘efle<³eb ce²u³eb HeÀuecem³ee: Fefle efle<³eHeÀuee it is an abode of Goddess of prosperity. . The last three trees having a female gender of their spoken names acted as women. Amrit¢. ¡MALIK¡ Phyllanthus emblica L. Amrit¢f¢la. The word lat¢ (climber) has been used for the last three and other trees. Dece=lee. K¢dambar¤ (early para 2/5) mentions ‘le=ef<eleHeefLekeÀKeefC[leoueeseqpPeleeceuekeÀerHeÀueefvekeÀj³ee ’ that thirsty travellers quenched their thirst by eating ¡mal¢ fruits. the king during his bath JeejefJeueeefmeveerkeÀjce=efolemegievOeeceuekeÀesHeefueHleefMejmees je%e:. 2/94-9. In the description of the hermitage (early para 36) along with others. DeeceuekeÀer ¡malak¤ has also been mentioned. efle<³eHeÀuee ‘Je³ees ³eew J eveb ef l eÿef l e Deve³ee Fef l e Je³em³ee’ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta). ve efce´³evles Deve³ee constant taking of. Ti¾yafal¢ DeeceuekeÀer. 6/4-73. T¢la and Tilaka trees filled the beats and ¹iïºap¢ (sisama). Bilv¢ trees beat the drum. courtesans would rubbing his head with fragrant materials including ¡mal¢ powder. The author of B¨hatsa¼hit¢ “³eeles efÜleer³es Òenjs efJene³e oÐeeeq®íjm³eeceuekeÀÒeuesHeced~ meíeÐe He$ew: Òenjܳesve Òe#eeefueleb keÀe<C³e&cegHewefle Meer<e&ced~~ ” The hair of the head remains black if the head is applied with¡mal¢ powder and tied with any leaves for three hours and then have a bath. mali and J¢mb¦ trees and other climbers (Lat¢) appeared as women dancers (ÒeceoeefJeûenb ke=ÀlJee) Sage V¢lmiki has given this description in the R¢m¢ya´a. Oee$eer.) Family: Phyllanthaceae Indian gooseberry ¡mal¢ It is a well known Ayurvedic plant.e-pdfconverter. ‘efvel³eeceeceuekesÀ ue#ceer: means efle<³eHeÀuee Kaliyug (period of evil).52 53 ¡MALAK£. R¢m¢ya´a. Dece=leHeÀ to remove this message. Dh¢tr¤. ¡mal¢ fruit was dried: ‘GHemebie=nerleeceuekeÀueJeueerkeÀke&ÀvOegkeÀoueeruekeÀ®eHeveme®etleleeueHeÀueced ” In (early para 133) there is a reference to pearls as big as ¡mal¢ fruits in the bracelet of Ak¾a. (Emblica oofficinalis Gaertn. Author of Am¢rakoºa thought that eating the fruit is beneficial in this period. the trees due to the glory of the sage welcomed him. The monkeys were eating the ¡mala and J¢mb¦ fruits by climbing trees (6/4-73)1. Deodar. which delays the death is Dece=lee. 2/91-51. In Garu²apur¢´a ‘ÞeerkeÀece: meJe&oe mveeveb kegÀJeealeeceuekewÀve&j:”. Dh¢tr¤ name is appropriate comparing the mother’s breast with the tree giving Dh¢tr¤ the benefit of the mother’s milk in the form of its fruit ‘Dece=leeYeb ®eeçceueke̳ee: HeÀueb m³eeled’ In K¢dambar¤ (early para 13). The one wishing the blessing of Lak¾m¤ should bathe with water mixed with ¡mal¢. Je³em³ee. Synonymous of ¡malik¢ are Vayasy¢. Sanskrit poets have sometimes described such fine trees as lat¢ ueJeueeruelee In the description of Citrak¦°a mountain among the many trees. 1. When Bharat arrived at the hermitage of Bh¢radv¢ja with the army. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Bibhitaka trees played the cymbals. whose consumption prolongs the youth is Vayasy¢.

1-64. Deece´erce¡eguece¡ejerJejMej:. The spring-soldier has come to tear apart (penetrate) the minds of pleasure seekers to roam with beautiful women. In this way the mango tree is interwoven with the spring.54 55 veefueveerouenefjefvle êe#eeHeÀuemJeeotevf e ®e oefueleeefve mJes®í³ee Òee®eerveeceuekeÀerkeÀueeefve~~ (Early para 16) As green as the lotus leaf and sweet as the grape. ¹¢kuntal¢. ®etleêgceeCeeb kegÀmegceeeqvJeleeveeb ooeefle meewYeei³ece³eb Jemevle:~~ (sarga 6-3) 1 ¡mara : §tu 6-28.Act. 19-43. and emissary of spring. 3-49.14. 6-69. M¢lavik¢gnimitra-Act.Act. Sarga 1-6) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 16-52. So K¢lid¢sa keÀesefkeÀueeslmeJe cevceLeeue³e Jemevleotle remembers melodious blossoms of the mango as festival of cuckoo. In Carakasa¼hit¢ and K¢dambar¤ many references of ¡mal¢ fruits are present.4-38.32 Sahak¢ra : Raghu. The mango is an abode of cupid. sarga 6-24 The melodious blossoms of the mango tree are the best arrows considered as the mango emissary of the spring.6-65 Kum¢rsa¼bhava-2-64. Vikramorvaº¤yama -2-38. the reference to mango blossom is inevitable.41. 9-29 The mango trees decked with flowers give happiness to the spring.1. Family: Anacardiaceae Mango There are many words for mango in Sanskrit. Deece´ keÀeceMej: ®etle: jmeeue: keÀeceJeuueYe:~ Jeecee²: menkeÀej½e keÀerjäs es ceeOeJeêgce:~ Ye=²eYeerä: meerOegjme: ceOetueer keÀesekf eÀueeslmeJe:~ JemevleotleesçcueHeÀuees ceoe{îees cevceLeeue³e:~ ceOJeeJeeme: megceove: efHekeÀjeiees ve=HeefÒe³e:~ efÒe³eecyeg: keÀewekf eÀueeJeeme: (R¢janigha´°u)1 In the description of the spring. The mango is a cevceLeeue³e nesting place for the cuckoos of the spring.6-2.3-30. etc.e-pdfconverter. dear to the sensuals has arrived. (m$eerkeÀCee&JelemeefJe<e³eHeuueJelJeeled ) 1 men®ejceOegnmlev³emle®etlee¹§jem$e: MeleceKecegHemLes Òee¡eefue: Heg<HeOevJee~~ (pushdhnva/ Kum¢ra. chut-Raghuva¼ºa 7-21. §tu. The first ºloka of the sixth sarga of §tusa¼h¢ra is beautiful: ÒeHegÀuue®etlee¹§jleer#Cemee³ekeÀes efÜjsHeÀceeueeefJeueme×vegiegC& e:~ ceveebefme Jes×gb megjleÒemeef²veeb Jemevle³ees×e mecegHeeiele: efÒe³es~~1 The season. . 4-9. §tusa¼h¢ra -6-17. 6.8-61. 4. abode of cupid. it is the dear place of God of Love. The spring is a season of pleasure seekers.15.3. ¡MRA Mangifera indica L. The mango heralds the beginning of spring. The sharp arrows of the soldiers of the spring are like the mango shoots(A´kura) and the string of the bow is black to remove this message. the ¡mal¢ fruits were eaten to one’s satisfaction.

3-30. Seeing the pleasant mango flower blossoms the lovers’ hearts 1. experience excitement and suddenly bring forth eagerness to meet the dear ones. leece´ÒeJeeuemleyekeÀeJevece´e½etleêgcee: Hegef<Hele®ee©MeeKee:~ kegÀJe&evf le keÀeceb HeJeveeJeOetlee: He³e&lg megkebÀ ceevemece²veeveeced~~ 2 The mango trees have bent down with clusters of copper coloured shoots. With the mango is accompanied the song of the cuckoo. 3-30 3. The wind shakes the flower decked branches. seeing the wind flowing from the mountain along with the mango leaves and flowers. oef#eCesve HeJevesve mebYe=leb Òes#³e ®etlekegÀmegceb meHeuueJeced~ DevJevew<egjJeOeteJf e&ûenemleb og©lmenefJe³eesiece²vee:~~ (Raghu. The fragrance of flowers and beauty of the mango tree mystify the poets. HegbmkeÀesefkeÀue:3 ®etlejmeemeJesve ceÊe: efÒe³eeb ®egcyeefle jeiengä:~ The male cuckoos drinking the mango essence are intoxicated to bestow their beloved with kisses.56 57 The mango tree springs up new leaves in the spring. De²s ®etleÒemeJemegjefYeo&ef#eCees cee©lees ces meevêmHeMe&: keÀjleue FJe J³eeHe=lees ceeOeJesve~~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. the proud women 1.e-pdfconverter. He seems to be fascinated by the flower blossoms. 11-43) In other seasons the proud women make their dear husbands entreat them and yet they refuse to agree. 2. jecesCe yeeuee©CekeÀesceuesve ®etleÒeJeeueesÿceueb®ekeÀej~~ Kum¢ra. ceÊeefÜjsHeÀHeefj®egecq yele®ee©Heg<Hee cevoeefveueekegÀefuelevece´ce=oÒg eJeeuee:~ kegÀJe&evf le keÀeefcecevemeeb menmeeslmegkeÀlJeb ®etleeefcejecekeÀefuekeÀe: meceJes#eceeuee:~ (sarga 6-17) The modest tender branches move by the slow wind. and all these capture the minds of the men. The branches with flower blossoms appear lovely. . sarga. 16-52. They have closed their nose with the hand because of the intoxicating fragrance of the flowers. then the minds of the beloved become eager to meet the to remove this message. The warblings of cuckoos spread in all directings. The intoxicated bees kiss the mango blossoms. When the attractive branches oscillate with the wind. ®etlee¹§jemJeeokeÀ<ee³ekeÀCþ: HegbmkeÀesefkeÀuees ³evceOegjb ®egketÀpe~ Kum¢ra. But in the spring. cevees%eievOeb menkeÀejYe²ced~ Raghu. DeekeÀcHe³evkegÀmegecf elee: menkeÀejMeeKee efJemleej³evHejYe=lem³e Je®eebemf e efo#eg~ Jee³egeJf e&Jeeefle Ëo³eeefve njVejeCeeb veernejHeeleefJeieceelmegYeiees Jemevles~~ (§tu. The new leaves appear beautiful and are tender and sweet – smelling1. so the wind that blows in the spring is delightful1. K¢lid¢sa remembers at many places the mango fragrance. sarga. The travellers whose feelings are grieved due to the separation of their beloved close their eyes and cry loudly and drown in sorrow. They cry loudly saying “Oh beloved! You are not here”.6-22) The time of dew or frost due in the winter season (Hemanta and ¹iºira) has gone .

. The importance of buds (shoot sprouts) decrease when the flower buds emerge is indicated by K¢lid¢sa in Raghu. sarga.49) The poet has described in Vikramorva¨ºyam the arrival of the spring is indicated by the beauty of the pleasure garden and suggested F&<eÂ×jpe: keÀCeeûekeÀefHeMee ®etles veoe ce¡ejer (Part 2 ºloka 7) the new young buds manifesting the youth of Kri¾´a. Act. mHegÀjoeflecegkeÌleueleeHeefjjcYeCecegkegÀefueleHegueefkeÀle®etles~ Je=voeJeveefJeefHeves HeefjmejHeefjiele³ecegveepeueHetles~~ G¤tagovinda 1-8 yanmadhuram cuk¦ja. Malay¢nila Janyasapallavac¦takusumo) leece´ÒeJeeue: Deece´cebpejer ®etlejmeemeJe ceÊeefÜjsHeÀHeefj®egeqcyele®ee©Heg<Hees. ceOegjmJeje HejYe=lee Ye´cejer ®e efJeyeg×®etlemeef²v³eew~ M¢lavi. GvceeruevceOegi& evOeuegyOeceOegHeJ³eeOetle®etlee¹§j ¬eÀer[lkeÀesekf eÀuekeÀekeÀueerkeÀuejJew©ÃerCe&keÀCe&pJeje:~ veer³evles HeefLekewÀ: keÀLebkeÀLeceefHe O³eeveeJeOeeve#eCeÒeeHleÒeeCemeceemeceeiecejmeesuueemewjceer Jeemeje:~~ 1/11 The savoury poet Jaydeva remembers the tender mango flowers and sings the following: efkebÀ ®e eqmveiOemeeueceeweuf ecegkegÀueev³eeueeske̳e n<eexo³eeogvceerueefvle kegÀnt: kegÀntefjefle keÀueesÊeeuee: efHekeÀeveeb efiej:~~ (G¤tagovinda 1/12) Rasal’s another name Kokilotsava is appropriate. He has also remembered the ants sucking the mangojuice. the maid servant of queen Ir¢vati speaking the following in M¢lavik¢gnimitra DeJeueeskeÀ³eleg YeefÆveer~ ®etlee¹§jb efJeeq®®evJevl³ees: efHeHeerefuekeÀeefYeo&äced~~ (Part-3. 1. which bridegroom is not enraptured and thrilled with the embrace of the bride? The savoury poet of G¤tagovinda has expressed the worry for the travellers who seeing the mango flowers. veefn ÒeHegÀuueb menkeÀejcesl³e Je=#eevlejb keÀe*d#eefle <eìdÒeoeueer~~ (Raghu. 4 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. the bees do not wish for the other trees. ¹loka-9. The poet has made Nipunika. K¢lid¢sa has not stopped1 at describing this loveable dear tree as (Tamraprav¢la : ¡mrama®jar¤ C¦ras¢sava Mattadvirefaparicumbitac¢rupu¾po. Sarga. Pu¼kokilo 1. cevoeslkeÀCþe: ke=Àleemlesve iegCeeefOekeÀle³ee iegjew~ HeÀuesve menkeÀejm³e Heg<HeesÃce FJe Òepee~~ When the mango has to remove this message. The climber Atimukta-M¢dhav¤ has twined round the mango tree and with the touch the tree has been thrilled. p. HegbmkeÀesefkeÀuees ³evceOegjb ®egketÀpe.58 59 leaving all the conflict become obedient to their dear ones believing that they would not endure the separation. ceue³eeefveue pev³emeHeuueJe®etlekegÀmegcees.6-69) As the young girl does not hope for anybody except the present youth. humming of the bees on them and the warblings of the cuckoos would be worrying how they would pass the spring days1. The poet has used the word ‘climber’ (Lat¢) for the mango tree.e-pdfconverter.

Bhavabh¦ti has referred M¢lat¤ seeing with wide eyes a young flowering mango tree with the warblings of cuckoos. Following ¹loka is from M¢lat¤m¢dhava: Ye´ceefle YegJeves keÀvoHee&%ee efJekeÀeefj ®e ³eewJeveb ueefueleceOegjemles les YeeJee: ef#eHeefvle ®e Oeerjleeced~~ Following ¹loka is by Jayadeva éeefmeefle keÀLecemeew jmeeueMeeKeeb ef®ejefJejnsCe efJeueeske̳e Hege<f Heleeûeeced~~ 4-12 Which poet will not be moved by seeing a mango branch with flowering apex? A platitude proposer has in the following ¹loka says that the rich can use sugar but the poorest can enjoy the sweet mango. In Kir¢ta (10/310. 138. 6-192.the mango orchard is referred.138)(¹¢. 189. 191.e-pdfconverter.9-29) The enlightened persons who controlled their sexual desire are enamoured to fulfill their desires after seeing the mango leaves shaking by the mountain wind and exhibiting the art of acting with the contact support of the twining climber. The mango tree is referred to at many places in ¹akuntal¢ (¹¢. 4127. 4127. mecegHe³e³eew efMeefMej: mcejwkeÀyevOeg:~ The friend of cupid.sarga.190. G¤tagovinda of Jaydeva refers the mango tree as HeeCeew cee kegÀ© ®etlemee³ekeÀcecegb cee ®eeHeceejesHe³e ¬eÀer[eefveefpe&leefJeéecete®q í&lepeveeIeelesve efkebÀ Heew©<eced~~ (4-12) Oh! Cupid! You have won the entire world simply by your play. 199: ¹¢. The mango trees experience first the jingling of the anklet of Vasantalak¾m¤ at the beginning of ¹iºira season when the mango rarely flowers. So please don’t handle this mango as an arrow and use it with a bow. 2/11) The blooming delivery of the mango. ¹iºira season is the support.) DeefHe Ye´ec³eodYe=²erjefCelejceCeer³ee ve cegkegÀueÒemetefle½etleeveeb meefKe efMeKeefjCeer³eb megKe³eefle~~ (G¤tago.189. There is no manliness in killing a fainted man.210.199: ¹¢. 190.191. 210.jmeeueJev³ee ceOegHeevegefJe×b meewYeei³eceÒeeHleJemevle³esJe~ In the absence of the spring the good fortune of a mango tree is difficult to obtain. ieJe¥ cee kegÀ© Meke&Àjs leJe iegCeeved peeveefvle je%eeb ie=ns ³es oervee OeveJeefpe&lee½e ke=ÀHeCee: mJeHvesçefHe HeM³eefvle vees~ Deece´eçs nb ceOegketÀHekewÀce&ce HeÀuewmle=Hlee efn meJex pevee ns jC[s leJe efkebÀ iegCee cece HeÀuewmlegu³eb ve efkebÀef®elHeÀueced~~ In Nai¾adha (3-46) (jmeeueJev³ee) Ras¢lavany¢. beautiful with roaming and jingling bees. 6-192. That is why the poet says keÀefleHe³emenkeÀejHeg<Hejc³e:(10/30). Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.60 61 DeefYeve³eelHeefj®eslegecf eJeesÐelee ceue³ecee©lekeÀefcHeleHeuueJee~ Deceo³elmenkeÀejuelee ceve: mekeÀefuekeÀe keÀefuekeÀeceefpeleeceefHe~~ (Raghu. . Vasantalak¾m¤ whose anklet is the humming of bees went to Nalina forest after sheltering under the mango to remove this message.

because of excessive affection in the spring for very excellent mango trees which are capable of removing the anger of the women.5/14-3 mcejngleeMevecegcegj& ®etCe&leeb oOegejf Jeece´JeCem³e jpe: keÀCee:~ efveHeeflelee: Heefjle: HeefLekeÀJe´peevegHeefj les HeefjlesHegjlees Ye=<eced~~ The mango blossoms appeared as sparks of sensual fire arising from the burning of husks. 6/472. 7/26-5.62 63 OeÊes ®e#egce&gkegÀefueefve jCelkeÀesefkeÀues yeeue®etles~ (M¢. . R¢ma shows to Lak¾ma´a the flowering mango tree: Deceer ue#ceCe ¢M³evles ®etlee: kegÀmegceMeeefueve:~ efJeYe´ceeseqlmekeÌleceveme: mee²jeiee veje FJe~~ 4/1-60 Oh! Lak¾ma´a.3/60-21.e-pdfconverter. Aºvagho¾a has beautifully described how the mango branches have been broken because of many fruits. The comparison of mango blossoms as veesepq Pelegb ³egJeefleceeveefvejemes o#eefceäceOegJeemejmeejced~ ®etleceeefuejefueveeceeflejeieeo#eefceä ceOegvee mejmeejced~~ Saundar¢nanda The rows of intensely loving bees eager to suck the nectar were unable to abandon. In this description there is a reference to monkey shaped mango fruits. ®etleevkeÀefHecegKeeveefHe (4/28-19. because they were falling on the travellers from all sides. mee jesovee jese<f elejkeÌle¢efä: mebleeHemeb#eeseYf eleiee$e³eefä:~ HeHeele MeerCee&kegÀuenej³eefä: HeÀueeefleYeejeefoJe ®etle³eefä:~~ (Sarga. Mango trees are present in Pamp¢ lake area.5/14-40. The following is a ¹loka from Meghad¦tam:íVeesHeevle: HeefjCeleHeÀueÐeesefleefYe: keÀeveveece´wmlJe³³eeª{s efMeKejce®eue: eqmveiOeJesCeer meJeCez~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.80. the twining creeper dropped down on the ground as if disturbed due to mental affliction and red eyed because of weeping.6-25) As the branches of the mango fall on the ground due to the weight of their fruits. 3/12) keÀesekf eÀuekegÀuekeÀesueenueekegÀefuelemenkeÀejefMeKejes (M¢. What a difference between the affection of K¢lid¢sa for the mango tree and Bhavabh¦ti’s aversion to it ! There are many references of mango in R¢m¢ya´a1 but they are not noteworthy. M¢gha.4/1-60-80. In the following poem. 3/65) In the three plays of Bhavabh¦ti. look at these beautiful flowering mango trees which appear like the men having scented cosmetics with the flurry of mind due to love making. great poet of Gujarat has not forgotten the mango blossoms: 1 References in R¢m¢ya´a: 3/15-16. DeveskeÀJeCe¥ HeJeveeJeOetleb Yetceew Helel³eece´HeÀueb efJeHekeÌJeced~ Ripe multicoloured mangoes were falling on the ground due to the blows of the wind.6/22-53. there are only two to three references of the mango. There are references of many coloured mango fruits in R¢m¢ya´ to remove this message.

Vyas ³eÐeefHe efoefMe efoefMe leKe: Heefjceueyenguee½e HeeefjpeeleeÐee:~ leoefHe jmeeueesçH³eskeÀ: keÀesefkeÀueËo³es meoe Jemeefle~~ keÀefle HeuueefJelee ve Hegef<Helee Jee lejJe: meefvle mecevlelees Jemevles~ peieleerefJepe³es leg Heg<HekesÀlees: menkeÀejer menkeÀej SkeÀ SJe~~ (Subh¢¾itaratnabh¢´²¢g¢ra) In the food of the summer. also when the acrid juice comes out when the small tip of the fruit stalk is removed: meÐeesYe²evegmeejñeglemegjefYeefmejeMeerkeÀj: menkeÀej:~ Following ºloka is from Bhart¨hari. If one looks from the top of the sky then one sees these two micro elements as if are two nipples of the fair ground1. At present. The word Sahak¢ra (menkeÀej) is differently considered.e-pdfconverter. there are forests after forests of mango trees. At this time will not the man or the woman will not be eager for that union? In ¡mrakaoºa the mango is referred ¡mraºc¦to ras¢laª Deece´½etlees jmeeue:. K. 1 From preface (P. Early ºloka-18 The criticism of Mallin¢tha is as follows: ³eLee HeefjÞeevle: keÀef½elkeÀeceer keÀeefceveerveeb kegÀ®ekeÀueMes efJeÞeevle: mevmJeef H eef l e leÜÓJeeveefHe YegJees veeef³ekeÀe³ee: mleve Fefle OJeefve:~ The following explanation of the above ºloka by late B. ¹¨¬g¢ra. meewjY³eieYe&cekeÀjvo keÀjeqcyeleeefve He¹s©neC³eefHe efJene³e meceeielemlJeeced~ mebmeejmeej menkeÀej leLee efJeOesenf ³esveesHenemeefJe<e³ees ve YeJesod efÜjsHeÀ:~~ menkeÀejkegÀmegcekesÀmejefvekeÀjYejeceesocete®q í&leefoievles~ ceOegjceOegeJf eOegjceOegHes ceOeew YeJeslkeÀm³e veeslkeÀÿe~~ The fragrance of the clusters of the mango blossoms has spread in ten directions. GvceeokeÀesekf eÀuekegÀuekeÀJeueerke=ÀlemenkeÀejkeÀesceueeûeHeuueJew:~ (Early para. 86. Rajaºekhara describes the spring as follows: Hegmb keÀesekf eÀueeveeb menkeÀejyevOeg: ceom³e keÀeue: Hegvejs<e SJe~ The warblings of cuckoo we hear is of the male. Early para 131) mentions that the mango leaves are eaten by the cuckoo. The following ¹loka (K¢dambar¤. At the top of ¡mrak¦°a. 24) of Meghad¦tama by T. ripe mangoes in bunches after bunches give a pale yellow hue to the to remove this message. the juice of the mango is referred: menkeÀejjmeeef®e&lee jmeeuee (A-18 Kavirahsye). a shining black cloud is extensively spread. Thakore is as follows: “ In the mid region of the mountain ¡mrak¦°a.64 65 vetveb ³eem³el³ecejefceLegveÒes#eCeer³eeceJemLeeb ceO³es M³eece: mleve FJe YegJe: Mes<eefJemleejHeeC[g:~ Meghad¦tam. The hummings of the bees intoxicated by the sweet nectar are prevalent.G.The word is considered for a mango with smell: Demeew menkeÀejesçeflemeewjYe:~ (menkeÀej) Sahak¢ra means therefore intensely smelling mango. . that is why the word HegbmkeÀesefkeÀue is used. 131) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.

with sweet paddy and sugarcane it appears lovely.e-pdfconverter. Nigha´°u refers it as Kapic¦ta. The one who had held in one hand ‘Palashdand’ which had flowers of a forest climber in a bowl made of leaves. (ceeOeJeer) M¢dhav¤. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ¡½¡±HA1 Pal¢sdand. means the reference of ¡¾¢²ha is also in Kumarsambhava. Asetics having matted hair on the head. Family: Poaceae Sugarcane F#eg®íe³eeefve<eeefov³emlem³e ieesHlegie&Cg eeso³eced~ DeekegÀceejkeÀLeesoId eeleb MeeefueieesH³ees peieg³e&Me:~~ Women looking after the paddy and sitting under the shade of the sugarcane were singing the glory songs of protector Raghu recounting the childhood bravery events till to day. ¡¾¢²ha is mentioned in K¢dambar¤ : osJelee®e&veeLe&ceeie=nerleJeveueleekegÀmegceHeefjHetCe&HeCe&HegìmeveeLeefMeKejsCee<ee{oC[sve (Early para 34). a girdle of gunj beads (Abrus). (MeesYee¡evekeÀ) ¹obh¢®janaka. IK½U Saccharum officinarum to remove this message.66 67 ¡MR¡TAKA (¡MR¡TA) Spondias pinnata (L. May such winter bless all. Kapipriyaª (keÀefHe®etle. efveoeIekeÀeueefceJe Dee<ee{ced (Early Para 142) . a staff of Palasha tree means Dee<ee{ and one who has it is ¡¾¢²h¤. Its small flowers are sour and in Marathi are called R¢n¢mba. Pal¢ºa (HeueeMe) has synonym Brahmav¨k¾a (ye´ïeJe=#e). trees flower in spring. (kes À mej) Kesara. (Deece´elekeÀ)¡mr¢taka. The field with closely grown sugarcane appears like a passionate bride. keÀefHeefÒe³e:) which shows that monkeys are fond of this fruit. Amb¢da R¢jeºekhera has shown following plants flowering in the spring: jesenf lekeÀece´elekeÀefkeÀef¹jeleeceOetkeÀcees®ee: men ceeOeJeereYf e:~ pe³eefvle MeesYee¡evekeÀ½e MeeKeer mekesÀmej: Heg<HeYejwJe&mevles~~ (jesefnlekeÀ)Rohitaka. . (Spondias mangifera W. ¡mr¢taka resembles a mango tree. (efkeÀef¹jele) Ki¬kir¢ta. It creates mental agony in men who are separated from their dear ones and in whom the pride of passion has increased due to engrossed in sexual union. (§tusa¼h¢ra.f. The sugarcane plants coming out off the soil with great force show the power of the youth. He had held the ¡¾¢²ha palasdand like the summer. as in this season sugar and sugar candy are produced. (cees®ee) Moc¢. and holding a staff of Pal¢ºa tree. 1. hairy skin.) Kurz.) Family: Anacardiaceae Ambado. Òe®egjieg[efJekeÀej: mJeeogMeeueer#egjc³e: ÒeyeuemegjlekesÀefuepee&lekeÀvoHe&oHe&:~ efÒe³epevejefnleeveeb ef®eÊemevleeHensleg: efMeefMejmece³e S<e Þes³emes Jeesçmleg efvel³eced~ May the ¹iºira season (winter) remain forever for the welfare of all! Let this season bless all. DeLeeefpevee<ee{Oej: kegÀceej: Dee<ee{ Kum¢rsambhava Sarga. garment made of bark. (ceOetkeÀ)Madh¦ka. 5. Sarga 5-16) peìeefpeveceew¡eerJeukeÀue<ee{OeeefjCeereYf e: JeCe&e®f eÚeefYe: leeHemeereYf e: (Early Para 205).

The sugarcane if kept covered with grass will not remain hidden. The Nigha´°u mentions five varieties of Ik¾u : F#eJe: HeáeOee ÒeeskeÌlee veeveeJeCe&iegCeeeqvJelee:~ efmele: HegC[^: keÀj¹s#eg: ke=À<Cees jkeÌle½e les ¬eÀceeled~~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The very tasty juicy sugarcane also imitates your fine speech like the arrow of the grass. But that does not give him equality.) The Suºruta Sa¼hit¢ listed 12 varieties of sugarcane. The contribution of sugarcane in making the ¹iºira (winter) lovely is not ordinary. ke=À<Ces#eg . Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta considers Ras¢la name of the sugarcane appropriate. the best types mentioned are vamshika with thin reeds and the paundraka of to remove this message. It is like Ko¾ak¢ra (Sugarcane) imitating the grass growing over the arrow of the juicy stream of your sweet speech. Sugarcane at the root is very sweet and at the upper end is less sweet. 1-6) somebody is snapping me in three parts as the sugarcane is cut from the tip into three parts. I suppose that the poet here wants to show sugarcane like Darbha (type of grass) which is related to it. the poet has described the blackish sugarcane staff resembling a Dravid (non ¢ryana) young woman as an arrow stick of the God of love. It will sprout penetrating the grass netHeueeuepeeuew: efHeefnle: mJe³eb efn ÒekeÀeMeceemeeo³eleer#egoC[: (Nai¾¢dha 8/2). that is why the poet has said referred in following ¹loka: Me=²ejYe=²ejmegOeekeÀjsCe JeCe&ñepeevetHe³e keÀCe&ketÀHeew~ lJe®®ee©JeeCeerjmeJeseCf eleerjb le=CeevegkeÀej: Keueg keÀes<ekeÀej:~~ Oh dear! you fill up my well like two ears with the sweet sound of the nectar of your mouth resembling the golden pot of love making. but you have a defect.e-pdfconverter. “Why should I not fear? I feel (¹¢ku. The more you are worshipped the more you become sapless by degrees. (jmeeue F#eg jmesve Deueefle Deu³eles JeeHetj³eefle Het³e&les Jee~) A wisecracker ¹loka : keÀevleesçefme efvel³eceOegjesçefme jmeekegÀueesçefme efkebÀ ®eeefme HeáeMejkeÀece&kg eÀceefÜleer³eced~ F#ees leJeeefmle meHeÀueb HejceskeÀcetveb ³elmesefJelees Yepeefme veerjmeleeb ¬eÀcesCe~~ (Subha¾it¢. Moreover you are the unique arrow of Madana. ever sweet and fully juicy. The King Nala changed his original form to be a messenger of a guardian deity but that will not make him concealed. In B¢lar¢m¢ya´a (Act 5). Oh Sugarcane! you have all qualities. The word Ko¾ak¢ra is mentioned in Nai¾¢dha (22/59) and according to K¾irasv¢mi it is a type of sugarcane keÀes<ekeÀejeÐee: F#egeJf eMes<ee: Fefle #eerjmJeeceer . .HegC[^keÀ ke=À<Ces#etCeeb HegC[^keÀeCeeb ®e ieYex ceeOeg³e&Þeerpee&³eles ®eeH³eHetJee&~ (R¢ja.68 69 keÀLeb ve Yes<³eeefce~ S<e ceeb keÀesçefHe Òel³eJeveleefMejesOejeefce#egecf eJe ef$eYe²b keÀjeself e~~ The clown says.) Sugarcane! you are delightful. R¢jaºekara in his description of ¹iºira (Winter) has mentioned two varieties of sugarcane. Fn efn Jenefle keÀeceb keÀecekeÀesoC[³eefäb êefJe[³egJeefleieC[M³eeefcekeÀeb keÀes<ekeÀej:~~ The two synonyms of Ikshu are Ras¢la and Ik¾u in Am¢rakaoºa.

Raghu. K¨¾´a and Pundraka are sweetest varieties of sugarcane. R¢ja. Aºvagho¾a (meewvojvevo) has finely mentioned this fact in his poem ³eLes#egjl³evlejmeÒeHeeref[lees YegefJe ÒeJe=×es onvee³e Meg<³eles~ leLee peje³ev$eefveHeeref[lee levegefve&Heerlemeeje cejCee³e efleÿefle~~ (Sarga 9-31) As the sugarcane after obtaining the juice is thrown on the ground and later burned. initially it is pleasant (DeejcYeiegJeea) but decreases gradually. possibly a variety growing in Nepal. Pundraª. The cane fiber (Bagasse) obtained after crushing the sugarcane is later used as a firefuel. “It will be good if she is not handed over to a man whose head is greased with Ingudi oil”. thinking Du¾yanta has a doubt about the destiny deciding to hand over the uniquely beautiful woman ¹akuntal¢ to a wretched rustic (ve peeves YeeskeÌleejb keÀefcen mecegHemLeem³eefle efJeefOe:~). ¹¢kuntala. The clown speaks. S¤t¢ goes to the hermitage of the sage V¢lm¤ki. 14/81) The charioteer of R¢ma left leaving Sit¢ in the forest. They are ºit¢ª (sugar. I«GUD£ to remove this message. K¨¾´a variety removes three humours of the body and increases the semen. INGORIYO Balanites Roxburghii Planch Family : Zygophyllaceae Soapberry. R¢jaºekhara has properly mentioned that in ¹iºira (winter) Krishnek¾u and Pundrakek¾u have the unique sweetness. Sarga. . Inguda cee keÀm³eeefHe leHeeqmJeve Fbiegoerlewueef®ekeÌkeÀCeMeer<e&m³e nmles Heefle<³eefle (¹¢kuntala. Dhanvantari mentions in Nigha´°u that: ovlew e f v e& < Heer [ îe mee#eeoce=lece³ejmeb Ye#e³esled F#egoC[ced the sugarcane when eaten along chewing with teeth its juice is nectar like beneficial. efJeHejerleeveeb leg efJeHejerlee~~ (Pa®catantram) As at every festival sweet juice is obtained from the top onwards from the sugarcane. F#eesjûeeled HeJe&efCe HeJe&efCe ³eLee jmeefJeMes<e:~ leoJeled meppevecew$eer. It is reverse with the friendship of a wicked man. in his Nigha´°u states that the sugarcane if taken on an empty stomach removes pitt (one of the humours). Act. and if taken after food produces excess of gas (flatulence). Act-2). 14-81. The residents 1. This variety produces cough and pacifies the pitt (bile) humour. There are five different varieties of sugarcane based on colour and properties. 2 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.70 71 and their properties.e-pdfconverter. lee F²§oermvesnke=ÀleÒeoerHeceemleerCe&cesO³eeefpeveleuHecevle:~ lem³ew meHe³ee&vegHeob efoveevles efveJeemenslees©ìpes efJeles©:~~ (Raghu. white). so it happens with the friendship of a gentleman which increases successively every day. Karankekºuª. K¨¾´a (black) and Rakta (red). The synonym of Pundrak is Nepalek¾u (vesHeeues#eg). so pressed in the vice of sensual pleasures and drained of energy the body waits for death.

In the hermitage the lamp was burning fed with Ingudi oil and a sleeping bed of the sacred deer skin was provided. Here the efHeC³eekeÀ means Ingudi kernal powder (C¦r´a) as suggested in Ramtika. The Sanskrit word Pi´y¢ka (efHeC³eekeÀ) means oil cake. the ocean queen and adorned with waves and he informed his charioteer Sumanatra. Cakrap¢´idatta also uses the word ‘pi´y¢ka’ for the oil cake of Sesamum and ‘khali’ for the oil cake of Sarson (Brassica sp. Greenish white small flowers. and have five clear lines. branches with big thorns. Ingudi is mentioned in the R¢m¢ya´a : DeefJeotjeo³eb veÐee yengHeg<HeÒeJeeueJeeved~ megceneved F²§oerJe=#ees Jemeeceesç$ewJe meejLes~~ 2/50-28 ½¨¬gverapura was near. R¢ma mixed it with jujube fruit and put it on Darbha grass. egg shaped unbroken leaves and big egg like fruits adorn the Ingudi tree. R¢ma agreed to perform the ceremony of libations of water to the deceased (Jalakriy¢) and told to Lak¾ma´a to bring ‘Ingudi oil cake’. in skin diseases. at the end of the day after worship. lighting and fitting the fistula. In Amarakoºa. Whatever the man eats. Unripe Ingudi fruits are green and ripe fruits are yellow as lemon. When R¢ma and Lak¾ma´a heard the news of Dasharath’s death from Bharata. Its pith is used for washing clothes. He thus spoke weaping: Fob Yeg*d#Je cenejepe Òeerlees ³eoMevee Je³eced~ ³eoVe: Heg©<ees YeJeefle leoVeemlem³e osJelee:~~ (2/103-30) Great King ! You eat this Ingudi oil cake which we also eat. 1/14) The hermitage of sage Ka´va. The Ingudi oil is used to heal the wounds. the oil cake of Sesamum is : Pi´y¢kam (efHeC³eekebÀ) The famous learned critic of Caraka Samhit¢. The kernel in the stone contains oil which the ascetics were using for fuels for the lamps. It proves that these residents were using Ingudi fruits. The other name for Ingudi is T¢pasav¨k¾a (leeHemeJe=#e). . For the oil cake. but R¢ma having observed Ingudi tree with many flowers and leaves decided to encamp a little distance away from the Ga¬g¢. was identified by the stones oiled by breaking the Ingudi fruits.e-pdfconverter. on the bank of M¢lat¤.72 73 of hermitage welcome S¤t¢ and assign her a separate cottage to spend the night. efleuekeÀukesÀ ®e efHeC³eekeÀ:. The question arises if R¢ma was eating Pi´y¢ka (efHeC³eekeÀ)? ³eoVe: Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. white trunk. ÒeeqmveiOee: keÌJeef®eefo²§oerHeÀueefYeo: met®³evle SJeesHeuee:~~ (¹¢kuntala. the God also eats the same. Its other synonyms are Tailafal¢ (lewueHeÀuee) and D¤rghak¢°¢ (oerIe&keÀeìe). Deefve:meeefjlelewueb efHeädJee ®etCeeake=Àleefce²§oeryeerpece$e efHeC³eekeÀlJesve GHe®e³e&les~ efve:meeefjlemeejm³e lem³e efveef<e×lJeeled (R¢ma’s commentary).) ef H eC³eekeb À ef l eueKeef u e: Keef u e: me<e& H eKeef u e: (Sutrasthanaka Carakasa¼hit¢ 22-29). but is “powder of kernel” (efHeC³eekeÀ).com to remove this message. but its meaning here is not oil cake. Khali (Keefue) and Pi´y¢ka (efHeC³eekeÀ) are two Sanskrit words with two different meanings.

But the kernel is highly purgative and cannot be taken regularly. 5/15-9 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. I have come across this reference else where. The former belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. 62/104-12.e-pdfconverter. then there is no need of : ³eoVe Heg©<ees YeJeefle. quite different from Ingudi. 5/1-200. Bhavabh¦ti’s reference in Uttarar¢macarita (1/21) F²§oerHeeoHe: meesç³eb Me=²JesjHegjs Hegje~ efve<eeoHeeflevee ³e$e eqmveiOesveemeerlmeceeiece:~~ there was a Ingudi tree where R¢ma met king Niº¢da near the city ¹ri¬gaverapura. 4/1-81. In K¢dambar¤ (early para 216) F²§oerkeÀesMeke=Àleew<eOee¡evemebûensCe After removing the kernal. Why is our heart not broken in thousand ways by this painful grief? The popular opinion is correct which says that the food which the man eats. 2/50-28. the hollow Ingudi fruit was used as container for medicines and lamp black. ¹akuntal¢ calls it Muni-Padap. the critic of Amrakaoºa refers Ingudi as Jiy¢p¦t¢ khy¢tasya (ef p e³eeHet l ee Fef l e K³eelem³e) which is incorrect. R¢m¢ya´a. Late Jayak¨¾´a Indraji in his book Vanaspatiº¢stra (p. Probably the trees growing at the river bank may be large. But none of these three materials are applicable here. 131) mentions : ‘Its fruit in Western India and Egypt is eaten as an item of fruit and used for making wine which the negroes use.74 75 Heg©<ees YeJeefle leoVee: lem³e osJelee:. The synonym for Ingudi in Amarakoºa is T¢pasa-Taru. 1. Its green fruit is called ‘harade’ and ripe fruit. There is nothing more painful than this that a king like R¢ma dedicated Ingudi kernel in this ceremony for his God like father. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta . “If it is correct then the answer should be yes. 1. In Raghuva¼ºa14/ 81. And my doubt is supported by what Kaushlya has said as per the poet. 1 The dictionary gives three more meanings of ef H eC³eekeÀ (Pi´yaka) (oilcake). Saffron. A learned person who has written comments on ¹akuntal¢ has considered Jiy¢p¦t¢ and Ingudi as the same plant as that of Bhanuji Jiy¢p¦t¢ is a Heg $ e¡eer J e (Putra®j¤va) to remove this message. How can the superior Indra king of the earth eat the Indipi´yaka. Asafoetida and incense. . One has to refer some books on pickles. 3/75-16. his deity eats the same food (2/104-11-15). Kauºaly¢devi and other women of Dasharath knowing that Ingudipi´yaka lumps were put on the mat of Darbha grass immediately spoke “The King Daºaratha who has enjoyed the pleasures of all kind of the earth and is a god like great soul does not deserve this type of food. ‘wild date’ in Egypt” he has not mentioned the source from which he has quoted. there is an allusion to the fruit being used by hermits to supply oil for lamps and in Act II to its furnishing them with ointment. 5/4-13. 2/103-20-21.

V¨¾abh¢k¾¤ and Gav¢k¾¤). #egêHeÀuee. when unripe. It is known here as Meue-®eueves. green and oval yellow when ripe. It grows as a climber on big trees in forest. . The fruit of the red flowered Indrav¢runi is Mah¢k¢la of Nai¾adha.) Schrad Family: Cucurbitaceae Bitter cucumber Indravaruni is a kind of drug referred in Kesara . In Gujarati. In Bh¢vaprak¢ºa. If the ripe red fruit is broken. thus the poet has described. ieJee#eer (M¨g¢dan¤. the red Indrav¢runi fruit is called Mah¢k¢la (cenekeÀeue). ef®e$eJeuueer) are used. There are three varieties of Indrav¢runi : (1) censvêJee©Ceer (Mahendrav¢runi) or Big Indr¢varuni (Indr¢manam) with orange like yellow fruits are very common in sands near sea shore. blackish matter comes out as a to remove this message. 4/28-24-26-29-42. Its leaves resemble those of water melon. Je=<eYee#eer.76 77 INDRAV¡RU³I Indravaran¢. Later 2) Kapiku°umbin¤ (keÀefHekegÀìgeqcyeveer). (2) Red Indr¢m¢n¢n = cenekeÀeue. it is called “Kanateri Indrayan. In Gujarat.In the description of the female monkey. I have not seen any other reference of Indrav¢runi in Sansk¨ta literature. her cheek was dark red like the ripe fruit of Indravaruni. (3) Small Indrav¢runi or Aindr¤ (ueIeg FvêJee©Ceer DeLeJee Ssvêer). Indravaruni. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. it is abudant in Dandi area. In 1. Its synonyms are ce=ieeoveer. ieJeeoveer. In Dhanvantari Nigha´°u. In ancient Nigha´°u. or G¢yavasuka´an. Indrayana Citrullus colocynthis (L. playing on sand of Pulin river. It is believed if cows eat it they cease yielding milk. In Marathi it is also called Kaunadal as Ga´apati (Elephant God) has this fruit attached to its ears. 7/26-4. In Nai¾adha the poet has described the setting sun and compared it with Mah¢k¢la HeefjCelesvêJee©CekeÀHeesuekeÀeefvle: fruit. 3-73-4. In R¢janigha´°u names such as ¡tmarak¾¢ viº¢l¢ ca d¤rghavall¤ b¨hatfal¢.paddhati used for leuco-derma and grey hair. means spread very widely. Gav¢dan¤. 4/27-10. it does not grow on sea shore. Mah¢k¢la (cenekeÀeue) word is not seen. 7/ 42-5 Amarakoºa also this word is not used as a synonym of Indr¢varuni. K¾udrafal¢. hence it is named in Sanskrit as Viº¢l¢. R¢ja. 3/60-12. The critic N¢r¢ya´a has mentioned that cenekeÀeueHeÀue (Mah¢k¢la fruit) is Indrav¢runi fruit.e-pdfconverter. I have not come across cenekeÀeue (Mah¢k¢la) word in any other Sanskrit literature for Indravaruni. jc³ee. citfravall¤ (Deelcej#ee efJeMeeuee ®e oerIe&Jeuueer ye=nlHeÀuee. and ¹¢ligr¢ma-nigha´°u Indravaruni and Mahendravaruni are mentioned. ramy¢. (Nalacamp¦. Virsala and ¹vet¢pu¾p¤ varieties are mentioned. I have seen it growing covering the entire sea coast of Kutch. In Marathi. its fruits are small with white lines and small spines.

Family : Moraceae ‘Meerlees Jee³eg: HeefjCeceef³elee keÀeveveesocg yejeCeeced’(Meghad¦tam. Fully ripened Mah¢k¢la fruit falls on the stone naturally and break with black smoke along with black seeds. This tree is very useful for medicines. Is not the setting sun like a ripened Mah¢k¢la fruit? The author has not mentioned the scientific name of this plant. darkness spreads all round. Jantufala. ‘cenle: keÀeuem³e HeÀueYetleb ®e Yeevegefyecyeb’. On the trunk. fruiting all round the year is Sadafala. ‘Guueef«lececyejcevesve~ GoefleMe³esveecyeles Jee~” (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta). In yaj®a (sacrificial rite). The fruit in which insects live is Jantufala. G¥LARA UMBARA Ficus racemosa L. the Udumbara wood is required. That this tree cannot fruit without some insects is known. ke=ÀefceJe=#e.e-pdfconverter. The Jack fruit tree is also called Jaghanefal. is ready to set. The other synonyms are. ³e%eebie. Similarly the Mah¢k¢la like sun disc when sets. UDUMBARA. meoeHeÀue. so the name is yaj®aga or yaj®odumbara. Ya®j¢¬ga. N¤tiºataka ºloka 68) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. K¨miv¨k¾a and Jaghanefala (Gogcyej. Udumbara. pevlegHeÀue. Udumbara or Uamaydo or G¦lara. The description of the monkeys refers Udumbara as ‘³es<eecegl#esHensue: efMeKeefj<eg efuekegÀ®eesocg yejÒee³e SJe” (whose leaping on the mountains is this forest of fig trees) peele: ketÀce&: me SkeÀ: He=LegYegJeveYeje³eefHe&leb ³esve He=ÿb MueeI³e pevce Oe´Jg em³e Ye´ceefle efve³eefceleb ³e$e lespeeqmJe®e¬eÀced~ mebpeeleJ³eLe&He#ee: HejefnlekeÀjCes veesHeefjäeVe ®eeOees ye´ïeeC[esogcyejevlece&MekeÀJeoHejs pevleJees peeleveäe:~~ (Bhat¨hari. peIevesHeÀue).78 79 The following is from Nai¾¢dha : HekeÌJecenekeÀeueHeÀueb efkeÀueemeerlÒel³eeqiiejs: meevegevf e Yeevegeyf ecyeced ~ efYeVem³e lem³ewJe ¢M³eefVeHeeleeÜerpeeefve peeveeefceleceeb leceebemf e~~ 22/29 At the summit of Ast¢cala mountain the dark red orb of the sun like the Mah¢k¢la fruit ripened on time. Purv¢rdha 42) The udumbara is regarded as the mysterious. auspicious flower : The cool wind which ripens the wild fig was blowing in the forest of Udumbara trees. .com to remove this message. He mentions that the extract of leaves heal the wounds in three days. The critic N¢r¢ya´a has written : “HeJe&leeefokeÀefþveYetmecegÓJeb pecyeerjJeleg&ueb HekeÌJeb meoeflejkeÌleb ke=À<Ceyeerpeb cenekeÀeueHeÀueb ûenesHemeie&efveJeejCeeLe¥ ie=nÜejs Je×w: yeO³eles~” means its fruits are hung at the entrance of the house to ward off evil spirits. fruits grow in bunches. hence the name Jaghanefala. In Mah¢v¤racaritam (5/32). Sad¢fala. This is the only reference in all the works of K¢lid¢sa. In Nigha´°u it is referred as Apu¾pafala sa¼baddha (DeHeg<HeHeÀue mebye×:) means fruiting without flowers. A resident Vaidya of Champaran has written a book named efveiet{Heg<He: ieguejiegCeefJekeÀeme Gularagunavik¢sa”. The milk of the tree is given to weak children.

In Nai¾adha. but is a synonym of Kodaro. In to remove this message.80 81 In the world one’s life is blessed if one lives for others. its synonyms in Amarakoºa are Unmatta.). (Cordia myxa auct. Dhantura Unmatta means Dhanturo (Gujarati). Dhatura flower is a weapon of Madana. . ¹iva enjoys seeing the opened flower of Dhatura and Madana enjoys seeing a man agitated by the grief of separation. Udd¢laka is not used as a synonym of Gundo. It is of three or four types. LASURA Udd¢laka is Gundo or Gundi. Bahub¢raka (Mues<ceelekeÀ. ¹le¾m¢taka. In Nai¾adha : GvceÊeceemeeÐe nj: mcej½e ÜeJeH³emeerceeb cegocegÜnsles~ HetJe&: HejmHeefOe&le³ee Òemetveb vetveb efÜleer³ees efJejneefOeotveced~~ (Nai¾adha 3/98) ¹iva and Madana (cupid) have unlimited enjoyment near Unmata. If man eats its seeds. The tortoise bears on its back the weight of the earth and the pole star keeps regular the cycle of bright planets of constellation. Uddalaka is also a inferior grain and known as wild kodaro ( Paspalum scrobiculatam L. Dhatura is mentioned in the worship of ¹iva: nsceveecekeÀle©ÒemeJesve $³ecyekeÀmleogHekeÀefuHeleHetpe:~ DeeÊe³ee ³egefOe efJeefpel³e jleerMeb jeefpele: kegÀmegcekeÀenue³esJe~~ (21/34) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. elsewhere the word Udd¢laka is used for the same meaning. Meerle. Udd¢la. ¹elu. there are as many names of Datur¢ as of gold. Dh¦rta. ¹¤ta are names. Mesueg.) Family: Boraginaceae GUNO. In Carakcsamhita Udd¢laka is used for a inferior grain. he loses his senses. ceelegue). ¹iva loves Dhatura flowers and Madana is happy looking at the intoxicated man. yengyeejkeÀ). keÀvekeÀe»³e. Here both of them have been shown racing with each other. Dhattura. Kitava. The author has not mentioned the scientific name of this plant. M¢tula (GvceÊe. where ever it is used it is in the category of trees and there its meaning is Cordia dichotoma. But in R¢m¢ya´a. Kanaka means gold. The poet describes their competition through Dhatura flower. hence kanak¢hvaya(keÀvekeÀe»³e). UDD¡LAKA Cordia dichotoma Forst. The insects of the fruit of Udumbara are produced and destroyed-vanished after decaying. In R¢janigha´°u. Mues<ceeCeceleefle Meerleyeer³e&lJeeled Fefle Mues<ceelekeÀ:~ It produces cough as it produces cold. OeÊegj. ¹¤ta. Kanakahvaya. UNMATTA Datura innoxia Mill Family: Solanaceae Datura. efkeÀleJe. In Gujarat its fruits are pickled. In the same way selfish people in this Udumbara like universe are vanished after every birth. Oetle&. which has also its name (ceove ) Madana (God of love). GÎeue.e-pdfconverter. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta refers “yeng Je=Ceesefle ñeesleebefme Fefle yengJeejkeÀ:~” In Hindi it is “Lasod¢”. Unmatta (GvceÊe) has two meanings : (1) mad man and (2) Dhanturo.

) It is the best grass for animals. In the description of Kail¢ºatala. Nala worships ¹iva with Dhatura flowers named as Hem¢nakataru (nsceveecekeÀle© ) after the name of gold (kanaka). the grass is known as Jinajavo.82 83 ¹iva conquered Madana in the battle and took away: (JeeÐeYeeC[efJeMes<es leg keÀenuee) his Dhatura flower shaped musical instrument. As the victor rejoices after winning the weapons and abundant musical instruments so here ¹iva winning the Dhatura flower like drum (kahala) is rejoicing1.3) The earth became red when women with their feet applied with red resin walked on the ground and the green grass and Ulap grown on it then became reddish. It had algae. ULAPA mew<ee efJeYeeefle ueJeCee ueefueleesecf e&He*dekq eÌle: DeYe´eieces peveHeoÒeceoe³e ³em³ee:~ ieesieefYe&Ceer efÒe³eveJeesueHeceeueYeeefjmesJ³eesHekeÀCþefJeefHeveeJeue³ees YeJeefvle~~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava 9/2) This Lava´¢ river is lovely with ripples.e-pdfconverter. Can we accept this grass as Ulapa (GueHe)? 1. 7/42-5 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. . 4/27-10. The earth appeared as if covered by swarms of snails (ºukragopa). describing the women with the sudden and natural beauty coming out to tempt the mind of the sage. In Amarakoºa Ulapa (GueHe) term is used for the extensively spread climber. Andropogon ischdemum L. mLetuekeÀefHeueJeeuegkesÀve efMeueeyenguele³ee ef J ejuele= C ees u eHes v e a desolate place with Ulapa grass. Which is this Ulapa grass? Grasses are of many types and it is difficult to identify the Ulapa grass. The people at the bank like it. In Gujarat. the poet says : efveefnlemejme³eeJekewÀye&Yeemes ®ejCeleuew: ke=ÀleHe×efleJe&Oetveeced~ DeefJejueefJelelesye Me¬eÀieesHewj©efCeleveeruele=CeesueHee Oeefj$eer~~ (Sarga19.. There is no evidence to identify this grass. But Ulapa grass has no relation with it. para 127) it is mentioned at one place. The cows with their young ones very much love this to remove this message. 7/26-4. In Kir¢t¢rarjuniya. 3/60-12. In K¢dambar¤ (Early. (Bothriochloa ischaemum L. 3-73-4. The sacred streams appeared like the cheeks and foreheads of the women fair or reddish with the pollen of Lodhara flowers and blue lotuses like earrings adorning their ears. The poet describing the Raivatak mountain in ¹iºup¢lavadha says : efJeueeqcyeveerueeslHeuekeÀCe&Hetje keÀHeesueefYeÊeerejf Je ueesOe´ieewjer:~ veJeesueHeeuebke=ÀlemekeÀleeYee: Meg®eerjHe: MewJeefueveero&Oeeveced~~ (Sarga 4-8) The water in the stream flowing from the mountain was clean. There are rows of tree groves at its shore and it looks very charming with rows of Ulapa grass. 4/28-24-26-29-42. The mountain had the beauty of the sandy region adorned with the recently grown Ulapa grass.

Hrivera. another synonym is not mentioned in Amarakoºa. The pyre of R¢va´a consisted of sandal wood and Padmaka (Prunus species).84 85 U¹£RA Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Karka°i and Bhanuji Dixit writes ‘Üs keÀekeÀ[er’ Fefle K³eelee³ee:’. In the R¢m¢ya´a. Family : Cucurbitaceae SJee&©kebÀ mHegÀìveefveie&leieYe&ievOececueerYeJeefvle ®e pejl$eHegmeerHeÀueeefve~ K¢vyami¼ans¢ chapter 18 This ºloka is for the description of the winter. Ervaru is Kakadi and Trapus is a variety of K¢kadi. Trapusa. V¢lo efÒe³ebJeos keÀm³esocegMeerjeveguesHeveb ce=CeeueJeefvle ®e veefueveerHe$eeefCe veer³evles~ (¹¢kuntala Act-3) The disciple asks Priya¼vad¢. In Pa®catantra the story of the jackal and the donkey breaking the hedge (Je=efÊeYe²b ke=ÀlJee) entered the cucumis keÀke&ÀefìkeÀe#es$e field and ate ef®eYe&efìkeÀeYe#eCeb to their satisfaction is well known. Abhaya. Uº¤ra and others. ERA³±A. Sit¢ sat first followed by the two brothers. R¢ma tumbled upon thinking if they could swim across. efÛJesj. Nalada. In Amarakoºa synonyms are Erv¢ruª.Mitral¢bha) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Family: Euphorbiaceae ³e$e efJeÜppevees veeefmle MueeI³emle$eeuHeOeerjefHe~ efvejmleHeeoHes osMes SjC[esçefHe êgcee³eles~~ (Hitopadeºa . ‘mHegÀìveefveie&leieYe&ievOe ’ alludes to the natural ripening of the fruit on the plant and its split thereof with distinct smell. DeYe³e. V¤ra´ to remove this message. Many varieties of Vetiveria are present. mesJ³e. Lak¾ma´a constructed a big raft and made a seat of J¢mb¦ and Vetas soft branches ( Eugenia and Salix species) and covered it with Uº¤ra (khasa roots) : ‘GMeerjw½e meceeJe=leced’. Uº¤ra (GMeerj) is Khasa roots which are fragrant and cooling and were used in ancient times as an ointment. . Even to-day Uº¤ra roots are used in making hair oil. Erv¢ru and Urvaru. when the river Ganges was to be crossed. Sevya. ARANDI Ricinus communis L. “Oh! Priya¼vad¢. B¢lakam) are also other synonyms but they are different from Uº¤ra. The synonyms are GMeerj. Here Ervaru is for a variety of Cucumis whose fruit on ripening splits and its smell induces saliva secretion. Nigha´°u of Dhanvantari has named GJee& © (Urv¢ru).e-pdfconverter. JeerjCe. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta has mentioned : ‘oMe JeerjCecetuem³e KeMe Fefle K³eelem³e~ Today the name Khasa is prevalent.) Nash Family : Poaceae Khasa. ERV¡RU Cucumis sativas L. yeeuekeÀced (Uº¤ra. Am¨´¢la. where are you going with the ointment of Uº¤ra (GMeerj) and lotus leaves with their stalks? These things were being taken to apply to ¹akuntal¢ who was suffering from the sun’s stroke. Dece=Ceeue veueo. Many varieties of Cucumis are present.

Il¢yac¤ is a plant not a creeper. Poet M¢gha of Gujarat describes that at the shores of Dv¢rak¢ the wind carrying the fragrance of Il¢yac¤ formed due to its passing through El¢ creepers slowly evaporating the drops of K¨¾´a’s perspiration. ‘keÌJeef®eosueejmesve efme®³eceeveeefve mHeMee&vegces³ejc³eefYeÊeerevf e mHeÀefìkeÀYeJeveeefve~ ’ (K¢dambar¤ – former part 209) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Small Il¢yac¤ is Elettaria cardamomum. meme¡eg: Deée#egCCeeveecesueeveeceglHeefle<CeJe:~ legu³eieefvOe<eg ceÊesYekeÀìs<eg HeÀuejsCeJe:~~ (Raghu. Alac¤ efve:Mes<eb ÒeMeefcelejsCegJeejCeeveeb m$eesleesefYece&opeueceg_Peleecepem$eced~ Deeceesob J³eJeefnleYetefjHeg<HeievOees efYeVewueemegjefYecegJeen ievOeJeen:~~ (Kir¢ta. .e-pdfconverter. R¢jaºekhara mentions this fact in the description of the Malaya mountain.) Maton Family: Zingiberaceae Il¢yac¤. Malaya mountain is the birth place of Canakab¢b¢ (keÀkeÌkeÀesue).com to remove this message. The plant looks lovely with his palm like leaves and clusters of flowers. ‘Sueeueleeefueef²le®evoveemeg ’ (Raghu. Deecetue³eäs: HeÀefCeJesefäleeveeb me®®evoveeveeb pevevevoveeveeced~ keÀkeÌkeÀesuekewÀueeceefj®ew³e&lg eeveeb peeleerleªCeeb ®e me pevceYetecf e:~~ That is why Dravid is a synonym of El¢. EL¡ Elettaria cardamomum (L. the wind was offering the libation of the ear fully filled with the fragrance of the opened El¢ flowers. The poet has described here the fragrance of the opened flowers of El¢. 7/38) Condemning the intoxicating fragrance of the liquid flowing from the blood vessels of the temple of the rutting elephants. (J³eJeefnleYetefjHeg<HeievOeced) The fragrance of the liquid was equally offering the libation of the ear as that of the opened flowers of El¢. and the red variety is really attractive. Il¢yac¤ and pepper (Suee) and (ceef j ®e). sarga 3. the powder of the flower of Il¢yac¤ formed by the pounding of the hoops of the horses war in the air and the poet describes it falling on the temple of the rutting elephants whose fragrance is similar to that of Il¢yac¤. There is also a different reading of the ºloka : J³eJeefnle: eflejmke=Àle:) The wind was accepting the liquid flowing from the temple and discarding the fragrance of the flowers. Il¢yac¤ is of two types (1) small (met#cewuee) and (2) big (mLetuewuee).86 87 In a place without trees Eranda is considered a tree. K¢lid¢sa has described El¢ creepers on the C¢ndana trees. ºloka 79) “SueeueleemHeÀeueveueyOeievOe:” is a nice sentence. Il¢yac¤ grows in the south. There are two varities (1) white and (2) red. lem³eevegJesueb Je´peleesçefOeJesueb SueeueleemHeÀeueveueyOeievOe:~~ (¹iºup¢lavadha. 6/64) and during the supreme victory of Raghu in the south. 4/47) Il¢yac¤ fragrance is similar to that of the liquid flowing from the rutting elephant.

but is Canakab¢ba. has many varieties of leaves.JeveuesKe³ee ’ (para 130) This is a reference of a forest deity emitting fragrance of beautiful swinging flowers of S¢tava´a. keÀesMeHeÀueced (Kolakam.e-pdfconverter. and identified only by the touch. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. In para 122 a similar sentiment is expressed. ueJe². . In the description of the beauty of the hermitage (Para 36) “SueeueleekegÀefueleveeefue – kesÀjerkeÀueeHew:”. Family: Piperaceae Kababcini Sit¢lacini keÀkeÌkeÀesueerHeÀuepeiOecegiOeefJekeÀjJ³eeneefjCe: leÓgJe:~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava 6/ 19) The forest regions resounded with birds.. Kababacini which are freshners to increase taste. so in the king’s palace to remove this message.. etc. Suee. “Deef l e®eHeuekeÀef H ekeÀef c HelekeÀkeÌ k eÀes u e®³eg l eHeuueJeHeÀueMeyeuew:”. They are fragrant flowers. In Gujarati what we call “ghaunal¢”are fragrant flowers of ef Ò e³e²Je= # e (Priya¬gav¨k¾a). ¹italacini. In the description of the great Vindhya forest : Gvceoceele²keÀHeesuemLeueieefueleceomeefueueefmekeÌlesvesJe efvejvlejcesueeueleeJevesve ceoieefvOeveevOekeÀeefjlee~ Due to many forests of Il¢yac¤ creepers the entire region appeared blackish and the fragrance similar to that emitting from the liquid flowing from the temple of rutting elephants was constantly coming. Nutmeg grow in south. Rajaºekhera has mentioned its occurrence in the south keÀkeÌkeÀesue keÀkeÌkeÀesuekewÀueeceefj®ew³e&gleeveeb peeleerleªCeeb ®e me pevceYetefce:~ (Act 17) Canabala Cardamom. As the sellar of edible mouth freshners leaves leecyetefuekeÀ.) leaves were stored. keÀkeÌkeÀesuekeÀced. El¢. Lava¬ga. Pepper.88 89 Il¢yac¤ extract was sometime sprinkled on the walls. keÀ¹esue (Laval¤. joyfully singing after being stimulated by eating the fruits of Kakkola. Koºafalam) are mentioned.. ‘meHle®íoyekegÀueSueeueJe²ueJeueerueleeueesuekegÀmegcemegjefYeHeefjceue³ee. three synonyms : keÀesuekeÀced. transparent as the crystal. In Amarakoºa. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta has also mentioned it as “$eerefCe HeÀuekeÀHe&tjm³e ienguee Fefle K³eelem³e~ mentions in this way. KAKKOLA Piper cubeba L. K¢dambar¤ Early Para 17 mentions in the description of the mountain Vindhya. Ka¬kola. Canabla suppresses vata and kapha and removes bad breath.. Kakkaola is not “ghaunal¢”. very active monkeys jump over the Kakkola trees shaking their leaves and flowers.. Kakkolakam. Lavi¬ga and Laval¤ lat¢ (creeper). Bolasari.f. How nice that age would be when (Sueejme) the walls were scented by the extract of cardamom. ‘Cinikab¢l¢’. Il¢yac¤. Here the fragrance of El¢ creepers is described as the intoxicating one. Il¢yac¤ creepers were so dense and covered the coconut trees in such a manner that they were not visible.

Kadamba trees to remove this message. keÀocyeHeg<HeeefCe mekesÀmejeefCe veJeeefve Ëäe Ye´ceje: efHeyeefvle ~ (4/28-42) The intoxicated wasps were sucking the nectar oozing out from the Kadamba new flowers which emerged in the monsoon. ‘keÀefleHe³ekegÀmegceesÃ: keÀocye: efÒe³elece³ee HeefjJeefOe&leesç³eceemeerled~’ (3/20) : R¢ma remembers 1.. Bhavabh¦ti1 is enchanted with Kadamba: meerlee – Jelme S<e kegÀmegecf elekeÀocyele©leeC[efJeleyeefnC& e: efkebÀveeceOes³ees efieefj:~~ 1/31 S¤t¢ asks R¢ma. 4/18.) Miq Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.24-26-29-42. “Geq®íKe: keÀocyes~ veoefle me S<e yeOetmeKe: efMeKeC[er” (3/18) : The peacock with his peahen dances on the Kadamba tree. 3/60-12. swans sound and riches of multitudes of Kadamba flowers. It is worth watching the dance of peacock dancing on Kadamba. It is “keÀkegÀYemegjefYecee&u³eJeeved” (named.90 91 KADAMBA Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Deefmle keÀeq®®eÊJe³ee ¢äe mee keÀocyeefÒe³ee efÒe³ee~ keÀocye ³eefo peeveer<es Mebme meerleeb MegYeeveveeced~~ (3/60-12) Oh! Kadamba! Have you seen any where my sweet-heart who loved you so much? If you know whereabouts of my louts faced S¤t¢.. fragrant Malyavan). DeefYeYeJeefle ceve: keÀocyeJee³eew ceoceOegjs ®e efMeKeefC[veeb efveveeos~ peve FJe ve Oe=les½e®eeue efpe<Ceg: ve efn cenleeb megkeÀj: meceeefOeYe²:~~ (10/23 ) The mind of the man is generally bemused by the melodious sound of the peacocks as by the wind blowing with the fragrance of Kadamba flowers. 4/27-10. In short Kadamba references occur in many places in the R¢m¢ya´a.e-pdfconverter. 7-26-4. He=LegkeÀocyekeÀocyekeÀjeefpeleb (5/9). the use of flowers of Jasmine and Kadamba together in making the wreath is mentioned.. The following befits and adorns the pen of the great poet. cows also became libidinous like the bulls. In Nai¾adha : “ûeeqvLeefveye×kesÀMeceuueerkeÀocyeÒeefleefyecyeJesMeeled (7/88)”. 7/ 42-5. peelee Jeveevlee: efMeefKe<eg Òeve=Êee peelee: keÀocyee: mekeÀocyeMeeKee:~ peelee Je=<ee iees<eg meceevekeÀecee peelee cener mem³eJeveeefYejecee~~ (4/28-26) In forest after forest peacocks continued dancing. . ‘What is the name of the mountain where the peacocks are dancing on the flowering Kadamba trees!’ He replies. 3/73-4. inform me. but as Arjuna was not a common man.) Bosser Family: Rubiaceae The R¢m¢ya´a has many references to Kadamba. he retained his steadfastness. meceoefMeefKe©leeefve nbmeveeow: kegÀcegoJeveeefve keÀocyeHeg<HeJe=äîee~ efÞe³eceefleMeef³eveeR mecesl³e peicegie&gCecenleeb cenles iegCee³e ³eesie:~~ (10/25) The forests of white lilies looked more elegant with the peacock warblings. the whole earth became elegant with crops and forests. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The great man is not easily disturbed in his meditation. The following ºloka is from Kir¢ta. The mutual association of the great in virtues bring about their enhancement.

. 3/7) M¢dhava is thrilled hearing the first word from his sweet-heart. like the Kadamba flowering with the new touch of water in the monsoon. DeLe keÀesç³eefcevêceefCeces®ekeÀ®íefJeO³e&evf evewJe ye×HeguekeÀb keÀjeself e ceeced~ veJeveerueveerjOejOeerjoefpe&le#eCeye×kegÀ*dceuekeÀocye[cyejced~~ (6/17) Who is this like a sapphire. 7/1) Why would the noble girl of a pure family just in the conversation become thrilled and confused like a flower (which is round like a ball) of Kadamba. K¢lid¢s too is enchanted by Kadamba1. 9/16) Parts of the earth where the Kadamba trees have extended and whose flower buds are blossoming in order of development (pe=cYee. It befits the simile with Kadamba..92 93 that the Kadamba which was watered by S¤t¢ has just flowered. 3/42. 3/20. M¢dhava addresses to the eastern winds Heewjml³eHeJeve (paurastyapavana) efJekeÀmelkeÀocyeefvekegÀ©cyeHeebmegvee men peerefJeleb Jen cece efÒe³ee ³ele:~ (M¢. pepe&efjle. M¢lat¤m¢dhava 3/ 7. Mah¢v¤ra. 9/43) Oh! wind! carry me along with the multitude of pollen of developed Kadamba trees where my sweet-heart is. Bhavabh¦ti points out the same facts in a vivid manner: ÒeLeceefÒe³eeJe®evemebÞeJemHegÀjlHeguekesÀve mebÒeefle ce³ee efJe[cy³eles~ IevejeefpevetleveHe³e: meceg#eCe#eCeye×kegÀ*dceuekeÀocye[cyej:~~ (M¢. 9/16-4-19 -177. It was like Kadamba being thrilled with its new flowers anointed with the first rains of the monsoon. 191-2) The poet describes the plenty of passionate liquid oozing from the temple of the rutting elephant which has the fragrance and cooling similar to that of the newly blossomed flowers of Kadamba. It is the well known fact that Kadamba tree blossoms in monsoon. 6/17. ef[cye. 5/42. It is like Kadmaba flowering with the first thunder of a new azurish cloud. Òel³eûeefJekeÀefmelekeÀocyemebIeelemegjeefYeMeerleueeceesoyenuemebieefueleceebmeuekeÀHeesueefve<³evo keÀo&efcelekeÀ<ee³eced. pe=cYeepepe&jef[cye[cyejIeveÞeercelkeÀocyeêgcee:~ (M¢. Bhavabh¦ti has vividly composed the following stanza.mej:~ (M¢. keÀocyeieesueeke=ÀefleceeÞeefle: keÀLeb efJeMeg×cegiOe: kegÀuekeÀv³ekeÀepeve:~~ (M¢. 9. thrilled and shivered with the touch of the beloved R¢ to remove this message. memJesojesceeefáelekeÀefcHelee²er peelee efÒe³emHeMe&megKesve Jelmee~ ce©VeJeecYe:ÒeefJeOetleefmekeÌlee keÀocye³eefä: mHegÀìkeÀerjkesÀJe~~ (3/42) S¤t¢’s body perspired. P. 5/42 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.e-pdfconverter. 7/1. The same spirit is expressed in Mah¢v¤racaritam. My mind like the atoms will be carried with that group and will not have the slightest exertion. azurish and attractive? It thrills me just by its sound. [cyej). M¢. .. I feel Bhavabh¦ti loves keÀocye (Kadamba). 1. 3/18.. Uttarar¢ma 1/31.

As one is thrilled by the contact of the wife. to remove this message. Its another synonym is veerHe (N¤pa) and its references are found in may places. The round fragrant Kadamba yellow flowers were used in wreaths. keÀocyecegkegÀuemLetuew: DeefYeJe=äeb ÒepeeÞegefYe:~ (Raghu. meercevles ®e lJeogHeiecepeb ³e$e veerHeb yeOetveeced (Meghad¦tam Uttara). Act. as the husband. 15-19) The trunk of Kadamba tree is strong and full of knots.e-pdfconverter. the cloud and rains. 19-37) ceeuee: keÀocyeJevekesÀmejkesÀlekeÀereYf e: Dee³eesepf elee: efMejefme efyeYe´elf e ³eese<f eleesçÐe~ (§tu.94 95 keÀocyemepee&pe&vg ekesÀlekeÀerJeveb efJekeÀcHe³ebmlelkegÀmegceefOeJeeefmele:~ (§tusa¼har 2/11) Which man will not be eager by the touch of the wind fragrant by the flowers (and cooled by the contact of water filled clouds) of the trembled trees of Kadamba. Even though veerHe (N¤pa) and keÀocye (Kadamba) are synonyms of each other. flowering Banana and Kadamba are present. 2-20) The women were wearing wreaths of flowers of Kadamba. 2-23) As the husband ropes in the garland of Bakul flowers in his wife’s wreaths. K¢lidas has mentioned their separateness. He has also mentioned ‘Rakta kadamba” : jkeÌlekeÀocye: meesç³eb efÒe³e³ee Oecee&vleMebemf e ³em³ewkeÀced~ kegÀmegcecemeceûekesÀmejefJe<e³eceHeke=Àleb efMeKeeYejCeced~~ (Vikramo. veerHeb ¢äJee nefjlekeÀefHeMeb kesÀmejwjOe&ª{wjeefJeYe&lt eÒeLececekegÀuee: keÀvoueer½eevegkeÀ®íced~~ (Meghad¦tam P¦rv¢rdha 21) Where ever it rains. Sarga and Ketak¤. Raktka Kadamba indicates it. 2-23) K¢lid¢sa compares Kadamba flower buds with the big drops of tears. The king remembers that his wife was knitting in the wreaths its flower buds where stamens were not yet observed”. creates the earrings of newly blossomed Kadamba flowers. This shows keen observation of plants of K¢lid¢sa : cegkeÌlJee keÀocyekegÀìpeepe&vg emepe&veerHeeved meHle®íoevegHeielee kegÀmegceesÃceÞeer:~~ (§tu. 3-13) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Act. Kadamba looking greenish by the half opened blossoms and blackish yellow by flower stalks. 4). Its pollens are also fragrant and used as a body cosmetic. Bakula and Ketak¤. In the rainy season Kadamba flowers were a part of the head gear (on line parting) at the baby shower ceremony. K¢lid¢sa has also referred to the trunk of N¤pa : veerHemkeÀvOeefve<eCCenmle: keÀefjCeermene³ees veeiejepe: efleÿefle~ (Vikramo. K¢lid¢sa beautifully describes : cegefole FJe keÀocyew: peeleHeg<Hew: mecevleelHeJeve®eefueleMeeKew: MeeefKeefYeve=&l³eleerJe~ (§tu. veerHejpemee²jeefieCe: (Rghu. K¢lid¢sa mentions : lJelmebHekeÀe&led HegueefkeÀleefceJe Òeew{Heg<Hew: keÀocyew: (Meghad¦tam P¦rv¢rdha 25). 4-30) “The summer has ended. Arjuna. Its fragrance resembles that of yellow Campa (Magnolia). efJekeÀ®eveJekeÀocyew: keÀCe&Hetjb JeOetveeb j®e³eefle peueoewIe: keÀevleJelkeÀeue S<e:~~ (§tu. Authors of Nigha´°u have given a synonym megJeeme: (suv¢saª) for keÀocye (Kadama). the adult flowering Kadamba tree is thrilled by the contact of Yak¾a’s wife. . sarga.

and hence they named it as nefueefÒe³e (“halipriya”). The former is 1. keÀocye. In R¢janigha´°u Kadamba is named as K¢dambar¤. N¤pa and Rakta Kadamba). There is a reference in Vi¾´upur¢´a (5-25) that Baladeva developed a liking of wine after experiencing Kadamba fragrance. 71. jkeÌlekeÀocye (Kadamba. ripe sour sweet fruits and fragrant flowers is appropriate. veerHe. 13/27. 24. ¹¢kuntala 1-31. Kadamba – §tusa¼h¢ra . 2-17. Vikrmo. The ancient Aryans compared its flower fragrance with new wine. to remove this message. 3-13. Raghuva¼ºa. 23. 4/38. and K¨¾´a worshipper poet Jayadeva.e-pdfconverter. In ef m e×cev$e (Sidhamantra) the reference of veer H e (N¤pa) is finely mentioned. Oet u eer k eÀocye Yet e f c ekeÀocye (Dh¢r¢kadamba. 3/27. Dh¢r¢kadamba flowers in the monsoon. 3-95. Varuni sheltered in the hollow of Kadamba trunk. I believe that very large and old Kadamba trees at V¨nd¢vana (Vraja) have this reference. N¤pa – Meghad¦tam early – 21. Meghad¦tam early 2526. 3/13. how can he forget Kadamba? Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The separated lovers have its flower fragrance painful. veerHees ye=nÃ=nmeceerHeYegeJf e Òemetlees ueeskeÀÒeefme×le©jepekeÀocyeveecee~ ÒeebMegce&OetkeÀle©He$emeceeveHe$e: mJeeÜcueHekeÌJeHeÀue S<e megieefvOeHeg<He:~~ The description here of N¤pa as leaves like those of Madhuka. The name of K¨¾´a is very intimately associated with this tree. but in Dhanvantari and R¢janigha´°u Raktkadamba is not mentioned. §tu. but in Dhanvantari Nigha´°u only OeejekeÀocye veer H e (Dh¢r¢kadamba and N¤pa) are mentioned. R¢jaºekhara has properly shown the difference between OetefuekeÀocye OeejekeÀocye (Dh¦likadmba and Dh¢r¢kadamba) : ûewe<q cekeÀmece³eefJekeÀemeer keÀefLelees OetueerkeÀocye Fefle ueeskesÀ~ peueOejmece³eÒeeHleew me SJe OeejekeÀocye: m³eeled~~ Act – 18 This means that summer developing is Dh¦li one and monsoon developing is Dh¢r¢ one. Amarsinh has considered keÀocye (Kadamba) and veerHe (N¤pa) as same. Some also mention about jepekeÀocye (R¢jakadamba). Vikramorvaºiyam – 4/109. 6/46. M¢lavik¢gnimitra 5/93. In meewvojvevo keÀeJ³e (Saundarananda poem) Kadamba trees on Him¢laya are mentioned. associated with the dust of the summer and the latter is with rains.8/78. Raghu. 15/ 99. 4/78. later. OeejekeÀocye.96 97 The commentator of Candrik¢ has explained the both terms : keÀocyees OetefuekeÀocye: veerHe: HetJeexkeÌlekeÀocyeefYeVekeÀocyelJeeled ~ K¢lid¢sa has described three varieties. Hindus and Buddhists respect this plant. Dhul¤kadamba and Bh¦mikadamba). 19/37. In R¢janigha´°u three varieties are mentioned. In R¢janigha´°u OeejekeÀocye: ÒeeJe=<³e: HeguekeÀer Ye=²JeuueYe:~ cesIeeieceefÒe³ees veerHe: ÒeeJe=<esC³e: keÀocyekeÀ:~~ OetueerkeÀocye: ¬eÀcegkeÀÒemetve: HejeieHeg<Hees yeueYeêmeb%ekeÀ:~ JemevleHeg<Hees cekeÀjvoJeemees Ye=²efÒe³ees jsCegkeÀocyekeÀesçäew~~ These varieties are mentioned. 4/105. Kum¢rasa¼bhava . R¢jaºekhara uses the season as a distinguishing marker. In Konkan region Kadamba is named as N¤pa. .

sarga-2/8) R¢jaºekara : keÀeocyekegÀmegceeceesoe Jee³eJees Jeeefvle Jee©Cee:~ (chapter 18). Act-18) The poet here mentions that in the monsoon. Arjuna. Aºvaghoºa has mentioned Kadamba in the description of Him¢laya forests. ®euelkeÀocyes efnceJeefVelecyes lejew Òeuecyes ®ecejes ueuecyes~ ísÊegb efJeueiveb ve MeMeekeÀ yeeueb kegÀueesÃleeb Òeerefle&ceJee³e&Je=Êe:~~ (sarga 10/11) As the man with noble character can not easily leave the family love.e-pdfconverter. N¤pa. Bhat¨hari description: remembers Kadamba in monsoon efJe³eogHeef®elecesIeb Yetce³e: keÀvoefuev³ees veJekegÀìpekeÀocyeeceesefovees ievOeJeene:~ efMeefKekegÀuekeÀuekesÀkeÀejeJejc³ee Jeveevlee: megefKevecemegefKeveb Jee meJe&ceglkeÀCþ³eefvle~~ (¹¨¬g¢raºataka ºloka 91) In monsoon Ku°aja and Kadamba flower and their fragrance spreads around the forests. ouelkegÀìpekegÀ*dceue: mHegÀefìleveerHeHeg<HeeslkeÀjes OeJeÒemeJeyeevOeJees Òeef®elece¡ejerkeÀepe&vg e:~ keÀocyekeÀueg<eecyej: keÀefuelekesÀlekeÀerkeÀesjkeÀ: ®eueefVe®eguemeáe³ees njefle nvle Oecee&l³e³e:~~ (K¢vyamim¢ïs¢. The poet mentions the wind carrying the Kadamba flower fragrance in the monsoon. keÀocye (N¤pa and Kadamba) is note worthy. Kutaja. There are many varieties of Kadamba hence the distinction between the two is of mutual relationship. Its sweet fragrance fills the atmosphere. Kadamba and Ketak¤ trees to remove this message.98 99 efJeMeokeÀocyeleues efceefueleb keÀefuekeÀueg<eYe³eb Mece³evleced~ (G¤tagovinda. Peacocks make series of sound and Kadama blossoms appear as if they are lamps. The distinction drawn between veer H e. ÒeceÊemebveeefoleyeefnC& eeefve meMe¬eÀieesHeeuekegÀueMeeÜueeefve~ ®ejefvle veerHeepe&gveJeeefmeleeefve iepee: megjc³eeefCe JeveevlejeefCe~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 4/28-41) The elephants were roaming in the very beautiful forests fragrant with Arjuna and N¤pa flowers. Frogs with their muddy mouths drink water. The charming intoxicated women with wet hair come to their husbands’ home. Dhava. Translation of one sentence to be added page 83. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. . Je<eexokebÀ mecegefÃjlee ÞeJeCeevleefJeueeqcyelesve keÀocyekesÀve~~ S<ee HegÀuuekeÀocyeveerHemegjYeew keÀeues IeveesÓeef<eles keÀevlem³eeue³eceeielee meceovee Ëäe peueeêe&uekeÀe~~ (M¨cchaka°ika–Act 5) Kadamba blossoms in monsoon. The author of M¨cchaka°ika remembers N¤pa and Kadamba : He¹eqkeÌueVecegKee: efHeyeefvle meefueueb Oeejenlee oo&gje: keÀCþb cegáeefle yeefn&Ce: meceovees veerHe: ÒeoerHee³eles~~ This is description of monsoon. the Camar¤ (a kind of) cows standing near kadama trees were not able to disjoin their hair entangled with the trees growing at the Himalayan ridges.

veJekeÀocyejpees©efCeleecyejw: DeefOeHegjeb Of e´eMf eueervO´emegieefvOeefYe:~ ceveefme jeieJeleecevegjeefielee veJeveJee JeveJee³egeYf ejeoOes~~ (M¢gha. 496.82. The blowing wind brings the to remove this message. 1. The poet M¢gha shows Kadamba trees on Girnar mountain in Saurashtra (Gujarat). Raghuva¼ºa 12-96. My body experiences the flowering of Kadamba. 517). The similarity between the butter like and smooth Banana stalk with a fair and tender thigh of a woman is appropriate. 2-61. M¢lavi. kegÀ©Yeleg&j²uele³ee ve lel³epeles efJekeÀmelkeÀocyeefvekegÀjcye®ee©lee~~ (Sarga. Kadamba is thrilled with blossoms just with the touch of the water drops of the monsoon. OeejekeÀocye (Dh¢r¢kadamba) (K¢dambar¤. 3-46) is a word dear to a poet. The reference of association of Kadamba tree with the childhood of K¨¾´a is mentioned.e-pdfconverter. With your favour. “Oh! monsoon cloud! make yourself loud with mighty thundering sound. “Rambhoru” (Vikramo. I have the pain of remembrance and the thrill of your touch. It is full of fragrance of Kadamba. M¢lavi. One experiences the pain of passion so C¢rudatta says. Kadal¤ : Meghad¦tam. Kela The fact that the stalk of Banana is compared with the thigh of a woman. 3-46) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 2-61. “Rambhoru” jcYees© (Vikramo. Later 33. 4-96. the minds of the love-stricken women experienced new passion by the wind fragrant with the flowers of the Banana. sarga 5-32) The wind fragrant with the pollen of Kadamba and fragrance of Banana flowers was blowing or the sky getting reddish with the pollen of the new Kadamba flowers. Also the use of its flower buds as earrings is explicit from There is a reference of the personal female assistant of Dharmar¢ja (Yudhi¾°hira) not leaving the beauty of opened Kadamba flowers when K¨¾´a embraced Dharmar¢ja. during the description of Acchoda lake : As the man is thrilled with the touch of his lover. later Page 515. 13-13) ke=À<Ceyeeue®eefjleefceJe leìkeÀocyeMeeKeeefOeª{nefjke=ÀlepeueÒeHeele¬eÀer[ced keÀocyecegkegÀuekeÀCe&Hetje³eceeCes jesceeáepeeuesve keÀCìefkeÀlewkeÀkeÀHeesueHeÀuekeÀe~ (K¢dambar¤. 1-36. KADAL£1 Banana Musa paradisiaca L. Kumar. Family: Musaceae Plantain. early pera 153) The reference of deep copperish red clusters of its flowers is present in : MeesefCeleleece´keÀocyemleyekeÀke=Àlee®e&vew½e~ K¢dambar¤ early para 216.100 101 Yees cesIe iecYeerjlejb veo lJeb leJe Òemeeoeled mcejHeeref[leb ces~ mebmHeMe&jesceeefáelepeelejeieb keÀocyeHeg<HelJecegHewelf e iee$eced~~ (M¨cchaka°ika–Act 5) In K¢dambar¤. This imaginative(keÀocyeHeg<HelJeced ceeIe) idea is poetic. .

K¢lid¢sa has referred only Kadal¢ and Kanakakadal¤. 3/62-4. cees®ee. In this kadal¤-garden the steersman (Kara´ik¢ra) hidden in the tree obtained by illusion the attraction of S¤t¢. megJeCe&keÀoueer. Kadal¤. etc. Suvar´akadal¤. the poet has no other plant to compare with its tenderness. Suj¢t¢. 6/32-6. DeOe&®evêcegKewyee&Cew: ef®e®íso keÀoueermegKeced~~ Rghu. a sweet beautiful line is used for an equally beautiful body part. As the beauty of the celestial damsel is beyond description.e-pdfconverter. Banana is a tender plant. ¬eÀer[eMewue: keÀvekeÀkeÀoueerJesäveÒes#eCeer³e:~ ( to remove this message. 17)1 Banana fields have indescribable beauty. Jeveue#ceer (Ra¼bh¢. S¤t¢ had created keÀoueer i e= n (kadal¤ house) in Pa®cava°¤. Girikadal¤. megkegÀceeje. keÀoueer. veeiesvênmleemlJeef®e keÀke&ÀMelJeeoskeÀevleMewl³eelkeÀoueereJf eMes<ee:~ ueyOJeeefHe ueeskesÀ HeefjCeeefn ªHeb peeleemleotJeex©Heceeveyee¿ee:~~ It mentions that the thigh of P¢rvat¤ does not have roughness of elephant trunk and solitary coolness of 1. yeeuekeÀefÒe³ee. B¢lakapriy¢. Vanalak¾m¤). Moc¢. Kanakakadal¤). R¢macandra in search of S¤t¢. Pleasure Mountains surrounded by golden bananas appear very lovely. 3/42-23. but the trunk skin is rough. Sufal¢. There are many varieties of Banana keÀeÿkeÀoueer. ¥rustambh¢. Sukum¢r¢. 12-96 The ease with which one can split the banana. Some compare the women thighs with elephant trunks. Hastivi¾¢´ik¢. megHeÀ the fair inner part of kadal¤ are described to-gether. The bed of banana leaves takes away the heat. The synonyms of Kadal¤ are very nice: jcYee. sarga 1-36) describing the thigh of P¢rvat¤ states that it has no roughness of the elephant trunk and coldness of Kadal¤. Uttara. The delicacy of Kadal¤ and its fair tenderness are unique. ºloka 33)”. seeing kadal¤ plants remember S¤t¢ having her thigh like banana stalk. keÀvekeÀkeÀoueer (K¢¾°hakadal¤. keÀoueerkeÀeC[me¢Meew keÀou³ee mebJe=leeJegYeew~ Tª HeM³eeefce les osefJe veeefme MekeÌlee efveietefnlegced~~ (3/62-4) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. so is the beauty of Rambh¢ fields. Gucchafal¢. 7-42-4 Kadal¤. with the same ease R¢ma destroyed the demons’ power with the arrows having half-moon shaped points keÀoueermegKeced. K¢lidasa (Kum¢ra. ieg®íHeÀuee. T©mlecYee. Kadal¤ is present in the R¢m¢ya´a2.102 103 “mejmekeÀoueerieYe&ieewj: (Megha. mebYeesieevles cece mecege®f elees nmlemebJeenveeveeb ³eem³el³et©: mejmekeÀoueermlecYeieewj½euelJeced~~1 Look this lovely stanza of G¤tagovinda : ¢Meew leJe ceoeuemes JeoveefcevogmeboerHekebÀ ieeflepe&veceveesjcee efJeefpelejcYecet©Ü³eced~ (10-7) Two things – Kadal¤ and that of the woman . efieefjkeÀoueer. its leaves remove the heat. . nefmleefJe<eeefCekeÀe. Banana is cool.

they become steady”.. 2/3) This woman looking emaciated like a fresh inner part of kadali stalk was pleasing to the eye like a digit of a moon. (M¢latim¢dhava 2.. This likeness of thigh with banana stalk is common: jcYees© cegáe mebjcYeced (M¢. sleeping beds of Kadal¤ tender leaves.. 2/3. In Nalacamp¦.com to remove this message. 3-74. 3-74) There are references of Kadal¤ in Bhavabh¦ti M¢lavik¢. In Nai¾adha the thigh of Damyant¤ is described: Yetef½e$euesKee ®e efleueesÊeceeK³ee veemee ®e jcYee ®e ³eot©me=efä:~ ¢äe lele: Hetj³eleer³eceskeÀeveskeÀeHmej: Òes#eCekeÀewlegkeÀeefve~~ (7/92) Her eyebrow was so beautiful so that she was like another celestial damsel..Jewons er JesHeceevee leHeeqmJeveer~ peieece peieleeR yeeuee efíVee leg keÀoueer ³eLee~~ (M¢. thigh so nice as if another Rambh¢ (like kadal¤) celestial.74) Oh! Celestial damsel! Woman with a banana stalk like thigh. . all these signs of calling the cupid. 6/10). garland of wet big pearls (leej). leave your anger now. she trembled and like a split banana plant fainted on ground. . R¢ma addressing kadal¤ spoke the above ºloka: “Oh! Tender Kadal¤! If you wish to rival with the thighs of the active and big eyed Godess of prosperity (¹r¤).e-pdfconverter. when Arjuna was speedily running to meet Indra. the description of ¡ryavarta country is mentioned as : Deejecees jeceCeer³ekeÀkeÀoueerJevem³e a beautiful garden of kadal¤”. to show this paleness/yellowness this similarity is nice. In Kir¢ta. Young girls with body anointed with sandal paste. It is well known that Kadal¤ leaves are split by the force of the wind: pe[®evove®eejJemle©C³e: mepeueeêe&: menleejnejceeuee:~ keÀoueeroueleuHekeÀuHevemLee: mcejceent³e efveJesMe³eefvle Heeéex~~ This is the description of summer. le©cet©³egiesve megvojer efkeÀceg jcYee HeefjCeeefnvee Hejced~ le©CeerceefHe efpe<CegjsJe leeb OeveoeHel³eleHe: HeÀuemleveerced~~ (2/37) Bhaimi was hoping to win tree like Rambh¢ with her large expansive dual thighs. A beautiful stanza of ÒemeVejeIeJe (Prasannar¢ghva Act 2-14) ns yeeuenscekeÀoefue Oe´Jg eceernmes lJecet©efÞe³eb keÀueef³elegb lejuee³elee#³ee:~ Sveeb efJeuecye³e efJeueemeJeleeR ef®ejb efn m$eerCeeb keÀuee: Heefjef®elee: efmLejleeb Òe³eeefvle~~ S¤t¢ was hidden behind Kadal¤. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. then you detain that coquette as the arts of women become familiar. the poet (12/51) has described split Kadal¤ and its delicate leaves and Gavedhuk (coin).2/3. Her nose was so lovely that she was just Tilottam¢ celestial. 3. efvekeÀeceb #eecee²er mejmekeÀoueerieYe&megYeiee~ keÀueeMes<ee cetefle&: MeefMeve FJe ves$eeslmeJekeÀjer~~ (M¢..104 105 When in Aºoka forest S¤t¢ was shown a fake head of R¢ma.3. She was hoping to win the celestial Rambh¢ for whom Kubera’s son had also undertaken penance. These are the means to endure the sever heat of summer..

ºloka 29 describes: DeemeejefmekeÌleeq#eefleyee<He³eesieevceeceef#eCeesÐe$e efJeefYeVekeÀesMew:~ efJe[cy³eceevee veJekeÀvouewmleweJf e&JeenOetcee©Ceuees®eveÞeer:~~ (Megha. In Raghuva¼ºa. Kandal¤ is named as Bh¦kadal¤. (act 2-7). Ucchindha Meghad¦tama Early-II. Raghunvasma 13-29. In monsoon the frail green leafy Kandal¤ was looking nice like a fair nice woman bedecked with green jewels and gems or the earth adorned with snails. . K¢lidasa has compared Kandal¤ red flowers having water inside with the lover red eyes with tears. Meghad¦tama. 11) The eyes of the sweet heart are excessively red by the smoke from the marriage altar fire. The description of it’s flowers are available in Vikramorva¾¤yam. §tusa¼h¢ra 2-5. 4-5) New flowers of Kandal¤ are as red as excessively reddish eyes of an angry one.21. Water fell in the flower as the reddish eyes with tears. Act 4-5. In ¹abad¢r´ava êesCeHeCeea eqmveiOekeÀvoe keÀvoueer YetkeÀou³eefHe is mentioned. In criticism of Vikramorva¾¤yam.106 107 The bluish beauty of Kadal¤ : Kadal¤ leaves are refered in the following stanza: M³eece®íJeerveeefce³ecevlejeues ÒeeogYe&Jevleer keÀoueeroueeveeced~ keÀuesJe ®eevêer veJeveerjoeveeb ®ekeÀesj®evceeb cegefoleb keÀjesefle~~ (Act 2-13) S¤t¢ amongst the bluish leaves of Kadal¤ looks nice like moon digit among the new clouds. KANDAL£1 veerHeb ¢ädJee nefjlekeÀefHeMeb kesÀmejwjOe&ª{w: DeeefJeYe&tleÒeLececegkegÀuee: keÀvoueer½eevegkeÀ®íced~ (Megha. P¦rva 21) Which is the keÀvoueer (Kandali) plant? The above ºloka states that it blossoms in monsoon. keÀvoueer: YetefcekeÀoueer: means Kandal¤ is named as Bh¦mikadal¤ª.e-pdfconverter. ÒeefYeVeJewo³t e&evf eYewmle=Cee¹§j:w meceeef®elee Òeeselq LelekeÀvoueerouew:~ efJeYeeefle MegkeÌueslejjlveYetef<elee Jeje²vesJe ef#eefleefjvêieesHekewÀ:~~ (§tu. DeejkeÌlejeefpeefYej³eb kegÀmegcewve&JekeÀvoueermeefueueieYez:~ keÀesHeeovleyee&<Hes mcej³eefle ceeb uees®eves lem³ee:~~ (Act. The fairness of S¤t¢. P. ºloka37) The thighs of S¤t¢ cannot be compared either with Kadal¤ or the back of the forearm or the elephant trunk. The poet Jayadeva of Prasannar¢ghava describes: keÀoueer keÀoueer keÀjYe: keÀjYe: keÀefjjepekeÀj: keÀefjjepekeÀj:~ YegJeve le³esçefHe efyeYeefle& legueeefYeocet©³egieb ve ®ecet©¢Me:~~ (Act 1. 1. as if they are imitating the new kandali red flowers. Kandal¤ grows in the monsoon Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.such sprouts of Kandal¤ leaves have come out all over the ground. It gives me joys as it gives to a Cakora bird (partridge). Vikramôrva¤¾yam. 2-6) The monsoon is described here. In the definition of Sa®j¤vani of Meghad¦tam. “The sapphire coloured sprouts. Kandal¤. hidden in the Kadal¤ forest is compared with the moon digit. Early. But this does not clear the concept of Kandal¤. All other places S¤t¢’s body parts are keÀvekeÀkeÀoueerkeÀvoueerieYee&ieewjw: described with the whiteness of new suckers of Kadal¤. In the three worlds there is none comparable. sarga to remove this message.

The poet compares them with the beauty of the eyes reddened by the smoke of sacrificial fire on the occasion of marriage. DeLeJee keÀvoue: keÀvo: ³em³e keÀevlekesÀmejm³e has its meaning. keÀvoue (Kandala) or keÀvoueer (Kandal¤) also means “new sprouts”. wrapped curd in tender cloths and Sar¾akandal¤.e-pdfconverter. mountains all round with intoxicated peacocks dancing. here Kandal¤ means apical part. but my humble opinion is that keÀvoueer (Kandal¤) as Yet k eÀoueer (Bh¦kadal¤) is appropriate in all respects. the air becomes sultry and Kandal¤ red flowers blossom. GÐelkeÀvouekeÀevlekesÀlekeÀYe=le: (M¢. though referred by Bhavabh¦ti is used as an adjective of to remove this message. 9/16) Jagadhara says: keÀvouew: veJee¹§jw: keÀevlee cevees%ee ³es kesÀlekeÀJe=#ee:~ Kandala here means a new sprout. Dlha´a. It means that if these things are used in winter. red flowered green leafed and rainy season plant. Here also the meaning of Kandal¤ is new sprouts Kandal¤. efJeJeenOetcee©Ceuees®eveÞeer: keÀleg¥ ³e®®e ÒeYeJeefle cenercegeq®íueervO´eeceJevO³ee le®í¦lJee les ÞeJeCemegYeieb ieefpe&leb ceevemeeslkeÀe:~~ efMeueervOe´eced-keÀvoueerced~~ keÀvou³eeb ®e efMeueervO´ee m³eeled Fefle MeyoeCe&Jes It is believed that the flowering of banana signals the prosperity of grains. The above references definitely indicate that keÀvoueer (Kandal¤) is a tender. The earth covered with varieties of little sprout of kadali appears white. Example: keÀjeuekeÀjkeÀvoueer (Kar¢lakandal¤) (M¢lt¤m¢dhva 5/5). Padmabija is another synonym of keÀvoueer (Kandal¤) (R¢janigha´°u). . criticize that the tradional theory is not needed. or keÀvouees ceuueerJe=#e:~ (Jagadhara) efMeueervOe´b keÀvoefueHeg<Heced Fefle efJeée:~ keÀvouee: keÀuens keÀvos ceuue³eece*dkegÀjmebIe³ees: Fefle. ¹¨¬g¢raºataka 91) Here keÀvoueer (Kandal¤) means new sprouts. GHeefj Ieveb IeveHeìueb efle³e&eqiiej³eesçefHe veefle&lece³etje:~ ef#eeflejefHe keÀvoueOeJeuee ¢efäb HeefLekeÀ: keÌJe Heele³eefle~~ (¹¨¬g¢raºataka 92) If looked as in the sky there are dark clouds above. R¢jaºekhara describing the Hemant season (winter) mentions me<e&HekeÀvoueer : JejenJeOee&efCe veJeewoveeefve oOeerefve meVe×MejeefCe ®ee$e~ megkeÀesceuee: me<e&keÀvoueer½e YegkeÌlJee pevees efvevoefle JewÐeefJeÐeeced~~ People in India consuming pig-meat. the critic of ¹uº¨ta sanhita refers keÀvoueer (Kandal¤) as ées l eMue#Ce yengHegìkeÀvoefJeMes<e: meHe&®í$ekeÀefceefle ueeskesÀ (S¦tra 39). But here Kandal¤ means “tender sprouts of mustard”. there is scope for illness. efJe³eogHeef®elecesOeb Yetce³e: keÀvoefuev³ees veJekegÀìpekeÀocyeeceeseof vees ievOeJeene:~ (Bhat¨hari.108 109 only when it rains on the heated soil. The meaning suggested is that the new sprouts of Pandanus (Ketak¤) are germinating. not of a plant. cesefoveerkeÀej:~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Where will the poor traveller look? Everywhere there are stimulating things.

pejePePe&ejf lew: He$ew: MeerCe&kesÀmejkeÀefCe&kesÀ:~ veeueMes<ee efnceOJemlee ve Yeeefvle keÀceueekeÀje:~~ (3/16-26) In winter because of the dew. Detached and fallen. Ankura and Sa¬gaª. its leaves appear yellow and aged. It is inter-woven with the life of the ¡ryans. it is so much associated that it can not be separated.e-pdfconverter. F³eb ®e veefueveer jc³ee HegÀuueHe¹peceefC[lee~ keÌJeef®eVeerueeslHeuewíVee Yeeefle jkeÌleesHleuew: keÌJeef®eled~ keÌJeef®eoeYeeefle MegkeÌuew½e efoJ³ew: kegÀcegokegÀ*dceuew:~~ (4/27-22) The rivers looked charming with white. The lotus is always there in the description of all the rivers.(3-75-21.(4/30-41). The poets of Sanskrit have immensely loved the lotus. later part) Here also the germination of sprouts at the beginning of the monsoon is mentioned compared with the heart. Nilotpala – Nilofala (Gujarati). In the description of autumn as mej:meg yeg×ecyegpeYet<eCes<eg. 6/30) The critic here comments that keÀvoueer (Kandal¤) means YetkeÀvoueer (Bh¦kandal¤) and êesCeHeCeea eqmveiOekeÀvoe keÀvoueer YetefcekeÀvoueer is the evidence of arrangement of the words but he quotes the evidence of M¢dhava. Saugandhika (small lotus). blue. The moist wind excited by the movements of the opened Kandira flowers was blowing the minds of the proud women. leaving only the stalks barren. red and varied coloured flowers. ÒeJemele: meglejecegokeÀcHe³eefÜouekeÀvouekeÀcHeveueeefuele:~ vece³eefle mce Jeveeefve ceveeqmJeveerpevecevees vecevees Ievecee©le:~~ (M¢gha. Such cluster of lotuses do not shine out. Family: Nelumbonaceae Indian Lotus There is not a single book in Sansk¨ta literature where the lotus is not referred. Like lakes ornamented with varied coloured flowers of lotus. Padma (white lotus). DejefJevo (Arvinda)(3/75-21). its flowers and buds withered. Decyegpe (Ambuja). GlHeue (Utpala). Kalaha. .Fceeefve MegYeievOeerefve HeM³e ue#ceCe meJe&Me:~ veefueveeefve ÒekeÀeMevles peuesle©Cemet³e&Jeled~~ (4/1-62) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. In beautiful lakes. Utpala means blue lotuses. Kumuda (white lotus) are present. Kanda. It is no wonder that such a wind which can shake the honour of the proud women would bow down the forests or tremble the travelers with anxiety. veefueve . 6/4-85). keÀvocyemepee&pe&vg e keÀvouee{îeeb JeveevleYetecf e: ceOegJeeefjHetCee&~ The discourse by Tilak¢khya interprets as keÀvoueb mLeueeslHeueced Oeejej³eemenw: keÀvouewjJs e meneefYeÐele Ëo³eced (K¢dambar¤. Reference of Kandala is in R¢m¢ya´a (4/28-34). Malliv¨k¾a. KAMALA Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.110 111 It shows that the word Kandala is used for the to remove this message. with Utpala (blue lotus).

Nalina is a synonym of Kamala. So the wasps seeing Kadamba flowers rejoice and visit them to suck the honey. S¤t¢ is referred frequently as He¨eHe$eefJeMeeuee#eer (large eyed like the petals of lotus) mebÒel³eveskeÀeÞe³eef®e$eMeesYee ue#ceer: MejlkeÀeueiegCeesHeHeVee~ met³ee&ûenmleÒeefleyeeseOf eles<eg He¨eekeÀjs<JeY³eefOekebÀ efJeYeeefle~~ (4/30-29) The godess of wealth. meleleb efÒe³eHe¹peeced (4/1-66) HeJeveenleJesieeefYe: Tefce&eYf e: efJeceuesçcYeefme~ He¹peeefve efJejepevles lee[îeceeveeefve ue#ceCe~~ (4/1-66) The beautiful scene of tossing waves of the clean water arising by the blowing wind and water splashes colliding against the vibrating lotuses. R¢macandra seeing such a lotus flower bud felt that S¤t¢ was just before him. It means the wasps avoid the lotuses. 3rd Chapter). R¢ma felt the captivating wind with the fragrance of lotus flower as the breath of S¤t¢. the description of lotus (Nalins) looking fine like the courtesan is found. He¨e-He¨ekeÀesMeHeueeMeeefve êägb ¢efäefn& cev³eles~ meerlee³ee ves$ekeÀesMeeY³eeb me¢Meeveerefle ue#ceCe~~ (4/1-71) 1. In the description of Vi¾´u veerueeslHeueoueM³eece: (7/37 after interpolated Chapters. here in this water all around sweet smelling lotuses (Nalins) shine like the rising sun. mejes©n . It rains. Kumuda (3/75-20. The showers of rains strike the lotuses. He¹pe (Pa¬kaja). possessed of all virtues of autumn. opens induced by moon. MegkeÌueeb kegÀcegoceC[uew: Pamp¢ was looking white with clusters of lotus. But she appears richer among the opened lotus flowers having first received the prominent hand (rays) of the sun on the lotus. 6/4-85).com to remove this message.e-pdfconverter. One wonders how many lotuses would be there? S¤t¢ very much loves lotus. appears strange in appearance having sheltered by many things. Kumuda means white lotus.veJeecyegOeejenlekesÀmejeefCe Oe´Jg eb Heefj<Jep³e mejes©neefCe~ keÀocyeHeg<HeeefCe mekesÀmejeefCe veJeeefve Ëäe Ye´ceje: efHeyeefvle~~ (4/28-42) It is monsoon. . 4/27-11) one that grows in mud is Pa¬kaja (Kamala).112 113 Oh ! Lak¾ma´a. veerueeslHeue (Nilotpala) means a blue lotus – in spite its use the word attracts attention at various places. peues le©Cemet³ee&Yew: <eìdHeoenlekesÀmejw:~ He¹pew: MeesYeles HecHee mecevleeoefYemebJe=lee (4/1-64) As the wasps were sitting on the lotus flowers the lotus flowers fell on water so that they spread over the water of the Pamp¢ lake.(4/1-64. In the R¢m¢ya´a1. the ¹y¢ma (black) colour is referred as blue colour. F³eb ®e veefueveer jc³ee HegÀuueHe¹peceefC[lee 4/27-11 He¨ekesÀmejmebme=äes Je=#eevlejefJeefve:me=le:~ efve:éeeme FJe meerlee³ee Jeeefle Jee³egce&veesnj:~~ (4/1-72) The eyes of S¤t¢ resembled the closed petals of a white lotus flower bud. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.

Part 6-215. Sar¢sa. White – kegÀcego. 68.Meghad¦tam. Kumuda – Megha. 24.42. Aravinda. ¹¢kuntala 4135 Ind¤vara. ¹ to remove this message. kegÀJeue³e (Raktotpala. 249. According to Amarakoºa and Nigha´°us. Lak¾m¤ (goddess of wealth) stays in lotus. Ambhoruha.e-pdfconverter. 81.114 115 Kuvalaya (3/75-20). . It means Nilotpala veerueeb kegÀJeue³eesodIeeìw: Pamp¢ was looking bluish by blue lotuses. kewÀjJe. Kuºeºaya. veerueecyegpe (Ind¤vara. Nalina. Green Kamala. Kamalin¤. Nilotpala.Raghu. Sit¢mbhoj). ³eLee Heg<keÀjHe$es<eg Heeflelee: lees³eefyevoJe:~ ve Mues<eceefYeie®íefvle leLeevee³ex<eg meewËoced~~ (6/16-11) As the water drops do not remain on the lotus leaves. 7-26. Part 5-150. §tu. Padama. Kuvalaya). Pu¾kara (6/28-31). 1-28 Meghad¦tam . 5-35. (Atisatva) Extra pure white Kamala – HegC[jerkeÀ. R¢jiva.Later Megh . 3-14. etc. 2-9.M¢lavi.15. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Kum¢rsa¼bhavam. §tu. 9-27. Sarasiruª. Later 71. Padma). Kamala . sarga 11-12. 6-65. §tu. 71 Early part Meghe. 11. 12-86. sarga 6-84. Vikrama 4-115. Utpala. R¢va´a blames Vibhi¾a´a remembering the simile of a lotus (Kamala). 26. Raghuva¼ºa – sarga 3-36. Padmin¤. keÀeskeÀve. veerueeslHeue. Later 3-45.(§tusa¼h¢ra sarga) 3-5. Sahasrapatra. Kamala. these are the synonyms of Kamala (Lotus). Utpala . 16. The acquaintance of Sugr¤va is mentioned. Pa¬keruª. Sarasija. ³em³ew<ee keÀeáeveer ceeuee MeesYeles MeleHeg<keÀje~ keÀevlee osJeceveg<³eeCeeb ³em³eeb ue#ceer: Òeefleefÿlee~~ Sugr¤va had a beautiful garland of lotus flower around his neck. The critics have distinguished between Ishswet and Atisvat Kamal (Padma and Pu´²arika).Blue Kamala – FvoerJej. §tu. §tu. 47. He¨e (Kumuda. Red Kamal – jkeÌleeslHeue. The person unattached is said to be unsullied. K¢lid¢sa has used several names from above in his poems. – sarga 6-42. Kairava.sarga 7-89. N¤l¢mbuj). 14. Kum¢ra – sarga 1-40.§tu. blue. -31 met³ee&Hee³es ve Keueg keÀceueb Heg<³eefle mJeeceefYeK³eeced~ Meghad¦tam Kamala does not shine out without the sun in the sky. Raghu. White1. Kokana. These are varieties of Kamala. Early 60. Pa¬kaja. ¹¢kuntala. efmeleecYeespe (Pundrik. 48. The water drop does not retain on lotus leaf. Tamarasa. For every one of them has Sanskrit names. (N¤la). Pu¾kara. 510 Raghu. §tu.88. 2-12. 13-31. the marriages with non-¡ryans do not stay. each has following names: 1. red.

Act-5. Nilotpala . . Ambhoja. The swans have won the lovely gait of the women. 3-37. 7-239. 8-70.Raghu. Kum¢ra. 19-34. Act-3. Kum¢ra. 4-9. 5 Kum¢ra. Me³³eeielesve jecesCe ceelee Meeleesojer yeYeew~ mewkeÀleecYeespeyeefuevee peeÚJeerJe MejlkegÀMee~~ ( Raghu. ¹¢kuntala. Kuºeºaya. 7-74. §tu.§tu. Early 41. 18-3. to remove this message. ¹¢kuntala. 3-65 Saroruª. 17. 3-67) It is a description of autumn. 6-14.76. 10-69. 6-86.116 117 Raghu. Raghu. 8-55.Kum¢ra. 43. 3-15. Kum¢ra. Vikramo. ¹¢kuntala. Raghu. 2-2. 7. Megha.3-8 Saroja. T¢mrasa – Raghu. Later -84. 4-91 Ambuja. early 46. nbmewepf e&lee megueefuelee ieeflej²veeveececYees©nweJf e&keÀefmelewcegK& e®evêkeÀeefvle:~ veerueeslHeuewce&okeÀueeefve efJeueesekf eÀleeefve Ye´et Jf eYe´cee½e ©ef®ejemlevegeYf emlejbiew:~~ (§tu. 16-68.M¢la. 17-75. 17-75. 8-33. 18-3. 4-1. 17. Pa¬kaja .38.Raghu. 11-13 Raktakuvalay – ¹¢kuntala. Raghu.§tu.Kum¢ra. 19-8. 317. ¹¢kuntala. 3-17. ¹¢kuntala. Raghu. Later 84. 3-19. 3-10. Act 4 §tu . 5-91 ¹atapatrayon¤. Pu¾kara. Kuvalaya.§tu. §tu.2-2. 8-26 Nalini – Megha. 8-39. 15. 1-16.M¢la.e-pdfconverter. 8-45. 1-43. Kum¢ra. Vikramo. 16-16. Vikramo.Megha. 13-54. 6-66. 7-16. Uttara.§tu. ¹¢kuntala. 3-89 Sthalaravinda. ¹¢kuntala. 7. 6-44. The opened Kamala (white) flowers have won the brilliance of the moon face. 4-6. 16-46. 10-62. 7-74. The Nilotpala (blue lotus) have won the passion filled sweet eyes and light water waves have won the charming moving eyebrows of the beautiful women. Padma. Act-4.Kum¢ra. 2-14. 1-43.7-64. Kum¢ra. 4. Act-1. 3-1. Act-1. 3-76.§tu. 5-9. Raghu. Raghu. Raghu. 6-86. Kumudavat¤ – Raghu. 2-44. 19-34. Ambhoruha. 5-52 Aravinda – Raghu. 3-85. 26. 23. Kum¢ra. Kum¢ra. 26. 7-46. Vikramo. 4-104.Kum¢ra. . 9-12. 3-107. Act-5. 21. 2-22. 8. 26. 6-18. Raghua. Vikrmo. 1-13. 4-5.Kum¢ra. Padmin¤. 37 Hemtamaras. 6-37. ¹¢kuntala. 3-8. 6-213. 70. Pundrika – M¢lati. 5-19. 6-13 Lil¢ravinda – 3-56. 1-3. 10-69) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 15-52.

118 119 The (¹¢todar¤) ieYe&cees®eveeled ke=ÀMeesojer mother with a caved in belly after the delivery) with R¢ma by her side was looking well like the lean Ganges with an offering of lotuses strewn on its sandy shore in autumn. Indivara means black to remove this message. sarga 5-47) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 2-44) The wasps humming and pleasing the mind left the leafless and flowerless lotuses and went to the circle of feathers of dancing peacocks. It is shown in the following ºloka : mJemegefJe&oYee&efOeHelesmleoer³ees uesYesçvlejb ®esleefme veesHeosMe:~ efoJeekeÀjeoMe&veye×keÀesMes ve#e$eveeLeebMegefjJeejefJevos~~ (Raghu. A king was waving Lil¢ravinda (lotus) with the hand. at every moment with fragrant exhalation and increased quiver was preventing wasps around her lips as red as a Bimba fruit. FvoerJejM³eecelegvegve=H& eesçmeew lJeb jes®eveeieewjMejerj³eefä:~ Dev³eesv³eMeesYeeHeefjJe=׳es Jeeb ³eeiemleef[Êees³eo³eesejf Jeemleg~~(Raghu. The rays of the moon have no impact on the Suryavikasi lotus. ³e$eeslHeueouekeÌuewy³ecem$eeC³eeHeg: megjefÜ<eeced~~ (Raghu. Raghuva¼ºa (sarga 6.A lotus flower in the hand for play. The fluttering petals were hitting the wasps flying away. . There are two types of lotuses known as Suryavikasi (opening with Sun) and Candravikasi (opening with Moon).e-pdfconverter. Where are at present lakes with clusters of lotuses? megieefvOeefve:éeemeefJeJe=×le=<Ceb efyecyeeOejemeVe®ejb efÜjsHeÀced~ Òeefle#eCeb mebYe´ceueesue¢efä: ueerueejefJevosve efveJeej³evleer~~ Lil¢ravind. The union of the blackish king and fair Indumat¤ is likened with black clouds and white lightning. 6-65) The weapons of those who hated the deities became soft as petals of Utpala (lotus). Blue lotuses (Utpala) were used as errings. A chaste wife having such a lotus with smart eyes. The king was toying a Lil¢ravinda (lotus) which had stored the pollen inside. Denes efmLej: keÀesçefHe leJeseqHmelees ³egJee ef®eje³e keÀCeexlHeueMetv³eleeb ieles~ GHes#eles ³e: MueLeueeqcyeveerpeìe: keÀHeesueosMes keÀueceeûeefHe²uee:~~ (Kum¢ra. as the petals of Aravinda (sun lotus) in the absence of sun did not open in moon light. Its stalk was in the hand of the king. 12-86) efJeHe$eHeg<Heeb veefueveer meceglmegkeÀe efJene³e Ye=²e: Þegelf eneefjefve: mJevee:~ (§tu. 6-66) The advice of Sunand¢ did not convince the sister of the king Vidarbha. ºloka-13) has a similar ºloka : keÀef½elkeÀjeY³eecegHeiet{veeueceeueesueHe$eeefYenleefÜjsHeÀced~ jpeeseYf ejvle: HeefjJes<eyeefvOe ueerueejefJevob Ye´ce³eeáekeÀej~~ The above refers to an event where the kings are gathered for selecting Indumat¤ as a wife in a special marriage function (Svaya¼vara).

it will only blossom with the moon rays.e-pdfconverter.113) Your face appearing excessively red due to the red light emanating all round from the diamonds placed on the forehead appear crimson red due to sun rays falling on it having the beauty of the red lotus.120 121 Oh! The youth. In autumn the moon shines in full. . keg À ceg o (Kumuda) means white lotus : keg À ceg o ef J eMeoeef v e ®eìgueMeHeÀjesÜle&veÒesef#eleeefve (Meghad¦tam. These words were spoken by a celibate female ascetic to Parvat¤. Kumuda will not blossom with the Sunrays falling on it. The following ºloka from Meghad¦tam (early to remove this message. water is clean and Kumuda blossoms. Òel³et<es<eg mHegÀefìlekeÀceueeceesocew$eerkeÀ<ee³e:~ ³e$e m$eerCeeb njefle megjleiueeefvece²evegketÀue: efMeÒeeJeele: efÒe³elece FJe ÒeeLe&vee®eeìgkeÀej:~~ This ºloka reminds us of Bhavabh¦ti’s DeefMeefLeueHeefjjcYew: oÊeemebJeenveeefve. 7-74) This ºloka applies either to autumn or to ¹iva. efoJemekeÀjce³etKewyeexO³eceeveb ÒeYeeles Jej³egJeeflecegKeeYeb He¹peb pe=cYelesçÐe~ kegÀcegoceefHe ielesçmleb ueer³eles ®evêefyecyes nefmeleefceJe JeOetveeb Òeese<f eles<eg efÒe³es<eg~~ (§tu. the fatigue of the faded organs being removed after the sexual union. Ref. 3-16) My body inflamed by the heat of the cupid will not be cooled by any other touch. whom you desire to have should be of a steady nature and indifference to the yellow matted hair which is like the special part (special paddy) of the lotus scattered on the forehead being insensitive due to using for a long time blue lotus (Utpala) as earrings. le³ee ÒeJe=×eveve®evêkeÀevl³ee ÒeHegÀuue®e#eg: keÀgcego: kegÀcee³ee&~ ÒemeVe®esle: meefueue: efMeJeesçYe=lmebme=p³eceeve: MejosJe ueeskeÀ:~~ (Kum¢ra. Kalid¢sa also mentions at some place mebYeesieevles cece mecegef®elees nmlemebJeenveeveeced~ The wind having friendship of fragrance of the blossomed lotuses blowing along the ¹ipra river takes away the sadness of women after the sexual union. Early Megha). The autumn like a virgin whose face lustre increases day by day comes in contact with ¹iva having pleasant mind and full blown eyes. Act. 3-5) Which of the young mind will not be anxious after seeing parts of earth covered by the beautiful lotus flowers? mHegÀjlee efJe®ígejf leefceob jeiesCe ceCesue&ueeìefveefnlem³e~ efÞe³ecegÜnefle cegKeb les yeeueeleHejkeÌlekeÀceuem³e~~ (Vikramo. 3-23) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. JeÒee½e ®ee©keÀceueeJe=leYetefceYeeiee: ÒeeslkeÀCþ³eefvle ve cevees YegefJe keÀm³e ³etve:~~ (§tu. 4 P. ºloka 31) pictures the wind bringing the fragrance of blossomed lotus along the river ¹ipra. leaping of the Kumuda like white fish. That Kumuda is a moon blossoming lotus is mentioned in following ºloka : De²ceve²eqkeÌueäb megKe³esov³ee ve ces keÀjmHeMee&led~ vees®íJeefmeefle leHeveefkeÀjCew: ®evêm³ewJeebMegefYe: kegÀcegoced~~ (Vikrmo.

keÀCex<eg ®e ÒeJejkeÀeáevekegÀ*dceues<eg veerueeslHeueeefve efJeefJeOeeefve efveJesMe³eefvle~~ (§tu. In the morning the lotus blossoms with the sun rays like the lustre of face of the beautiful girl shines. veefueveeroueleeueJe=vlew: (¹¢ku.e-pdfconverter. Act 3). Act 3). Nilotpala means blue lotus. sarga. 6-36) The poet has noted the large leaves of the to remove this message. ³eese<f eleeceg[Hg elesejf Jeeef®e&<eeb mHeMe&evf eJe=e& lf ecemeeJeJeeHvegJeved~~ Dee©jesCe kegÀcegoekeÀjesHeceeb jeef$epeeiejHejes efoJeeMe³e:~~ (Raghu. Compare: GlHegÀuueHe¹peJeveeb veefueveer efJeOegvJeced ³etveeb ceve½eue³eefle Òemeceb vecemJeeved~~ §tu. Padma and Kaumuda become cooler with their contact.122 123 Here also the sun and moon blossoming types of lotus are mentioned. He¹pe. sarga. keÀ¼ejHe¨ekegÀcegoeefve cegneg Jf e&OegvJebmlelmebieceeoefOekeÀMeerleueleecegHesle:~ GlkeÀCþ³el³eeflelejeb HeJeve: ÒeYeeles He$eevleueivelegenf veecyegeJf eOet³eceeve:~~ (§tu. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. . 3-10 The happiness one obtains through contact with the moon rays. This wind moving the dew drops at the leaf ends in the early morning creates intense eagerness. now have many coloured Nilotpal. 4-9) The minds of the men are tempted by the lakes with clean cool water adorned with the joyfully intoxicated swans and beautified with blossomed blue lotus. that king obtained the same happiness with his wife. The Kumuda (white moon blossoming lotus) strewn pond had a similar experience at the day time enclosing and night time opening of the lotus. veerueeslHeuewce&okeÀueeefve efJeueesefkeÀleeefve~ (§tu. veefueveerHe$eJeele: (¹¢ku. 19-34) 1. 3-22) In autumn the cool wind blows in contact with the lotus. The poet is not tired of praising the lotus and has created its many eulogies out of which I could not restrain myself to quote a few of them. 1 Mejefo kegÀcegome²eod Jee³eJees Jeeefvle Meerlee: ~ (§tu. 3-19) The ears where golden ornaments were worn. kegÀcego (Kumuda) (white lotus) also disappears (encloses) when the moon disc moves towards or sinks beyond Ast¢cala (imaginary mountain/actually horizon) as the smile of the wife disappears when the husband departs abroad. small lotus). 3-17) The passionate sweet eyes have won the lustre of the Nilotpala. 3-22) In autumn the wind frequently moving the flowers of Khalara (synonym of Saugandhaka. The autumn season (¹arada) : efJekeÀ®ekeÀceueJekeÌ$ee HegÀuueveerueeslHeuee#eer means the ¹arada has the blossomed lotus like face and full blown blue lotus like eyes. ÒeHegÀuueveerueeslHeueMeeseYf eleeefve meesvceeokeÀeocyeefJeYete<f eleeefve~ ÒemeVelees³eeefve megMeerleueeefve mejebefme ®esleebefme njefvle Hegbmeeced~~ (§tu. leeqmceVeefYeÐeeself eleyevOgeHe¨es ÒeleeHemebMeese<f eleMe$egHe¹s~ yeyevOe mee veesÊecemeewkegÀcee³ee& kegÀcegÜleer YeevegceleerJe YeeJeced~~ (Raghu.

sarga. Act 7 keÀeáeveHe¨ejsCegkeÀefHeMes. Kum¢ra. ieeceOeem³elkeÀLeb veeiees ce=Ceeuece=ogefYe: HeÀCew:~ (Kum¢ra. pollen (Pa¬kaja re´u. S<ee cevees ces ÒemeYeb MejerjeeqlHeleg: Heob ceO³ececeglHelevleer~ megje²vee keÀ<e&efle KeefC[leeûeeled met$eb ce=CeeueeefoJe jepenbmeer~~ (Vikramo. flower bud (pa¬kajakoºa) (Raghu. Vikramo. 5-29) Mallinath states that meaning of ce=CeeefuekeÀe (M¨´¢lik¢) is Padmani Kanda) (Lotus root). flower. The abode of Lak¾m¤ (goddess of wealth) is lotus. This ºloka also shows that (Bisa) filaments arise from M¨´¢la. sarga. Bisa (filament. sarga. P¢rvat¤ emaciates her M¨´¢la like tender organs through stricts vows.8-3. 1-19) The poet has used the word to indicate that when the pond water dries up in summer. 3-65)1. It can also mean it is a stalk of M¨´¢la. sarga 1-40) The poet describes with interest the dense very fair twin breasts of blue lotus-eyed S¤t¢. the stalk of lotus veeueb (n¢lam) is considered ce=Ceeue separately. For dark red palm. 4. 3-37. ¹¢kuntala. Meghad¦tam Early II. The word P¢d¢ravinda hand used to describe lotus like red feet. 3-8).124 125 ce=Ceeueb efyemeb Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta has interpreted these two equivalents words as the “root of lotus”. The poet has described the tenderness of M¨´¢la : Devesve keÀu³eeefCe ce=CeeuekeÀesceueb Je´lesve iee$eb iueHe³em³ekeÀejCeced~ (Vikramo. Act. sarga 6-18). leaf. We come across many references of parts of lotus in the work of K¢lid¢sa like M¨´¢la (root). ce=Ceeuemet$eeefOekeÀmeewkegÀcee³ee&~ (Kum¢ra. (§tu. Kum¢ to remove this message. Act. 3-37. 1. 1-20) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The critic of Vrinda ¹r¤kan°ha considers as ‘sth¦la’ and efyeme as fine filaments arising from ce=CeeueeefVeie&leÒeleeve:1. The two breasts were so large and dense that they were so closed together that the lotus thread (M¨´¢la) could not find space to enter. But it is not proper to have a separate meaning for two equivalent words. sarga. 3-4). sarga. mece=×=leeMes<ece=CeeuepeeuekeÀced (mej:)~ (§tu. sarga 3-49) P¢rvat¤ is more delicate than M¨´¢la filament. 6-68) How can ¹e¾an¢ga (Mythological Cobra) with its M¨´¢la like delicate fangs lift up the earth? Dev³eesv³eceglHeer[îeoglHeuee#³ee: mleveܳeb HeeC[g leLee ÒeJe=×ced~ ceO³es ³eLee M³eececegKem³e lem³e ce=Ceeuemet$eevlejceH³eueY³eced~~ (Kum¢ra. Kum¢ra. kegÀMesMe³eeleece´leuesve keÀef½eled keÀjsCe jsKeeOJepeuee_ívesve~ (Raghu.e-pdfconverter. . 3. with red lotus. ¹¢kuntala. Act. seed (pu¾kara b¤ja. the people dig the lotus root to eat. ce=CeeefuekeÀeHesuecesJeceeefoefYe: Je´lew: mJece²b iueHe³evl³enefve&Meced~ (Kum¢ra. 3-13) Oh Goddess! Why do you wither away your M¨´¢la like tender cheeks with religious vows for no reason.Act. The fairness of M¨´¢la is compared with that of the silver and conch. 4-29).

The poet has mentioned here the different parts of the lotus. . She has awakened. Candraketu and Lava were ready to fight. SleeqmcevceokeÀueceefuuekeÀe#eHe#e J³eeOetlemHegÀjog©oC[HegC[jerkeÀe:~ Their eyes were excessively as red as the petal of the red lotus (Koknad). its beauty is unique. GVeeueyeeuekeÀceueekeÀjceekeÀjvoefve<³evomebyeueveceebmeueievOeyevOge:~ lJeeb ÒeerCeef³e<³eefle Hegj: HeefjJele&ceevekeÀuueesueMeerkeÀjleg<eejpe[: meceerj:~~ (M¢lati. 9/13) YeJeefle efJeleleéeemeesVeenjÒeCegVeHe³eesOejb Ëo³eceefHe ®e eqmveiOeb ®e#egefve&peÒeke=Àleew efmLeleced~ leoveg Jeoveb cet®íe&®ísoelÒemeeefo efJejepeles HeefjieleefceJe ÒeejcYesçÚ: efÞe³ee mejmeerªnced~~ (M¢lati. rizome. 10/16 ) The respiration has started. stalk. singing sweetly and tawny winged swans. mHegÀefìlekeÀceueeceesoÒee³ee: ÒeJeevleg Jeveeefveuee:~~ (Uttarar¢macarita 3/24) The water gets reduced in the lakes towards the end of the summer. tender and youthful like the petal of the fully bloomed lotus.e-pdfconverter. Blow the forest wind fully filled with the fragrance of the blossomed lotus. (6/13). flower buds : GÎefuelekeÀceefueveerKeC[efJeÒekeÀerCe&HeCe&keÀceuekesÀmej-ce=CeeueefJemekeÀvokeÀesceuee¹§j – efvekeÀ to remove this message. The wind. stalk fibers. So the happy face like the beauty of the lotus in the morning shines. and mixed with the cool mist arising from the water ripples will give you joy. M¢dhava describes the awakening of fainted M¢lati: Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. nourished with the fragrance of the nectar exuded from groups of lotuses with such stalks. They are uprooting the lotus and throwing away here and there their stamens. At that time : efkebÀef®elkeÀeskeÀoveo®íom³e me¢Mes ves$es mJe³eb jp³ele: (5/36) When R¢ma touches Lava he feels his touch plump. V¢santi thus speaks because R¢ma has returned to the forest. so the stalks of the lotus appear prominently (that is why the poet has used the word ‘Unn¢la’). The tender eyes have reached their natural condition. The poet describes lotuses with extensive stalks and extensively stalked lotuses shaking by the wings of intoxicated.126 127 Intoxicated elephants have become stormy. so the breasts are rising. The lotus closes at night and when it blossoms again in the morning.

e-pdfconverter. PADMA JeHegjefJeefnleefme×e SJe ue#ceereJf eueemee: ÒeeflekeÀuekeÀceveer³eb keÀeefvlecelkesÀ³eleefvle~ DeceefueveefceJe jlveb jMce³emles ceveer%ee efJekeÀefmeleefceJe He¨eb efyevoJees ceekeÀjvoe:~~ (6/24) As the pure diamond by the loving rays.128 129 KAMALIN£ jefJeefkeÀjCeeeqMueäcegiOekeÀceefueveerkeÀvomegvojeJe³eMeesYeeefJeYeeefJelee²JesoveeefOekeÀlejjceCeer³eeefHe My eyes are filled with joy after seeing him/her as the lotus is pleased with the moon rise. The fragrance of lotus flower is well known. the natural beauty of both their bodies was shining their lustre. . 3-71) She. “Padmaki®ajalakagandh¢n” (3/2). keÀceefueveerouepeueeêe&Me³eveer³e GefVeêejpeveerie&ce³eefle~~ (3-74) KUMUDA Mejpp³eeslmvee keÀevleb kegÀcegoefceJe leb vevo³eleg mee (M¢lat¤. (smell of sun blooming lotus stamens). ³eLesvoew Deevevob Je´peefle mecegHees{s kegÀcegefoveer leLesJeeeqmcev¢efäce&ce keÀuenkeÀece: Hegvej³eced~~ (5/26) Oh Godess! your lotus like foot touch with the head of R¢ma will be last one. appearing very charming due to the Cupid painhaving beautiful limbs shining like lotus (Kamalin¤) flowered with the feeling of the sun rays. 9/48) The moonlight of the autumn moon is filled with the lovely qualities of the Kumuda flowers. Lotus like foot and lotus like hand these similes are common. 1/16) Let the blessed one (Kaly¢´i) please him as the moonlight of the autumn pleases the night blooming lotus (Kumuda). The sleeping bed of lotus leaves is known for the body inflammed with Cupid. and bloomed lotus by the nectar drops to remove this message. But the same fact Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. PA«KAJA (1-44) Heefjpeveb ogveesefle~~ (M¢lat¤.wind or cold fragrant soft blowing wind is unfortunate like a separated person. Jeeref®eJeelew: MeerkeÀ #eesoMeerlew: DeekeÀ<e&efÓ He¨eefkebÀpeukeÀievOeeved~ ceesns ceesns jeceYeêm³e peerJeb mJewjb Òesejf lewmleHe&³eself e~~ Cold by pounding of the spray and fragrance from the lotus stamens – this way the cold and slowly blowing fragrant . kegÀcegoekeÀjsCe Mejefovog®eeqvêkeÀe ³eefo jeceCeer³ekeÀiegCee³e mebielee~ (M¢lat¤.

M¢. an utterance related with lotus nectar. bluish. N¤lotpala (veerueeslHeue)1 : Blue lotus. 9/38 2. 6/29 M¢.2/11. 1/24. ojefJekeÀmeVeerueeslHeueM³eeceueesppJeuesve osnyevOesve (4-116) DeeceerueVes$eveerueeslHeuees cete®q í&le SJe (3-70) Kuvalaya (keg À Jeue³e)2 : V¤rar¢ghava. Pu´²arika fully bloomed flowers swinging by the slowly blowing wind were looking M¢dhava at a cross. DeefJejueefceJe oecvee HeewC[jerkesÀCe ve×:~ (M¢. 4-19. 9/40) : It refers to the face of M¢dhava. PU³±AR£KA1 (very white lotus) efJekeÀmeefle efn Helebiem³eeso³es HegC[jerkebÀ êJeefle ®e efncejMceew GÃles ®evêkeÀevle:~~ (6/12) The lines of Bhavabh¦ti that “it is only the destiny type internal purpose is responsible for obtaining mutual gain”. Pu´²ar¤kamukha (HegC[jerkeÀcegKe) – (M¢.130 131 infuses life into the separated but fainted one.~ your eyes.Dee³e&Heg$e DeeefueefKele:~ (1-18) The body’s splendor of R¢mcandra was like that of bloomed blue lotus. Amarakoºa concludes m³eeoglHeueb kegÀJeue³eced specifically mentions.. 4/116. 8/12.. The eyes of M¢lat¤ : ceve cee©lees Ü s u uelÒeHeg À uueHegC[jerkeÀefJeYe´ceeY³eeb uees®eveeY³eeb. while knitting the garland of Bakula flowers and imitating the beauty of The eyes have been compared with the blue lotus. M¢. 3-22. to remove this message. 3/16. Lava says yee<HeJe<exCe veerleb Jees peievce²ueceeveveced~ DeeJeM³ee³eeJeefmekeÌlem³e HegC[jerkeÀm³e ®ee©leeced~~ (6/29) R¢mcandra on seeing Lava weeps. out of which one is “I feel as if I am bound with a beautiful garland of white lotuses”. Kauºaly¢ also similarly describes Lava’s body. It is for M¢dhava. 1-31. the critic of Uttarar¢macarita mentions that Kuvalaya is a lotus opening at night. Lava then says that these rains of tears have offered to his face the handsomeness of the lotus flowers anointed with the dew drops. The reference does show that these flowers should be very beautiful.. The affection of Pu´²arika for the sun and that of moon stone for the moon does not depend upon external affliction. Asitotpaladyuti (DeefmeleeslHeueÐegefle) : Body’s luster like blue lotus.e-pdfconverter. . That is why here Mural¢ says that such fact undoubtedly be refreshing for R¢mchandraj¤ in his attachment. Lava¬gik¢ was describing to M¢lat¤ how she had looked at M¢dhava. 1-18. 9/40 1. 2-47. glossy. This ºloka is also present in M¢lat¤m¢dhava (1/24). 3-70. Some unseen internal purpose is responsible. 5/5. Two examples are mentioned. M¢.... smooth and muscular.. M¢. 8/12 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. M¢. 1/13. S¤t¢ (meerlee) – Denes oueVeJeveerueeslHeueM³eeceueeqmveiOeceme=Ceceebmeuesve osnmeewYeei³esve. M¢. Pu´²arika blooms at sun rise and the moon stone (Candrak¢nta) oozes at moon rise. he experiences the emotions... But Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita writing : Üs keÀceuekegÀcegoeoerveeb meeceev³esve 1. 3/16) When M¢dhava looks at M¢lat¤. M¢.

3/16. The meaning of mebÎäe: kegÀJeueef³evees YegJees efJeYeeiee (1/31) will be well understood. M¢. cece efn kegÀJeue³ee#eeR Òel³eefveÿwkeÀyeg×s: (M¢. with blue lotuses. This is mentioned in the description of urban beautiful women gathered to see the sweet young boy like the autumn moon. In Amarakoºa the difference between Kamalan¢la (lotus stalk) and Mru´¢la is to remove this message. efyeefmeveer1 (Bisin¤). 8/5. . Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Indumat¤ appeared “Svinnanguli” (with moist fingers) while the husband became keÀCìefkeÀleÒekeÀesÿ: (Ka´°akitaprako¾°haª) forearm with erect hair. ¹¢l¦ka). 8/12) The word ‘Kuvalayak¾¤’ is used for beautiful eyes. ce= C eeue 2(M¨´¢la): The fine fiber like threads arising inside the stalk (n¢la) of the lotus are Mru´¢la. M¢. kegÀJeue³eoueM³eeceesçH³e²b oOelHeefjHeeC[gjced~ Here also Kuvalaya is used for blue lotus. Here Kuvalaya means a blue lotus because it is fully compared with the pupil of the eye.e-pdfconverter. 6/12. M¢. 1. He appeared yellowish pale even though his limbs appeared darkish like the petals of Kuvalaya.2/11) There is a scene where due to the satires of the excited and agile women as if filled the windows of the city. 2. Kanda. In Raghuva¼ºa. Fvoesjm³e ®e ceC[ueb kegÀJeue³eeuebkeÀejkeÀeefj Oe´Jg eced Points that Kuvalaya is moon blooming white lotus. kegÀJeue³eoueeqmveiOeM³eece: efMeKeC[ceC[ve: (4/19) keÀìe#ew: veejerCeeb kegÀJeueef³eleJeelee³eveefceJe (M¢. Raktapa¬kaja (jkeÌleHe¹pe) – DeecetuekeÀCìefkeÀlekeÀesceueyeengveeueceeêe&²u§ eeroueceve²efveoeIeleHle:~ Dem³ee: keÀjsCe keÀjceekeÀue³eeefce keÀevleceejkeÌleHe¹peefceJe efÜjo: mejm³ee:~~ (M¢. 1-21/22. M¢. Definite terms are fixed for various parts of kamala. The lotus root (mula) (actually rhizome) has terms like keÀjneì.132 133 says that Kamala and Kumuda are terms of similar meaning. 4/3. 6/20) I. tormented with Cupid like summer (summer heat). like the elephant grasping red lotus with his trunk. 3/15. efMeHeÀe. ¹if¢. MeeuetkeÀ (Karah¢°a. M¢. keÀvo. efyeme (Bisa). M¢. ce=Ceeue (M¨´¢la) and efyeme (Bisa) are synonyms. The only difference is Padma is sun blooming white lotus and Kuvalaya is moon blooming white lotus. as mentioned by K¢lid¢sa at the marriage ceremony of Indumat¤ (grasping of the hand). which is misleading. veJekegÀJeue³eeqmveiOew: De²w: ooVe³eveeslmeJeb (3/22) The frequent comparison of glossy body parts with undeveloped Kuvalaya is noteworthy. R¢ma remembers the lotus eyed S¤t¢’s words which are a tonic for the mind and a sweet elixir for the ear. But Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita has explained Mru´¢la bisa as: Üs Deypeeoerveeb cetuem³e (Dve abj¢d¤nam m¦lasya). 1/24. Saroruha (mejes©n) – Sleeefve les megJe®eveeefve mejes©neef#e (1/36) Sarasa+ruha – growing in a lake: Saroruh means a lotus. will hold with my hand my beloved hand whose tender fingers (¡m¦lakan°akti from the beginning with erect hair) are moist with sweat. 3/12.

3/15) Oh! Dear Bakulam¢l¢ ! you are really victorious on this earth as you are his beloved because of the extending and fascinating yellowish and beautiful breasts like the stalk of the mature lotus. ³esveesîíoefyemeefkeÀmeue³eeqmveiOeovlee¹§jCs e J³eeke=Àämles megleveg ueJeueerHeuueJe: keÀCe&cetueeled~ (3/15) S¤t¢ devi had nurtured an elephant calf. expressing poetic tender feeling. But when he was young. Heefjce=eof lece=Ceeueeroyg e&ueev³e²keÀeefve lJecegjefme cece ke=ÀlJee ³e$e efveêeceJeeHlee~~ (1/24) S¤t¢j¤ (looking very weak) with her emaciated limbs. Bisa and Bisimi are synonyms. R¢ma now remembers. ef®ejeoeMeelevlegm$egìleg efyeefmeveermet$eefceìgjes ceneveeefOeJ³eeefOeefvejJeefOeefjoeveeR Òemejleg~~ (M¢. as if the lotus stalks have been crushed all round was asleep. like the newly sprouting lotus stalk. The tender lotus stalks and that too very well crushed have been mentioned to show the flaccidity of the body mee jeceCeer³ekeÀefveLes: DeefLeosJelee Jee meewvo³e&meejmecegoe³eefvekesÀleveb Jee~ lem³ee: meKes efve³eleefcevogmegOeece=Ceeue p³eeslmveeefo keÀejCeceYetle ceove½e JesOee:~~ (M¢. The poet also shows elsewhere that the elephant loves eating Laval¤ leaves and Sit¢dev¤ used to feed the elephants these leaves with her hands. Using the word Gîíled (‘Udgacchat’) is used to show as if the lotus stalk is just sprouting. . so he serves the moon rays as if to die. The fair breasts have been compared with the yellow color of the Bisa of lotus.134 135 oenÒescCee mejmeefyeefmeveerHe$ecee$eevleje³e: leec³evcetefle&: Þe³eefle yengMees ce=l³eJes ®evêHeeoeved~~ (M¢. now he has been a victorious one of wild elephants. 4/3) Let the hope like thread of the lotus for getting M¢lati break. but now only the fresh leaf of lotus remains for his protection according to the poet. he used to pull the young leaves of a vine (Laval¤) from S¤t¢ with his tender and glossy teeth at the ear. 1/21) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. but actually the thread like whitish with yellowish spray fibers inside the stalk (k¢´²a or n¢la) are referred. Generally the moon rays at this time become sexually stimulating rather than cooling. laying her tired body on the chest of R¢macandra. efpeleefcen YegJeves lJe³ee leom³ee: meefKe yekegÀueeJeefue JeuueYeeefme peelee~ HeefjCeleefyemekeÀeC[HeeC[gcegiOe mleveHeefjCeenefJeueemeJewpe³evleer~ (M¢. here ‘Bisa’ is used for a lotus stalk. According to the poet Bis threads are tender. Possibly its contact is to remove this message. efkeÀmeue³e (‘Kisalaya’) is tender leaves.e-pdfconverter. The poet here has used the word efyemekeÀeC[ (‘Bisak¢´²a’). 3-12) M¢dhava is heated up with sexual excitement.

Hari chandan (best sandal). flower garlands. the army of husband of Um¢. In Kir¢ta (4/8). the pollen of dark red lotus of ¹¢ligoptri like the rising sun falling on the breasts while removing the perspiration on them because of exertion is mentioned. ÒeYee efnceebMees: FJe He¹peeveefueb efvevee³e me¹es®ecegceeHeles½ecetced (13-56) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. He brings to his chest M¢lat¤’s lotus bud like dense breasts. In its upbringing moon. M¢dhava assumes that all these cool producing items. ueerueeslKeelece=CeeuekeÀeC[keÀJeue®ísos<eg mebHeeefolee: (3/16) After referring various synonyms of the lotus we now discuss further. What a lofty statement? I think it is difficult to obtain another ºloka as this to describe the concept of to remove this message. nectar. ambrosia. describing the first experience of embrace appears unique.e-pdfconverter. Bh¢ravi’s references of lotus will be mentioned. As lotuses wither in winter. She is like a residence of the multitude of essence of beauty. M¢dhava experienced the coolness. ³eg³egJe&Oetveeb Jeoveeefve legu³eveeb efÜjsHeÀJe=voevlejslew: mejes©nw:~ (8/77) In summer the withered lotus twines (lat¢): keÌueevlepeue©nuelee: (12/51). She is incarnate-treasure of the chief deity of beauty. as if are applied on her body. The women are swimming in water. 8/5) The poet shows the moon drinking the beauty of M¢lati with rays like threads of lotus stalk (M¨´aladanda) which can be sipped by the tip of the elephant trunk. Here lotus is referred as a vine. Following is another powerful ºloka: SkeÀerke=ÀlemlJeef®e efveef<ekeÌle oJeeJeHeer[îe efveYegi& veHeervekegÀ®ekegÀ*dceue³eeve³ee ces~ keÀHe&tjnejnefj®evove®evêkeÀevle efve:m³evoMewJeuece=CeeueefnceeefoJeie&:~~ (6/12) M¢dhava embraces M¢lat¤. Candrak¢nta gem. and mentions camphor. They dive in water. To express her beauty. . The stalk of lotus (n¢la) is hollow with thread like fibers inside. To express this the poet mentions a group of things producing the cool. m¨´¢la and moon light are responsible. Multitude of wasps sitting on the lotus flowers cover them. The Cupid in presence is its creator. floating their dark eyebrow like hair. The poet pictures the following scene. moon light and lotus are collectively responsible. moon. mHegÀìmejespeJevee peJevee veoer: (5/7) efJekeÀ®eJeeefj©nb oOeleb mej: (5/13) DeeqmcevjefleÞecevego½e mejespeJeelee: (5/28) The wind filled with fragrance of lotuses was removing the sexual fatigue.136 137 M¢dhava describes the beauty of M¢lat¤. Their lotus like faces are under water and above the water. ieC[t<eHes³eeceJe keÀevl³ece=leb efHeHeemeg: Fvog: efveJesefMelece³etKece=CeeueoC[: (M¢. ¹a¬kara contracted against the army of Arjuna. M¨´¢la (lotus fiber). This shlok. M¨´¢la (lotus stalk) which remove the heat. The poet shows the moon enjoying the beauty through the M¨´¢la threads like rays placed at the pure forehead of M¢lat¤. ºaiv¢la (algae).

The owl loses his laughter and the Cakravaka’s laughter is on the rise. mee He¨ejeieb Jemeveb Jemeevee He¨eevevee He¨eouee³elee#eer~ He¨ee efJeHe¨ee HeeflelesJe ue#ceer: MegMeer<e He¨eñeefie&JeeleHesve~~ (Saundaranandak¢vya sarga 6/26) Following this poem. of dawn description. (as the drunkard with heavy drinking the wine is red faced). DeLeJeeefceefveefJeäyege× f <eg Je´peefle J³eLe&keÀleeb megYeeef<eleced~ jefJejeefie<eg Meerlejesef®e<e: keÀjpeeueb keÀceueekeÀjseq<JeJe~~ (sarga. the lustre of moon pales and that of very white lotus increases. Oe=leefyemeJeue³es efveOee³e HeeCeew (10/46)in picturing ¹akuntal¢ Oe=leb ve Jee ®evêcejeref®eHesueJeb ce=Ceeuenejb jef®eleb mleveevlejs garland of lotus – tender beautiful garland like the moon rays. the poet M¢gha has shown wonderful poetic to remove this message. . Pu´²ar¤ka (HegC[jerkeÀ) . (4/7). so it became red faced. This is a fancy of a poet for the setting sun. keÀHeesuemebMueef<e DeJelemekeÀeslHeueced (4/9) The blue lotus worn as an erring was touching the forehead. 7/23) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. efvejer#eceeCee³e peueb meHe¨eb Jeveb ®e kegÀuueb HejHegäpegäced~ keÀm³eeefmle Oew³e& veJe³eewJevem³e ceemes ceOeew Oece&meHeMveYetles~~ (sarga. Aºvaghoºa mentions in the following ºloka that seeing the lakes full of lotuses in the spring. the silken fiber like threads coming out from the lotus stack were used by women as bangles.138 139 leg<eejuesKeekegÀefueleeslHeueeces (3/16) DebMegHeeefCeefYejleerJe efHeHeemeg: He¨epeb ceOeg Ye=Meb jmeef³elJee~ #eeryeleefceJe iele: ef#eefleces<³ebuueesefnleb JeHeg©Jeen Hele²:~~ (9/3) The sun was eager to drink the nectar of lotus through its rays. The poet feels that the lustre of the moon is snatched by the sun.12-66) The pollen of Kahal¢ra flower which offers pleasant fragrance was falling on Yamun¢ water.(very white lotus) In describing the early morning. men intoxicated in prime of life are deprived of composure. It drank heavily the lotus nectar. Kahl¢ra (keÀ¼ej) – (moon blossoming) (synonym of Saugandhika) DeeuneefokeÀ¼ejmeceerjCeenles Hegj: HeHeeleecceefme ³eecegves jpe:~~ (Sarg. and for its love of Pu´²ar¤ka.e-pdfconverter. is bestowed on it Deo³eefceJe keÀjeûew: S<e efve<Heer[îe meÐe: MeMeOejcenjeoew jeieJeeveg<CejeqMce:~ DeJeefkeÀjefle efveleevleb keÀeefvleefve³eefmeceyom$egleveJepeueHeeC[gb HegC[jerkeÀesojs<eg~~ (¹iºup¢lavadha sarga 11-62) keg À ceg e f o veer (Kumudn¤) Night blossoming lotus and DecYees p e (Ambhoja) Day blossoming lotus. With the dawn. Very popular ºloka of M¢gha. efyemeefkeÀmeue³e (Bisakisalaya). 16/43) As moon cool rays have no entry in the sun blossoming lotus. that of the Ambhoja is on the increase. swinging by the wind. harmful sayings have no entry in the minds of resolute intelligent men.the painter forgot to paint on her breasts. kegÀcegoJeveHeefÞe ÞeerceocceespejKeC[b l³epeefle cegoceguetkeÀ: Òeerelf eceeb½e¬eÀJeekeÀ:~ The forest beauty of Kumuda is declining.

what has not been done by the un-courteous men? He¨eekeÀjb efovekeÀjes efJekeÀ®eb keÀjesefle ®evêes efJekeÀeme³eefle kewÀjJe®e¬eÀJeeueced~ (N¤tiºataka.140 141 At elsewhere. 10/24) He¨eHeCe& ³eLee ®ewJe peues peeleb peues efmLeleced~ GHeefj<ìeoOemleeÜe ve peuesveesHeefueH³eles~~ leÜuueeskesÀ cegefvepeex ueeskeÀOecezve efueH³eles~ (sarga. ornamented with a girdle and a necklace of pearls and bent with dish sized breasts? (¹¨¬g¢raºataka ºloka-31). . Nilotpala) just receive an attack of ageing. residence of king’s palace. ºloka-63). Bhart¨hari counts seven thorns/arrows in life (N¤tiº to remove this message.e-pdfconverter. but vicious mouth. Our wives will be disappointed. We are very eager to reach our home before our beloved with the beauty of eyes like the blossomed lotus (Kumuda) and blue lotus (Indivara. for our transitory life. Jew[t³e&veeueeefve ®e keÀeáeveeefve He¨eeefve Jeýee¹§jkesÀmejeefCe~ mHeMe&#eceeC³egÊeceievOeJeefvle jesnefvle efve<keÀcHeleuee veefuev³e:~~ (sarga. tired and deprived of youth. the same poet pictures us a scene of red lotuses with bright blue gem like stacks growing in the beautiful region of the Himalayas. MeMeer efoJemeOetmejes ieefuele³eewJevee keÀeefceveer mejes efJeieleJeeefjpeb cegKeceve#ejb mJeeke=Àles:~ Deceer<eeb ÒeeCeeveeb legeuf eleefyeefmeveerHe$eHe³emeeb kegÀles efkebÀ veemceeefYeefJe&ieefueleefJeJeskewÀJ³e&Jeefmeleced~ (Vair¢gyaºataka) Like the drop of water on the lotus leaf. addressing to them “Oh king! Nobody can cross the ocean of desire then what can we poor say? What is the need of abundant wealth after we have lost our youth full of passion! We love our youth more than the wealth. ºloka-45): moon without light. ie®íece: me¨e leeJeefÜkeÀefmelekegÀcegovs oerJejeueesekf eÀveerveecee¬eÀc³ee¬eÀm³e ªHeb Peefìefle ve pej³ee uegH³eles Òes³emeerveeced~~ (¹¨¬g¢raºataka-28) The helpless ones who in this essence less world deluded with new riches and wine drinking and have lost their patience after serving the bad kings with senses: How would they would have peace of mind without the women with lotus petal like wide eyes. a permanent poor gentleman. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ve ®eeeqmcevmebmeejs kegÀJeue³e¢Mees jc³eceHejced~ (¹¨¬g¢raºataka 35) In this world what can be more pleasant than women with lotus like eyes? Dee³egJee&³egeJf eOeefÆleeypeHeìueesueerveecyegJeÓ²§jced~ The life like embrace of lotus leaf and water drop is short lived (transitory). 13/5) The young tired of long travel and ready to serve the kings says. but wicked. beautiful women with fallen youth. master but a slave of wealth. And the following ºloka of the same poet mentions in a vivid simile that the water does not wet the lotus leaf. pleasant face. lakes without lotus.

mebleHlee³eefme mebefmLelem³e He³emees veeceeefHe ve Þet³eles cegkeÌleekeÀejle³ee leosJe veefueveerHe$eefmLeleb ¢M³eles~ (N¤tiºataka. This ºloka kegÀcegefoveer (Kumudin¤) distinguishes between moon lotus and sun to remove this message. This swan once deceived at night does not eat the white lotus (sun lotus). The poet compares them with redness of the rising sun. 128) Here the hand covered with bangles of white fibers from the lotus stalk is shown. but the water drop on the lotus leaf shines like a pearl. cetue. (stalk) are mentioned. mejefme yengMemleeje®íe³es #eCeelHeefjJeefáele: kegÀcegoefJeìHeevJes<eer nbmees efveMeemJeefJe®e#eCe:~ ve oMeefle HegvemleejeMe¹er efoJeeefHe efmeleeslHeueb kegÀnkeÀ®eefkebÀlees ueeskeÀ: melJesçH³eHee³eceHes#eles~~ (Hitopadeºa-sandhi. The moon blossoms the Kumudin¤ (Lotus). Fle½e Go³eled met³e&meceûeYew: keÀceuejkeÌleeslHeuew: mebO³ee³eles FJe oerefIe&keÀe~ (M¨cchhaka°ika) Red lotuses blossom in the step well. keÀjeJeke=Àäw½e mece=Ceeuecetueveeuew (K¢dambar¤ Para. ºloka-107) meg®eefjle®eefjleb efJeMeg×osnb ve efn keÀceueb ceOegHee: Heefjl³epeefvle~~ (M¨cchhaka°ika Act 8) Are you tempting me with wealth like a mean rogue? Do the nectar sipping wasps abandon the lotus of pure character and beauty? The poet of K¢dambar¤ while describing the strength of Candr¢p¤²a says that when he was a boy he used to cut easily at one blow of his sword the big palms as someone can cut with ease the stack of a lotus (M¨´¢lada´²a) The reflections of stars fall on the lake water. (root) (really rhizome) and veeue. 72) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.142 143 The sun blossoms the lotus (padma). Para. 126) Here three parts of lotus ce=Ceeue (M¨´¢la). The word ce=Ceeue (M¨´¢la) here means white fibers. 118) pejþ (Jara°ha) . The man once cheated or deceived in this way looks at the truth with doubt. (white silken like threads like fibers from lotus stalk).e-pdfconverter. This step well with red lotuses looks like the sunset bloom mebO³ee³eles oereIf e&keÀe (‘Sandhy¢yate dirghik¢’ is a nice smile). M¨´¢la (ce=Ceeue) ce=CeeueJeue³eeuebke=Àleced~ (K¢dambar¤. keÀef®eppejþce=CeeueoC[OeJeue:~ (K¢dambar¤ Para. 111) Here ce=Ceeue (M¨´¢la) means lotus stack. There is no sign of water drop fallen on the red hot iron. The elephant had uprooted the lotuses from the lake and that is why the whole path was strewn with all these parts. ceboeefkeÀveerce=Ceeuepeeuepeefìue:~ (K¢dambar¤ Para. Well grown white like lotus stalk. ºloka-58). Keue®eefjleefveke=Àäpeeleoes<e: keÀLeefcen ceeb HeefjueesYemes Oevesve~ SkewÀkesÀve ke=ÀHeeCeÒenejsCe yeeue SJe leeuele©ce=CeeueoC[eefveJe uegueeJe~ (K¢dambar¤ Para.fully grown. The king swan in search of night lotus (Kumudin¤) is deceived when it tries to eat the reflected stars. .

As the moon blossoms and makes full blown ‘Kumidin¤’. He has called the sun rays awakening the lotus slept at the evening as minstrels. Para. Here Cakrav¢ka Mithuna (ruddy goose couple) separates at night and they put their hearts in the hollow part of the ‘M¨´¢la’ stalk. Para. Para. Fine plump lotus stalk and lotus leaves marked with water drops. The couple separates at night and unites at day... Para. Para. ce=CeeuewefjJe efJejef®eleeJe³eJeeced~ (K¢dambar¤. mejes©nJeveÞeerkesÀefuekeÀej: keÀj:~~ (Act. 162) Here ce=Ceeue (M¨´¢la) like means lotus fiber.144 145 efoiiepeceppevepepe&efjlepejvce=CeeueoC[ced~ (K¢dambar¤. 133) ûeemeerke=Àlemeeceev³ece=CeeueueleeefJe®ejmeb¬eÀeefceleeveerJe HejmHejËo³eev³eeoe³e efJeIeìceeves<eg jLee²veecveeb ³egieues<eg. 128) Here ce=Ceeue (M¨´¢la) means lotus. carried from a pond. . HegÀuuelHe¹pekeÀesMeieYe&kegÀn ÒeesoYd etleYe=²eJeueer – Pee¹ejÒeCeJeesHeosMeiegjJe: leerJe´ÐeglesjMb eJe:~~ The sun rays are considered as teachers giving love precepts inducing the humming for the wasps in rows. The wasps are considered as repeaters who are their followers producing humming sound as advised.. 156) The limbs were tender like M¨´¢la. for ‘Kumidin¤’ like S¤t¢. ce=Ceeue (M¨´¢la) is a popular word with Sanskrit poets. (K¢dambar¤.(K¢. lemceelmejme: mejmee ce=CeeefuekeÀe mece=×=l³e keÀceefueveer iueeMeeefve peueueJeueeeq®íleeefve Deeoe³ to remove this message. ce=CeeueefceJe ogäJeejCeovlecegmeuecegvcetueJeefle~ (K¢.. DeceueueeJeC³epeueceCeeuekeÀeC[eY³eeb yeengY³eeb (K¢. The following ºloka of Prasannar¢ghava nicely explains the word Kumudin¤ (night lotus) peef%eyeevoMejLe: meefn jepee jeceefcevogecf eJe megvojcetelf e&ced~ ueeskeÀuees®eveefJeieenveMeerleeb lJeb Hegve: kegÀcegeof veerecf eJe meerleeced~~ (Act 3-29) S¤t¢ has been compared with cool ‘Kumudin¤’ which pleases the public eyes and R¢macandra with a fine image of moon. clean graceful and lotus stalks like hands. 5/5) At the setting of of the moon. Both them ate a common ‘M¨´¢la’ stalk and put their hearts in the hollow of the same stalk and separated at night. kegÀJeue³eoueoecem³eecekeÀeefvle: keÀìe#e:~ (Act. 161) Here hands like lotus stalks.. At elsewhere. 7-83) The poet of Prasannar¢ghava has nicely described the early morning sun rise. mee³ebkeÀeuemeg<egHleHe¹peJeveÒeesoyeesOeJewleeefuekeÀe:~ (Act. the early sun rays. R¢mcandra is a proper husband...7-86) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.. Here M¨´¢la is used for the lotus or fiber (Bisa) of the stalk. Para. 161) The pestle like teeth of elephant are pulled out as ‘M¨´¢la’ (lotus). only lotuses are not dejected but the whole world dips into darkness. 3-44) ÒeesefHeleJeefle jpeefvekeÀjs yevOegle³ee ve Keueg kewÀjJeeC³esJe~ cuee³eefvle efkeÀvleg menmee YegJeveev³eefHe leceefme ceppeefvle~~ (Prasannar¢ghava Act.e-pdfconverter.

known in Sanskrit as MeeuetkeÀ (‘¹¢l¦ka’) is edible. as per its name. Deeyeeu³eeÜoveecyegpes levegce=leeb meejmJeleb pe=cYeleeced Let the goddess of knowledge (Sarsvat¤) reside in our lotus like mouths. minute like popy seeds and edible. 7-86) Further for the early sun rays. Kumudin¤ Moon blossoming lotus Kuvalaya. ‘Nilofer’ sold in the market is Nymphaea nouchali (Nymphhaea stallata).e-pdfconverter. There are varieties of lotus. 7-87) The Sun God. HetJe&eif eefjHe¨ejeie: ÒekeÀìerke=Àleve³eveMeerleuemJeYeeJe:~ kegÀ¹§ceke=Àlee²jeiees veefueveerJeveJeuueYees osJe:~~ (Act. its seeds are whitish black or red. efMeefLeue³eefle mejeiees ³eeJeokeÀeW veefuev³ee: keÀceuecegkegÀueveerJeerûeeqvLecegêeb keÀjsCe~ (Act. following is a nice ºloka. Kokanada Red lotus Pu´²ar¤ka Deep white Saugandhika Moon blossoming with the best fragrance of all lotuses. The rhizome (Kanda). Seeds of Nelumbo known as ‘Kamlakakdi’ or ‘pabadi’ are used in medicine. Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea nouchali. Sanskrit names of lotus parts Common name Young fresh tender leaf Rhizome (Root-kand) Stalk of flower Silken fibrous threads in stalk Stamen Sanskrit name Sa¼vartik¢ ¹¢l¦ka M¨´¢la. Makh¢n¢ which are eaten during fasting also belongs to lotus. .N¢la Bisa Ki®jalka. Ishat shukla. svet Ashtadal padma Nalin¤ Sun blossoming with eight petals Kumuda. Kesara Makaranda Kar´ik¢ Padmab¤ja Nectar Fruit cover (Pericarp) Kamal seed Different names of lotus Padma Sun blossoming .146 147 The sun considered as a lustful lover untying with it rays (hands) blossoming the knot of the flower bud of the lotus. Kalhara Amarsinh considers it as synonym as its fragrance resembled that of Saugandhika. The sacred of Indian lotus or the sun lotus is Nelumbu nucifera. The fruit of Nymphaea is called ‘Ghitelan’. ruby above the eastern mountain. cooling the eyes (early morning sun is ‘Nayanaºitalasvabh¢vaª’). Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The others called Kumidin¤ or Poya´a are Nymphaea to remove this message. They are cooling. applying the saffron coating in all directions and loving lord of lotus forest rises. Utpala Light blue lotus N¤lotpala Blue lotus Nalina Ishat rakta Padma.

M¢dhava is in search of M¢lat¤. Its synonyms are Kampillo raktac¦r´akaª’. Ca´²¢ta.) K.) Edgew. The plant is poisonous. The significance of this simile cannot be appreciated without seeing the fruit of Kapil¢. (Capparis aphylla Roth. How is the face? She looks beautiful with the loveliness of red lips. Hayam¢raka. Family: Apocynaceae Red Karen/yellow Karen keÀjYee: MejYee: mejemeYee ceocee³eeefvle Yepeefvle efJeef¬eÀ³eeced~ keÀjJeerjkeÀjerjHege<f HeCeer: mLeueYetceerjefOe©¿e ®eemeles~~ (R¢jaºekhara Act. Its trees were very common near the T¢p¤ river. Rec¤. The flowers of Kare´a and Karir blossom and beautify the earth. Monkey face tree ovle®íoe©efCecejef¡elekeÀevleovle ceg$ec³e ®egcyeefle JeueerJeove: efÒe³ee³ee:~ keÀeefcHeuueÒemeJeHeeìueieC[HeeefueHeekeÀe©CeemHegÀefìleoeef[cekeÀeefvle JekedÀ$eced~~ (M¢lat¤. the poet Nilaka´²ha shows him sexual gestures of the monkey. Karav¤ra is Kare´a or Ka´ to remove this message. Karav¤ra. Nai¾adha (21/45) mentions that its flowers are used for worship of Lord ¹iva. Family: Euphorbiaceae Red Kamla. (Nerium odorum Aiton.148 149 KAMPILLAKA Kamopillaka Mallotus philippensis (Lam. Sinduri. Its fruit has a covering of dark red dust which is real Kapilo. Recanaka. king Nala used these flowers for ¹aiva worship. hence named as Hayam¢raka. Its synonyms are Pratih¢sa. 9-31) When intensely passionate. insecticidal. KAR£RA Capparis decidua (Forssk. Arg. . KARAV£RA Nerium oleander L. locust and donkey come in rut and passion. He$eb vewJe ³eoe keÀjerjefJeìHes oes<ees Jemevlem³e efkeÀced~ (Bhart¨hari) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Shendrl. Ra®jana. with white. Kerado. It is a medicinally useful tree. with delicate small teeth. Schum.) Family: Capparaceae Kerda.18) This ºloka has the description of summer season. Red Kare´a is Nerium oleander and yellow one is Thevetia peruviana. Her temple region (cheek) reminds the lustre of a ripe opened dark red pomegranate. Lohit¢®ga. This is one of the fine shloks.) Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Aºvam¢raka. wild elephant etc. Kapilo is purgative. Karir Kerado. Kapilo fruit is sold in the market. The monkey lifting his beloved’s face kisses her. ®evoveesHeefueHleeefol³eceC[uekeÀefveefnlekeÀjJeerjkegÀmegceced~~ Here it is mentioned that for the sun worship Ka´era flowers are used. Kapilo is a fruit HeÀuejpe (Falaraja) (cover dust).Kapil¢. red and yellow flowers.) Muell. In this season camel. ¹atpr¢sa.e-pdfconverter. Bhanuji Dixit uses the word ‘Ka´era’.

4/1) Chanibor was used in cooking and its fragrance spreads all round. Family: Rhamnaceae Chanibor. 18) Karav¤ra and Kar¤ra flower in summer. to remove this message. G¦²hapatra. Karkandhu is defined as one having many spines.150 151 What is the fault of spring if Kar¤ra (Kerado) has no leaves? Sanskrit synonyms of Kerado are Kar¤ra. the redness of the Karkandhu fruit is compared with the redness of the rising sun. efkebÀ Heg<Hew: efkebÀ HeÀuewmlem³e keÀjerjm³e ogielceve:~ ³esve Je=ef× meceemeeÐe ve ke=Àle: He$emebûen:~~ KARKANDHU Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. The following maxim. Believing this the cowherds are holding their milk pots and collecting chambers as if they are the pearls. Its flowers can be cooked as a vegetable as the name ‘¹¢kpu¾pa’ suggests. Many kinds of Bor are present. It is a joy to see all green plant of Kerado beautified by dark red flowers in summer. T¤k¾´aka´°aka. Its fruits are pickled. keÀke&ÀvOetveeb veeiej²erHeÀueeveeb HeeHeÀesêks eÀ: KeeC[JeesçH³eeefJejefmle~ The children like its sweet fruits. In Nai¾adha. Amarakoºa has given similar synonyms. suggests that its flowers are useful. Jharberi R¢jaºekhara has referred the fruits of chanibor and orange in the description of winter. Nalacamp¦ describes Karkandhu as: keÀke&ÀvOegHeÀuecege®q ®eveeself e Meyejer cegkeÌleeHeÀueekeÀe*d#e³ee meevêe ®evêcemees ve keÀm³e kegÀ©les ef®eÊeYe´ceb ®eeqvêkeÀe~ (Ucchv¢sa 2/36) Moonlight is described. . The forest women collect its fruit as if the pearls have been strewn. HeÀueb otjlejsçH³eemleeb He<Ceeefme kegÀmegcewpe&veeved~ Flejs lejJees cev³es keÀjerj leJe efkebÀkeÀje:~~ The other maxim creator has taken to task the poor leafless plant. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.e-pdfconverter. ¹¢kapu¾pa.) Wight & Arn.f. In whom the soothing moonlight does not create unrest in mind? The moon light spreads its whiteness everywhere as if sprays of milk are falling from the sky. keÀke¥À keÀCìkebÀ oOeeefle Fefle keÀke&ÀvOeg:~ keÀke&ÀvOetye&ojer keÀesueer Bhavbh¦ti while describing the hermitage of V¢lm¤ki mentions: keÀke&ÀvOetHeÀueefceÞeMeekeÀHe®eveeceeso: Heefjmleer³e&les~ (Uttara. Dhanvantari Nigha´°u refers (Karkandhukam gu²afalam b¢le¾°am falaºaiºiraª (keÀke&ÀvOegkebÀ ieg[HeÀueb yeeuesäb HeÀueMewefMej:~) mentioning that children love its sweet fruit in winter. The moonlight has thus created unrest in all minds. keÀjJeerjkeÀjerjHege<f HeCeer: mLeueYetceerjefOe©¿e ®eemeles~ (R¢jaºekhara Act.

The Kar´ik¢ra trees growing at the near shore were in flowers and as the king was surrounded by maids with ignited lamps the trunk of the tree was surrounded by Kar´ik¢ra yellowish flowers as the ignited lamps.e-pdfconverter. 3-28) The colour of Kar´ik¢ra flower is very beautiful-attractive but there is no smell. 5. The poet regrets. 9-40 refers to the colour of the flower. keÀCex<eg ³eesi³eb veJekeÀefCe&keÀejced~ (6-5) meceoceOegYejeCeeb keÀesekf eÀueeveeb ®e veeow:~~ kegÀmegefcelemenkeÀejw: keÀefCe&keÀejw½e jc³e:~~ (6-27) efkebÀ efkebÀMegkewÀ: MegkeÀcegKe®íefJeefYeVebeYf eVeb~ efkebÀ keÀefCe&keÀejkegÀmegcew: ve ke=Àleb veg oiOeced~~ ( 6-20) The beautiful women used its flowers as earrings. Vikramorvaºiya Act-3 ºloka-3 also refers similarly about the flower colour. After looking into these references of K¢lid¢sa an attempt would be now made to determine the identity of the tree. Raghuva¼ºa sarg.” 1. HeefjpeveJeefveleekeÀjeefHe&leeefYe: HeefjJe=le SJe efJeYeeefle oereHf ekeÀeefYe:~ efieefjefjJe ieefleceeveHe#eueesHeeovegleìHege<f HelekeÀefCe&keÀej³eefä:~~ Maids with ignited torches or ignited lamps in their hands were surrounding the king. 20. using spring flowers instead of ornaments”. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Kum¢rsa¼bhava 3-53. The poet has described the flower colour as ‘Hutahutashanadipti’ (lustre of the fire of offering in oblation). The blazing colour of the fire is yellowish so that of Kar´ik¢ra should be yellowish and its petals and stamens are also delicate. sarga. . 3-53) “P¢rvat¤ having Kar´ik¢ra flowers instead of golden earrings. 62. nglengleeMeveoereHq leJeveefÞe³e ÒeefleefveefOe: keÀvekeÀeYejCem³e ³eled~ ³egJele³e: kegÀmegceb oOegjeefnleb leouekesÀ ouekesÀmejHesMeueced~~ Kar´ik¢ra represents the golden ornamentation of the forest beauty and wealth.152 153 Òemejefle veJeekexÀ keÀke&ÀvOegHeÀuee©Cejesef®eef<e (19/51) (The author has not mentioned the scientific name of this plant) KAR³IK¡RA1 Sanskrit poets dearly love Kar´ik¢ra tree. JeCe&ÒekeÀ<ex meefle keÀefCe&keÀejb ogveesefle efveie&vOele³ee mce ®esle:~ Òee³esCe meecei³eefJeOeew iegCeeveb Heje²cegKeer efJeéeme=pe: ÒeJe=e& Êf e:~~ (sarga. In the spring its lovely flowers increase the forest beauty. It is now explicit that these flowers were of golden colour. Deeke=ÀänsceÐegeflekeÀefCe&keÀejced~~ (Kum¢ra. Kar´ik¢ra: §tusa¼h¢ra 6-27. The description of spring in §tusa¼h¢ra refers Kar´ik¢ra three times. The flower of Kar´ik¢ra should have a colour which should pale the colour of gold. Which tree is Kar´ik¢ra? Kum¢rsa¼bhava gives additional information about this tree. Vikramorvaº¤ya. Raghuva¼ºa 9-40. 28. The young women had worn in their wreaths of braids the Kar´ik¢ra flower which had the splendour of blazing fire and delicacy of its petals and stamens. “as the moon has blots so Kar´ik¢ra has no smell: the creator is more unfavourably inclined towards things having virtues in to remove this message.

6/39-4. Nigha´°us of Dhanvantari and Raja have considered the synonym of ¡ragvadha is Kar´ik¢ra1. But P¢ndaravo-Pang¢r¢ is a ceb o ejJe= # e (‘Mand¢ra’ tree). Parivyadha.. 4/ 1-21. Aºoka and mango.) which has dark red flowers. The knowledge of plants of Amarasinh and Bhanuji Dixit is not considered to be authoritative. But its flower are not golden yellow. 31. 3/73-3. Drumotpal. 7/26-4. Amarakoºa mentions three synonyms. 3/42-23. 6/22-53. 3/49-30. There is now no doubt that Kar´ik¢ra is Cassia fistula. F³eb megefce$ee og:Keelee& osJeer je%e½e ceO³ecee~ keÀefCe&keÀejm³e MeeKesJe MeerCe&Heg<Hee Jeveevlejs~~ (2/93-23) Sumitr¢ suffering from grief in the forest appeared miserable like the Kar´ik¢ra tree with all its branches with withered flowers. the synonym of ‘Garam¢la’ (¡ragvadha) is Kar´ik¢ra. 73. 2.) is identified as “Campaka°hi” by some. and Kar´ik¢ra for Kar´ik¢ra. 3/60-20. ‘Kath¢campa’ has no equivalent in Gujarati.154 155 The meaning of Kar´ik¢ra women? To be confirmed. In Buddhacaritam of Aºvagho¾a. 4/50-26. Garamalo. family Caesalpinaceae . Amaltas. Kar´ik¢ra is referred many times in the R¢m¢ya´a2. The poet refers to Sumitr¢ when she along with other queens of Daºaratha had accompanied Bharata to bring back R¢mcandra. so Kathacampa can not be Kar´ik¢ra. Dradhabal in Carakasa¼hit¢. 2/29-23. But this belief of his is mistaken. Drumotpala is identified as Petrospermum aceriboliam (Sterculiaceae) by Sindhukara. Bh¢vam¤ºra considers Kar´ik¢ra as Heebieeje Fefle cenejeä^s Òeefme×:. Indian laburnum. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ‘Kanachnar’ (Bauhinia sp. Caraka has also considered similarly. .. whenthis tree flowers all its leaves fall off and the entire tree is covered with flowers. But ‘Kanachar’ has no yellow flowers. Late Katobhat Kovidar mentions it in his Nigha´°u. whose contribution is present in modern Caraksa¼hit¢. (Nycanthus sp. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita mentions : $eerefCe keÀefCe&keÀejm³e keÀþ®ecHee Fefle K³eelem³e.. S¤t¢j¤ addressed the 1. While R¢va´a after abducting S¤t¢j¤ was going away. The plant is called ‘Mucakanda’ but its leaves are fine and very large and flowers to remove this message... Amarakoºa considered ¡ragvadha different from Kar´ik¢ra. 3/62-5.Jemeveb Heerle³ecevegÊeceb oOeevee:~ DeJeMee yele efveê³ee efveHeslegie&peYeivee FJe keÀefCe&keÀejMeeKee:~~ The yellow clothes wearing Buddhist women. helpless because of the sleep induced by passion fainted on the ground as the Kar´ik¢ra branches lay broken by the elephant. the yellow flowers of Kar´ik¢ra have been compared with the yellow clothes of the Buddhist women (Kar´ik¢ri) . Kar´ik¢ra trees were present in Pancva°¤ (3/42) and when M¢y¢ deer came S¤t¢j¤ was engrossed in plucking the flowers of Kar´ik¢ra.

These Kar´ik¢ra trees with golden spread over beautify like men dressed with yellow clothes.®ecHekeÀeVeeieJe=#eeb½e keÀefCe&keÀejeb½e Hege<f Heleeved~~ (4/50-25. Look at this most beautiful Kar´ik¢ra tender tree in flowers. The poet is familiar with the tree that is why he says “Pu¾pitaª ºobhate bh¨ºam”. The last ºloka of the second act of Vikramorvaº¤yam describes the afternoon as follows: G<Ceeueg: efMeefMejs efve<eeroefle lejesce&ut eeueJeeues efMeKeer efveefYe&ÐeesHeefj keÀefCe&keÀejcegkegÀueev³eeueer³eles <eìdHeo:~ leHleb Jeeefj efJene³e leerjveefueveer keÀejC[Jee: mesJeles Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.26) They saw some trees like golden campaka. The poet has compared Nanda’s pure golden body. R¢va´a saw Kar´ik¢ra trees as brilliantly lit when he visited Nalakubara at Kail¢ºa peak. tell R¢mcandraj¤ that R¢va´a has abducted me” Deecev$e³es pevemLeeveb keÀefCe&keÀejeb½e Hegef<Heleeved~ ef#eÒeb jecee³e MebmeOJeb meerleeb njefle jeJeCe:~~ And when R¢m¢ was mad with grief asked various trees about the whereabouts of S¤t¢. While doing so he did not forget addressing Kar´ik¢ra trees. yellow clothes worn by Buddhist monk respectively with copper coloured new emerging leaves and beautiful yellow flowers.18/5) Nanda realized the knowledge and put on the yellow clothes and fell on the feet of the teacher. the poet very well acquaints us this tree. Denes lJeb keÀefCe&keÀeje³e Hegef<Hele: MeesYeles Ye=Meced~ keÀefCe&keÀejefÒe³eeb meeOJeer Mebme ¢äe ³eefo efÒe³ee~~ (3.156 157 flowering Kar´ik¢ra trees and asked them “Oh trees. In the description of Pamp¢ lake. . My wife loved your flowers very much.. you appear beautiful with flowers. They appear as if they are encased or covered with gold.e-pdfconverter. The great poet has not forgotten Kar´ik¢ra trees in describing the garden of La¬k¢.. This true golden like fair Nanda appeared handsome like a brightly blossomed Kar´ik¢ra with its copper coloured tender leaves oscillating in wind. the forest with these trees in full blossoms appear to the poet with a lustre of fire and gold. 60-20) “Oh! Kar´ik¢ra. (6/49-4). Tell me if you have seen my beloved”. megHegef<Heleebmleg HeM³ewleevkeÀefCe&keÀejevmecevlele:~ neìkeÀÒeeflemebíVeeVejevHeerleecyejeefveJe~~ (4/1-21) Kar´ik¢ra trees have blossomed all round. meewecf e$es He<³e HecHee³ee: oef#eCes efieefjmeeveg<eg~ Hegef<Heleeb keÀefCe&keÀejm³e ³eefäb HejceMeesefYeleeced~~ (4/1-73) The tender tree is called ‘ya¾°i’. N¢gakesara or N¢gacampo and Kar´ik¢ra all with most beautiful flowers. The poem Saundaranand of Aºvaghoºa refers Kar´ik¢ra as under keÀe<ee³eJeemee: keÀvekeÀeJeoelemlele: me cetOvee& iegjJes ÒeCesces~ Jeelesejf le: HeuueJeleece´jeie: Heg<HeesppJeueÞeerejf Je keÀefCe&keÀej:~~ (sarga. o¢Meg: keÀeáeveeved Je=#eeved oerHleJewéeevejÒeYeeved~ .com to remove this message.. Hanum¢n along with other monkeys entered a cave named §k¾abila in search of S¤t¢.

96) To remove sweat karp¦ra powder was used. Most of the Karp¦ra is imported. The parrot of the amusement park itself in the cage bewailing with thirst entreats for water.18). if the unfortunate does not penance.mentioned in K¢dambr¤: keÀjmeb®etefCe&lesve keÀHet&jjsCegvee mJesoÒeleerkeÀejcekeÀjJeced~ (Early para 162) DeefJejue-DeceuekeÀHet&j#eesoYemceOeJeueced~ (Early para 170) cekeÀefjkesÀ. Karp¦ra trees mostly grow on the Malaya mountain in the south. Bh¤maseni Karpura. S¤t¢. The synonyms of Karp¦ra are Ghanas¢ra. fragrance of flower garlands and purified by the incense of Karp¦ra. Bh¤masenaª etc. Today Karp¦ra.158 159 ¬eÀer[eJesMceefve ®ewJe He¡ejMegkeÀ: keÌueevlees peueb ³ee®eles~~ The peacock cannot tolerate the heat hence he is at the cool region of the root of the tree. Candra. Candraprabh¢ Cinnamomum camphora (L. ¹¤talaraja.e-pdfconverter. etc. Respect for Karp¦ra is shown in the famous expression ³e#ekeÀoce keÀHet&jeieg© keÀmletefjkeÀkeÌkeÀesueb ³e#ekeÀo&ceced keÀHet&jieewjb (“Karp¦ragauram”). Tuhina. Ghanasara. Tu¾¢ra. he is like a helpless foolish man who builds a band of Karp¦ra around the small field of coarse grain. . efílJee keÀHet&jKeC[evJe=efleefcen kegÀ©les keÀesêJeeCeeb mecevleelÒeeH³esceeb keÀce&Yetefceb ve Yepeefle cevegpees ³emleHees cevoYeei³e:~~ (Bhart¨hari. carrying the smell of spiritious liquor. K¢randeva bird (duck or swan?) leaving the warm water shelters near the lotus at the shore. There are as many names of Canadan as of Karp¦ra.) J. Presl. are available. Family: Lauraceae (M¢lat¤m¢dhava 3/74. 7/5) ÒeemeeoeveeceHegejf Jeueceerleg²Jeelee³eves<eg Ye´evlJeeJe=Êe: HeefjCelemegjeievOemebmkeÀejieYe&:~ ceeu³eeceesoes cegn©g Heef®elemHeÀejkeÀHetj& Jeemees Jee³eg³etv& eeceefYeveJeJeOetmebevf eOeeveb J³eveeqkeÌle~~ (7/5) The wind blowing around the high placed large windows of the big houses like palaces. keÀHet&jHeuueJejmesve DeefOeJeeme³e ievOeHee$eeefCe~ (Early para 188) nj®evêKeC[mLetueMekeÀueb ve keÀHet&jced efJeuesHeveced~ (para 188) keÀHet&jOetefueOetmejs<eg ceue³epejueJeuegefueles<eg yekegÀueeJeueerJeue³es<eg mleves<eg v³emle veefueveerHe$eÒeeJejCeced~ (Para 208) Crushing the leaves of Karp¦ra produces smell. KARP¥RA Karpure. After obtaining the proper ground to act. Potaso. The wasps making their way into the Kar´ik¢ra flowers from its tips and disappear. 17) and in summer: cenejnm³eb efMeefMejef¬eÀ³ee³ee: ºloka the poet mentions Karp¦rac¦r´e (Act. keÌJeef®eled keÀjce=eof lekeÀHetj& HeuueJejmesve DeeefOeJeem³eceeveeefve efyemelevlegYe³eeefve DebMegkeÀeefve~~ (Para 209) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. that is why R¢jaºekhera mentions that mHegÀìefvle leeqmcevOevemeejJe=#ee:~ Ghanas¢ra (Karp¦ra) trees are present in Malaya (Act. Candra. 6/12. R¢janigha´°u mentions many kind of to remove this message. Bar¢sa Karp¦ra. collected by its frequent use to a great extend suggest the togetherness of the young with their novel brides. Hima. N¤tiºataka.

16. The clothes of autumn women are the flowers of K¢sa (Saccharum species) or K¢sa is her dress. Family: Poaceae Many references of ¹¢li and Kalama are in Kir¢ta. Paddy also has other two versions. reddish brown panicles with ripened paddy! In short Bh¢ravi very much likes rice fields.8. 3/1. it has an important share in autumn gift. The first ºloka of the autumn is excellent: keÀemeebMegkeÀe efJekeÀ®eHe¨ecevees%eJekedÀ$ee meesvceeonbmejJevetHegjveeojc³ee~ DeeHekeÌJeMeeefue©ef®eje levegiee$e³eefä: ÒeeHlee MejVeJeJeOetejf Je ªHejc³ee~~ The autumn is imagined and compared with a beautiful woman. DeYeer He=LegmlecyeYe=le: efHeMe²leeb ielee efJeHeekesÀve HeÀuem³e Meeue³e:~ efJekeÀeefme JeÒeecYeefme ievOemete®f eleb veceefvle efveIe´elegecf eJeeefmeleeslHeueced~ (4/26) Extensive bunches of pointed paddy become yellow due to to remove this message. spread with wobbling swans and looking pale with ripening paddy. Blossomed lotus is her loving face or her face is like an opened lotus flower. ½a¾°hika and Vr¤hi. chapter 27/8). the former matures in summer and the latter. The poet beautifully describes them: lele: me ketÀpelekeÀuenmecesKeueeb meHeekeÀmem³eeefnleHeeC[gleeiegCeeced~ GHeememeeoerHepeveb peveefÒe³e: efÒe³eeefceJeemeeefole³eewJeveeb MegYeeced~~ (4/1) Janapriyaª means Arjuna reached his dear field. K¢lid¢sa (§tu. Lotuses had blossomed in the paddy fields. 5-1-16) is very much pleased with Kalama and ¹¢li. Kalama is a variety of ¹¢li. he enjoys seeing paddy fields. The autumn itself with the gift of this treasure came to present to Arjuna. Paddy plants bent down due to their weight. Bh¢ravi likes very much the paddy fields keÀuecekes À oeje: (Kalamaked¢r¢ª). Paddy Oryza sativa L.18. Arjuna. How long the panicles could be . The lotus had blossomed. efMeKee: efHeMe²er keÀuecem³e efJeYe´leer~ (4/36) At the terminal ends of the rice plants. Mostly the paddy is produced in autumn. The mud had dried in the paddy fields.160 161 KALAMA Rice.e-pdfconverter. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. seeing the women protecting the paddy fields felt satisfactions with the virtuous and flavor of the autumn. seeing his dear fields with the girdle of swans and pale with grains (paddy) experienced indescribable joy similar to that of seeing over own youthful beloved.4-1. . Amara considers them as synonyms. in ¹arad (autumn) (mentioned in Caraka criticism by Cakrapani dutt. ¹¢li is a Haimantika (winter) grain Paddy.P¨thustambabh¨taª! meglesve HeeC[es: keÀuecem³e ieesefHekeÀeb efvejer#³e cesves Mejo: ke=ÀleeLe&lee~ (4/9) Arjuna. Paddy plants have bent down as if to get the lotus fragrance. efJevece´MeeefueÒemeJeewIeMeeefueveerjHesleHe¹e memejes©necYeme:~ vevevo HeM³eVegHemeerce me mLeueer©Hee³eveerYetleMejÃCeefÞe³e:~~ (4/2) leglees<e HeM³evkeÀuevem³e meesçefOekeÀ meJeeefjpes JeeefjefCe jeceCeer³ekeÀced~ meoguebYes veen&efle keÀesçefYeveefvoleg ÒekeÀ<e&ue#ceercevegªHemebieces~~ (4/4) Paddy plants bent down as they had so many panicles. When Arjuna goes to Indra.

K. Kalama is of inferior to remove this message. Òe®egjieg[efJekeÀej: mJeeogMeeueer#egjc³e: ÒeyeuemegjlekeÀesueerpeelekeÀvoHe&oHe&:~ efÒe³epevejefnleeveeb ef®eÊemevleeHensleg: efMeefMejmece³e S<e Þes³emes Jeesçmleg efvel³eced~~ (§tu. The forehead of which Hindu is not sanctified with Ak¾ata (rice) and red powder? ¡rdr¢k¾at¢roa´am (Deeêe&#eleejesHeCeced) stick wet rice on the forehead this word is mentioned in Raghu.ordinary paddy.163 162 Intoxicating swan while wobbling produces sound of an anklet. 4-8) The mind becomes eager after seeing the earth covered extensively with paddy. No. P. 4-7) They touched his lotus like feet so the king having defeated them gave them back their kingdoms. and Kum¢ra. This is like the rice seedlings which bend down upto the roots and bear the paddy grains after transplanting them. The following ºloka describes the beauty of paddy fields: yengiegCejceCeer³ees ³eese<f eleeb ef®eÊenejer HeefjCeleyengMeeefueJ³eekegÀueûeecemeercee~ meleleceeflecevees%e: ¬eÀeQáeceeueeHejerle: ÒeefoMeleg efnce³egkeÌle: keÀeue S<e: megKeb Je:~~ Charming with these many qualities.12 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. In the ancient literature ¹¢li (paddy) has three varieties: (1) Raktaº¢li .e-pdfconverter. Raktaº¢li is best of all and removes the three humours. Cakrapa´idatta (1060 AD). (3) Kalama . the abductor of women’s mind. 5-16) Every Hindu is familiar with the Ak¾ata (rice). Gode in his article on Mah¢º¢li rice (“New Indian Antiquary” Vol. DeeHeeoHe¨eÒeCelee: keÀuecee FJe les jIegced~ HeÀuew: mebJeOe&³eeceeme GlKeeleÒeeflejesefHelee:~~ (Raghu. Pitta. 3-16) The composed cowherds beautfy the surface of the earth which is spread with paddy soaked with water. constituent elements of the body such as Vata. New sprouts are seen and the fields appear all green. mebHeVeMeeefueefve®e³eeJe=leYetleueeefve mJemLeefmLeleÒe®egjieeskegÀueMeeseYf eleeefve~~ (§tu. such a winter season (Hemant) makes us happy. VI. In winter paddy grain gets well developed and hence the poet says Paripakvaº¢liª (HeefjHekeÌJeMeeefue:). critic of Caraka writes that Kalama grows in Ved¢grahar (a place in old Bengal). full with rows and rows of Kraunaca (Cranach) birdsmaking the season constantly very pleasant. . These kings honoured Raghu with the grain. (2) Mah¢º¢li .red paddy. Transplanted rice is good. ÒeYetleMeeefueÒemeJewef½eleeefve~ (§tu. Prof. spread with fully grown abundant paddy plantations in the limits of the village.large paddy. and her beauty is the ripened paddy (DeeHekeÌJeMeeefue) panicles or whose tender body limbs are like pure ripened paddy. Cough. The paddy has ripened and Lodhra (Symplocos tree) trees have flowered. Mah¢º¢li in Magadha is famous. In the description of winter : veJeÒeJeeueesÃcemem³ejc³e: ÒeHegÀuueueesOe´: HeefjHekeÌJeMeeefue: The sowing for the winter crop is over.

The paddy ears will not be lightly weighed.164 165 March 1994) has mentioned about Mah¢º¢li rice grown in Magadh. One who has seen the rice field once will not long for the women. The paddy plants have bent with the weighty grains. Those farmers who see with devotion the paddy fields are also blessed. DemceeVeJesenf keÀueceeveueceenleeveeb ³es<eeb Òe®eC[cegmeuew: DeJeoelelewJe~ mvesnb efJeceg®³e menmee Keueleeb Òe³eeefvle les mJeuHeHeer[veJeMeeled ve Je³eb efleueemles~~ (Subh¢¾itaratnabh¢´²¢g¢ra) The brightness of kalama increases with the beatings of the pestle. Kalama (paddy) says Let me suffer heavy beatings for dehusking. The lecturer Tilaka has interpreted as DeYeivemJeªHeeCeeced (Abhagnasvar¦p¢´¢m). They were also singing with joy. called as ‘wealthy rice’.com to remove this message. You know that we are not like seasamum seeds which with light crushing become dregs leaving the oil. R¢jaºekhara also in the description of autumn kesÀoej SJe keÀuecee: HeefjCeecevece´e:~ The paddy ears have bent with the first crop and the farmers are full of joy. Some critics also suggest that Mah¢º¢li was also grown in Kashmir. A resolute workaholic does not consider happiness or sorrow. . The poet Trivikrama Bhatt describing autumn: HekeÌJekeÀueceievOeMeeefueHeeefuekeÀeyeeefuekeÀen<e&ieerefle<eg ~ the little girls were taking care of the paddy field emitting the fragrance of the ripened rice grains. The rice comes from paddy with severe beating with pestle (dehusking). The following reference by Bhart¨hari shows that the highest category of the grain in the ancient time was ‘¹¢lyodana’: keÌJeef®e®íekeÀenej: keÌJeef®eoefHe ®e Meeu³eesove©ef®e~ (N¤ti. The word Ta´²ul¢n¢m va¾u¾mat¢m occurs in the R¢m¢ya´a (7/91-20). on the contrary my brightness increases. Following ºloka is from Nalacamp¦: Oev³ee: Mejefo mesJevles Òeesuuemeeq®®e$eMeeefuekeÀeved~ Òeemeeoevm$eermeKee: Heewje: kesÀoejeb½e ke=À<eerJeuee:~~ veefcelee: HeÀueYeejsCe ve efcelee: Meeefuece¡ejer:~ kesÀoejs<eg efn HeM³evle: kesÀ oejs<eg efJeefve:mHe=ne~~ The citizens who worship with women the fields having many varieties of paddy during the autumn are blessed. There is a report that the students in N¢land¢ University were served with this rice. efJeéeeefce$eHejeMejÒeYe=le³ees JeeleecyegHeCee&Mevee mlesçefHe m$eercegKeHe¹peb megueefueleb ¢äJewJe ceesnb ielee:~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The rice fields growing on the banks of river K¢ver¤ are mentioned Kamalaked¢ras¢r¢ª.e-pdfconverter. Giving this example the poet surmises that such a man lives on greens for some day and for some other day lives on ‘¹¢lyodana’. I like to interpret as rice grains remaining unbroken after beating. ºloka 73). The saying also suggests that these paddy plants with their panicles trembled by wind as if are praising the fragrance. HeekeÀefJevece´e cetueleueeIe´elemegjefYekeÀ¼eje:~ HeJeveekeÀefcHeleefMejme: Òee³e: kegÀJe&evf le HeefjceueMueeIeeced~~ (Subh¢¾itaratnabh¢´²¢g¢ra) The tender paddy plants with ripened grains bend down to caress the fragrant blossomed lotus.

‘Vr¤hi’ is a kind of paddy (K¢dambar¤.com to remove this message. References to Kalama are presented in K¢dambar¤. The body of K¨¾´a had dark bluish lustre of blossomed flowers of Kal¢ya.Lathyrus sativus. then to talk of self restraint for the people of this world who are eating rice.e-pdfconverter. Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) Kesaridal. keÀuecece¡ejeroueveceme=efCele#eerCeesHeevleuesKesve (Early stanza 23) limit of the village boundry sticky and reduced by the rice barn. keÀeÿewIeceeuecy³e mecegeqlLeles<eg yeeues<eg leejekeÀjkesÀeq<JenwkebÀ~ (Nai¾adha. Para 64) meteflekeÀeie=n DeefKeueJe´eer nf ceO³eeJemLeeefHelee³e&Je=×eO³eeefmeleMe³eveefMejesYeeieced KAL¡YA Lathyrus sativus L. the joints are affected and the disease in Ayurved is called keÀuee³eKe¡e (“Kal¢yakha®ja”) or Lathyrism in Allopathy. And ÒeleerkeÀejb J³eeOes: megKeefceefle efJeHe³e&m³eefle peve: (Vair¢gya. Chick pea ef®ekeÀmelkeÀuee³ekegÀmegceeefmeleÐegles: DeueOet[Hg eeC[g peieleeceOeereMf eleg:~ ³ecegveen^oesHeefjienbmeceC[ueÐegelf eefpe<Ceg efpe<Cegjce=lees<CeyeejCeced~~ (M¢gha. The poet M¢gha of Gujarat compares the body colour of K¨¾´a with Kal¢ya flowers. Flowers are azure in colour.sarga. The poet has compared the azure body with a white umbrella on with the whiteness of groups of swans floating on the dark water of Yamun¢. ºloka 19) mentions #egOeele&: Meeu³eVeb keÀJeue³eefle ceebmeeefokeÀefueleced~ strengthens the belief of rice eating. called as Chatr¢ka. 22/98) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. grown in the last month of ¡so (normally October) and the whole field is covered with L¢nga plants having a glaucus colour resembling the sea water. Khesari.166 167 Meeu³eVeb meIe=leb He³eesoefOe³egleb ³es Yeg¡eles ceeveJee – mles<eeefceeqvê³eefveûenes ³eefo YeJeseÜf vO³e: HueJeieslmeeiejs~~ (¹¨¬g¢ra. Bh¤ma started driving away flies and Arjuna held an umbrella as large as constellation and white as a group of swans. ghee. . Kal¢ya is L¢¬ga. usually cultivated in Bharuch district of Gujarat.13 ºloka 21) Dharamr¢ja sat to start the Chariot of ¹r¤K¨¾´a.ºloka 80) Sages Viºv¢mitra and Par¢ºara who lived on air and water were enamoured by the lotus like face of the woman. KAVAKA Mushroom Usually growing in monsoon. If eaten by men. milk and curd is like crossing the Vindhya mountain and keeping afloat on the sea. The crop is usually grown as an animal feed. The author of K¢dambar¤ mentions (“¹¢l¤’’ as “Vallari’’) Hejveer[HeefleleeY³e: meeueerJeuuejerY³e leC[guekeÀCeeced Deeoe³e Deeeoe³e (Para 23) “S¢llivallari” is a poetic language.

Apte.. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Sanskrit Dictionary) ieesce³ece³eerefYe©ÊeeveefJeefveefnleJejeìkeÀvovlegjeefYe: Devlejevlejeye×efJeefJeOeJeCe& jeie©ef®ejkeÀeHee&mekegÀmegceuesMeueeeq_íleeefYe: . YeieJeleeR <eÿeroJs eeR kegÀJe&lee~ (K¢dambar¤. the women used to apply a mixture of dung and earth and arranging cowries on it with putting various coloured lumps of cotton in between them and topping stamens of Kasumb¢ (carthamus) here and there on them.. in pointing out the pride of the ‘north region’ (udicyagaurat¢) mentions K¢can¢ra in the following ºloka: Heg<Hew: mecÒeefle keÀeáeveejlejJe: Òel³e²ceeefueef²lee: yeentueerkeÀeroMeveJe´Cee©Celejw: He$esjMeeskeÀesçef®e&le:~ peele ®ecHekeÀceH³egoer®³eueueveeueeJeC³e®eew³e&#eceb ceeef¡eÿwce&kg egÀuew½e Heeìuelejesjv³ewJe keÀeef®eefuueefHe:~~ K¢®can¢ra trees are totally embraced (decorated) with its flowers.168 169 Nai¾adha has described little plants growing on wood. S. 18) and keÀeefvleb keÀ<e&efle keÀeáeveejkegÀmegceb ceeef¡eÿOeewleelHeìeled~ Here the redness of K¢®can¢ra flower is compared with that of the clothes dyed with Maji°ha. 64) In the description of the Goddess who comes to write the fate of the newborn on the sixth day after its birth. Rajaºekhara has mentioned that K¢®can¢ra flowers in spring. K¢®can¢ra is Bauhinia variegata L. R¢jaºekhara. K¢®can¢ra is a beautiful looking tree. K¡-CAN¡RA Bauhinia variegata L. It is surprising that I did not find a single reference of this plant in any one of the works of K¢lid¢sa. Bhavabh¦ti has referred to it only once as mentioned to remove this message. K¡RP¡SA K¢rp¢sa in Sanskrit means related anything made of cotton (V. Heg<HeÒeHeáeeef®e&lekeÀeáeveej: (Act. In Marathi it is called “K¢®cana” and in Gujarat. Campaka trees with loveliness of a more than that of the northern fascinating women and P¢tala trees with dark red Majith like (Rubia) flowers.e-pdfconverter. Family: Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae) Orchid tree cekeÀjvo: (Makaranda): leom³ewJe leeJeog®ídJeefmelekegÀmegcekesÀmejkeÀ<ee³eMeerleueeceesoJeeefmeleesÐeevem³e keÀeáeveejHeeoHem³e DeOemleeogHeefJeMeeJe:~~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava 1/24) Makranda says: Let us sit under this K¢®can¢ra tree which has recently flowered and the garden is fragrant with stamens of flowers and delightful with coolness. Some also mean ¹il¤ndhara as mushroom. .. “Kacan¢ra”.. Early para. Aºoka trees with their new leaves having the redness of the lips produced by the loss of teeth of the ‘Bahuliki’ women were shining. The plant has variously coloured flowers.

It was applied as a cream on the body: efÒe³e²§keÀeueer³ekeÀkegÀ¹§ceekeÌleb mleves<eg ieewj<s eg efJeueeefmeveereYf e:~ (§tu. According to Amarsinh K¢liyak is Berberic asialica but it is not proper as it has no to remove this message. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.e-pdfconverter. K¢liyaka is a scented matter is indisputable. There is a reference of cosmetic use of Lodhra powder after oil massage in Ayurved text. . 7-9). Lodhara is scented and soluble so it removes greasiness. K¢l¤yaka is Heerle®evêced (yellow chandan) or chandanvishesh. As per Dhanavantari and R¢janigha´°u. K¢l¤yaka. therefore to remove the greasiness. In Amarakoºa. Dhanvantri Nigha´°u considers K¢liyaka seems to be a kind of Aguru but it is not possible. three synonyms. Kum¢ra. and slightly dried scented K¢l¤yaka was cosmetically applied. 6/12. 7-9) The massage was done with oil. J¢yaka. Malayachandan. 4-5). 6-12) Priya¬gu. the powdered (c¦r´a) bark of Lodhra tree was used. K¢l¤yaka and saffron mixture was applied on the body: leeb ueesIe´keÀukesÀve nlee²lewueeced DeeM³eevekeÀeues³eke=Àlee²jeieeced~ (Kum¢ra. iee$eeefCe keÀeueer³ekeÀ®eef®e&leeefve (§tu. or Harichandan. K¢l¢nus¢ri are present.170 170 K¡L£YAKA DeLe pee³ekeÀced~ keÀeueer³ekebÀ ®e keÀeueevegmee³ex ®e~~ (§tusaïh¢ra 4-5. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta ($eerefCe megievOeêJ³eYesom³e) considers K¢l¤yaka as some scented matter.

K¢sa flower marks the arrival of autumn. K¢sa flowers with their long milk white panicles become prominent at the river banks. The water appears clear. . 141) K¢leyaka is Daruharidra. mee ce²uemveeveefJeMeg×iee$eer ie=nerleHel³egÃceveer³eJem$ee~ efveJe=Ê& eHepe&v³epeueeefYe<eskeÀe ÒeHegÀuuekeÀemee JemegOesJe jspes~~ (Kum¢ra. Family: Berberiaceae Daruharidra Barberry (Indian) ceOegkeÀjkegÀuekeÀue¹keÀeueerke=ÀlekeÀeues³ekeÀkegÀmegcekegÀ*dceues<eg~ (K¢dambar¤ Early para. 7/11) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Family : Poaceae (Gramineae) D¢bha. Wasps used to sit on the flowers of Berberis to such an extent that only black colour was seen.171 K¡LEYAKA Berberis asiatica Roxb.e-pdfconverter. K¡SA Saccharum spontaneum L. Katusla The monsoon has to remove this message. The great poet K¢lid¢sa mentions P¢rvat¤ after her auspicious bath wearing white clothes. The K¢leyaka trees abundantly grow near Dehradun. Kansa.

K¢lid¢sa in his description of the autumn. P¢rvat¤ purified after the auspicious bath and adorned with white dress appears very beautiful. ÒeeJe=<eb Mejob ®eeefHe yengOeekeÀeMeneefjCeerced~ efJeueeske̳e veeslmegkeÀ: keÀ: m³eeVejes veerjpemebieleeced~~(Nalacamp¦ ¥ttara.173 172 As the earth. The same happens of the friendship with men having non-aryan (uncivilized) tendencies. . 2) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. pictures the earth adorned with the dress of white K¢sa flowers. The autumn is projected as a beautiful woman clad in ‘Kaºanºuka’ (white clothes of the K¢sa). ±alha´a mentions (K¢sa) as ®eecejHeg<He: (C¢marapu¾paª). sarga 3/26) keÀeMeebMegkeÀe efJekeÀ®eHe¨ecevees%eJekedÀ$ee~~ (§tu.. . sarga 3/1) keÀeMewce&ner efMeefMejoereOf eeflevee jpev³e: MegkeÌueerke=Àleev³egHeJeveeefve ®e ceeueleerefYe:~~ (§tu. sarga 3/2) In the autumn description. Both the banks of the river were decorated with deep white flowering K¢sa plants which were like a pure shining silken cloth. The great poet V¢lm¤ki has written beautiful ºlokas on K¢sa in the R¢m¢ya´a. the poet frequently mentions the earth beautified with K¢sa flower. R¢va´a strongly rebuked him. Oeewleeceue#eewceHeìÒekeÀeMew: ketÀueeefve keÀemew: GHeMeeseYf eleeefve keÀeme (K¢sa). The critic of Suºruta. R¢macandra describes the blossomed forest region of Pa®cava°¤ to Lak¾ama´a as follows : JevejeceC³ekebÀ ³e$e peuejeceC³ekebÀ leLee~ mebefveke=Àäb leg ³eeqmcebmleg meefcelHeg<HekegÀMeesokeÀced~~ (3/15-5) “Find out a place where beauty of forest and water is present and fire wood. the inlets of the rivers were decorated with silken like K¢sa.Ik¾uvat gandhoasy¢ª). Kuºa and flowers are easily obtainable.. The following ºloka gives a fine description of K¢sa : veJewve&oerveeb kegÀmegceÒenemew: J³eeOet³eceevew: ce=ocg ee©lesve~ Oeewleeceue#eewceHeìÒekeÀeMew: ketÀueeefve keÀeMew: GHeMeesefYeleeefve~~ (4/30-51) The R¢m¢ya´a (a fine account of autumn).e-pdfconverter. its close relative is to remove this message. You are a lover of forest (keÀeveves efveHegCees ¿eefme)” In this beautiful place Lak¾ama´a built a leaf cottage covered with leaf of Kuºa. K¢sa and ¹ara (3/15-22). but returns thirsty as the flowers are without nectar. They loked beautiful when they were slowly trembling by the wind as if they were laughing.. efJekeÀefmeleveJekeÀeMeéesleJeemeesJemeevee~ (§tu. ³eLee ceOegkeÀj: le<ee&led keÀeMeHeg<Heb efHeyeVeefHe~ jmeceVe ve efJevosle leLeevee³ex<eg meewËoced~~ (6/16-14) The thirsty wasp goes to K¢sa flower to suck the nectar. retired after being anointed by rain water appears full blown with K¢sa flowers.keÀeMewokg& egÀuewejf Je mebJe=leeefve~ JeOetcegKeeveerJe veoercegKeeefve~~ (4/30-55) Like the faces of the brides. When Vibhi¾a´a advised R¢va´a (who was summoned by the angel of death) not to fight R¢macandra. The cluster of blossoms in panicles of K¢sa does not have nectar. K¢sa²o – Saccharum spantaneum.. the second synonym is F#egievOee-F#egJeled ievOeesçm³ee: (Ik¾ugandh¢.

com to remove this message. to satisfy it they play in water. Hema. they spurt out water in a jet up to their trunk.e-pdfconverter. Bhadrapar´¤ and Gambh¢r¤. sarga 8/9) The banks of the forest river were beautified with very tall K¢sa flower pinnacled or pointed appearing as a silken cover and resounding with a girdle of S¢rasa birds. stulavach K¢ºmar¤ is mentioned in the description of Citrak¦°a mountain in The R¢m¢ya´a. It forms one of the constituent of Ayurvedic medicine DA¹AM¥LA (oMecetue). & Hook. looking pleasant with the sky covering monsoon and K¢sa flowers does not feel eagerness to meet his beloved? Kir¢ta mecegVelew: keÀeMeogketÀueMeeefueefYe: HeefjHekeÌJeCelmeejmeHeef¹lecesKeuew:~ ÒeleerjosMew: mJekeÀue$e®ee©efYe: efJeYete<f elee: kegÀ¡emecegê³eese<f ele:~~ (Kir¢ta. In Sanskrit it is called ¹r¤par´¤. K¢ºmar¤ name means K¢ºate anyebhyaª v¨k¾ebhyaª (keÀeMeles Dev³esY³e: Je=#esY³e:~) its differs from other trees. K¢ºmar¤ known as ¹¤va´a is Gmelina arborea of family Verbenaceae.174 175 Is there any man who experiencing the autumn. Its fruits are used in medicine. N¢gappu. 39) The sages with temporary penance are a transient fire on the naturally dried nal (a plant similar to Baru (Andropogan). As any woman adorned with white dress looks beautiful. keÀeMekegÀmegcegefJekeÀemekeÀeefvleefceJe efJekeÀefmelekeÀeMekegÀmegcece¡ejerJe MejoecYeced~ (K¢dambar¤ Utta. Only one reference in the R¢m¢ya´a is available: keÀeMce³ee&: ke=ÀleceeuecegÃleoueb keÀes³eefäkeÀ<ìerkeÀles~~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava. N¢gacampa. This water jet. Sinduparni. . 458) As the beginning of the winter is heralded by blossomed panicles of K¢sa. Gajakesara Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 1/7) Koya¾°ika birds leave K¢ºmar¤ trees and go to K¨tam¢la (Cassia) tree with new leaves KI«KIR¡TA Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth. Sivan. page. Family: Clusiaceae N¢gakesara. Meg<keÀveuekeÀeMekegÀmegceefveHeefleleeveue®eìgueJe=eÊf e efvel³ecemeefn<CegleHeeqmJeveeb levegleHemeeceefHe lespe: Òeke=Àl³ee YeJeefle~ (K¢dambar¤ Early para. 5-35) This simile of poet M¢gha is far fetched. keÀerCex Mevew: DevegkeÀHeesueceveskeÀHeeveeb nmlewefJe&iee{ceoleeHe©pe: Mecee³e~ DeekeÀerCe&ceguueefmelececyegeJf ekeÀeefmekeÀeefmekeÀemeveerkeÀeMeceeHe meceleeb efmele®eecejm³e~~ (¹iºup¢lavadha sarg. Sindhu veshanam. Leaves fall in winter. leaves are large like that of Pipala. f. the elephants increase their rut. the river as a young wife of the sea appears elegant with panicles of white flowers of K¢sa. K¢sa and flowers. resembling the K¢sa flower obtained its similarity of white panicles. K¡¹MAR£ Gmelina arborea Roxb. The tree is 50-60 ft. Family: Verbenaceae Gambhari. tall and its trunk colour resembles that of S¢ga. N¢gapu¾pa.

pales the lustre of the moon. ve uegyOees yegO³eles oes<eeved efkebÀHeekeÀefceJe Ye#e³eved~ kegÀypeeefveefceÊeb kewÀkesÀ³³ee jeIeJeeCeeb kegÀueb nleced~~ If a man takes poison by mistake or out of greed and does not understand the consequences. Kapilu (The R¢m¢ya´a 2/66-). Vi¾atinduka means poison-bowl . mentally inclined for sexual pleasures are engrossed in them.176 177 R¢jaºekhara has referred Roh¤taka.Nux Vomica. It is Ochrocarpus longifolius. It is poisonous. face actually like a moon. the face having the nectar like lips. The following reference is from Saundar¢nanda by Aºvagho¾a. ¹¨¬g¢raºataka. As consuming too much of tasty and scented type of Nux vomica fruits based on type. The poet describes like this but this is all pretension of speech. Its fruits are marketed and used in medicine. The face of the tenderly framed (woman) like a lotus. nor moon. (Bhart¨hari. This is what it is Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ¡mrataka and Ki¬kir¢ta in the description of spring Rohitak¢mr¢takaki¬kir¢taª (jesnerlekeÀece´elekeÀefkeÀef¹jelee:). “Sura¬g¤” flowers are showy and scented. the difficulty of its acceptance is its flower is not scented. Its trees are abundant in the south. Its uses as efkeÀef¹jeleesÓJeb Heg<Heb megieefvOe n<e&Hegefäoced are described. There is no reference in Amara. nor nectar. In spite of this it is called “Sura¬g¤” belonging to the mango group. proves to be poisonous. Poison . Family: Loganiaceae Nux vomica. that is not for their welfare but for their ruin. but Kataka has identified it as Vi¾amedaª (efJe<eceso:). ºloka-48) following º to remove this message. actually as the fruit of Nux vomica appears very showy. Lotus is not in the woman’s face. Khod¢lasa Pantha described Ki¬kir¢ta as K¢tara : Kunde mndastam¢le mukulini vikalaª k¢taraª Ki¬kir¢ta (kegÀvos cevomleceeues cegkegÀefueefve efJekeÀue: keÀelej: efkeÀef¹jeles~) on being instigated by the advice of Manathar¢. The definition of Kimp¢ka (efkeÀcHeekeÀ) mentioned by Tilaka is neem. ºloka 48) Men. In its meaning of Kan°¢seriyo. but at the end. K¢raskara and (Kimp¢ka) are its synonyms. . taste and scent produces not body’s health but leads to ruin. R¢janigh´°u names P¤takura´°aka (yellow Kantaseriyo) as a synonym of Ki¬kir¢ta. Vismusti. Heerle: me efkeÀef¹jele: Heerleecueeve: kegÀjCìkeÀ:.e-pdfconverter. That is why I considerKi¬kir¢ta as a synonym of meg j ²er (Sura¬g¤) which in market is sold as ‘Red N¢gakesara’. became greedy and brought about the ruin of R¢ghava family. Kimp¢ka (efkeÀcHeekeÀ) is Nux vomica. similarly Kaikey¤ Kimp¢ka (ef k eÀcHeekeÀ) is not mentioned in Amarakoºa. KIMP¡KA Strychnos nux-vomica L. R¢janigha´°u says: keÀejmkeÀjmleg efkeÀcHeekeÀes ef<eeflevog: efJe<eêgce:~~ ³eLeesHe³egkeÌleb jmeJeCe&ievOeJeod JeOee³e efkebÀHeekeÀHeÀueb ve Hegä³es~ efve<esJ³eceeCee efJe<e³ee½eueelcevees YeJevl³eveLee&³e leLee ve Yetle³es~~ (sarga-9.

) Taub.e-pdfconverter. Its seeds contain fat/oil hance the name yeerpemvesn. to remove this message.178 179 ³eoslelHetCexvogÐegelf enjcegoejeke=Àefle Hejb cegKeeype levJe*di³ee efkeÀue Jemeefle ³e$eeIejceOeg~ Fob leeqlkebÀHeekeÀêgceHeÀueefceoeveerceeflejmeb J³eleerlesçeqmcevkeÀeues efJe<eefceJe YeefJe<³el³emegKeoced~~ The faces of tenderly framed women and drinking of nectar with their lips. 6/40-14. means its flowers’ shape resembles parrot’s beak hence its name is Kimºuka. In addition. meefceÜj. it removes the wind (v¢yu).) ÒeMemleeefve HeueeMeeefve Dem³e Fefle HeueeMe:~ One whose leaves are praiseworthy is Pal¢ºa. The mountain summits with their Pal¢ºa tree appear as they are a blaze. ef$eHeCe&. Y¢j®ika. the tree is leafless. monkeys in the army are in the front of the battle. #eejÞesÿ:. 6/103-7. 6/8871. Its use in sacrificial rite justifies its name ³eeef%ekeÀ (Y¢j®ika) and meefceÜj (Samivdara). will ultimately bring unhappiness as the fruit of Nux vomica (Kimp¢ka) becomes poisonous after its ripening. As this army defeats the strong circle of the demons the light of the rising sun defeats/removes the curtain of darkness. B¤jasneha.When DeMeeskeÀ. 4/1-75-82. Pal¢ºa. The three names. after the youthful period ends. hence V¢tpotha. yeerpemvesn. efieefjÒemLeemleg meewefce$es meJe&le: meÒeHegef<Helew:~ efve<HeVew: mejJelees jc³ew: ÒeoerHlee FJe efkebÀMegkewÀ:~~ (4/1-75) Oh Lak¾ma´a! The leafless Kimºuka trees appear elegant with many flowers. ³eeef%ekeÀ. Kesu²o. Many of them are suggestive of its qualities. like the ripened fruits of Nux vomica. Samidvara. keÀefCe&keÀej efkebÀMegkeÀes (Aºoka. Jeeleb HeesLe³eefle& HegLe efnbmee³eeced (Vatam pothayati putha hims¢y¢m) (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita). 5/15-8. 6/75-27. jkeÌleHeg<He. Brahmav¨k¾a) are synonyms. 7/20) Red faced. Kh¢kharo. K¾¢raºre¾°haª. appearing like clusters of fire. Deûesmejer jIegHeles: HeefjCe×HeekeÀefkeÀcHeekeÀHeeìuecegKeer keÀefHeJeerjmesvee~ efve:Mes<eceeefHeyeefle je#emeJeerj®e¬ebÀ Òeele:ÒecesJe leHevem³e leefceñepeeueced~~ (Prasannar¢ghavam Act. ye´ïeJe=#e (Raktapu¾pa. In spring it blossoms. Kimºuka). Kimºuka (efkebÀMegkeÀ) and Par´a give a fine picture of the tree. efkeÀef½eled MegkeÀ FJe~ MegkeÀlegC[eYeHeg<HelJeeled~ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita). 2/56-6. Tripar´a. Good salty matter is obtained from it hence the name K¾¢raºre¾°haª. Kimºuka (ef k eb À Meg k eÀ) is referred to many times in The R¢m¢ya´a1. Pal¢ºa 6/58-28 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Flame of the forest HeueeMes efkebÀMegkeÀ: HeCeex JeeleHeesLe:~ (Amara. . the entire forest becomes dark red. Kar´ik¢ra and Kimºuka) blossom together what a beauty! Heg<HeYeejeefleYeejw½e: mHe=MeefÓefjJe ceseof veerced~ 1. Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) Pal¢sa. The word JeeleHeesLe (V¢tapotha) suggests its property. efkebÀMegkeÀ (B¤jasneha. KIM¹UKA Butea monosperma (Lam. R¢ma shows to S¤t¢ the blossomed Pal¢ºa on the hills and its brightening unsurpassed beauty: DeeoerHleeefveJe Jewosner meJe&le: Hegef<HeleeVeieeved~ mJew: Heg<Hew: efkebÀMegkeÀevHeM³e ceeefueve: efMeefMejel³e³es~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 2/56-6) When pal¢ºa blossoms.

destroyer of the separated hearts. HejmHej MeesefCelejkeÌleosnew~ HejmHejb MeeuceefueefkebÀMegkeÀeefJeJe~~ (6/40-14) A similar simile has been mentioned by the great poet for the duel battle between R¢ma and R¢va´a. The flower emerging from the branch.) resembles that of liver. When the battle ground was soaked in the blood of demons and monkeys. It is impossible that K¢lid¢sa could miss Kimºukas. the one who eats meat is Pal¢ºa. the poet uses Kimºuka to create a similar scene. The branch is smooth velvet like. the poet uses a similarity of Kimºuka to picture the dreadful scene. meat eater of the poor traveller1 whose body is slender due to separation. When R¢ma was bleeding in the battle. It is a great surprise to my mind that I could not find any reference of Kimºuka or Pal¢ºa in the works of K¢lid¢sa. whose support the wasps take are slowly blossoming.180 181 keÀefCe&keÀejw: kegÀmegecf elew: efkebÀMegkewÀ½e megHege<f Helew: me osMe: Òece³ee les<eeb ÒeoerHle FJe meJe&le~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 5/15-7-8) Aºoka trees (branches) have bent towards the ground with the heavy weight of flowers. . Kar´ik¢ra have blossomed. When Hanum¢n set fire to La¬k¢. Kir¢ta describes : ceneJeveeveerJe ®e efkebÀMegkeÀeveeb leleeve JeefÚ: HeJeveevegJe=ʳee~ (16/52) Complying the wind flow. Heueb ceebmeb DeMveeefle Fefle HeueeMe:~ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita) Pal¢ºa means eater of meat of separated travelers. With the lustre of the three. like a half moon shaped arrow of ¹iva. both of them were heavily bleeding. This ºloka takes up in the description of the spring. je$eew mee ¢M³eles ue¹e Hegef<HelewefjJe efkebÀMegkewÀ~~ The city burning in blaze was pictured as brightened by the blossomed Kimºuka. When Sugr¤va and V¢li had a duel. like the great Kimºuka tree has blossomed. The colour of the branch of Pal¢ºa (Je=vleb ÒemeJeyevOeveced) (V¨ntam prsavabandhanam-Amara. the fire spreads to remove this message. The following beautiful ºloka is from Nai¾adha : mcejeOe&®evês<egevf eYes keÀMeer³emeeb mHegÀì HeueeMesçOJepeg<eeb HeueeMeveeled~ me Je=vleceeueeskeÀle KeC[ceeqvJeleb efJe³eeseif eËlKeefC[efve keÀeueKeC[peced~~(1/84) Nala saw a blossomed pal¢ºa. Pal¢sh have blossomed with exuberance. Pala means meat. then V¢lm¤ki picturises them as ¹¢lmali and Kimºuka trees have stuck together. so the forest of Kimºuka flowers appears elegant like the fire that blazes the forests. Ye=²eueeqcyelekeÀeseìf efkebÀMegkeÀefceob efkeÀefáeefÜJe=vlee³eles~ Kimºuka. mee cener ©efOejewOesCe Òe®íVee mebÒekeÀeMeles~ me®íeVee ceeOeJes ceeef#e HeueeMewefjJe Hegef<Helew:~~ (6/58-28) The battle ground covered with inundation of blood looked dark red as if covered with the Kimºuka flowers in the spring. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.e-pdfconverter. Only at one place the reference veKe#eleeveerJe JevemLeueeefve 1. the region appears brightened. the poet uses: ¢ä: HegÀuue FJeejC³es megceneeeqvkebÀMegkeÀêgce: (6/103-7). Nala saw deep red blossoms of Pal¢sh emerging from the branch having slightly light red colour of the liver.

Its one leaf was moving . Everywhere the rich fragrance of wealth of flowers has spread. Following ºloka is from Subh¢¾itaratnabh¢´²¢g¢ra : l³epe efkebÀMegkeÀ Hege<f HeleeefYeceeveb efvepeefMejefme Ye´cejesHemesJevesve~ efJekeÀmeVeJeceeefuekeÀeefJe³eesieelkegÀ©les JeefÚefOe³ee lJeef³e ÒeJesMeced~~ Oh Kimºuka! Abandon your ego of Kimºuka flowers.e-pdfconverter. the entire forest was dark red with Kimºuka. the following shlok by poet M¢gha illustrates finally. Do the flowers like the parrot would pronounce the sweet speech liked by the people’s hearts? Bhart¨hari has referred the use of Kimºuka leaves sewed as bowls . The poet that remembers the new leaves of Pal¢ºa. Do not get bloated looking at the wasps circling over you. That is why these wasps enter the dark red flowers with a delusion of a reservoir of fire. veJeHeueeMeHeueeMeJeveb Hegj: mHegÀìHejeieHejeieleHe¹peced~ ce=ogueleevleueleevleceueeskeÀ³eled me megjefYeb megjefYeb megceveesnjw:~ (sarga 6-2) Pal¢ºa has new tender leaves in the spring. efkebÀMegkeÀ efkebÀ MegkeÀcegKeJelkegÀmegceeefve efJekeÀeme³em³eefveMeced~ ³em³eeb peveesçvegjeieer mee ieerjslew: keÀoeefHe vees®®ee³ee&~~ (Subh¢¾ita. Poor wasps could not endure their separation from blossomed flowers of newly developed Mallik¢ (Jasminum). How can the savoury poet Jaydev forget Kimºuka? ³egJepeveËo³eefJeoejCeceveefmepe veKe©ef®eefkebÀMegkeÀpeeues~ (Gitagovinda) The beautiful Kimºuka trees like the blood stained nails of Cupid who rends the heart of young men and women. Oh! Mother goddess of wealth.) Let Kimºuka bloat over looking at the parrot beak colourd flowers. The earth was decorated with Kimºukas as if the breasts of the Goddess of the forest were injured by nails. 93) We desired or wished to live by becoming pious or keeping alms in the bowls made by sewed fresh Kimºuka leaves. Lotus has blossomed. The poet imagines that this leaf does the work of water for the scalded forest plants. have blossomed in the spring. how can he forget its flowers? De©efCeleeefKeueMewueJevee cetn:g efJeoOeleer HeefLekeÀevHeefjleeefHeve:~ efJekeÀ®eefkebÀMegkeÀmebnefle©®®ekewÀ: GÜn¢JenJ³e¢efÞe³eced~~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. In the light sun shine leaves have slightly withered. only one plant of Pal¢ºa is shaking over water from the precipice. .183 182 “Nakhak¾at¢n¤va vanasthal¢ni” is. The poet Bh¢sa has referred Pal¢ºa as : DeJeeleefJeìHees veoerHeueeMe: HeJeveMee®®eefuelewkeÀHeCe&nmle:~ êgceonveefOeHeVepeereJf eleeveeb GokeÀefceJewJe keÀjeself e HeeoHeeveeced~~ (Mdhyamavy¢yoga) On the bank of the river. As the blood bleeds with the injury of nails and the part appears red. The bowl made of Kimºuka leaves is considered holy.which is very common in Gujarat. meÐe: m³etleHeueeMeHe$eHegeìf keÀeHee$es HeefJe$eerke=ÀlewefYe&#eeJemlegefYejsJe mebÒeefle Je³eb Je=efleb meceernecens~~ (Vair¢gya. do not take our to remove this message.

a hollow bamboo. Bhanuji Dixit explains the flute as Vayanti ºobhante sfvanena iti (Je³eefvle MeesYevles mJevesve Fefle JesCeg:). The forest trees have sucked this blood and that is why these branches sprout (new leaves) that are reddish. But she does not budge. making the mountain forests very much red and afflicting frequently the separated travelers. Jeb M e (Vanºa) as interpreted in the Vedas is Jeveefle Jev³eles Jee~ Jeve Meyos~ (“Vanati vanyate v¢ ‘Van’ shabde ”) According to Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita it is similar to K¤caka. les keÀer®ekeÀe:~ That bamboo which insects make it hollow by boring and which makes sound is K¤caka.e-pdfconverter. JesCeJe: keÀer®ekeÀemles m³eg: ³es mJeveefvle Deefveuees×lee:~ When the wind blows and then the bamboo makes a sound. In the properly respected criticism ³es keÀerìeefoefYe: ke=ÀlevOe´He¹le³ees JesCeJe: Meyob kegÀJe&efvle. were possessions the beauty of the forest fire. . son of Daºaratha has bled lakhs of demons with arrows in the battle with R¢va´a. though with the blowing of wind. K¾¤rp¢´i defines keÀerefle ®ekeÀefle keÀer®ekeÀ:~ keÀer®esefle keÀe³eefle Jee~ That one which makes sound is K¤caka. At last Daºaratha tells her that as the flowers of K¤caka burn themselves. some people consider K¤caka as V¢nsa which is not justified. that bonboo (V¢nsa) is K¤caka. lJe³ee efn yeeu³eeled ÒeefleHeVecesleved levcee onsÜsCegefceJeelceHeg<Heced~~ (2/38-6) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. leb leg osMeceefle¬eÀc³e Mewueesoe veece efvecveiee~ GYe³eesmleerj³eesmlem³ee: keÀer®ekeÀe veece JesCeJe:~~ (4/43-37) Bamboos (K¤caka) have grown on two sides of banks of the river ¹ailod¢. God of love. meceguueeme³evcekeÀjOJepejkeÌleOJepeeveerJe efkebÀMegkeÀeefve~ ( to remove this message. They are naturally very much red. some sound does come from Vanºa. oMejLemegleefveefMelejefveHeeleefvenlejpeefve®ejyeueyengue©efOejefmekeÌlecetueHeÐeeefHe leêeieeefJe×efveie&leHeueeMeefceJeeYeeefle veJeefkeÀmeue³ecejC³eced (K¢dambar¤ para 99) The young and tender shoots have sprouted in the 602) This reference is in the description of the spring. K¤caka is referred at many places in The R¢m¢ya´a. K¤caka is a variety of V¢nsa. The family guru Vasi¾°ha rebukes Kaikey¤ on seeing that S¤t¢ does not know how to wear forest garments (barks). But K¤caka is a hollow bamboo and Vanºa is a solid bamboo. K£CAKA Bamboos Family: Poaceae Sub family: Bambusoideae V¢nsa Amarakoºa distinguishes between K¤caka and V¢nsa. The author of K¢dambar¤ has considered Kimºuka.184 185 The multitude of very high Kimºukas. the one that looks well with sound is a flute JesCeg:(Ve´u). your obstinacy will burn the vans. The poet imagines that R¢mcandra.

megmlecYeeb cemkeÀjw: oerIez: ke=ÀleJebMeeb megMeesYeveeced (3/15-21) Here the word cemkeÀj (Maskara) is used for V¢nsa. The crows are also sitting on the mass of hollow bamboos. flute (K¤caka) and V¤´¢ (lute). ketÀpelkegÀ¡ekegÀìerjkeÀeweMf ekeÀIeìeOetlkeÀejJeelkeÀer®ekeÀmlecyee[cyejcetkeÀceewkegÀefuekegÀue: ¬eÀewáeJeleesç³eb efieefj:~~ (2/29) The bowers of creepers are made. dear to the ear. In K¢dambar¤ Early Para. There met female Kinnars harmonizing the tunes during singing great hymns of praise on the victory of Tripura. the great forest of Vindhya was covered with K¤caka trees (hollow bamboos). 4/73) In Raghu’s victory pilgrimage of all directions deities were present in K¤caka who was inflammed with love for Draupad¤ in Vir¢°anagara where Pa´²avas were hiding in disguise is referred. cemkeÀ ieleew (Maska gatau) (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita) The Bamboo used for making rafts is called here as “Maskara”. But this is a Krau®c¢vata mountain which is silent seeing these owls. The multitude of owls make sound in them.187 186 Bamboo flowers at an interval of about 32 years. The disciples of Kichak were called GHekeÀer®ekeÀ (subk¤caka). the description of the great forest Vindhya refers : keÌJeef®eefÜjeìveiejerJe keÀer®ekeÀMeleeke=Àlee~ The story of king’s brother. cemkeÀles Devesve Jee~ (Maskate anena v¢). . Yetpex<eg cece&jerYetlee: keÀer®ekeÀOJeefvensleJe:~ ie*dieeMeerkeÀeefjCees ceeiex ce©lemle efve<esefJejs~ (Raghu. Bamboo seeds are known as ‘Vnºayava’. sarga 19/35) Female singers alluring the king Agnivarn with side glances were using two musical instruments. JesCegvee oMeveHeeref[leeOeje JeerCe³ee veKeHeoeeflekeÀesjJe:~ efMeefuHekeÀe³e& GYe³esve Jesepf eleemleb efJeefpeÚve³evee J³eueesYe³eved~~ (Raghu. 17. As there were thousands of disciples of K¤caka in Vir¢°anagara. JesCegpees JesCegJeerpe½e JebMepees JebMeleC[gue:~ Hegeäf b ®e Jeer³e¥ ®e yeueb ®e oÊes efHeÊeeHenes JesCeg³b eJeÒeMemle:~~ (R¢janigha´°u) Bamboo seeds are medicinally useful. Bhavabh¦ti has referred K¤caka in the description of Krau®c¢vata mountain in M¢lat¤m¢dhava. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The poet refers to Bamboo when Lak¾ma´a built a cottage of leaves in Pa®cava°¤.com to remove this message. doing rustling sound in Birch bark. it is believed that bamboo plants die after flowering. V¢nsa synonym is ³eJeHeÀue (“Yavafala”). were bringing cool Ga¬g¢ water because of the pleasing sound of K¤caka.e-pdfconverter. Following is a ºloka from Meghad¦tam: Meyoe³evles ceOegjceefveuew: keÀer®ekeÀe: Het³e&ceeCee: mebmekeÌleeefYeefm$eHegjefJepe³ees ieer³eles efkeÀVejereYf e:~ The blowing wind passing through the hollows of the K¤caka bowers makes sweet music. These fruits resemble barley and hence thus named.

flying high and unsupported in the sky a was frightening R¢ma and Lak¾ma´a with her fingeres which had curved nails and joints were like rough joints (nodes) of the Bamboo (hollow). 2/12) Dilipa and Sudak¾i´¢ were moving towards the hermitage of Vasi¾°ha on the way forest deities were singing their praise with loud voice in the forest arbour. 58. in addition to forest fire. P¦. In Sanskrit JesCeg (Venu) (flute) word is also used for the word V¢nsa (K¤caka). dry V¢nsa (Bamboo). 1-9. Many references are available on the music formed by the wind filling the hollow to remove this message. 2-12. The poet imagines that cows are standing to hear the sweet sound like that of the flute. sharp shouting sound from splitting of dry bamboo! M¢gha (Sarga. Kum¢ra. 1-8) The wind blowing from the mouth of the cave filled the hollow of the K¤caka producing sweet music. Sarga. then the bamboos crackle.e-pdfconverter. . ºloka 43) has a similar account. sarga12-41) ¹urpa´akh¢. With this action. 4. K¢lid¢sa has described this scene pJeueefle HeJeveJe=×: HeJe&leeveeb ojer<eg~ mHegÀìefle Heìgefveveeow: Meg<keÀJebMemLeueer<eg~~ The troublesome heat of the summer. Kamble deer and rutting musk deer were scrubbing their bodies against bamboo to lessen the itching. 1-25 When there is forest fire.188 189 1 ³e: Hetj³evkeÀer®ekeÀevO´eYeeieeved ojercegKeerl³esve meceerjCesve~ (Kum¢ra. appearing like an iron hook for the elephant. §tu. Raghu. With this song the music arising from the wind filling the hollow bamboo was gratifying the need of the lute music. Megha. her finger marks were compared with the nodal marks of the Bamboo : me Je¬eÀveKeOeeefj<³ee JesCegkeÀke&ÀMeHeJe&³ee~ De¹§MeekeÀej³ee²§u³ee leeJelepe&³eocyejs~~ (Raghu. lJekeÌmeejjvO´eHeefjHetjCeueyOeieerelf e-jeqmceVemeew ce=eof leHe#ceuejuuekeÀe²:~ keÀmletejf keÀece=ieefJeceo&megieefvOejself e je$eerJe meeqkeÌleceefOekeÀeb efJe<e³es<eg Jee³eg:~~ (¹isºup¢lavadham canto 4/61) Would the musk deer be present in Giran¢ra (Gujarat)? The poet has imagined the bamboo lJekeÌmeej (Tvaks¢ra) as the musk deer Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. the poet shows that the wind carrying the musk fragrance was spreading along all the mountain region. In Raghuva¼ºa sarga 19-35 Jes C eg (Venu) word is used for Vi´¢ (Lute). mebkeÀerCe&keÀer®ekeÀJevemKeefuelewkeÀyeeue-efJe®ísokeÀelejefOe³e½eefuelegb ®ece&³e:~ Deeqmcevce=oég emeveieYe&leos³ejvOe´-efve³e&lmJeveÞeeflemegKeeefoJe veeslmenvles~~ (¹iºup¢lavadha) The hairy tails of the Camar¤ cows (which love their tails dearly) were entangled within thickly grown bamboo forest. The cows were standing still there so that the tail hair is not broken. blaze spreading by wind. In the event of ¹urpa´akh¢. me keÀer®ekewÀ: cee©leHetCe&jvO´ew: ketÀpeefÓjeHeeefoleJebMeke=Àl³eced~ MegÞeeJe kegÀ¡es<eg ³eMe: mJeceg®®ew©Ãer³eceeveb JeveosJeleeefYe:~~ (Raghu. 1.

They grow in clumps. 12. to remove this message. for plucking flowers a long bamboo(v¢nsa) with one end cut into multiforked shape is used even today by herdsmen. saffron. 5-9. §tu. kesara. crocus. white as the snow. The fair breasts coloured red with kesar were attractive with red clothes.190 191 efíVe: megefveefMelew: Mem$ewefJe&×½e veJemeHleLee~ leLeeefHe efn megJebMesve efJejmeb veeHepeefuHeleced~~ (Subh¢¾ita) The bamboo is cut with sharp instrument. 6-4. Bhart¨hari has compared Kuºa (Darbha) with the beauty of the shoot tips (sprouts)of the bamboo. JesCegueleejef®eleHeg<HeHeelevee¹§efMekesÀve (Para 216). efÒe³e²§keÀeueer³ekegÀkegÀ¹§ceekeÌleb mleves<eg ieewj<s eg efJeueeefmeveereYf e:~ DeeefueH³eles ®evovece²veeefYe: ceoeuemeeefYe: ce=ieveeefYe³egkeÌleced~~(§tu. Family : Iridaceae Ku¬kuma. kesar varan ceveesnjw: kegÀ¹§cejeiejkeÌlew: leg<eejkegÀvosvogefveYew½e nejw:~ efJeueeefmeveerveeb mleveMeeefueveerveeced Deuebe¬f eÀ³evles mleveceC[ueeefve~~ (§tu. and split in many ways but that good family (v¢nsa)have never abused or badly conversed. Zafran. had garlands. In Sanskrit. 6-4). menlelJeeÐeLee JesCeg: efveefye[w: keÀCìkewÀ: Je=le:~ ve Meke̳eles meceg®ísÊegb Ye´ele=mebIeeleJeebmleLee~~ (Hitopadeºa) V¢nsa rarely grow in isolation. Raghu.e-pdfconverter. 2. 6-12) Attractive women inclined to sensual pleasure smeared a paste of fragrant herb (Ghaunal¢). The river Narmad¢’s origin is believed to be from bamboo clumps. Ocassionally Kesara has been used for saffron (Crocus).4-2) Stanaiª kucaiª º¢lante ºobhanta iti stanaº¢linyaª (mlevew: kegÀ®ew: Meeuevles MeesYevle Fefle mleveMeeefuev³e:) one who is attractive with breasts. He³eesOejw: kegÀ¹§cejeieefHe¡ejw: (§tu. 4-63 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 4. hence difficult to cut them together. kesara mixed chandan and musk. The poet has referred to this at many places the fact of breasts with a paste of kesara. yellow chandan. vece&oeÒeJeen FJe ceneJebMeÒeYeJe: (K¢dambar¤ para. Breasts were besmeared with Kesara paste . . Kunda flower garlands as white as the moon. KU«KUMA1 Crocus sativus L. 5-9) jkeÌleebMegkewÀ: kegÀ¹§cejeieieewjwjuebef¬eÀ³evles mleveceC[ueeefve~~ (§tu. Attractive women who look beautiful with the breasts coloured red with kesar. 46) There is a flock-lore that GlHeefÊeYetve&ce&oe³ee ceneJesCegefjefle Þegefle:~ nefjleeuekeÀefHeueHekeÌJeJesCegeJf eìefHeouejef®eleJe=elf eefYe:~ (Para 215) The beautiful yellow v¢nsa (Bamboo) seem similar to the yellow colour of “Harit¢la” (a yellow pigeon) forms a garden. the meaning of Kesara is mostly referred to as Bakula ( Mimusops ) and N¢gakesara ( Mesua ). efJem$eieefvOeOetceesÃceevegceer³eceevemeevêJebMeJeveevleefjleJesMcemebevf eJesMeced (K¢dambar¤ later para 593) A house being surrounded by thickets of bamboos.

keÀeMceerjieewjJeHeg<eeceefYemeeefjkeÀeCeeced (G¤ta. Yellow medicines obtained from Cow. Kesara. his horses rolled over on the ground and the filaments of kesÀmej (kesara) got attached to their backs.Go.192 193 Whenever K¢lid¢sa has used the word Kesara. The following ºloka describes this fact. . When Raghu sets out for his universal conquest in the extreme northern region. Musks etc. then cleaning with camphor water to prevent the fear of touching the lotus mud. Heewjml³ee³eeb Oegme=Ceceme=CeÞeerpeg<ees Jewpe³evl³ee: mleescewef½eÊeb njefle nefjefle #eerjkeÀCþwce&³etKew:~ (Nai¾adha 19/62) In the east. The poet has picturised the early morning rising sun. The fact that ointment of Ku¬kuma and others when applied on buttock surface. arms. In Nai¾adha : ieesjes®evee®evovekegÀ¹§cewCeveeceerefJeuesHeeved Hegve©keÌle³evleerced~ (10/ 97).com to remove this message. The poet shows the chestheart of ¹r¤ K¨¾´a having Kesara. belonging to the breasts of Goddess Lak¾m¤. efJeveerleeOJeÞecee: lem³e efmevOegleerjefJe®esävew:~ ogOegJegJee&epf eve: mkeÀvOeeuueivekegÀ¹§cekesÀmejeled~~ The following is from the G¤tagovinda. Kesara grows in Kashmir hence its name is ‘K¢ºm¤raja’. He¨eeHe³eesOejleìerHeefjjcYeueivekeÀeMceerjcegeêf lecegjes ceOegmetovem³e~ (1/10) K¢ºm¤ra here means Kesara. the dirt removed and fragrance increased. this fact is mentioned by Ayurved practitioners). breasts. it is reffered for Bakula and N¢gakesara. then after. In ancient India the paste of Ku¬kuma appears to be so popular : efm$e³e: Òeke=ÀefleefHeÊeuee: keÌJeefLelekegÀ¹§ceeuesHeve: efvelecyeHeÀuekeÀmlevemLeueYegpees©cetueeefoefYe:~ FneefYeveJe³eewJevee: mekeÀuejeef$emebMuese<f elew: njefvle efMeefMejpJejejefleceleerJe He=LJeerceefHe~~ (R¢jaºekhara) Women by nature bilious (one of the humours) (the women’s menstruation is fiery. were used for the paste for beautification in ancient times. ceeueleer efMejefme pecYeCeb cegKes ®evoveb JeHegef<e kegÀ¹§ceeefJeueced~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. thighs. female organ and other suggested organs removes the feverish pain arising from the cold of the winter season. Sandal wood.e-pdfconverter. The critic N¢r¢ya´a thus explains: first application of paste Kesara and musk. spreading of tender shailej flowers so that soft feet of Nala Damayant¤ do not feel the hardness of the jewels fitted platform. kegÀ¹§cewCeceoHe¹ueseHf elee: #eeefuelee½e efnceJeeuegkeÀecyegecf e:~ jspegjOJeleleMewuepeñepees ³em³e cegiOeceefCekegÀefÆcee YegJe:~~ (18/7) The ground was attractive with platforms fitted with fascinating beautiful jewels. It was daubed with kesara and musk and washed before with water along with camphor powder.11/4) The fair bodies of women lovers were anointed with Kesara paste. attached to it during the embrace. the sun having the beauty of delicate redness of kesar etc.

the flowering then occurs in ‘Saptchchhad’ trees after Kadamba. Megha. Its fruit is follicle. In medicine bark and seed of kegÀìpe (Ku°aja) only are used. 3/13) The following ºloka is from R¢jaºekhara : ouelkegÀìpekegÀ*dceue: mHegÀefìleveerHeHeg<HeeslkeÀjes OeJeÒemeJeyeevOeJe: Òeef®elece¡ejerkeÀepe&vg e:~ keÀocyekeÀueg<eecyej: keÀefuelekesÀlekeÀerkeÀesjkeÀ½eueefVe®eguemegáe³ees njefle nvle Oecee&l³e³e:~~ keg À ìpe (Ku°aja). Yak¾a (deity) welcomes Megh with kegÀìpe (Ku°aja) flowers. Its seeds are called Indrajava. Indrajava. Its fragrance resembles that of Mallik¢ (Jasmine). Nicula (Samudrafala). K¢lid¢sa has pointed this fact : cegkeÌlJee keÀocyekegÀìpeepe&vg emepe&veerHeevmeHle®íoevegHeielee kegÀmegceesÃceÞeer:~~ (§tu. 4/30-25 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Page-4. 6/22-52. 3-13 of two types (1) bitter and (2) sweet. the one that grows on mountain is Ku°aja. 14: 5/2-9. P¦rva 4) Having worshipped with fresh flowers of Ku°aja. 6/4-80. N¤pa (Kadamba). Its other synonyms are JelmekeÀ ‘Vatsaka’ and Me¬eÀ ‘¹akra’. After monsoon. keÌJeef®eod yee<HeeefYemeb©×evJe<ee&iecemeceglmegkeÀeved~ kegÀìpeevHeM³e meewecf e$es Hege<f Heleeeqvieefjmeeveg<eg~ cece MeeskeÀeefYeYetlem³e keÀecemeoerHeveeeqvmLeleeved~~ (4/28-14) R¢ma says to Lak¾ma´a. They are 1. Kado me Òel³eûe: kegÀìpekegÀmegcew: keÀefuHeleeI³ee&³e lemcew Òeerle: ÒeerefleÒecegKeJe®eveb mJeeieleb J³eepenej~~ (Megha. Kadamba. It flowers in the early monsoon.194 195 Je#eefme efÒe³elecee ceoeuemee mJeie& S<e HeefjefMeä Deeiece:~~ (Bhart¨hari ¹¨¬g¢ra. Megh was welcomed with sweet words. kegÀ¹§ceHe¹ueef¹leosne ieewjHe³eesOejkeÀefcHeleneje~ (Prasannar¢ghavam) SleÊeke&À³e ®e¬eÀJeekeÀmeg¢Meeceeéeemeveeoeef³eve: Òeew{OJeevleHe³eeseOf eceivepeieleeroÊeeJeuecyeerlmeJee:~ oerHleebMeeseJf e&keÀmeefvle efo*dce=ie¢Meeb keÀeMceerjHe¹esokeÀJ³eel³eg#eer®elegje: mejes©nJeveÞeerkesÀefuekeÀeje: keÀje:~~ (Act. The great poet of the R¢m¢ya´a 1 has also praised Ku°aja.) wall Family: Apocynaceae Kudo. 1. “Oh! Lak¾ma´a! With the first rains. hence its Sanskrit name is efieefjceefuuekeÀe: (Girimallik¢ª) (mountain Jasmine). 4/28-4.e-pdfconverter. winter (¹arada) sets in. Ku°aja. ketÀìs Me=² pee³eles Fefle kegÀìpe:~. Ketak¤. . the very warm vapour comes out from the ground. Arjuna and N¤pa trees. Indrajava tree. Its white flowers are very fragrant. 7-85) KU¯AJA1 Holarrhena antidysenterica (L. §tu. The bitter one is called Ku°aja or Ka²o The sweet one is called Dudhalo (Wrightia tomentosa).com to remove this message. all these trees flower in monsoon is stated in the above ºloka. It grows on mountains. Arjuna (S¢ja²o). Its bark is known as Kurci bark. Dhava (Dh¢va²o). 23) One can experience heavenly delight on earth when one sleeps with his beloved in close embrace who has applied the paste of Kesara and sandal wood on her breasts. Ku°aja is Kado. Dudhalo and Ka²o grow closely. to remove this message. Vikramo. sarga 6-35) The pollens of Ku°aja flowers. I have not seen a better ºloka than this to show the whiteness of the Ku°aja flowers. These trees are like a person who is humiliated with sorrow and excited with passion”. Later 71. leg<eejkegÀvosvogefveYew½e nejw:~ (§tu.196 197 look on these mountain peaks. His pleasure was to rest in the artificial mountains where peacocks cooed in the monsoon. Family: Oleaeceae Navamallik¢. oefueleceewekq eÌlekeÀ®etCe&eJf eHeeC[Je: mHegÀefjleefvePe&j MeerkeÀj®eejJe:~ kegÀìpeHeg<HeHejeiekeÀCee: mHegÀìb efJeoefOejs oefOejsCegeJf e[cyeveeced~~ (M¢gha. The fragrance of Ku°aja flower is considered to inflame (aphrodisiac) the passion. 133) kegÀmegceOeJeuew: kegÀìpewjefHe jeieHejJeMeesçef¬eÀ³ele~ (Later Para. peueieYee& cenecesOee: kegÀìpeepe&vg eieefvOeve:~ ®eefjlJee efJejlee: meewc³e Je=efäJeelee: mecegÐelee:~~ (4/30-25) The following ºloka is from Bhavabh¦ti GvceeruevkegÀìpeÒeneefme<eg efiejsjeuecy³e meevetevf ele:~ ÒeeiYeejs<eg efMeKeefC[leeC[JeefJeOeew cesIewefJe&leevee³³eles~~ (M¢. K¢dambar¤ has mentioned Ku°aja flower to describe the whiteness: kegÀìpeHeg<He kegÀìpekegÀvêefmevOegJeejkegÀmegce®íefJeefYeefjJeesuueeefmeleeced (Early Para.they constitute or form the dance. wherever the poet refers about absolute white colour. M¢lavi. 4-5. the flowering Ku°aja trees which are very eager for the arrival of the monsoon and are much covered with the warm vapour. Under this canopy are the peaks as if laughing with newly bloomed Ku°aja trees and peacocks getting intoxicated dancing. 19-37) The king Agnivar´a had worn garlands of Ku°aja and Arjuna flowers. Early 47. spring were imitating the grains of the curd.e-pdfconverter. beautiful and white as crushed pearl powder and shining water drops of the 1. Compare K¢lid¢sa -Þe³eefle efMeKejb vetlevemlees³eJeen:~ (clouds capping the mountain sides). 9/15) Clouds capping the mountain peaks1 and as if spreading a large canopy had been spread. snow and Kunda flowers. §tu. 3-37. peacocks as dancers and monsoon clouds as canopy . Jasmine The most common ºloka of worship of Goddess of knowledge is ³ee keÀgvosvogleg<eejnejnejOeJeuee (Y¢ kundedutu¾¢rah¢radhaval¢) refers Kunda. He had a paste of Kadamba pollen on his body. . 2page 44. 520) DebmeueeqcyekegÀìpeepe&vg em$epemlem³e veerHejpemee²jeefieCe: ÒeeJe=e<f e ÒeceoyeefnC& es<JeYetlke=Àef$eceeefê<eg efJenejefJeYe´ce:~~ (Raghu. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 517) kegÀìpelejJe: ke=Àleevlenemew:~ (Later Para. Ka²o is Holarrhena antidysentrica and D¦dhalo is Wrighti tomentosa. Following ºloka vividly describes monsoon wind and big rainy clouds carrying the fragrance of Ku°aja and Arjuna flowers in the monsoon. Ku°aja trees as spectators. M¢. KUNDA1 Jasminum arborescens Roxb. he mentions moon. Megha. 4-2) 1. ¹¢kuna.

The wasp is in grave anxiety when in the early morning he is indecisive about the presence of nectar in the snow covered Kunda flowers. arborescence. The following is from ¹akuntal¢ : FocegHevelecesJeb ªHeceeqkeÌueäkeÀeefvle ÒeLeceHeefjie=nerleb m³eeVe Jesl³eJ³eJem³eved~ Ye´cej FJe efJeYeeles kegÀvocevlemleg<eejb ve ®e Keueg HeefjYeeskeÌleb vewJe MekeÌveesefce nelegced~~ (Act. R¢janigha´°u considers it all the year to remove this message. Act. . Her broad cheaks appeared pale like pieces of reeds. So M¢lavik¢ appears as the M¢dhava (spring). In Meghd¦tam kegÀvo#esHeevegieceOegkeÀjÞeerceg<eeced (Early Megh. Kunda plant swings. Bh¢vamiºra says: “kegÀvob leg keÀefLeleb ceeO³eb meoeHeg<Heb ®e lelmce=leced”. ‘mature leaf like’ (Pari´atapatr¢) and ‘scantly blossomed like (Katipayakusum¢) Kunda climber. Mallin¢tha in his criticism of Meghd¦ta yeeuekegÀvoevegefJe×b (B¢lakund¢nuvidhdm) says ³eÐeefHe kegÀvoeveeb MeweMf ejlJeceefmle ‘ceeO³eb kegÀvoced’ Fl³eefYeOeeveeÊe³eeefHe nscevle ÒeeogYee&Je: efMeefMejs Òeew{lJeced Fefle J³eJemLeeYesosve nscevlekeÀe³e&lJeefcel³eeMe³esve yeeuesefle efJeMes<eCeeled~~ Kunda flowers in M¢gha. At this time the king seeing the beauty of ¹akuntal¢ recites to himself the above ºloka . M¢dhav¤ blossoms in spring and Kunda blossoms in M¢gha month (Feb-March). but begins flowering in Hemant (Dec. Kunda flowers and moon. The women use snow white Kunda flowers in their wreaths for braids. M¢dhav¤ is more mature than Kunda. kebÀ YegJeb oe³eefle Ðeefle Jee Fefle kegÀvoced means that Kunda which decorates the earth with its loud laughter of white flower. in spring has few flowers. As he can neither use the flower nor leave it. so the wasps buzzing around move towards the flowers. 5-19) When Du¾yanta comes to ¹akuntal¢. blossoms in ¹iºira (M¢gha) and. DeuekesÀ yeeuekegÀvoevegeJf e×b (Meghad¦ta later Megha. This ºloka shows that M¢dhav¤ and Kunda are two different climbers.. In the spring.198 199 Garlands like snow. Wasps are attached to Kunda flowers.2 ºloka 4) Here the wind has two wives. flowers also move.Jan). J. The king loves M¢dhav¤ but dances with Kunda to keep her in good humour and shows chivalry to Kunda. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The following ºloka also mentions Kunda flowers and wasps: MejkeÀeC[HeeC[gieC[mLeues³eceeYeeefle HeefjefceleeYejCee~ ceeOeJeHeefjCeleHe$ee keÀefleHe³ekegÀmegcesJe kegÀvouelee~~ (M¢lavi. as mentioned above. Kunda’s name is ceeO³eb (M¢dhyam) means it blossoms in M¢gha.) efveef<eáevceeOeJeercesleeb ueleeb keÀewvoer ®e vele&³eved~ mvesnoeef#eC³e³ees³eexieeled keÀeceerJe ÒeefleYeeefle ces~~ (Vikramovaº¤ya. M¢dhav¤ and Kundalat¢. It is one type of Jasmine. (ceeOeJeHeefjCeleHe$ee keÀefleHe³ekegÀmegcee). the Kunda sheds its leaves and it has few flowers. who have stollen the beauty of wasps. he has forgotten everything about her due to the curse.I am not able to decide whether I have ever enjoyed before this unimpaired lustrous beauty standing before me. Act 3-8) M¢lvik¢ had scanty ornaments. but Kunda flowers all the year round.e-pdfconverter. The poet remembers the Kunda climbers while describing the eyebrows of Daºpurabrides.47). The king is in a similar dilemma. The poet compares them with Kunda climber.

the cupid thus serves the face of R¢dh¢.e-pdfconverter. Fvoes: kegÀvoefJekeÀeefmekegÀ*dceueouem$ekeÌmegvoje jMce³e:~ Kunda is inevitably associated with the goddess Sarasvat¤ having a garland of Kunda ³ee kegÀvosvogleg<eejnejOeJeuee. fully fragrant with the nectar flowing from the clusters of the Kunda flowers! You after embracing my nimble eyed wife (who looks perplexed and fear afflicted because of the pain of separation induced by the touch of the wind. R¢jaºekhara efMeefMejJemevlemeefvOe ®³eglemegceveme: kegÀvoe: Heg<HeesÃces<eg Deuemee êgcee: writes. that is why 1 the poet considers it Demece³epeb (Asamayajam) (untimely/ unseasonal) . in the description of ‘Hemant’ (winter). The poet imagines that Kunda with its whiteness in flowers figuratively ridicules the wasp. The wind blows carrying the fragrance of Kunda flowers. Indu (Moon) and Tu¾¢ra (snow) whiteness . wind. teeth rows like Kunda flowers. 4/1-77. In veue®ecHet (Nalacamp¦) the moon light or rays have been compared with the garlands of Kunda flowers. delicate nose like sesam flower (Tala) eyes like blue lotus. The drizzle of the rains has just begun. 1. Following ºloka is from M¢gha : DeefOeueJe²ce³eer jpemeeefOekebÀ ceefueefvelee: megceveesoueleeefueve~ mHegÀìefceefle ÒemeJesve HegjesçnmelmeHeefo kegÀvouelee oueleeefueve:~~ (55) Wasps had settled on petals of clove flowers with many pollen attached to them.1/38) also remembers Kunda : GvceeruevcegkegÀuekeÀjeuekegÀvokeÀesMe-Òe½³eesle×vecekeÀjvoievOeyevOe:~ leeceer<elÒe®eueefJeuees®eveeb velee²erceeefue²vHeJeve cece mHe=Mee²ce²ced~~ “Oh! brother. fair cheeks like Madh¦ka to remove this message. . after having touched her). 4/27-10. M¢. ieguce (Gulma) means a thicket of trees. 3/71). and whose body is bent down. all these reside on the face of R¢dh¢. 1. 3/75-24. Kunda flowers in ¹iºira but at times flowers are also in Hemant. The same meaning is expressed in ojoefuelekegÀvoceekeÀvoceOegefyevogmevoesnJeeefnvee YeJeveesÐeeveHe³e&vlecee©lesve GÊeec³eefle~ (M¢. you touch my body”. The following ºloka is from Kir¢ta. In the R¢m¢ya´a1 mostly the word kegÀvoieguce: (Kundagulmaª) is used. may be because Kunda climber grows profusely forming a thicket. The season shines without the properties of time. 6/4-78 DeefJejueHeÀefueveerJeÒemetve: kegÀmegecf elekegÀvomegieefvOeievOeJeen:~ iegCecemece³epeb ef®eje³e uesYes efJejueleg<eejkeÀCemleg<eejkeÀeue:~~ (1/28) HeÀefueveer (Falin¤) is Priya¬gu tree which has abundantly blossomed. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Bhavbh¦ti (M¢. the wind filled with the fragrance of Kunda flower in all directions. Kunda climber with white flowers had blossomed nearby.200 201 The following ºloka is by Jayadeva : yevOetkeÀÐegelf eyeevOeJeesç³eceOej: eqmveiOees ceOetkeÀ®íefJeie&C[½eefC[ ®ekeÀeefmle veerueveefueveÞeercees®eveb uees®eveced~ veemeeY³esefle efleueÒemetveHeoJeeR kegÀvoeYeoefvle efÒe³es Òee³emlJevcegKemesJe³ee efJepe³eles efJeéeb meHeg<Hee³egOe:~~ (G¤tagovinda 10/6) Dark red lips like Bandh¦ka flowers.kegÀmegecf elekegÀvomegieefvOeievOeJeen: May God let.

That means kegÀypekeÀ (Kubjak) is an aquatic plant and mostly a Trapa to remove this message. In the above ºloka K¢lid¢sa describes the settled middle condition (stage) of Madhuºr¤ = spring goddess 1. Megha. 98) keg À vo (Kunda) is mentioned in K¢dambar¤ (Para 133.noise means no buzzing sound of the wasps is found. In R¢janigha´°u kegÀypekeÀ (Kubjaka) is mentioned in family Apocynaceae. known as water chest nut.2 ºloka 7) Deûes DeûeYeeies m$eerveKeJelHeeìueb éeslejkeÌleb ܳees: Yeeie³ees: GYe³eÒeevle³ees: M³eeceb kegÀjyekeÀHeg<Heced~ This criticism is of late K¢le. Act. 2/18) A row of king swans was on the brink of sands. Si¬gho²¢ (Hindi name). but it belongs to fragrant spiny flowering family. bloodpitt (leprosy) and Kafa (cough). M¢lavik¢. but in English note explains kegÀjyekebÀ (Kurabakam) as a ‘kind of small red flower’. Later 54) You support the slackened life like the Kunda flower opening in the morning. kegÀypekeÀes YeêlejCeer Je=ÊeHeg<HeesçeflekesÀmej:~ cenemen: keÀCìkeÀe{îe: KeJeexçefuekegÀuemebkegÀue:~~ Kubjaka fragrant (flower) causes cool. Vikramo. . Ku=slight and ‘Rava’. Kurabaka (kegÀeqlmele F&<eÜe Deueerveece©HecekeÀjvolJeeod jJeesç$e) means the flower is almost without nectar. KUBJAKA There is a reference to kegÀypekeÀefvekegÀ¡e (Kubjakaniku®ja) in M¢latim¢dhava (3-6. Bhart¨hari also remembers Kunda in the description of Hemant : ÒeesÐelÒeew{efÒe³e²§ÐegefleYe=efle efJekeÀmelkegÀvoceeÐeefÜjsHesÀ (¹¨¬ag¢ra. mewkeÌleb kegÀypekeÀ (Kubjaka) vines grow on the river banks. wasps do not visit the flower.e-pdfconverter. In K¢dambar¤ : kegÀypekeÀueleepeeuekewÀ: peefìueer ke=ÀlemewkeÀleeefYe: (Early para. K¢le explains ‘str¤nakhap¢°ala’ as whitreddish. Later 71. It was shaded by the abundance of lotuses. KURABAKA1 Deûes m$eerveKeHeeìueb kegÀjyekebÀ M³eeceb ܳeesYee&ie³ees:~ (Vikramo. Later 86. Megha. Considering all these qualities. (ceceeefHe Òeele: kegÀvoÒemeJeefMeefLeueb peerefJeleb Oeej³esLee:) and in this way solace my fickle (exhausted) life like the Kunda flower bud opening in the early morning. 9-29. which would have understandable well being message. The white froth was adjoined with the sands of shore and the swans were white as Kunda flowers so that they could only be identified with their sound pleasant to the ear. 32. No reference to kegÀypekeÀ (Kubjaka) in Amarakoºa. poet Bha°°i writes describing ¹arada (winter) season : efmeleejefJevoÒe®e³es<eg ueervee: mebmekeÌleHesÀves<eg ®e mewkeÀles<eg~ kegÀvoeJeoelee: keÀuenbmeceeuee: Òeleere³f ejs Þees$emegKewevf e&veeow:~~ (Bha°°i. 6-18. 215). according to this explanation. Its flowers are cool.) when R¢ma and Lak¾ma´a went to forest with Viºv¢mitra. 2-67) De$e kegÀypekebÀ ketÀDee Fefle K³eelemle©efJeìHe:~ (critic Jagadhdara). Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Later Page 441-447. Without nectar.202 203 Òeele: kegÀvoÒemeJeefMeefLeueb peerefJeleb Oeej³esLee:~ (Meghd¦ta. ¹¢ku. Raghu. §tu. Kubjaka flower appears to be like a rose flower. Yak¾a tells Meghd¦ta (cloud messenger) that after having delivered my message you tell me the reply of your female friend. But it cannot be rose as the latter has come from abroad. decreasing heat and improving complexion.

ceOetlmeJe: (Raktaprasavaª. keÀevleecegKeÐegelf epegJeeceefHe ®eesÃleeveeb MeesYeeb Heieb kegÀjyekeÀêgcece¡ejerCeeced~ ¢ädJee efÒe³es meËo³em³e YeJesVe keÀm³e keÀvoHe&yeeCeHeleveJ³eefLeleb efn ®esle~~ (§tu. It does not bear clusters of flower buds.e-pdfconverter. The yellow K¢´°¢seriy¢ is ‘Karu´°aka’. as : jkeÌleÒemeJe:. In addition K¢´°¢seriyo grows all the year round. Here Kurabaka is M³eeceJeoeleejCeb (¹y¢mavad¢t¢ra´am) and only differently opened flower buds are seen. The red K¢´°¢seriyo is not a tree. its both ends are black with scanty nectar (M¢lavik¢. veJekegÀjyekeÀHetCe&: kesÀMeHeeMees cevees%e: (§tu. Tilaka and Kurabaka trees blossom with the look and embrace of beautiful women. (Kurabaka) = innocent (with scanty nectar). it is red like a woman’s nail. this reference in Meghd¦ta also supports this observation. whose mind of her sympathetic lover be not awakened by the cupid? Here also Kurabaka is considered a tree. Sarga 6-19) When the clusters of flowers buds of Kurabaka competing with the splendour of the attractive face of the beautiful woman is seen. R¢janigha´°u has mentioned many name for the red one. this belief is supported by jeceeefue²vekeÀece: (R¢m¢li¬ganak¢maª). jceeefue²vekeÀece:. It is Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. R¢gaprasavaª. These two familiarities do not accord with Kurabaka. Raghuva¼ºa (Sarga to remove this message. Kurabaka blossoms in spring. . kegÀjyekeÀ. Act. ºloka 5). Jees{e kegÀjyekeÀjpemeeb efkeÀmeue³eHegìYesoMeerkeÀjevegiele:~ DeefveefceÊeeslkeÀCþeceefHe peve³eefle cevemees ceue³eJeele:~~ This is a description of the Malaya (Mountain)the wind carrying the pollen of Kurabaka flowers. The clusters of flowers buds were worn on the braids of hairs. 3. In Meghd¦ta also ®et[eHeeMes veJekegÀjyekebÀ ®ee© keÀCex efMejer<eb. jeie (R¢ga) = the beginning of youth and jpe: (Rajaª) = the first manifestation of youth. full opened and nectar full flowers are not seen. Kurabakaª. They were with ‘Kurava’ flower hence they were responsible for ‘Rava’ (Sound). they were giving nectar to wasps and became responsible for buzzing of wasps. Sarga 6 ºloka 27 after 4 new notes) have been mentioned. jeieÒemeJe:. ºloka 32) efJejef®elee ceOegveesHeJeveefÞe³eeceefYeveJee FJe He$eefJeMes<ekeÀe:~ ceOegeuf enes ceOegoeveefJeMeejoe: kegÀjyekeÀe jJekeÀejCeleeb ³e³eg:~~ Kurabaka trees appeared as new creations made by the spring. Òel³eemeVees kegÀjyekeÀJe=lescee&OeJeerceC[Hem³e~ (Meghd¦ta) indicates that Kurabaka trees were around M¢dhav¤’s arbour. flowering in spring not always fixed.204 205 (Madhu Lak¾m¤) between innocent (stage before youth) and youth stage. Dhanvantari’s Nigha´°u has mentioned the red one as Kurabaka jkeÌle: kegÀjyekeÀ: mce=le: (“Raktaª Kurabakaª Sm¨taª”). The first two lines describe the innocance and third line describes the opening of the youth stage. Madh¦tsavaª) etc. But : Òel³eeK³eeleefJeMes<ekebÀ kegÀjyekebÀ M³eeceeJeoelee©Ceced – Òel³eeK³eeleb eflejmke=Àleb efJeMes<ekebÀ He$eYebiees ³esve leLeeskeÌleb kegÀjyekebÀ (criticism).kegÀjyekeÀ:.) is noted as Kurabaka. are noteworthy. Being expert in the nectar gift. Then what is this Kurabaka tree? In Amarakoºa le$e MeesCes kegÀjyekeÀ: Red K¢´°¢seriy¢ (Barleria sp. efleuekeÀkegÀjyekeÀew Jeer#eCeeefue²veeY³eeced . Ram¢li¬ganak¢maª.

B¢´a. sometimes also used in naming gardens keg À jCìkeÀ (‘Kura´°aka’). these garlands do not wither. White K¢´°¢seriy¢o éeslekegÀjCìkeÀ (¹vetakura´°aka) In short K¢´°¢seriy¢o is a very useful plant and there is no ambiguity in its Sanskrit words. The cupid appears with a Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. On wearing one gets good to remove this message. Yellow K¢´°¢seriy¢o kegÀjCìkeÀ (Kura´°aka) 3. ¹¢kuntala (Act. Also in this book the above fact is referred to a different way in kegÀjyekeÀkegÀ®ee®eele¬eÀer[ejmesve efJe³egp³eles chapter 13 . 2. There are four types of K¢´°¢seriy¢o : 1. (meg<ecee Hejcee Ðegleew). cristaka Linn). though disorganized. White 1. 3.e-pdfconverter. family Acanthaceae (now named as B. Yellow.the most beautiful Kurabaka flowers. Blue K¢´°¢seriy¢o oemeerkegÀjCìkeÀ. Oeve®e³e©ef®ejs j®e³eefle ef®ekegÀjs lejefuele©Ceeveves~ kegÀjyekeÀkegÀmegceb ®eHeueemeg<eceb jefleHeeflece=iekeÀeveves~~ (Gitagovinda. R¢jaºekhara describes below the summer in his poem survey veeefueef²le: kegÀjyekeÀefmleuekeÀes ve ¢äes vees leeef[le½e ®ejCew: meg¢MeeceMeeskeÀ:~ efmekeÌlees ve JekedÀ$eceOegvee yekegÀue½e ®ew$es ef®e$eb leLeeefHe YeJeefle ÒemeJeeJekeÀerCe&:~~ Here the embrace of Kurabaka with the milking mother is shown and it flowers in Caitra (Spring). Deele&ieue (D¢s¤kura´°aka. The literature of Prakrit language (derived from Sanskrit) has many references of the word keÀesjCìkeÀ ‘Kora´°aka’. Blue and 4. ¡rtagala) 4. Wasps having overenjoyed are buzzing. Red K¢´°¢seriy¢o kegÀjyekeÀ.whose beauty is like reddish lightning . That is why R¢janigha´°u gives another synonym jeceeefue²vekeÀece: (R¢m¢li¬ganak¢maª). V¢tsy¢yana has suggested to keep garlands of Kurantaka in the bed room veeiejkeÀJe= Ê eÒekeÀjCeced (see N¢garakav¨tta Chapter Act. There is a reference of yeeCe (B¢´a) in R¢m¢ya´a ÒeHegÀuueyeeCeemeveef®eef$eles<eg ÒeËä<eìdHeeoefveketÀefpeles<eg~ ie=nerle®eeHees½eleoC[®eC[: Òe®eC[®eeHeesçJee Jeves<eg keÀece:~~ (4/30-56) This refers to ¹arada (Autumn) when yeeCe (B¢´a) and Asana trees have blossomed and the forest looks variegated. 7/2) ‘Capal¢’ means lightning . ¹o´a Kura´°aka) 2. probably is a good name derived from Prakrit. ºloka 4) meb v e×b ³eoef H e ef m Leleb keg À jyekeb À lelkeÀejkeÀeJemLe³ee~ the critic explains that kegÀjyekebÀ MeesCekeÀjCìkebÀ (Kurabaka) is ‘red K¢´°¢seriy¢o’ according to K¢lid¢sa. One synonym of K¢´°¢seriy¢o is Decueeve (Aml¢na) (not withering). . yeeCe. Hari wore them in his fine hair cluster. MeesCe kegÀjCìkeÀ (Kurabaka.206 207 a showy plant. 4-10) Jayama¬gal¢ explains kegÀjCìkeÀceeuee½e~ leemeeb MeesYeecee$eHeÀueeveeb megjlemebceoxveeH³ecuee³eceevelJeeled~ le×ejCes ®e meewYeei³eÞegles: efJeMes<eeefYeOeeveced~ On the occasion of the sensual joy. considered as flowering in spring. its shining fine leaves and somewhat showy flowers can be judged to be Barleria ciliate . Red. 6.

Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) In the preparation of Aºvamedha Yaj®a (horse sacrifice ceremonial performance) (the R¢m¢ya´a 7/91-20) efkeÀjeleceeb efJekeÀefmelekegÀmegceeOejb nmevleeR kegÀjyekeÀjeefpeJeOetb efJeueeske̳evleced~ (10/32) This refers to Hemanta (Winter). Ka²ath¤ (Horse gram). It is difficult to identify this plant. There are four names in Amarakoºa. Raghu. Kadamba... Family: Poaceae Dharbham.1-49 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. . Kurabaka flowers in this season.1-49. Dharbai Kuºa is an important part of yaj®a (ceremonial performance) and hence its other name is Heef J e$eced (Pavitram).1470. called ®e#eg<³ee (came²a) in Gujarat used in cure of eye diseases. There is a bird named kegÀjj (Kurara). but Sanskrit literary authors have taken liberty to describe giant shrubs/ plants(climbers) as trees. Ka²ath¤ is green.. now their blackness is compared with that of the pupils of eyes of women of M¢dhava/K¨¾´a. Dhanvantari and R¢janigha´°u. Black bean.11.5. a grain used in medicine considered useful in piles... as it grows in water or wet ground it is keÀew Mesles Fefle kegÀMe: (Kuºa).. 5-33.. KULITTHA Ka²ath¤. ¹¢kunta.. KU¹A1 Eragrostis cynosuroides (Retz. 8-18. Kura´°aka and B¢´a are referred as trees. etc in The R¢m¢ya´a (3/60- ®eCekeÀeveeb kegÀefuelLeeveeb cee<eeCeeb ueJeCem³e ®e~ there is a suggestion to bring Bengal gram. bleeding nose. There is no reference to it in Amarakoºa. 19-2. Tilaka has also not mentioned... Beauv. better their virtuosity as those wasps whose black color appeared best because of their shelter under the fine white coloured Kurabaka flowers. yeeCe (B¢´a) is a blue K¢´°¢seriy¢o.13-43. The reference of medical importance of K¢´°¢seriy¢o is in K¢dambar¤ (later. Arjuna went further looking at the rows of Kurabaka trees like the new brides smiling with the lips like the opened flowers .e-pdfconverter. Raghu..7. But here its reference is of a tree. stones. sand salt in good proportion.. 21). .kegÀjyekeÀjmleyekeÀJ³eefle<eef²efCe~ iegCeJeoeÞe³eGyOeiegCeeso³es ceefueefveceeefueefve ceeOeJe³eese<f eleeced~~ Those who take shelter under the virtuous.4. Kum¢ra. 1. page 601) GlkeÀes j ³eved keg À jyekew À : men yekegÀueeflekeÀ®ecHekeÀveerHeeved (The R¢m¢ya´a 3/60-21) while describing the spring.208 209 huge bow as if he is ready to strike heavily.9-17. K¢´°¢seriy¢o is not a tree. There is a wild Ka°ath¤ called Jev³ekeg À ef u elLe (Vanyakulittha)... Kulath¤ Dolichos biflorus L. kegÀjCìkeÀ (Kura´°aka) is mentioned in The R¢m¢ya´a (4/1-80-82)..) to remove this message. kegÀefuelLee: leece´JeCee&½e Kulittha is Ka²ath¤. KURARA The reference of kegÀjj (Kurara) is mentioned along with the trees N¤pa. weight loss and eye diseases. kegÀMeb.8-39.

Every Hindu is familiar with Kuºa. 2) oYezjOee&Jeueer{w: ÞeceefJeJe=lecegKeYe´befMeefYe: keÀerCe&Jelcee&:~ (¹¢kunta. V¢lm¤ki went to bring Kuºa and there saw Niº¢da killing one of the birds in sexual union. one hand appears to welcome a great man. Act. the bedding of Kuºa spread on the ground and from the leaf cottage to the palace. sarga. DeefHe ef¬eÀ³eeLex megueYeb meefcelkegÀMeb peueev³eefHe mveeveefJeefOe#eceeefCe les~ DeefHe mJeMekeÌl³ee leHeefmeÒeJele&mes MejerjceeÐeb Keueg Oece&meeOeveced~~ (Kum¢ra. In a familiar ºloka of ¹¢kuntala the deer with the wounds at the mouth due to eating kuºa was being treated with Ingudi oil. One which makes us Het ³ eles Deves v e Fef l e Heef J e$eced (sacred/pure is Pavitram).210 211 kegÀLees. “Are sacrificial fire and Kuºa easily available for the ceremony of action and sacrificial fire? Is there enough proper water for the bath ? I hope you are ready for this terrifying penance on your own strength as the body is the only first instrument of religion” le$e leerLe&meefueuesve oereOf e&keÀemleuHecevleefjleYetecf eefYe: kegÀMew:~ meewOeJeemecegìpesve efJemce=le: mebe®f ekeÀe³e HeÀueefve:mHe=nmleHe:~~ The king Sudarºana was old. half chewed remnants of Dharbha were strewn on the path. Act. kegÀMee¹§jeoeveHeefjlee²§efue: (Kum¢ra.11-31. a word which is referred at many places. sarga 14-70). To show this difference. sarga 5-11) plucking the sprouts of Kuºa the blood oozed from the fingers. because the apex of Kuºa leaf is very sharp. oYe&:. For describing sharp intelligence the word ‘Kuº¢gra’ is used. sarg 9-17) The young king sits on a judicial seat to examine the cases of his people and the old king (ÒeJe³ee:) Pravay¢ª sat (G<eebMeg) solitarily for meditation on the sacred Kuºa carpet. and did gathering of penance remaining unattached for the fruit. Darbhaª. Sarga 13-10) 1. 39. The synonym of Kuºa is ‘Darbha1’. with holy water of the well. . Name Kuºa is auspicious. DeefpeveoC[Ye=leb kegÀMecesKeueeb~ (Raghu. 1-39). sarga 9-17). Kutho. to remove this message. A king sits in a judicial chair to do justice and his old father sits on Kuºa carpet to be steady in ¡rya ethics and meditation. Darbha : Raghu. oYee&¹§jsCe ®ejCe: #ele Fl³ekeÀeC[s (¹¢kunta. What a contrast! The description of the penance of Sutik¾´a also points out such a contrast. the following ºloka is worth considering ve=Heefle: Òeke=ÀleerjJese#f elegb J³eJenejemeveceeoos ³egJee~ Heefj®eslegcegHeebMeg OeejCeeb kegÀMeHetleb ÒeJe³eemleg efJeäjced~~ (Raghu. Pavitram). second hand with bracelets of Ak¾a removes itching of deer and is responsible for cutting the sharp apical region of Kuºa kegÀMemetef®eueeJeced (Raghu. 5-33) ¹iva utters this ºloka when he comes to see P¢rvat¤. HeefJe$eced (Kuºam. kegÀMeeemetef®eefJe×cegKes (¹¢kunta. sarga 13-43). keÀefJekeÀgMes<ceenjCee³e ³eele:~ (Raghu. Its edges are also sharp. 1-7) Deer had eaten mouthful of Dharbha. then inaugurating Agnivar´a he forgot in Naimi¾a forest.e-pdfconverter. ce=i³e½e oYee&¹j§ efveJ³e&Hes#ee: leJeeieefle%eb meceyeesOe³evceeced~ (Raghu. their mouths had widened because of lot of exertion due to running in the fear of hunters. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ¹¢kunta. Standing on the chariot.

Dhabha is Eragrostic cynosuroides. sarga 11-31) Considering the views of Nigha´°us and critics. so you worship “M¨g¢¬kamauli”. the second is a thief. Carakasa¼hit¢ and Suºrutasa¼hit¢ have considered them as the same plant at many places Darbhayugmam (oYe& ³ eg i ceb ) . the critic of Suºruta explains as follows : kegÀMe: n^mJeoYe&:~ keÀeme: ®eecejHeg<He:~ oYe&: He=Legue: KejHe$e: oerIe&:~~ Dhanvantr¤ and R¢janigha´°u consider Mu®ja as “Sthula Dharbha” (fatty) and Kuºa as “M¨du Dharbha” (tender).com to remove this message. it will be improper. The hand of the bride can steal the lotus beauty. the use of thread as of oYe& (Darbha) is improper. K¢sa is called K¢sa²o.1/40) These feet which were used to seat on gems studded stage. the poet says. The king of Vidarbhi. The following ºloka is from Nai¾adha : Jejm³e HeeefCe: HejIeelekeÀewlegkeÀer. One hand is violent.e-pdfconverter. K¢sa and Dharbha) are synonyms or different plants. the king Bh¤ma tied the guilty hands of Nala and Damyant¤ with Kuºa. . Jewoefce& oYe&oueHetpeve³eeefHe ³em³e ieYex peve: Hegve©osefle ve peeleg ceeleg:~ lem³ee®e&veeb j®e³e le$e ce=iee¹ceewuew: levcee$eowJelepeveeefYepeve: me osMe:~~ (11/51) At other place. the man that worships ¹iva with Darbha does not have rebirth. The latter is of two types. HegjeefOeª{: Me³eveb ceneOeveb efJeyeesO³emes ³e: mlegelf eieerelf ece²uew:~ DeoYe´oYee&ceefOeMe³³e me mLeueeR peneefme efveêeceefMeJew: efMeJee©lew:~~ (1-38) That Arjuna who used to sleep on the very costly bed and awakened by the auspicious hymns of praise by the bards had to sleep on the ground spread with Darbha grass and was awakened by the inauspicious sound of the jackals. R¢ma after returning from La¬k¢ was showing S¤t¢ the familiar scenes from the plane (pu¾pakavim¢na) . DeeefMe<eecevegHeob mecemHe=MeoYe&Heeefìleleuesve HeeefCevee~ (Raghu. so that they used to be coloured by the pollen of the garlands around the king’s neck. considered sacred and used during the marriage ceremony. called D¢bha²o. ±alha´a. yeefn&: kegÀMengleeMe³ees: Fefle efJeée: means Barhiª is a synonym of Kuºa. so if you marry anyone but Nala. JeOetkeÀj: He¹pekeÀeefvlelemkeÀj:~ megjeef%e leew le$e efJeoYe&ceC[ues lelees efveye×ew efkeÀceg keÀke&ÀMew: kegÀMew:~~ (16/14) The hand of the bridegroom for killing the enemy has been wonderful.212 213 The female deer left eating sprouts of Dharbha and were showing me your movement. The hands of the accused are tied with ropes. Het³eles Devesve Fefle HeefJe$eced one that purifies is sacred. Amarakoºa has considered Kuºa and Darbha the same. that as for making the garland of tender Mallik¢ (Jasminum) flower. The other synonym of Kuºa is HeefJe$eced (Pavitram). Following ºloka is from Kir¢ta Deveejleb ³eew ceefCeHeerþMeef³eveeJej¡e³eêepeefMej:ñepeeb jpe:~ efve<eerolemleew ®ejCeew Jeves<eg les ce=ieefÜpeeuetveefMeKes<eg yeefn<& eeced~~ (Kir¢ta. even the great kings were bowing to them. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Further the poet tells to Vaidarbh¤. have to walk now on the pointed Kuºa grass whose tips have been fragmented by the feet of the deer and other animals. Bh¤ma tied both these hands with rough edged leaves of Kuºa and got them married. tender and donkey (Khara). the question arises if kegÀMe keÀeme oYe& (Kuºa.

leaves used as green vegetable. costus The R¢m¢ya´a (2/94-24) has following ºloka on Ku¾°a in the deceription of Citrk¦°a mountain. The thighs of romantic women whose clothes have been coloured by kusumbha appear beautiful with the vermilion colour. the climbers twined round the trees grown on the river bank perplexed. flowers showy.based on the colour of flowers. In English literature its colour has been compared with the redness of the early morning. with lustrous vermilion color. Family: Asteraceae Ku¾°a. such a fire is burning the ground all round : “efJekeÀ®eveJekegÀmegcYemJe®íefmevotjYeemee” Blossomed pure vermilion coluored Kusumbha flowers are shining. Small plant. efJejuekegÀmegcYekegÀmegcejmejkeÌleogketÀuekeÀesceuesve~ (K¢dambar¤ Early Para 179). Kasumbha is carthamus tinctorius L.214 215 meboY³e&les oYe&iegCesve ceuueerceeuee ve ce=×er Ye=MekeÀke&ÀMesve~~ uetvee½e Heefj¢M³evles oYee& Jewot³e&Je®e&me:~ (3/11-50) There is a reference in The R¢m¢ya´a (3/15-22) that the cottage in Pa®cva°¤ was covered with Kuºa. ¹¨¬g¢ra. cultivated.e-pdfconverter. K¢lid¢sa remembers it in description of summer. kegÀÿmLeiejHegVeeieYetpe&He$eesÊej®íoeved~ keÀeefceveeb mJeemlejevHeM³e kegÀMesMe³eouee³egleeved~~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. whose speed has increased many times due to increased speed of wind blowing. .. like the blossomed new flowers of kasumbo. 25-39). Kasumbo Kusumbha is Kasumbo. KASUMBHA Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. contemplating the lotus like two feet of the God (Hari) slept on the bed of sacred Kuºa. Katha. True kesara is saffron. K¢lid¢sa has not forgotten its colours kegÀmegcYejeiee©efCelewokg& etÀuew: efvelecyeefyecyeeefve efJeueeefmeveerveeced~~ cenejpevekeÀced (§tu.. kegÀmegcYeHeeìefueogketÀuekeÀefuele³ee ®e osnuele³ee~ (K¢dambar¤ Early para 216) KU½¯A Saussurea lappa Clarke. efJekeÀ®eveJekegÀmegcYemJe®íefmevotjYeemee ÒeyeueHeJeveJesieesÓlt eJesiesve letCe&ced~ leìefJeìHeueleeûeeefue²veJ³eekegÀuesve efoefMe efoefMe HeefjoiOee Yetce³e: Hee®ekesÀve~~ The fire. Its other synonym is “Fire Flame” (Vahniºikh¢) . orange coloured. K¢ºa and ¹ara (Andropogon). Kasumbo is called “Village kumkuma” Village saffron.. in Marathi it is Kara²¤. The green diamond like verdant Darbha was brought in the hermitage of Agastya.. Family: Asteraceae Kasumbh. Many references are present in K¢dambar¤. JebMekeÀeC[®íJeerveeb keÀJeuecegHeuekeÀesefìeq®íVecetueb kegÀMeeveeced~ (Bhart¨hari. Following ºloka is fromNalcamp¦ : nefj®ejCemejespeÜvÜceejeOe³evleer Meef®ekegÀMeMe³eveer³es meeLe efveêeb peieece~~ Damyant¤. seeds used for to remove this message. ºloka 34) Kuºa plants having the lustre of bamboo sprouts and whose roots have been cut by the sharp edged stone. 5-4). Caraka has called its oil very inferior (S¦tra. This sentence is quoted in the description of twilight redness which was like the redness of a silken cloth coloured with the best Kusumbha flowers.

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beneficial to heart. curves tuberculosis. The following ºloka from the R¢m¢ya´a (3/15-16. Here Pi´²a date means the best date. Family: Palmae Date palm. Like ¹am¤ (Prosopis). “He³eefme meefueuejeMes: vekeÌlecevleefve&ceive: mHegÀìceefveMeceleeefHepJeeue³ee Jee[Jeeives:~ ³eo³eefceoefceoeveerce²cegÐevoOeeefle pJeefueleKeefojkeÀeÿe²ejieewjb efJeJemJeeved~~” (sarga.e-pdfconverter.236 237 KHADIRA Acacia catechu (L. Khaira trees grow in forest. khajuri Kepetj& ermkeÀvOeve×eveeb ceoesÃjmegieefvOe<eg~ keÀìs<eg keÀefjCeeb Hesleg: HegVeeiesY³e: efMeueercegKee:~~ (Raghu. you also after satisfied with jewels among women (very beautiful women from harem) pray for (an ascetic girl like ¹akuntal¢).F. khajur. I have not come across any other reference of Kharj¦r¤. katha. As the man fully satisfied after eating ‘Pi´²a’ dates wishes to eat tamarind. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. it is ‘Aganigarbh¢’. That the date palm flowers in spring is suggested by R¢jaºekhara.) willd Family:Mimosaceae Khair. “³eLee keÀm³eeefHe efHeC[Kepetjw: GÜsefpelem³e efleefvleC³eeceefYeuee<ees YeJesÊeLee m$eerjlveHeefjYeeefJeveer YeJele: F³eceY³eLe&vee~~” Nigha´°u distinguishes two types of ‘Pi´²a’ date. It is economically important. KHARJ¥R£ Phoenix sylvestris (L. fistula). cooling and to remove this message. Its wood gives strong heat. Date decreases ‘Vra´a’ (wound. Katha is obtained from its bark. 3/15-18). It is heated all night with flames of fire of the sea. cutehtree There is a reference of “Pi´²akharj¦ra” in ¹¢kuntala (Act 2). keeping fire in itself. Elephants were tied with the stem of date palms. Sarga 4-57) Wasps fell from the Punnag (Mallin¢tha considers ‘N¢gakesara’) trees on the foreheads of the elephants which were fragrant by the liquid emitted by the rutted elephants. “Kepetj& eCeeb lee[lee[erleªCeeb Heg<HeeHeer[v³eemenslegJe&mevle:~ and (DeefveJeeefjleefJen²legC[KeefC[leefHeC[Kepetj& peeuekewÀ:~~)” (K¢dambar¤. . so birds come out to eat them and peek at them their beaks to break the flowers (dates) into pieces.) Roxb. 11-45) The setting sun had immersed under the sea. early Para 132) Pi´²a date is very tasty. because this sun rises with dark red colour like the flames of ‘Khadira’ wood. R¢japi´²a and N¨papriy¢. 5/29) reflects upon the fields of paddy. “Kepet&jHeg<Heeke=ÀefleefYe: efMejesefYe: HetCe&leC[guew:~ MeesYevles efkeÀefáeoeuecyee: Meeue³e: keÀvekeÀÒeYee:~~” The golden coloured paddies in which rice grains have well developed look very nice with lines (like hair of a deer tail) resembling the shape of date flowers. I find only one reference (R¢m¢ya´a. Following reference in ¹iºup¢la is noteworthy.

Dhanavantari and R¢janigha´°u. I believe Gajapu¾p¤ is Asparagus racemosus with beautiful white flowers. 12-51) God ¹iva was going towards Arjuna’s hermitage on the pretext of hunting a deer. The leaves of banana and Gavedhuja. . R¢janigha´°u replaces name Gavedhaka by Gojihv¢. “ieJee peuesve le$e Jee SOeles” (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta) “ieJew ieJeeLe¥ oer³eles j#³elesçmeew Fefle ieJesOetkeÀced” (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta). Cakrap¢´idatt says Gaved¦ka is ‘Ghulunca’ and are two varieties called ‘Gramy’ and ‘Aranya.’ Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta considers it Muniana (ascetic grain).e-pdfconverter.jobi L. Gavedh¦ka and Gavedhu are side synonyms.238 239 GAJAPU½P£ ¹at¢var¤? Asparagus racemosus Willd. This grass might be stored for cows. Sanskrit poets have not considered this plant. called ¹at¢var¤ in Gujarati has fine white flowers and is a tender climber. 4/12-39-40-41) V¢li and Sugr¤va appeared very similar in face while fighting. Gavedh¦ka is grass grain. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. “ieJesOetkeÀe ®e ieespeer»e keÀ<e&Ceer³ee efmelee leLee~” Caraka considers it closer to wheat. The critic of Caraka. growing on the road were being torn. Hence R¢ma suggested to Lak¾ma´a to put a branch of Gajapu¾p¤ twines with flowers round the neck of Sugr¤va. so it was difficult for R¢macandra to take an aim at Sugr¤va. ‘N¢gpu¾p¤’ is mentioned but its meaning is ‘Yuthik¢’ (Jasmine). Gajapu¾p¤ is not mentioned in Amarakoºa. “ieueieesOetce Fefle ueeskesÀ. Family: Asparagaceae (Liliaceae) “iepeHeg<Heerecf eceeb HegÀuueeceglHeeìîe MegYeue#eCeeced~ kegÀ© ue#ceCe keÀCþsçm³e megûeerJem³e cenelceve:~~ lelees efieefjleìs peeleeceglHeeìîe kegÀmegcee³egleeced~ ue#ceCees iepeHeg<HeeR leeb lem³e keÀCþs J³emepe&³eled~~ me le³ee MegMegYes ÞeerceeBuuele³ee keÀCþmekeÌle³ee~ ceeue³esJe yeueekeÀeveeb memebO³e FJe lees³eo:~~” (R¢m¢ya´a. Some call it Jalagodh¦ma. In the evening Sugr¤va was looked fine with the vine as the sky appears beautiful by the rows of white cranes. Gavedhu “j³eefJekeÀerCe&ce=efolekeÀoueerieJesOetkeÀe:~” (Kir¢ to remove this message. Its Hindi names are Gargar¤ Sa¬karu. V¢li became disappointed and lost faith in truthfulness of R¢ma. Lak¾ma´a brought it from the mountain and did as suggested by R¢ma. osMeevlejs leg iejue Fefle ueeskesÀ Fefle [unCe:~” The critic of Suºruta. may be a variety similar to wheat. Is Gajapu¾p¤ ‘Uthik¢’? Asparagus climber. Family: Poaceae Samkaru. Sankaru. K¢dambar¤ (Para 36) mentions that this grain was stored in hermitage. ±alha´a opines that some call it ‘Galagodh¦ma’ and others name it ‘garala’. GAVEDH¥KA Coix lacryma.

Externally the fruit (seeds) are really beautiful. Pura and Pala¬ka¾a. Gugala trees grow up to 4 to 12 feet high. Can the fruits of Gu®j¢ saved by monkeys serve for the warmth in the winter month of M¢gasara? Dark red Gu®j¢ seeds collected by monkeys. Medicinally it is an important plant. 56). because of that darkness appeared in the temple due to its constant incense. fruit small wheat like yellowish. . Gugala was abundant in Okha (Saurastra) and Brahamins selling Gugala were known as Guggali Brahamins.e-pdfconverter. Rosary pea. Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) Cano°h¤. in winter fall off. as the poet mentions. but internally poisonous.) Family: Burseraceae Gugagal. after hearing meaningful words of Satyaki and after returning speaks addressing to K¨¾´a with words which are as serious and splendid as those of S¢tyaki. The synonyms of Gugala are Kauºika. The poet has woven Gu®j¢ in a similar way in the following ºloka: “DeyegOew: ke=ÀleceevemebefJeo: leJe HeeLez: kegÀle SJe ³eesi³elee~ menefme HueJeiew: GHeeefmeleb veefn ieg¡eeHeÀueceself e mees<celeeced~~” (¹iºup¢lavadha sarga. taste slightly bitter and salty. Women. “DevleefJe&<ece³ee ¿eslee yeefn½ewJe ceveesjcee:~ ieg¡eeHeÀuemeceekeÀeje: ³eesef<ele: kesÀve efveefce&lee:~~” (Pa®catantra) The poet describes the plant. Its outer skin is thin and bluish and under it appears green if removed. Myrrh tree “DeveJejleo¿eceeveiegiiegueyengueOetHeevOekeÀeefjles<eg ®eefC[keÀeie=ns<eg” (K¢dambar¤ Early Para. Gunc¤ The fearless messenger of ¹¤ºup¢la. Leaves thick and small. It grows in dry lands. “DeveJejleieueÃgiieguegêgceêJeeoeake=Àle¢<eoe” (Para 127) The resin was constantly oozing from Gugala tree and the stones below were moistened with it.) Bhandari (Commiphora mukul (Hook. Its leaves taste sweet like tamarind. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. if the stem is injured/cut yellowish resin oozes. with a smell of green mango. like Gu®j¢ fruits (seeds) are externally beautiful but internally poisonous. believing them as fire would not give them warmth in winter. The seeds are poisonous. stupid Pa´²vas might have given you an offering but could you obtain propriety because of that? Gu®j¢ is a climber. ex Stocks) Engl. Gugala resin was always burnt in the temple of Ca´²ik¢ deity. Rati. 216) In describing Ca´²ik¢ the incense of Gugala appears to be bluish. if kept in mouth gives pleasant feeling. 16-47) How can you have the prosperity even though you have been worshipped by the stupid and ignorant sons of P¨th¢ (Pa´²vas). Its short/long branches with pointed ends are curved. See Pura GU-J¡ Abrus precatorius to remove this message.240 241 GUGGULU Commiphora wightii (Arn. flower small and reddish. “meefcHeefC[leveerueiegiieguegOetHeOetcee©Ceerke=ÀleeefYe:” (Para.

The chamari cows. Kukkura (Amarakoºa). The delivery period of a tigress is in this period. CA³AKA Cicer arietinum L. These are the signs of Hemant.242 243 GODH¥MA Triticum aestivum L. This tree emits special smell. Chapter 91. Wheat “efJeYegkeÌleyene& efJeceoe ce³etje: Òeª{ieesOetce³eJee ®e meercee~ J³eeIe´eÒr emetelf e: meefueueb meyee<Heb nscevleefue²eefve pe³evl³ecetevf e~~ (K¢vyam¤m¢¼s¢.Barhapatram. Samau (Amarakoºa). ‘Harimantha’ and ‘Ca´aka’. Fields of wheat and barley are spread within village limits. Family: Poaceae Godhuma. A severe smelling material known as ‘Coraka’. Chan¢. Ca´aka is Ca´¢. Wheat is the king of grain. Ca´aka plants in the field have their leaves moist with a layer of salty water. Its leaves are fine . Chick pea (R¢m¢ya´a. ‘¹ukabarham’. R¢janigha´°u also reports a similar material. 8) Nepali women applying the coating of musk spend the summer nights under the avenue of Granthipar´a. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. When dried it is collected and used as a medicine to cure stomach ache. . Godh¦ma and Suman are coined by Amarsinh. Family: Taxaceae Madhuparni. sarg 9. a pulse. Barhapu¾pa. Ca´aka is referred during the preparation of ‘Horse sacrifice’ ceremony (Aºvamedha). There is an opinion that ‘Sthau´eyaka’ is Taxus baccata. comes from Punjab. Sukapushp. “ûeeqvLeHeCe&keÀ ûeemecegeêf le®ecejerkegÀueefve<eseJf elecetuew:~~”(K¢dambar¤ Early. Tallispatra “vesHeeu³ees JeuueYew: mee×&ceeêxCeceoceC[vee:~ ûeeqvLeHeCe&keÀHeeueer<eg ve³eefvle ûeer<ce³eeefceveer:~~” (R¢jaºekhar to remove this message. Adhy¢ya18) This is a description of Hemant season (winter). I have not seen this tree.e-pdfconverter. Wheat in Sanskrit is Godh¦maª. During dew time. ºloka 20). Its synonyms are ¹ukabarha. Peacocks are without feathers and passion. Sthau´eyaka. Family: Fabacea (Papilionoideae) Bengal grama. Sumanaª. It is a horse feed. In the market its leaves are sold as “T¢liºapatra” but it is not “T¢liºapatra”. There are two Sanskrit name of this plant. that is ‘Kukkura’ name (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta). The summer night loving women pass through the thick shade of these trees. It is that tree whose leaves are like peacock feathers. GRANTHIPAR³A Taxus baccata L. sitting under the tree were enjoying ruminating the cud of ‘Granthipar´a’. ‘Haribhih mathyate’ or ‘Harinam mantham janayati’ is explained. Para 131). in Hindi it is called ‘Thuner’ which appears to be its corrupt form. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾¤ta has called ‘Garnthipar´a’ as ‘Kukkuravadra’. Barhipu¾pa. The fog is also observed in this season. The tree is common in Nepal.

. ®evovesvee²jeieb ®e ce=ieveeefYemegieefvOevee~ meceeH³e lele½ekegÀ: He$eb efJev³emlejes®eveced~~ The king finished applying on the body the fragrant mixture paste of candana and musk and then drew a leaf on the body and filled it with yellow colour of Gorocana (medicine prepared from cow dung). nejw: me®evevovejmew: mleveceC[ueeefve. sarga.. 6-48) The water of river Jamun¢ was so much changed. In ancient times women would use paste of fragrant materials like k¢l¢guru and chandan for their body during night time..4-48.. That the serpents live on Chandan trees supported by the following ºloka : “Yeeseif eJesäveceeiex<eg ®evoveeveeb meceefHe&leced” etc. The following ºloka mentions that even men were applying candana paste.17-24. 1-2).6-48..244 245 CANDANA1 Santalum album L. 2-21) The women. (Raghu.19-45.. 2-30) Romantic women ornamented their breasts with garlands having essence of Candana2..13-55. 6-12) 1. He³eesOeje½evoveHe¹®eef®e&leemleg<eejieewjeefHe&lenejMesKeje:~ ÒekegÀJe&les keÀm³e cevees ve meeslmegkeÀced~~ (§tu.. it appeared that as if at Pray¢ga it mixed with the waves of the Ga¬g¢. the women of king’s harem who were bathing lost the thick paste of Chandan washed away so that even though the Jamun¢ river flows near Mathura. whose entire body is anointed with paste having more black chandan have scented head hair with flowers around their ears. 7-245.. ¹¢ku.. §tu. 4-48. . Kum¢ra. Sensual women used the body paste of Candana mixed with musk to make it fragrant. hearing the thunder of clouds.19-45) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 6-12. leaving the home of their father-in-law.8. efJeyeesO³eles megHle FJeeÐe cevceLe:~~ (§tu. Family: Santalaceae Indian sandalwood “keÀeueeieg©Òe®egj®evove®eef®e&lee*di³e: Heg<HeeJelebmemegjYeerke=ÀlekesÀMeHeeMee:~ ÞeglJee OJeefveb peueceg®eeb lJeefjleb Òeoes<es Me³³eeie=nb ieg©ie=nelÒeefJeMeefvle vee³e&:~~”(§tu. vee³e&: ÒeËäcevemeesçÐe efJeYet<e³eefvle~~ (§tu.3-20.1-8) The poet imagines to remove this message.. .1-44. 10-42. “le He³eesOejefveef<ekeÌle ®evovew: ceeweqkeÌlekeÀûeefLele®ee©Yet<eCew:~ ûeer<ceJes<eefJeefOeefYe: efme<eseJf ejs ÞeeseCf eueeqcyeceefCecesKeuew: efÒe³ee:~~” (Raghu. 2.... DeeefueH³eles ®evovece²veeefYece&oeuemeefYe: ce=ieveeefYe³egkeÌleced~~ (§tu. 1-6) In summer ‘mejmeb ®e ®evoveced’(§tu. 2-21. The candan paste is used in summer to lessen the summer heat. fanning after sprinkling Candana mixed water were as if awakening the sleeping cupid. 10-42) “³em³eeJejesOemleve®evoveeveeb Òe#eeueveeÜeefjefJenejkeÀeues~ keÀefuevokeÀv³ee ceLegjeb ieleeefHe ie²esefce&mebmekeÌlepeuesJe Yeeefle~~” (Raghu.4113. . The poet also mentions Candana trees growing on Malaya and Durdura mountains.11-20.51.5-55.... enter their bedrooms at night.e-pdfconverter. thick smooth paste of Candana is referred me®evoveecyegJ³epeveesÓJeeefveuew: . Raghu....6.1-2..

Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. hanging upto hips presented all the things suitable for the summer to him. he 1. Incense of Candana and Aguru was prevalent and because of that the wind mingled with it was blowing far off. incarnate my immortal collyrium of my eyes. . he thus speaks: F³eb iesns ue#ceerejf ³ecece=leJeefle&: ve³eve³ees~ jmeeJem³ee: mHeMeex JeHegef<e Jengue½evovejme:~~ (Uttarar¢macarita 1/38)1. 10/10 speaks “you are Candana of my body. When it was decided to send ¹akuntal¢ to her mother-in-law’s house. 1/38. This type of their fondness is well known “Malayatarunm¦lit¢ candanlat¢” (¹¢ku. like a Candana vine detached from a Malaya tree would be able to spend my life in a foreign land?” When S¤t¢j¤ is sleeping with her head on the chest of R¢mcandraj¤. 4/1-82. the roads were sprinkled with Candana water. despite the Sanskrit poets have described it as a climber (Lat¢).. 1/44). separated from the lap of father Ka´va. 9/22). a full moon of my eyes” iee$es<eg ®evovejmees ÎefMe Meejosvog: (M¢lat¤. ®evoveeieg©mebHe=keÌleOetHemebceteq®í&leesçceue:~ ÒeJeeefle HeJeve: Þeerceeved. 7/42-2. Act 4).. M¢lat¤m¢dhava 3/74. beautiful ornaments of pearls and waist band studded with diamonds. “Dh¦tachandanlat¢” (Kum¢ra. ®evoveesokeÀmebemf ekeÌlees veeveekegÀmegceYete<f ele:~ ye»MeesYele mesvee³ee: Hev³ee: megjHeLeesHece:~~ (2/80-14) When Bharata went after R¢ma. Candana is a tree. would I. she speaks leelem³e De¹eled HeefjYe´äe ceue³eleªvcetefuelee ®evoveuelesJe osMeevlejs peerefJeleb Oeejef³e<³es~ (¹¢ku.. 4/ 27-17-24. When Makaranda mourns for M¢dhava.e-pdfconverter. 2/71-28. made by Candana and this wind was blowing in forest full of honey where wasps were humming. cee©le: megKemebmHeMeex Jeeefle ®evoveMeerleue:~ <eìdHeowjvegketÀpeefÓ: Jeves<eg ceOegieefvOe<eg (6/4-75) The touch of the wind. Uttarar¢ma. 2/76-16.246 247 His dear wives with breasts1 anointed with Candana. 3/15-18-21. 6/4-75. 2/16-9. 6/111-113.. 2/80-15.(2/71-28). In ancient times forests with trees of delightful smell like Candana and Aguru must have been abundant: efve³ee&mejmecetueeveeb ®evoveeveeb menñeMe:~ Jeveeefve HeM³evmeewc³eeefve Ie´eCele=eqHlekeÀjeefCe ®e~~ (3/35-21) 1.. 5/14-43. her touch is a thick cooling paste of Candana. 9/22-117. The reference that roads were sprinkled with Candana water is available in the R¢m¢ya´ to remove this message. 4/ 41-40-41. 8-25). “She is Goddes of home (Lak¾m¤). “How. The poet describes the dress code of the summer. 3/60-22. cooled and pleasantly smelling was very nice.

‘Bhadraºr¤’ and ‘Candana’. moon rays and lotus leaves are very useful for men suffering from fever. of Candana are present in The R¢m¢ya´a (4/41-40). Candana wood was used in funeral pyres of Daºaratha and R¢va´a (2/76-16. Amarsinh has given four synonyms of Candana. trees. . HeM³e ®evoveJe=#eeCeeb He¹leer: meg©ef®eje FJe~ keÀkegÀYeeveeb ®e ¢M³evles cevemewJeesefolee: mececed~ (4/27-24) R¢macandra saw delightful rows of Candana trees in Prastrava´a forest. In his distressed mental condition. References ‘Ghoº¤r¾aka’. There were many Candana trees in Aºoka Garden. “Tailapar´ika’. as Candana trees mostly grow in south of India. (5/14-43). A to remove this message. he saw on the road thousand of trees of Gugala and Candana. ‘Goºir¾a’ and ‘Harichandan’ are three additional synonyms of Haricandana. The author of Pa®catantra says “Candana grows nowhere except at Malaya”. that delighted his nose.Go. Sarga 4/11) Candana paste.17) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. K¢l¤yaka has distinguished ‘Pitacandana’ with different qualities.1) Vanam¢l¤ (K¨¾´a) with azurish body and Candana paste applied with a yellow garment. Candana. they had to leave Candana trees. Having been tired on the way. R¢macandra asked about S¤t¢j¤ to Bakula. ‘Malayaja’. As all disrespect a saintly man surrounded by rogues. The wind blowing from the south is named as ‘Candan¢nila’ (G¤. ‘Gandhas¢ra’.e-pdfconverter. keÌueevleesçefHe ef$eoMeJeOetpeve: Hegjmleeuueerveeefn½eefmeleefJeueesueHeuueJeeveeced~ mesJ³eeveeb nleefJeve³ewefjJeeJe=leeveeb mebHekezÀ Heefjnjefle mce ®evoveeveeced~~ (7/29) Celestial damsels were going to entice Arjuna. ‘Patr¢¬ga’. ‘Str¤candana’. 4/2) She had a doubtful look at the tender delicate Candana paste considering it as a poison.248 249 When R¢va´a went after M¢rica. Following ºloka is from Kir¢ta. But the snakes thrie hidden in Candana trees and their leaves were moving by the hissing sound. Same story is interpolated in 12/24. Go. they thought of resting under Candana trees. ‘Malayacandana. 7/7). ‘Tilapar´i’. ‘Haricandana’. mejmeceme=CeceefHe ceue³epeHe¹ced~ HeM³eefle efJe<eefceJe JeHegef<e meMe¹ced~ (Sarga. 16 /111113). ‘Str¤candana’ and ‘Kucandana are synonyms of ‘Str¤candana’. but for those who are love torn are not tormenting. ‘Ra®jana’. keÀvoHe&pJejmebpJejelegjleveesje½e³e&³ecem³eeef½ejb~ ®esle½evove®evêce: keÀceefueveere®f evleemeg mebleeH³eefle~~ (G¤. Sarga. Ketaka etc. Punn¢ga. non-¡ryan (Barbarodbhava) Candana as a different variety is shown: ®evove®eef®e&leveeruekeÀuesJejHeerleJemeveJeveceeueer~ (G¤tagovinda sarg. Deecetue³eäs: HeÀefCeJesefäleeveeb me®®evoveeveeced pevevevoveeveeced~ keÀkeÌkeÀesuekewÀueeceefj®ew³e&lg eeveeb peeleerleªCeeb ®e me pevceYetecf e:~~ (R¢jaºekhara A.‘Dhanvantr¤ and R¢janigha´°u consider Raktacandana and Kucandana as different. etc.

com to remove this message. Bhavabh¦ti has mentioned it as follows: mebÒeefle jceCeer³eleje ceeueleer pJeue³eefle ceveesYeJeeeeqiveb ceo³eefle Ëo³eb ke=ÀleeLe&³eefle ®e#eg:~ Heefjce=efole®ecHekeÀeJeefueefJeueemeueefueleeuemewj²w:~~ (M¢. This fact is well stated in the ºloka. Family: Calophyllaceae N¢gacamp¢.e-pdfconverter. Mesua ferrea. ºloka 62) The man shines well by philanthropy. M¢. clean terrace. bathrooms with fountains. as the beauty of the hearing increases by wearing everyday Candana leaves on ears.. efJeYeeefle keÀe³e: keÀ©CeekegÀueeveeb HejesHekeÀejsCe ve ®evovesve~ (Bhart¨hari N¤tiºataka. ºloka-5) There are certain names whose qualities are harmonious with their names.250 251 Candana trees which have serpents from the root to the top and give joy to human minds grow in south India. sweet fragrance of Jai (Jasmine) flowers. M¢. where every day students arising early in the morning would hear the teacher. Candana. There is no reference of Campaka in the works of K¢lid¢sa. iegCeûeeceeefJemebJeeefo veeceeefHe efn cenelceveeced~ ³e³ee megJeCe&ÞeerKeC[jlveekeÀjmegOeekeÀje:~~ (Prasannar¢ghava Act-1. everyday where commentary over ever increasing lore’s was done. lotus. ocean and moon. Jasmine etc. as he has mentioned species having a common vernacular name ‘Campaka’. flowers. . 6-34). I have mentioned its name under the heading of Campaka.. all these increase passion and cupid in Summer.. The poet has considered Candana as a climber (Act. kegÀmegceekeÀjesÐeevecee©le:~ (M¢. 3/65) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 3/6) M¢lat¤ with her sensual. 206). example. gold.. like the crushed garland of Campaka ignites passion in me.. 23) it is real heaven here to sleep close with the chest of one’s beloved intoxicated with passion and anointed with saffron and Candana.. CAMPAKA Mesua ferrea L. There are many references of Candana in K¢dambar¤ (Early para 141. N¢gakesara Note: The author has not specified any species under the heading of ‘Campaka’. ÞeerKeC[Mewueeefveuee: (¹¨¬g¢raºataka 84) De®íe®í®evovejmeeê&leje ce=iee#³ees Oeejeie=neefCe kegÀmegceeefve ®e keÀewcegoer ®e~ cevoes ce©lmegceveme: Megef®e nc³e&He=ÿb ûeer<ces ceob ®e ceoveb efJeJeOe&³eefvle~~ (Bhart¨hari ¹¨¬g¢raºataka-87) Young women with paste of Candana anointed. cold slow blowing wind. not by Candana paste.. Elsewhere Bhart¨hari says (¹¨¬g¢ra. ®ecHekeÀeefOeJeemeceveesnjes. The following ºloka from K¢dambar¤ refers Candana leaves: efJeJe=CJelees ³em³e efJemeeefj Jee²ce³eb efoves efoves efMe<³eieCee veJee veJee:~ G<emmeg ueivee: ÞeJeCesefOekeÀeb efÞe³e Òe®eef¬eÀjs ®evoveHeuueJee FJe~ Where everyday new students added the prestige. But he has mentioned in the text that the Sanskrit literature mentions under Campaka only N¢gacamp¢. Jeeefvle. beautiful and tender body.

Family : Zingiberaceae. 4. 2. yellow flowers Magnolia champaca . The mouth. The flower with greenish yellow petals with fragrance. 1. Many kinds of Campaka are present: 1. cegKeHeeefCeHeoeef#Ce He¹pew: jef®elee²s<JeHejs<eg ®ecHekewÀ:~ mJe³eceeefole ³e$e Yeercepee mcejHetpeekegÀmegcem$epeefÞe³eced~~ (2-92) Damayant¤ herself had the beauty of flower garlands made for the worship of cupid. 5. the word ‘Gandhafal¤’ is prevalent. shoots arise within the soil. 5/15-9. Indigo coloured flower. Fragrant big white flowers. ñepe½e ceewuees eqmce (efme) le®ecHekeÀeveeced~ ûeer<cesçefHe meesç³eb efMeefMejeJeleej:~~ 3. Bhonyacampo (Bh¦campaka. Family Magnoliaceae. family Apocynaceae. 5/14-3-43. flowers white with yellow shade. Golden campaka (Svar´acampaka). Family: Annonaceae. at some places the height of Meru mountain. Magnolia grandiflora. Green campo. with latex. Kaempferia rotunda. Himacampa. References of Campaka in Nai¾adha: J³euees k eÀ³eled ®ecHekeÀkeÀesjkeÀeJeueer: me Mecyejejs: yeefueoerefHekeÀe FJe~ (1/86) There are many references of Campaka in the R¢m¢ya´a1. 6. or it means that the body of Damayant¤ was as tender and beautiful as Campaka: KeJe&ceeK³eocejewOeefveJeemeb HeJe&leb keÌJe®eve®ecHekeÀmecHeled~ (21-28) In the kingdom of Nala. . 17) Campaka flower buds stealing the loveliness of fascinating women of Ud¤cca country. ground campaka). Artabotrys odoratissmus. 3/15-17. The golden Campaka flowers are indirectly compared with golden mountain like Meru to indicate flower colour. Kh¤racampo (white champak) common in Buddha monastery. when the Campaka flower bud is put on its head becomes pale. hand. For the flower buds of Camp¢. feet and eye of Damayant¤ are formed from lotus while the rest of body is formed from Campaka flowers. Yellow campo. peeleb ®ecHekeÀceH³egoer®³eueueveeueeJeC³e®eew³e&#eceb~ (R¢jaºekhara Act. may be of its beautiful flowers and delicious fragrance. hence its common name Kh¤racampo. Plumeria acutifolia. 6/393. 4/50-26. Family: Callophyllaceae. the residence of deities was insignificant before the height of Campaka. Sanskrit literary persons while mentioning Campaka had in mind N¢gacampa. very sweet smelling.e-pdfconverter. 6/4-72. It is stated (15/28) that the brightness of the moon during its worship. 4/1-78. 7/26-5 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Family : Magnoliaceae. Garlands of white Campaka were giving an experience of cooness of winter in to remove this message.252 253 The wind blowing from flowers of the garden carrying sweet fragrance of Campaka. N¢gacampo-N¢gakeaara : Mesua ferrea. The king Nala saw the rows of flower buds of Campaka as the offering of lamps of Cupid.

as above also described by several names like Sukum¢ra’. veerueveerjpeoueesppJeuekeÀevlesjefvlekesÀ mHegÀjefle keÀeáeveieewj:~ uees®evem³e meg¢Me: ÞeJeCeeûes mebefveefJeä FJe ®ecHekeÀieg®í:~~ (Prasannar¢ghava Act-3-18) The bouquet of golden Campaka flowers was on the ear of R¢ma having blue lotus like dark lustre and beautiful eyes. Beautiful flowers of N¢gakesara like the golden stalk of an umbrella of king Madana. . The wasps do not visit Campaka flowers. ‘Hemapu¾pa’. ‘¹¤tala’. Campaka has been. Following ºloka is from K¢dambar¤ : njefvle kebÀ veesppJeueoerHekeÀesHecewve&Jew: HeoeLez©HeHeeefolee: keÀLee:~ efvejvlejMues<eIevee: megpeele³ees ceneñepe½ecHekeÀkegÀ*dceuewejf Je~~ (9) Whose minds will not be carried away by great garlands of Campaka flowers like the great stories? Campaka flowers are like shining lamps ÒepJeefueleoerefHekeÀemenñeÒeefleefyecye®egeqcyeles<eg ke=Àleef®ekeÀ®e®ecHekeÀoueesHenejseq<JeJe ceefCeYetecf ekegÀefÆces<eg~ The flames of lamps on cottages appear as jewels like the bloomed Campaka flowers : and veJeefvejvlejkeÀefuekeÀeef®eleeb ®ecHekeÀueleeefceJe leLeeefmLeleeb leeb~ (K¢dambar¤ late) She appeared as a Campaka climber with everyday developing and then blossoming flower buds. Campaka is yellow and Aºoka flower is red. ‘Divyapu¾pa. The following ºloka also supports it.e-pdfconverter. lotus eyed beautiful women are always ready to welcome you. Rasama®jar¤ has also mentioned it similarly.254 255 ®ecHekeÀ: megkegÀceej½e megjefYe: Meerleue½e me:~ ®eecHes³ees nsceHeg<He½e keÀeáeve: <eìdHeoeefleefLe:~~ (Dhanva. Nigha´°u) R¢janigha´°u mentions Campaka as ‘Divyapu¾paª’. but here it is referred to N¢gakesara. ‘Sthiragandhaª’ and ‘Atigandhakaª’. The simile for the beauty of lovely women is well expressed: peevekeÀerJe HeerlejkeÌlesY³ees jpeveer®ejsY³e FJe ®ecHekeÀeMeeskeÀsY³ees efyeYeself e~ (later. ³eVee¢lemlJeceefuevee ceefueveeMe³esve efkebÀ lesve ®ecHekeÀ efJe<eeocegjerkeÀjese<f e~ efJeéeeefYejeceveJeveerjoveerueJes<ee: kesÀMee: kegÀMesMe³eÎMe: kegÀMeueerYeJevleg~~ Oh! Campaka flower! why do you grieve because wasps with wicked intentions do not respect you? The fully attractive rainy cloud like black hair. page 447) The night stalkers’ colour was yellow and red. J¢nak¤´was afraid of yellow-red night-stalkers and K¢dambar¤ was afraid of Campak and Aºoka flowers. ‘K¢®cana’. Following ºloka is from G¤tagovinda: ceovecenerHeeflekeÀvekeÀoC[©ef®ekesÀMejkegÀmegceefJekeÀemes~ efceefueleefMeueercegKeHeeìueHeìueke=ÀlemcejletCeefJeueemes~~ (Sarga-1) Normally the word ‘Kesara’ is ‘Bakula’ and Rasikapriy¢ has also similarly understood to remove this message. blossomed and where wasps were making the quiver of Madana. This fact appears to be true probably because the strong smell of Campaka may be repulsive to wasps. Janaka seeing R¢ma and Lak¾ma´a speaks : levegeÞf e³ee efveefpe&le®ecHekeÀeslHeueew megJeCe&veerueesHeuekeÀesMekeÀesceueew~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. that is why Dhanvantr¤ Nigha´°u mentions it as “½a°pad¢tithiª”.

early 20-22-23.) Skeels (Eugenia jambolana Lam. It is not mentioned in Amarakoºa or Nigha´°u. The faces of brides like the forest trees were showing with their attractive lips like that of the shoeflowers. The rippling sound of its water is constant.e-pdfconverter. The poet has these beautiful lines in his mind.) Family: Myrtaceae J¢muna. has many varieties. In ‘Tilak¢khy¢’ (4/1-80) “C¦r´ak¢ª º¢lmal¤viºe¾¢ª” explanation is given.‘C¦r´aka is mentioned. and who are tender like the flower buds of golden and blue lotus and are donors of festivities to eyes. Jap¢ is J¢suda. Act 4 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. In the long list of trees growing on the banks of Pamp¢ lake’. From the tree. HeÀueYejHeefjCeenM³eecepecyetevf ekegÀ¡emKeuevecegKejYetejf ñeeslemees efvePe&ejf C³e:~ What a splendid description! The entire tree is covered with fruits. Act 3-21) It was natural for Janaka to be happy after seeing Lak¾ma´a and R¢ma. C¥R³AKA (R¢m¢ya´a 4/ to remove this message. J¢mb¦²¢ This name remindsme of the following ºloka of Bhavbh¦ti. fruits fall in water with a sinking sound. J¢suda meevO³eb lespe: ÒeefleveJepeHeeHeg<HejkeÌle oOeeve:~~ (Meghad¦ta P¦rva -38) The reddishness of evening is compared with the red colour of a shoe-flower. The white shoe flowers which blossom in the morning are compared with the crystal like lustre of the morning time. Megha. JAP¡ Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Act-4) 1. Branches have bent with their weight. The rising sun “Jap¢kusumasa¬k¢ºa” is compared with reddishness of a Jap¢ flower. . ‘C¦r´ak¢ª’ appears to be a tree resembling Prosoposis. cenoefHe Hejog:Keb Meerleueb mec³eieeng: ÒeCe³eceieCeef³elJee ³evceceeHeodlem³e~ DeOejefceJe ceoevOee Heelegces<ee ÒeJe=Êee HeÀueceefYecegKeHeekebÀ jepepecyet êgcem³e~~ (Vikramo. JAMB¥1 Syzygium cumini (L. Family : Malvaceae shoefower. Vikaramo.6/ 4-89). These beautiful groves of trees are at the bank of a spring.keÀeefvlemeceÒeYes ÒeYeelemece³es (chapter-3).256 257 Denes ¢MeeceglmeJeoeveoef#eCeew megue#eCeew ue#ceCeue#ceCeeûepeew~~ (Prasannr¢ghava. veJeefJeefveêpeHeekegÀmegceeqlJe<eeb (Bh¢ravi 5/8) and DevegJeveb JevejeefpeJeOetcegKes yenuejecepeHeeOej®ee©efCe (M¢gha). The summit of the mountains was shining in the evening with the lustre like that of the freshly bloomed flowers of Jap¢. having their body lustre winning over the Campaka golden and bluish lotus lustre. ‘C¦r´aka plant is also mentioned in the vegetation on Sahya Mountain. In Nalacamp¦ peeles pejppeHeeÒemetveefYeVemHegÀìmHeÀeefìkeÀ. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita describes peHee³ee: Dees[j Fefle K³eelee³ee: (Kir¢t¢rjun¤yam 5/8). Jav¢ is mentioned. Black fruits are fully packed so that the entire tree appears black. J¢mbula. In Amarakoºa instead of Jap¢.

the same sentence is in ‘‘Mah¢v¤racarita’’(Ma.’ Following ºloka describes the monsoon season: De²ej®etCeexlkeÀjmebefvekeÀeMew: HeÀuew: megHe³ee&Hlejmew: mece=×w:~ pecyetêcg eeCeeb ÒeefJeYeeefvle MeeKee efve<eer³eceevee FJe <eìdHeoewOes:~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 4/28-30) The Jamb¦ fruits full of juice and ripe like black live coal. 9-117) (Bhavabh¦ti). .com to remove this message. 5/40) and M¢lat¤m¢dhava (M¢. Poets therefore address the tree as ‘Jamb¦late’.258 259 The statement that the unbearable pain of a stranger can be cooled (not creating any trouble to others) appears to be true. Following ºloka is from Kir¢ta: J³eefLeleceefHeb Ye=Meb cevees njvleer HeefjCelepecyegHeÀueesHeYeesie¢äe~ HejYe=le³egJeefle: mJeveb efJelesves veJeveJe³eesefpelekebÀþjeiejc³eced~~ (10/22) Monsoon has begun. Cucoos have come to eat fruits. A modern poet has said: pecyetueles megkeÀefJelesJe megkeÀesceueeefme HeevLeefÒe³eeefme jefmekesÀJe ceveesnjeefme~~ You are equal to the beloved for the travellers. The forest part looks dark where the Jamb¦ trees are in groves. ‘Nad¤jamb¦’.e-pdfconverter. M¢. The poet uses the word R¢jajamb¦ with a purpose. sweetness of vocal tunes and agreeable sound are able to take away the minds of afflicted men. ³eefo ¢äe lJe³ee pecyees peecyetveomeceÒeYee~ efÒe³eeb ³eefo efJepeeveeefme efve:Me¹b keÀLe³emJe ces~~ (3/6-19) ‘Tell me without doubt if you have seen my golden coloured beloved. When the tree is full of Jamb¦ fruits. The great poet has shown in the R¢m¢ya´a that Jamb¦ and other climbers welcomed the king Bharata after quarrel like a quarrel of handsom women. blinded by intoxication and disregarding a prayer of a troubled one like me. efMebMeeHeeceuekeÀerpecyet³ee&½eev³ee: keÀeveves uelee:~ ÒeceoeefJeûenb ke=ÀlJee YejÜepeeÞecesçJemeved~~ (2/69-51) R¢mcandraj¤ being frantic because of separation from S¤t¢ asks Jamb¦ tree about her whereabouts. This bird (cuckoo). Even today small to large Jamb¦ fruits are found. is ready to be engaged in drinking the fruit juice of ‘R¢jajamb¦’ tree ready before him as if drinking the lower lips of his beloved. (Pramad¢vigraha) in the hermitage of Bharadv¢ja. ‘R¢jajamb¦’ is the sweetest. Jamb¦ fruits are ripe. the wasps and bees move about it as if they are drinking the tree branches. M¢. etc. 9/117). Jamb¦ has many types. jmeekegÀueb <eìdHeomebevf ekeÀeMeb ÒeYegp³eles pecyegHeÀueb ÒekeÀececed~(R¢m¢ya´a 4/28/19) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Jamb¦ is a shady beautiful tree. The tender branches of Jamb¦ bent towards the ground like vines. 9/ 24. ‘K¢kajamb¦’. the female cucoos satisfied with eating ripe Jamb¦ fruits with musical notes. 9/24. You are really an abductor of the mind like a romantic woman. ‘Jamati’ ‘Jamu adane’ the word Jamb¦ is thus derived. This fact is well stated in a fine sentence : He®³eceevepecyetHeÀueM³eeceefueleJeveevlej©ef®e (M¢. The etymology of Jamb¦ is ‘a fruit worth eating’. ‘R¢jajamb¦’.

18) J¢t¤ is Juh¤ or J¢i flowers in monsoon and winter also. DeeceÊekeÀesekf eÀueuees®eve®íefJe: veerueHeeìue: keÀ<ee³eceOegj: ÒekeÀececeeHeerlees pecyetHeÀuejme: (K¢dambar¤ p¦rva Para 16) (We) have drunk enough of Jamb¦ juice. 90) Romantic young woman.260 261 The people eat to their full satisfaction juicy Jamb¦ fruits black like wasps. having lustre of intoxicated cuckoo’s eyes and reddish bluish colour with astringent and sweet taste. arborescens (As per Ja. page 487). J¢i. mLetueeJeM³ee³e efyevogÐegelf eoefueleye=nlkeÀesjkeÀûeeqvLeYeepees peel³ee peeueb ueleeveeb pejþHeefjceueHueeefJeleeveeb pepe=cces~ (R¢jaºekhara) In ¹arada (autumn) there is heavy dew. Tri). There are pearls like water drops on J¢t¤ leaves. I am tempted to call suman¢ as cestrum nocturnum (Night jasmine).e-pdfconverter.Saumanasy¢yan¤ (sanskrit) . M¢lat¤’ is Kusara . chameli according to Shri Jadavajibhai. le©Ceer Jes<eesÎereHf elekeÀecee efJekeÀmeppeeleerHeg<HemegieefvOe:~ GVeleHeerveHe³eesOejYeeje ÒeeJe=ìd levegles keÀm³e ve n<e&ced~~ (Bhart¨hari ¹¨¬g¢ra. R¢jaºekhara in his description of South India mentions peeleerleªCeeb ®e me pevceYetefce: peeleerle© (A. Yuthic¢. ‘J¢i’. Devlejeueeqcyele peuepecyetÒeJeeueeefnleevOekeÀejced~ (Later. Jasmine peuemeHe³epee³eceeveeb peeefleb ³eeb keÀeo&ceerelf e efveieoefvle~ mee Mejefo ceneslmeefJeveer ievOeeeqvJele<eìdHeoe YeJeefle~~ (K¢vayam¤m¢ïas¢ A. and ‘Jarala’ have strong scent. ‘Ala¬k¢raºekhara’ Mar¤c¤ 16 mention that J¢i does not flower in spring: ve m³eeppeeleer Jemevles ve ®e kegÀmegceHeÀues ievOemeejêgceeCeeced~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. (Eugenia jambolana) J¡T£ Jasminum auriculatum Vahl. 17). Amarsinh has raised a doubt by putting together as synonyms “Suman¢. Here “J¢ty¢ j¢lam lat¢n¢m” suggests intermingled twining climbers of ‘J¢t¤’. Jamb¦ is syzygium cumini Jasminum grandifloram. I personally believe ‘M¢lat¤’ as ‘Camel¤’. From the intermingled twining J¢t¤ emits strong scent. in Gujarati ‘J¢t¤’. J¢i is not a tree and it is not only confined to the South. Kusara is ‘Kunda’.com to remove this message. weighing with robust breasts. The author of K¢dambar¤ has also described the darkness by shadowing of leaves of Jamb¦ covering the water (Jalajamb¦). blooming Jasmine flower fragrance. ceOegceemekegÀmegcemece=ef×efceJe efJepeeefleced (Para 8). As the flower wealth is without Jasmine in spring. Family : Oleaceae Juh¤. ³eteLf e ³eLeese®f eleefJeefOevee efJeOes³eceeefleL³ecesleeqmceved~ ceeueeflekeÀeÒeeCesMe: ÒeeOegefCekeÀmles OegCee#ejv³ee³eeled~~ (Subh¢¾ita) ‘Pr¢dhu´ika’ means guest. M¢lat¤ and J¢t¤” all three though they are different. ‘yuthi’ is ‘J¢t¤’. ‘Vij¢ti’ means without Jasmine. Gujarati. . with wasps occupying a place of great festival. Suman¢ª . so was she without family.J. Here ‘Jat¤taru’ should be interpreted as Nutmeg in my opinion. in whose minds these things would not bring joy ? K¢dambar¤ mentions that Jasmine does not flower in monsoon. fragrant.

Natam. (Kum¢ra. interpret ‘Takk¢la’as ca´akab¢ba.1-2). the mouth becomes scented. the same are synonyms of Agara: Tagara. Family: Caprifoliaceae Tagara. at night these plants acted as lamps. Malbar leaf. D¤nam. There are many names in Sanskrit for ‘Kka’. It is a well known fruit which is very fragrant. etc. taking a scented leaf made it an earring to beautify your Barley leaf likefair forehead. 6-47) You become fortunate in the lovely region of Malaya mountain spread with Tam¢la leaves. the lotus like eyes of Saumitri opened because of the scent of such plants is mentioned. Ku°ilam. leceeueHe$eemlejCeemeg jvlegb Òemeero Meéevceue³emLeueer<eg~~ (Raghu.H. Consult ‘Aguru’. Mostly in Gujarat it is called ‘Agaratagara’ but Agara is a separate scented material from Tagara. 13-49) A fine Tam¢la tree is present near the mountain. As the reference is of a scented matter. I believe there is a printing error or whatever it may be. efveefMe Yeeefvle De®euesvêm³e ngleeMeveefMeKee FJe~ Dees<eO³e: mJeÒeYeeue#c³ee Ye´epeceevee: menñeMe:~~ (2/94-21) K¢lid¢sa has also mentioned at many places these plants (Raghu. leceeueleeueerJevejeefpeveeruee DeeYeeefle Jesuee ueJeCeecyegjeMes:~~ (Raghu. Nees & C. are different names. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. DeeceesoceeOe´e³e cenew<eOeerveeb meewecf eef$e©vceereuf eleves$eHe¨e:~ (Act. Refer Kakkola. Vakram. Such plants are phosphorescent. Indian valerian (R¢m¢ya´a 7/26-6) R¢va´a devotes Kail¢sa Mountain and sees many trees including ‘Tagara’. (Kum¢ra. Following ºloka giving a vivid picture of the twilight also remembers appropriately Tam¢la. 1-10). Tagara is Valeriana. M¢gha (poet) has also mentioned about such plants. the correct word should be ‘Kakkola’ which is ca´akab¢ba or Cinikab¢ba. It is a scented material.Tam¢lapatra De³eb megpeeleesçvegeif ejb leceeue: ÒeJeeueceeoe³e megieefvOe ³em³e~ ³eJee¹§jeHeeC[gkeÀHeesueMeesYeer ce³eeJelebme: HeefjkeÀefuHelemles~~ (Raghu. 9-70). to remove this message.e-pdfconverter. (Kum¢ra-1/30). Tejapata.Ham) T.262 263 JYOTI½MAT£ AO½ADHI The great poet in the description of Citrak¦°a shows thousand of’ Jyoti¾mat¤ ao¾adhi’ shining as fire flames at night. if kept in mouth. TAGARA Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Jihmam. .7-34) TAKKOLA (? KAKKOLA) (R¢m¢ya´a 3/35-22) lekeÌkeÀesueeveeb ®e peel³eevee HeÀueeveeb ®e megieefvOeveeced~ The word like ‘Takkola’ is not mentioned at all in Amarakoºa or Nigha´°u. TAM¡LA Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. ¹a°ham. Ebern. In Prasannr¢ghavam. 13-15) The coastal region of the sea appears bluish due to the forest of Tam¢la and Palm trees. Piper cubeba L. Family: Lauraceae Tejapatt¢. sold in the market as ‘Tagara ga°hon¢’ as also known as ‘Valeriyan’ in English.

Go. In Amarakoºa. T¢piccha are mentioned. M¢gha (Gujarat poet) has mentioned Tam¢la (T¢latam¢lavanam) at the shores of Kutch (doubtful). 8-53) Oh! Dear daughter of ¹ailar¢ja! You see atleast the twilight scene. Arjuna took his bath. The author of M¨cchaka°ika mentions Slew efHe<ìleceeueJeCe&keÀefveYew: DeeefueHlececYeesOejw:~ Stating clouds if being coloured with the powdered leaves of Tam¢la.264 265 leeefceceeb efleefcejJe=e× f Heere[f leeb Mewuejepeleve³esçOegvee efmLeleeced~ SkeÀlemleìleceeueceeefueveer HeM³e OeelegjmeefvecveieeefceJe~~ (Kum¢ra. Such a ºloka is present in Mah¢v¤racarita (5/42) J³eescve: leeefHe®íieg®íeJeefueefYe: leceesJeuuejerefYe: efJe´³evles (M¢lat¤. Tam¢la is included among the trees of Pa®cva°¤ (R¢m¢ya´a 3/15-16). GHeefj efJeIeìceeve: Òeew{leeefHe®íveerue: Þe³eefle efMeKejceês vetlevemlees³eJeen:~~ (M¢lat¤. P¢na ie=nerleleecyetueefJeuesHeveñepe: megKeemeJeeceeseof leJekedÀ$eHe¹pee:~ ÒekeÀecekeÀeueieg©OetHeJeeefmeleb efJeMeefvle Me³³eeie=nceglmegkeÀe: efm$e³e:~~ (Ritu. Family: Piperaceae Betal leaf. The twilight appears deep red as if liquid of metallic and golden etc. 9/24) A new cloud. Arjuna appeared like this. 5-5) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ceefn<e#eleeieg©leceeueveueomegjefYe: (12/50). Tam¢la. on the road he finds flowers of Tam¢la and clusters of fruits of Piper (4/27-17) Heg<HeeefCe ®e leceeuem³e ieguceeefve ceefj®em³e ®e (3/35-23) Monkeys lived on Tam¢la trees (4-37-25). 11/4) The darkness (night) is compared with the tender leaves of Tam¢la. azurish like the adult Tam¢la was arriving on the top of the mountain. The Tam¢la trunk appears blackish hence its other name is ‘K¢laskandha’. N¢gavela. names like K¢laskandha. . le©CeleceeueveerueyengueesVeceocyegOeje: (M¢lat¤.e-pdfconverter. The forest region appears filled up with rows of garlands of Tam¢la trees. Then his emerald diamond like matted hair looked like Tam¢la trees appearing after the morning sun rays falling on them. On the other side of the river the darkness increases and on the shore as if the garland of Tam¢la trees is arriving! SleÊeceeueoueveerueleceb leefceñeb (G¤. GHeceeb ³e³eeJe©CeoereOf eefleefYe: Heefjme=äcetOe&evf e leceeuelejew~ (6/23) Buffaloes were rubbing their bodies against Tam¢la trunk so the bark was roughened emitting the scent. 9/18) Young Tam¢la like bluish clouds bending down with water. 5/6) The sky was covered with intermingled climbers of Tam¢la like the clusters of Tam¢la. Bhavabh¦ti has mentioned Tam¢la at many places. Rivers are flowing. T¡MB¥LA Piper betle L. From Kir¢ta (5/9).com to remove this message. When R¢va´a goes to Marica.

garlands of fragrant flowers. 4-42) The soldiers of Raghu making a liquor-shop drank the essence of coconut from the cups made of T¢mb¦la leaves. musk and candana (sandal).leecyetueceeê&keÀcegkeÀesHekeÌue=Hleced~ The practice of eating T¢mb¦la with green betel is considered a great during ¹iºira (winter) Bhart¨hari. cegKes efveOee³e ¬eÀcegkebÀ veueevegiew: (16/110). Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.e-pdfconverter. .. MekeÀ³egJeeflekeÀHeesueeHeeC[gleecyetueJeuueerouece©CeveKeeûew: Heeefìleb Jee JeOetY³e:~~ (Bhart¨hari ¹¨¬g¢ºatakam 34) The ripe white leaves of T¢mb¦la are compared with fair foreheads of ¹aka young ladies. 97) leecyetueYe#eCe leecyetueeroueHetieHetejf lecegKee Oev³ee: megKeb Mesjles~~ MekeÀ³egJeeflekeÀHeesueeHeeC[gleecyetueJeuueerouece©CeveKeeûew: Heeefìleb Jee JeOetY³e:~~ One who keeps in his mouth T¢mb¦la leaf with betel and sleeps embracing his beloved deserves thanks. lime and catechu is a common practice in India. with the paste of T¢mb¦ to remove this message. This is a description of ¹iºira (winter). describing Hemanta (winter) (¹¨¬g¢ra. are spread over. are singing. M¢. enter the bedroom scented with incense of K¢l¢guru. lotus like faces and fragrant with taking ¡sava leaves. R¢jaºekhara mentions . 6-112) The procession is described. It is well known that there are varieties of T¢mb¦la. iee{eslkeÀCþkeÀþesjkesÀjueJeOetieC[eJeHeeC[g®íow:~ leecyetueerHeìue: efHeve×HeÀefueveJ³eevece´Hetieêgcee:~ (M¢..266 267 Women.. 6/19) The betel trees. speaking in different voices from the throat as their cheeks are bloated. were taking with them T¢mb¦la. chewing betel leaves in the mouth.. Taking T¢mb¦la leaves with betel. scented paste. bent down with the weight of their fruits and many T¢mb¦la climbers appearing white yellowish resembling the faces of a three year aged Keral brides. Women eager to enter their bed rooms. leecyetueJeuueerHeefjCe×Hetieemeg Sueeueleeefueef²le®evoveemeg~ leceeueHe$eemlejCeemeg jvlegb Òemeero Meéevceue³emLeueer<eg~~ Be fortunate to play at Malaya Mountain showing T¢mb¦la vines twining around Betel plants and cardamom twiners embracing candana trees. eager for a meeting with the beloved.~ (M¢. leecyetueerveeb ouewmle$e jef®eleeHeeveYetce³e:~ veeefjkesÀueemeJeb ³eesOee: Mee$eJeb ®e HeHeg³e&Me:~~ (Raghu. The women are chewing the betel leaves merrily! Nai¾adha compares the lower lip of Damayant¤ with the redness of T¢mb¦la leaves: leecyetueleece´ceJeuecy³e leJeeOejesÿced (22/138). and flower garlands.. Fcee:meefJeueemekeÀJeefueleleecyetueJeereìf keÀeHetejf lekeÀHeesueceC[ueeYeesieJ³eeflekeÀjmKeefueleceOegjcebieueesÃerleye× keÀesueenuew:. V¢tsy¢yana has given an important place to T¢mb¦la in erotic science. seated on elephants. Women.

Kum¢ra. 1. Devesve mee×¥ efJenjecyegjeMesmleerjs<eg lee[erJevecece&js<eg~~ Have a leisurely walk along the seashore having rustling sound of the palm forest.this scene is difficult to forget. Pranº to remove this message. 2-35). 2. Vikramo. 4-56) The sound2 created in the fine forest of Palms by the wind was not a match with that formed by the armour placed on the marching horses. 5-117. ve Jeeefle Jee³eg: lelHeeéex leeueJe=leevleeefveueeefOekeÀced (kum¢ra. The evening sets.4-34. Dur¢ruha. The poet also refers to palm trees growing on the seashore : ÒeeHe leeueerJeveM³eececegHekeÀCþb cenesoOes:~ (Raghu . References :. Palm leaves are used as fans.Raghu. Dhvajadruma. R¢macandraj¤ afflicted by abduction of S¤t¢ was asking T¢la tree in frenzy ³eefo leeue lJe³ee ¢äe HekeÌJeleeueesHecemleveer~ keÀLe³emJe Jejejesneb keÀe©C³eb ³eefo les ceef³e~~ (3/60-18) Oh ! T¢la tree! If you have seen my beautiful wife with breasts like the T¢l ripe fruits and if you have pity on me. Note: The author here under the heading of T¢la mostly refers to Phoenix and Borassus species and coconut. T¢la fresh Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. then tell me. 4-34) The king arrived at the seashore where the palm forest appeared dark. There is a palm forest near the village Diva near Ankleshwar on the bank of river Narmad¢.e-pdfconverter.” T¢la is T¨´ar¢ja and other synonyms are D¤rghaskandha. In Pa®cava°¤. ogketÀueesÊej®íos leeueJe=vleeOeejs (Vikramo. in the open space of sky painted deep red and behind this red background palm trees peeping and standing silent as saints .4-56. Drumeºvara. T¢la and Aºvakar´a. Whenever I visit it. 1 K¢lid¢sa has mentioned these plants in Raghuvaïºa. DeY³eYet³ele Jeeneveeb ®ejleeb iee$eefMeefáelew:~ Jece&efYe: HeJeveesÓtlejepeleeueerJeveOJeefve:~~ (Raghu.268 269 T¡LA Palm The palms are the most beautiful plants with their unique growth pattern and height. the Pa®ca cottage was covered with the leaves of S¢la . Page 5-115) The jewel was put on a palm leaf or on its casket and was covered with the silken cloth. 2-35. I remember leeueerJeveM³eececed GHekeÀCþb cenesoOes: For nature lovers the scene of palm forest is very attractive. . Have a leisurely walk along the seashore having rustling sound of the palm forest. 14-23.

DeefleMejJ³e³elee ceovesve leeb efveefKeueHeg<Hece³emJeMejJ³e³eeled~ mHegÀìcekeÀeefj HeÀueev³eefHe cegáelee leogjefme mleveleeue³egieeHe&Ceced~~ (3/32) Cupid had used all his arrows on the daughter of Bh¤mahe used flowers as arrows till he exhausted them. . so Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. T¢l¤ and T¢²¤ are two words used : leeue lee[er~ leeueleceeueleeueer keÀoueerkeÀvoefueveeR. Hint¢laª. To demonstrate the hardness and elevation of breasts. a nice food item for the poor. KeuJeeìes efoJemeséejm³e efkeÀjCew: mebleeefHeles cemlekesÀ ie®ívosMeceveeleHeb êgleieeflemleeuem³e cetueb iele:~ le$eeH³em³e ceneHeÀuesve Helelee ceiveb meMeyob efMej: Òee³ees ie®íefle ³e$e owJenlekeÀmle$ewJe ³eevl³eeHeo:~~ (N¤tiºataka ºloka 84) The breasts of Damayant¤ are compared with T¢la fruits in Nai¾adha. there after the breasts of Damayant¤ appeared as the fruits of T¢la. 1/25) R¢macandraj¤ used a petioled leaf of T¢la to protect him against heat. Imal¤ ³eLee keÀm³eeefHe efHeC[Kepetj©w Üsepf elem³e efleefvleC³eeceefYeuee<ees YeJesÊeLee m$eerjlveYeeefJevees YeJele: F³eceY³eLe&vee~~ (¹¢kuntala. here T¢la and T¢l¤ are used together. Early Para 205) Female ascetics. Òeleer®íl³eeMeeskeÀeR efkeÀmeue³eHejeJe=eÊf eceOej: keÀHeesue: HeeC[glJeeoJelejefle lee[erHeefjCeefleced~~ The famous ºloka of Bhrt¨hari : HeeMegHeleJe´leOeeefjCeereYf e: Oeelegjeiee©CeecyejeefYe½e HeefjJe´eefpekeÀeefYe: HeefjCeleleeueHeÀueJeukeÀueueesefnleJem$eeefYe½e jkeÌleHeìJe´leJeeefnveerefYe:~~ (K¢da.Jevejeefpe. then he used fruits . Cupid achieved his objective in this manner. worshipping ¹iva and observing vows were dressed in red clothes. The use of phrase “Pari´atat¢lafalavalkala” is to be noted.. Amlik¢.e-pdfconverter. The soft part like coconut endosperm is called T¢lafal¤ or Galel¤. What is T¢li ? In this sentence Òe¬eÀere[f le®eHeuekeÀefHekegÀuekeÀjleue lee[velejefuelelee[erHegì:w it is used in the meaning of T¢la. M¢²a as varieties of T¢la. Jaggery is also prepared from the juice. It is pointed here the yellow part observed when the ripe T¢la fruit is broken.270 271 juice is a healthy drink. Dee³e&Heg$emJenmleOe=leleeueJe=vleeleHe$eefveJeeefjleeleHeced (¥ttara. The lower lip shows the reflection of Aºoka tender leaves and ripeness of T¢la fruit has descended from the fairness of the face.. the Sanskrit poets have used the word ‘T¢lastan¤’. In K¢dambar¤. the fermented one. called T¢²¤ is intoxicating. The strong black cover around the T¢la fruit might be used to make cloth and that too red! TINTI³£ Tamarindus indica L. Act-2) The jester tells king Du¾yanta “As one who usually eats the best date sometimes wishes to eat Tamarind. These clothes were made from the outer cover of T¢la fruits.. Family: Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae) Tintri´¤.com to remove this message. Sucukrika. Even today the poor use it as an umbrella.. Nigha´°u mentions ¹r¤t¢laª.

S¢la. The trunk is black and split bark. the Pr¢c¤nav¢hin¤ river looked beautiful with trees like Candana. to remove this message. Ratha. other synonyms are Ci®c¢. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. here Tinti´i is used. Tam¢la. It is Tamarindus indica. When fire takes place in Tinduka forest. Tilaka. As per the author Tinduka is Diosprous embryopteris .e-pdfconverter. 1/24-15. . TINI¹A2 Ougeinia dalbergiodes Benth. ¹akuntal¢”. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita explains its meanings as whose inner part (pi°ha) is black. 25). Lodhra. but real tendu or kendu is Diosprous melonoxylon. Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. kings when you are tired with harem full of best of women jewels. Kentu Dirghapatrka) Tinduka means ¯¤mbaru in vernacular. Its fruits are edible. Its fruit removes a tendency of disliking for food.272 273 you. B¤japuraka. In ancient times. Atimuktaka (Tiniºa) like a beautiful woman looking attractive with her dress and ornaments – Tiniºa. Tinacha Its trees are large and wood very strong. Chapter. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita writes DeefleMeef³elees cegkeÌlees efJemleejesçm³e . Tinnas. Caraka says ef l evog k eÀced DeveVeêJ³e©ef®ekeÀjeCeeced (S¦. 4/1-82. Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) Sandana. 6/22-52. so it is called K¢larakandha. This is an important tree in summer. Va®jula (Amarakoºa) are synonyms. The salt known as ‘Ci®c¢k¾¢ra’ is obtained from the tree. the axles of the chariot were made of its wood hence its name is ‘Rathadru’. The great poet has mentioned Tiniºa among the many trees growing at the bank of Pamp¢ lake. a curious sound comes out and sparks fly off. Atimuktaka. 3/15-16. The word ‘Nem¤’ also refers to this fact. 3/11-74. etc. 3/11-74 . Its synonym is ‘Atimuktakaª’(Refer under this heading). 2/94-8. 2/94-8. Saptapar´a. Nai¾adha has compared the infamy of defeat with the blackness of Tinduka forest. It is a good shade giving tree. Trees like Tilaka. Syandana. Its leaves are used in making ‘B¤²¤’ (Indian cigarette). The R¢m¢ya´a mentions this plant at many places1. 5/4-81. have a desire to marry an ordinary ascetic daughter. Aºoka. Sth¢. Nem¤. The correct name is Tintidi . R¢may¢´a . Tinis. TINDUKA Diospyros embryopteris Pers. Ye²keÀerelf e&ce<eerceueercemeleceÒel³eefLe&mesveeYeì~ ÞesCeereflevogkeÀkeÀeveves<eg efJeuemel³em³e ÒeleeHeeveue:~~ (12/19) Its blackness can be only removed by the bright fire of a mighty king. 6/4-72. Amarakoºa mentions “¹itis¢raka” as synonym of Tinduka. in Sanskrit called ‘D¤rghapatra’. add beauty to Pamp¢ lake. In R¢m¢ya´a (4/1-82) efleefveMee vekeÌleceeuee½e ®evovee: m³evoveemleLee~ 1. Family: Ebenaceae (Tendu. Karv¤ra. Amlik¢. 3/73-3 2. 4/27-18. In the description of Pasrava´a mountain.

e-pdfconverter. Family:Pedaliaceae Semsem. they would not reach the ground. Nai¾adha has mentioned at several places the nose having the shape of the flowers of Tila. Sesame Sanskrit poets have used Tila flower to comparet with the human beautiful nose. Yetef½e$euesKee ®e efleueesÊeceem³ee veemee ®e jcYee ®e ³eot©me=efä:~ ¢ädJee lele: Hetj³eleer³eceskeÀeveskeÀeHmej: Òes#eCekeÀewlegkeÀeefve~~ (Nai¾adha 7/92) Following is another ºloka for Tila Flower. The poet. The poet imagines that the shape of Tila’s flower is similar to that of quiver. Tala. Damayant¤’s nose is similar to Tila’s flower. her thighs like that of Rambh¢/Banana stalk. the remaining two (Smara is K¢madeva) have been kept in a quiver having a shape of Damayant¤’s nose. These two arrows can be imagined as an exhalation with abundance of fragrance. TILA Sesamum indicum L. leueb ³eLes³etve& efleuee efJekeÀerCee&: mewv³ewmleLee jepeHeLee yeYetJeg:~~ (10/1) efleueefleueefkeÀleHeHe&ìeYeefcevogb efJelej efveJesÐecegHeememJe HeáeyeeCeced~~ (22/149) Offer to K¢madeva (Cupid) only the tainted moon like the wafer cake (P¢pa²a) strewn with Tilas and worship him. veemeeomeer³ee efleueHeg<HeletCeb peiel$e³eJ³emleMej$e³em³e~ éeemeeefveueeceesoYejevegces³eeb oÐeeod efÜyeeCeeR kegÀmegcee³egOem³e~~ (7/36) The Cupid released his three arrows to win the three worlds. Gingelly. in other words more attractive than that of celestial damsel Tilottam¢. to remove this message. This tree grows in abundance in the forest of R¢jp¤pl¢ forests (±a²iy¢p¢²¢). The Cupid has kept his two remaining arrows in a quiver having a shape of Damayant¤’s nose.274 275 This half ºloka refers both ‘Tiniºa’ and ‘Spandana’ in reality both are synonyms. in other words more fascinating than those of Rambh¢. Vibhi¾a´a after cremating R¢va´a took bath and with wet Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. in the description of every body part of Damayant¤ states that her eyebrow was an astonishing picture like that of the celestial damsel Citralekh¢. ‘Tiniºa’ and ‘Spandana’ mentioned in the description of Pa®cava°¤ trees appear to be considered separate by the great poet. . M¢lat¤m¢dhava (9/7) refers : oel³etnw: efleefveMem³e keÀesìjJeefle mkeÀvOes efveueer³eefmLeleb~ stating that birds named D¢ty¦haiª were hiding in the hollow trunks of Tiniºa trees. DeeqmcevJeHeg<ceefle ve efJemce³emes iegCeeyOeew jkeÌlee efleueÒemeJeveeefmeefkeÀ veeefme efkebÀ Jee~~ (11/67) Oh! Damayant¤ with nose like a Tila flower! Why are you not content with your very beautiful body having a sea of virtues? The royal road was so much crowded with king’s soldiers that if Tilas are strewn from above. her nose was more attractive than Tila flower.

DeefueefYej¡eveefyevogceveesnjw: kegÀmegceHe*dekq eÌleefveHeeefleefYejef¹le:~ ve Keueg MeesYe³eefle mce JevemLeueeR ve efleueefmleuekeÀ: ÒeceoeefceJe~~ (Raghu.e-pdfconverter. and wasps have suddenly grouped around them as if the lover grips his passion-afflicted beloved. TILAKA The R¢m¢ya´a has many references1. P¢padhna. There is a reference of Tilaka in K¢lid¢sa’s works. 6/22-52. One who cooks the oilcake of Tila with the chandan wood in the vessel made of a diamond is considered a fool. 2/91-50. 4/27-17. Tilaka trees appearing as collyrium dots added beauty to the forest region. 2/94-9. 3/73-4. born as a man (a human being) is a fool who does not follow virtuous path as penance. 6/39-4. Pavitram Pit¨tarpa´e”. In the ancient time the kings used to offer Tila in a golden vessel to Brahmins at early morning. You were very dear to my beloved. . You are the best tree. This reflects that Tilaka flowers are very fragrant. 3/15-16. Synonyms of Tila are ‘Homadh¢nya. 6/4-79. 4/1-58-78-82. ºloka 96) The poet describes the foolishness of a man not doing virtuous acts. mLeeu³eeb Jewot³e&ce³³eeb He®eefle efleueKeue ®evovewefjvOeveewIew:~ (Bhrt¨hari. Tila is Sesamum indicum Ye´cejw©Heieerle½e ³eLee êgceJejes ¿eefme~ S<e J³ekeÌleb efJepeeveeefle efleuekeÀefmleuekeÀefÒe³eeced~~ (3/60-16) “Oh Tilaka tree! Wasps are continuously humming around you. so is the one. 3/60-16. S¤t¢ liked this tree. Tila and Mung were stored in abundance. So you are sure to know where she is” This is a short report of a tree – it should be a big tree with lot of wasps around its flowers. ¹loka by Jayadeva veemeeY³esefle efleueÒemetveHeoJeeR kegÀvoeYeoefvle efÒe³es~ Your nose is beautiful like a Tila flower and teeth are as white as a Jasminum (Kunda) flower. It was a tree where the wasps were gathering around its clusters of flowers and looking fascinating like dots of collyrium. During the sacrificial rite performed by a universal monarch (R¢jasuya) “Ayutam tilamudrasya” (7/91-19).276 277 clothes he mixed Tila with Darbha with water and offered them to funeral pyre (6/111-120). R¢ma. efJeef#eHleeb HeJevesvesleecemeew efleuekeÀce¡ejerced~ <eìdHeo: menmeeY³esefle ceoes×tleeefceJe efÒe³eeced~~ (4/1-58) The clusters of blossoms of Tilaka trees are fast moving by the to remove this message. N¤tiºataka. ÒeefleefoJemeceglLee³eeslLee³e meJe&jlveesHesleeefve nwceeefve efleueHee$eeefCe ye´eïeCesY³ees ooew~~ (K¢dambar¤ Early act-66). As the auspicious mark on the forehead adds beauty to the damsels. 9/41) It was not that Tilaka tree was not adding beauty to the forest region. afflicted with separation asks Tilaka tree: 1. 6/4-72 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 3/7516-23.

‘Tarun´¤ka°¢k¾ak¢maª’..ef®e$eb leLeeefHe YeJeefle ÒemeJeeJekeÀerCe&~~ cegKeceefoj³ee Heeov³eemew: efJeueemeefJeueesekf eÀlew:~ yekegÀueefJeìHeer jkeÌleeMeeskeÀmleLee efleuekeÀêgce:~~ (K¢vyam¤m¢ns¢. page 73) The following ºloka from ‘Saundar¢nanda’ of Aºvaghoºa is noteworthy: Heg<Heeyeve×s efleuekeÀêgcem³e ÎäJeev³eHeg<Heeb efMeKejs efveefJeäeced~ mebkeÀuHe³eeceeme efMeKeeb efÒe³ee³ees: MegkeÀuueebMegkesÀçÆeueceHeeefÞelee³ee:~~(Sarga7 ºloka7) ceOegceemeefceJe kegÀmegceOeJeueefleuekeÀYetelf eYete<f elecegKeced efleuekeÀ (K¢dambar¤ Para 142) In the beginning of Caitra (March-April) month. the forest is showy with multitude of Tilaka trees with white flowers. the author has considered Tilaka as ‘Adenanthera paronia’.. ‘Mukhama´²anakaª’.. ¹r¢m¢n name indicates the beauty of the tree. (Artemisia indica Willd. TRAPUS£ Trapusa SJee&©kebÀ mHegÀìveefveie¥leieYe&ievOececueerYeJeefvle ®e pejl$eHegmeerHeÀueeefve~ (K¢vyam¤m¢ns¢ Adhy¢ya 18) Erv¢ru and Trapusa are varieties of Cucumis sativus. ¹r¤m¢n’ in Amarakoºa. Elsewhere Tilaka flowers in spring are mentioned. Tilaka perhaps belongs to the family Bignoniaceae. K¾¤ras¢m¤ says that the tree having flowers similar to those of Tila is Tilaka. There are three synonyms ‘Tilakaª. the tree is tall and straight with thin and straight branches. Its wood is slightly reddish. it is called “R¢t¢v¢l¢”.com to remove this message. On the other hand Trapusa fruit when over ripened becomes sour in taste. In Gujarat. K¾urakaª. family Mimosaceae. veeefueef²le: kegÀjyekeÀ: efleuekeÀes ve Îäes .. efleue Fefle K³eeles oerIe&He$es~ De³eb ®e Jemevles Heg<H³eefle~ Je´erefncesomleg ve Jemevles~ (stated by ‘¯¤k¢sarvasva’). On the basis. but it is not. Authors of Nigha´°us have given identifying signs like ‘Bh¢lavibhu¾a´asa¬jaª’.278 279 Which is this Tilaka tree? It is difficult to decide. The aspiration of Tilaka is ‘Vil¢saviloka’. DAMANAKA Artemisia princeps Pamp.) Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Some believe it to be ‘Rat¢®jal¤’. . but they are not useful to identify Tilaka. Others say “Tila Snehane”.e-pdfconverter. The author of ‘A¾°¢¬gah¨dayakoºa’ has a transcript from ‘Sarasvat¤nigha´°u’ in which ‘Raktab¤jaºca rohi´¤’ is mentioned.. the true Rata®jal¤ is Petrocarpus santalinus’. The plants belonging to the family Bignoniaceae have flowers resembling those of Tila which belongs to the family Pedaliaceae. The poet here refers to a variety whose ripened fruit naturally splits and its smell can be felt from a distance. identified as Tila and flowering in spring is Tilaka. The tree with large leaves.

e-pdfconverter. K¢sa means K¢sa²o (refer K¢sa) and Darbha is D¢bha²o. It is also mentioned in trees of Aºoka forest: meJe&oe keÀgmegcew jc³ew HeÀueJeefÓce&veesjcew:~ efoJ³eievOejmeesHeslew: le©Cee¹§jHeuueJew:~~ Really it is a fine tree. It has many forms.280 281 HetpeeefJeefOeo&cevekesÀve ®e Je: mcejm³e lemcevceOeg: me YeieJeevieg©j²veeveeced~~ (K¢vyamim¢nas¢ Adhy¢ya 18) Women learn the worship rites of K¢madeva from Damanaka tree in the spring.) Artemisia princeps Pamp. . Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita states that the one that reduces the three Doºa (three humours of the body) is ‘Karaka’ R¢janigha´°u also confirms this fact. in Gujarati it is ‘D¢bha²o’ Erogratis cynosuroides. Damanaka is ‘Nagadama´o’. The reference to ‘Darbhadvayam trido¾aghnam’ in Bh¢vaprak¢ºa also indicates that Darbha and Kuºa are referred together. 7/42-5). A medicine named ‘Sentomin’ used against worms is made from it. It is a strongly smelling plant. K¢sa and Darbha are used together. ‘Pu´²arika’. A female observing a religious conduct would wearing Darbha clothes. Kuºa is synonym of Darbha. Darbha is holy. D¢²ama D¢²ama is refered to in the R¢m¢ya´a (3/60-21. keÌJeef®eod ie=nerleJe´lesJe oYe&®eerjpeìeJeukeÀueOeeefjCeer (K¢dambar¤ para 17).) P. The following maxim also praisest. ‘Brahmaja°¢’. three words. Kuºa oYe&HeefJe$eOeefJe$eHeeefCevee cevocegHeJeer ³eceeveb efHelejceJees®eled (K¢dambar¤ Para 43) ‘Dhavitra’ means a fan made from deer skin. Amarsinh mentions its two synonyms. ‘Karaka and ‘D¢²ima’. DeeHeg<HeÒemeJeevceveesnjle³ee efJeéeem³e efJeéeb peveb nbnes oeef[ce leeJeowJe menmes Je=e× f mJekeÀer³eeefcen~ ³eeJeVewelf e HejesHeYeesiemenleecew<ee lelemleeb leLee %eelJee les Ëo³eb efÜOee oueefle ³eÊesveeefleJevÐees YeJeeved~~ efJeoYe&megYe´gmleveleg²leeHe³es IeìeefveJeeHeM³eoueb leHemJele: HeÀueeefve Oetcem³e Oe³eeveOeescegKeevme oeef[ces oesnoOetefHeefve êgces~~ (sarga 1/82) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. DARBHA Eragrostis cynosuroides (Retz. It is (Artemisia indica willd. also referred as ‘D¢²imagulm¢n’. 6/2255.: oeef[ceb ceOegjcecuekeÀ<ee³eb keÀemeJeelekeÀHeÀefHeÊeefJeJeeefMe~. Bhavabh¦ti in M¢lat¤m¢dhava (9/ 31) HeekeÀe©CemHegÀefìleoeef[cekeÀeefvleJekedÀ$eced~ describes the red mouth of the monkey with ripened and opened bright red D¢²ima fruit. The ºloka indicates a disciple slowly fanning holding holy Darbha and Dhavitra in his hand. ‘Kuºa. D¡±IMA Punica granatum L. Family: Lythraceae Pomegranate. Family: Poaceae D¢bha²o. Damanaka is called ‘Damano’ or N¢gadamano’. Author of Nigha´°us have given names like ‘Gandhotka°a’. Beauv. the spiritual teacher of the damsels. In Sanskrit literature. The small form is called Kuºa and the big form is to remove this message.

kegÀcegeof kesÀ. MegkeÀkegÀueoefueleoeef[ceerHeÀueêJeeêeake=Àleleuew: (Para 17). Dhoob efmeleebMegkeÀe ce²uecee$eYet<eCee HeefJe$eotJee&¹j§ ueeeq_íleeuekeÀe~ Je´leeHeosMeesepq PeleieJe&J& e=eÊf evee ceef³e ÒemeVee JeHeg<esJe ue#³eles~~ (Vikramorvaº¤ya Act 3) The queen had white dress. D¥RV¡1 Cynodon dactylon (L. Act 4. Act 3 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. seeing the D¢²ima fruits hanging inverted believed that they are not fruits. The wreath for braid was showy with sprouts of sacred D¦rv¢. In the description of Ca´²ik¢. HeÀueYejefvekeÀjefveHeere[f leefveefye[oeef[ceveerçÒemetle. Raghu.) Pers. the poet mentions the D¢²ima flowers used as earrings. collyrium etc.keÀueefJe²kewÀ:~ (Para 131) The thickly populated D¢²ima trees where nests of sparrows were present. nefjveKejefYeVeceÊeceele²kegÀcYecegkeÌlejkeÌleeo&cegkeÌleeHeÀueeqlJeef<e KeefC[leeefve oe[erceJeerpeeefve (K¢dambar¤ Later Para 16) The dark red seeds of D¢²ima are compared with red pearls brought out from forehead of a rutted elephant. were worn. Its rind removed by deity was as red as the redness of the evening sky. but they are like a gathering of sages doing penance with their heads down. The K¢la deity ate such a ripened D¢²ima fruit. is to illustrate its similarity with the breast. ¹¢kuntala. Red mark on the forehead. 6-25. The K¢la deity like the sun alone can take the D¢²ima fruit and throw away the seeds as white stars twinkling in the sky. He®eseuf eceb oeef[ceceke&ÀefyecyecegÊee³e& mebO³ee lJeefieJeesepq Peleem³e~ leejece³eb yeerpeYegpeeomeer³eb keÀeuesve efveÿîetleefceJeeefmLe³etLeced~~ (22/14) ‘Pacelimam’ means a fruit ripened on the tree.282 283 to remove this message.e-pdfconverter. auspicious ornaments like necklace (Ma¬galas¦tra). were unhappy with the heavy weight of their fruits. mLeie³e MekegÀefvekegÀuej#eCee³e cegkeÌleepeeuew: oeef[ceerHeÀueeefve~ (Para. The red part of the seed is compared with the redness of the evening sunset. Da²ima fruits are round so is the name ‘V¨ttafala’. He ate the seeds but spat away the inner white of the seeds – like the tiny bright shining stars strewn in the sky as if throw away by the evening in the sky. Vikramo. These were signs of observing religious vow. Da²ima’s one synonym ‘Kucafala’. 17-12. and the queen who followed this 1. parrots pricking at the ripened fruits and D¢²ima juice dropping on the stone. Family: Poaceae Bermuda grass. . and also penance for uplifting the breasts of the daughter of King Vidarbha. 188) The D¢²ima fruits were to be covered with a net knitted with pearls so that parrots coming in crowds would not eat them.

bark of Piper (Pipli) and flower of Madh¦ka or Lotus. Many a times to show the blackness. Aºvatha. In description of Vindhya forest Dece=lecebLeveJesuesve ÞeerêgceesHeMeesefYelee Jee©CeerHeefjielee ®e (Para 17). keÀeb[eled keÀeb[eled Òejesnvleer He©<emHe©<emHeefj~ SJeeveg otJex Òeleveg Melesve menñesCe ®e ~ This describes certain uses of D¦rv¢. N¤lad¦rv¢. The use of D¦rv¢ for fixing up the foetus is well known since Vedic time. Act. appeared as if pleased with me with her body. D¦rv¢ today is sacred.a festival is arranged in the memory of this sacred grass. Mahausadh¤. They show the importance of D¦rv¢. Bh¦tahantr¤. sprouts of Barely. In the same way the ocean beach was spread Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. There is a hymn in Yajurveda On the occasion of ¹akuntal¢ leaving for her husband’s house. D¦rv¢ is liked by horses is mentioned in K¢dambar¤. Its other names are ¹atav¤ry¢. etc. Vindhya forest was covered with V¢ru´¤ (D¦rv¢). In the south women glean it for Ga´eºa worship. . and Gan²ad¦rv¢.4). He made ‘¡rat¤’ with D¦rv¢. 2-46).284 285 vow had abandoned the pride. The unique garlands made of white flowers and D¦rv¢ sprouts are mentioned in K¢dambar¤ (Para 64) : efJejueûeefLeleefmelekegÀmegceefceÞeotJee&ûeJeeueceeueeuebke=Àlesve~ D¦rv¢ sprouts were used as earrings: otJee&ÒeJeeuejef®elekeÀCe&Hetjes. D¦rv¢ has been used as an example. Subhag¢. That is why HeefJe$eotJee&¹§jueeeq_íleeuekeÀe the religious vow of keeping D¦rv¢ on the head is auspicious. beside other forest trees (Bilva. Nigha´°us have mentioned three types of D¦rv¢. (M¢lat¤.com to remove this message.e-pdfconverter. her dear friend Anasuy¢ while preparing for her auspicious ornaments had included D¦rv¢ as one of them (S¢kuntala. Indumat¤ had worn a garland of Madh¦ka ( Madhuka longifolia) knitted with D¦rv¢ sprouts. abandoned the king in silence and offered salutation in standing. sarga17-12) Nai¾dha mentions that Damayant¤ had prepared a garland of D¦rv¢ and Madh¦ka. Sahasrav¤ry¢. P¢rij¢taka). SJeb leLeeskeÌles leceJes#³e efkebÀef®eÜm$ebemf eotJee&¹ceOetkeÀceeuee~ $eÝpegÒeCeeceef¬eÀ³e³ewJe levJeer Òel³eeefoosMewveceYee<eceeCee~~ The slender beautiful Indumat¤ whose garland of D¦rv¢ and Madh¦ka had moved aside. D¦rv¢ is also required in the worship with a sacred lamp (¡rat¤). otJee&¹j§ e{îeeb veuekeÀCþveeues JeOetce&OetkeÀñepeceglmemepe&~ (14/48) leeb otJe&³ee M³eeceue³eeefleJesueb Me=²ejYeemebevf eYe³ee megMeesYeeced~ (14/49) The blackish color of D¦rv¢ is also mentioned. ¹vetad¦rv¢. As it spreads on the ground striking roots at intervals. D¦rv¢ a¾°am¤ . the women use it for curing uterine diseases and be a member of a large family. otJee&³eJee¹§jHue#elJeieefYeVeHegìesÊejeved~ %eeefleJe=×w: Òe³egkeÌleevme Yespes veerjepeveeefJeOeerved~~ (Raghu.

286 287 with D¦rv¢ (V¢ru´¤) beside the presence of Goddess of wealth and P¢rij¢ta (a tree) at the ocean churning ceremony. 1-15. me ke=ÀefÊeJeemeemleHemes ³eleelcee ie²eÒeJeenese#f eleosJeoe©:~(Kum¢ra. sarga 3-44) When K¢madeva (Cupid) goes to lure ¹iva. K¢madeva whose death was closer saw him. K¢lid¢sa expresses the agony of Devad¢ru. the mother of Skanda. sarga 1-15) Kir¢tas were enjoying the wind that was carrier of the sprinkles arising from the Ganges stream. Raghu. Kumbhodera was reciting this ºloka to Dil¤pa. Megha. 4-76. me osJeoe©ogceJeseof keÀe³eeb Meeo&ut e®ece&J³eJeOeeveJel³eeced~ DeemeerveceemeVeMejerjHeele ef$e³ecyekebÀ meb³eefceveb ooMe&~~ (Kum¢ra.e-pdfconverter. sarga 6-51) The imagination of comparing copper red colour with lower lips and skyhigh Devad¢ru trees with the long elephant trunk is apt. 2-36) The Devad¢ru you see in front of you has been accepted by V¨ºabhadhavaja as a son. 2-34-37-56. sarga ºloka 76) Kir¢ta understood the height of elephants by seeing the injured bark of Devd¢ru tree in the abandoned residence of Raghu. DEVAD¡RU1 Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Family: Pinaceae Devad¢ra. sarga 1-54) The self-restrained and clad in skin. Later. D¢ruka Remembering Devad¢ru. It is the one who knows the pleasure of drinking milk oozing out of the golden pot like breasts of Gaur¤. Today we do not love our trees as we love our sons. 111 iepeJe<ce& efkeÀjelesY³e: MeMebmeg: osJeoejJe:~~ (Raghu. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ¹iva started devout austerity at the silent delightful place where the Ganges sprinkles were watering the Devad¢ru trees.Don. when the elephants in forest injured tree barks by scratching them with their cheeks. 1-54. . the poet describes him. “The servant of ¹iva and friend of Nikumbha. YeJeeveHeerob HejJeeveJewefle ceneved efn ³elvemleJe osJeoejew~~ (Spoken by Dil¤pa on the inauguration of Raghu) lem³eesmme=äefveJeemes<eg keÀCþjppeg#elelJe®e:~ 1.) G. YeeieerjLeerevf ePe&jmeerkeÀjeCeeb Jees{e cegn:g keÀefcHeleosJeoe©:~ ³eÜe³egjeqvJeäce=iew: efkeÀjelewjemesJ³eles efYeVeefMeKeefC[yen&:~~ (Kum¢ra. ¹iva was sitting on the seat made of Devad¢ru on which tiger skin was spread. 6-51. Kum¢ to remove this message. one reminds the following ºloka of Raghuvaïºa: Deceg Hegj: HeM³eefme osJeoe© Heg$eerke=Àleesçmeew Je=<eYeOJepesve~ ³ees nscekegÀccemleveefve: me=leeveeb mkeÀvom³e ceeleg: He³emeeb jme%e:~~(Raghu. Oeelegleece´eOej: ÒeebMeg: osJeoe©ye=nÓgpe: (Kum¢ra. He was in meditation. shivering the Devad¢ru trees and moving slowly the peacock feathers tied at the waists of Kir¢tas. 3-54.

3/73-4 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. . Another name of grape is ‘M¨dvik¢’. efJeefve³evles mce leÐeesOee ceOegeYf e: efJepe³eÞececed~ DeemleerCee&efpevejlveemeg êe#eeJeue³eYetefce<eg~~ (Raghu. Monkeys moved from one hill to another on Devad¢ru trees but failed to obtain the fruits as one desirous to fulfill his wishes fails to do so because of the failure to obtain blessings of a revered man. The one who desires to eat is ‘Dr¢k¾i k¢¬k¾¢y¢m’. ºloka 79.e-pdfconverter.svadyate’ – whose taste is good. Family: Vitaceae Grapes. Family: Tiliaceae Dh¢mana 1. Aºvagho¾a describing the Him¢layas in Saundar¢nanda poem states that Devad¢ru belongs to the Him¢layas. R¢m¢ya´a 2/94-9. 4-65) Sitting on the best of the deer skin under the vine yard and drinking the grape wine. Sarala and Devad¢ru are different trees. The grapes have many varieties. streams and lakes. Madhuras¢ (Amarakoºa). In the following ºloka from Meghad¦tam it is stated that milk like thick liquid oozes when the leaf is removed. the small green one is called ‘Kisamisa’. Dr¢k¾¢. ‘Gostan¤’ – whose shape is like cow’s udder. DR¡K½A Vitis vinifera L. Sv¢dv¤. But Surar¢ja means Indra and Indra tree is like P¢rij¢ta tree which appeared with Goddess of wealth during the churning ceremony of the ocean. Aºvagho¾a in the following ºloka pictures monkeys on Devad¢ru not finding the fruits. and ‘Kapiº¢ are others. The grape juice is sweet as honey.288 289 There is a reference to ‘Surar¢ja’ tree in Raghuvaïºa sarga 16. leew osJeoeªÊeceievOeJevleb veoermej: Òem$eJeCeewIeJevleced~ Deepeiceleg: keÀeáeveOeelegcevleb osJeef<e&cevleb efnceJevleceeMeg~~(sarga 10 ºloka 5) The king Nanda and Sugata both came to a divine sage like Him¢layas which is full of best smelling Devad¢ru trees. ‘H¢rah¦r¢. Gostan¢. Dr¢k¾a I have come across only the following ºloka referring Dr¢k¾a in the work of K¢lid¢ to remove this message. The grape is Vitis vinifera. the soldiers of Raghu removed their fatigue of victory. ‘Sv¢dv¤ . Sarala is Pinus (cid) and Devad¢ru is Cedrus deodara. DHANVANA1 Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl. The synonyms of Grapes: M¨dvik¢. efYeÊJee meÐe: efkeÀmeue³eHegìevosJeoe©êgceeCeeb ³es lel#eerjm$egeflemegjYe³ees oef#eCesve ÒeJe=Êee:~ Deeefue²îevles iegCeJeefle ce³ee les leg<eejeefêJeelee: HetJex mHe=äb ³eefo efkeÀue YeJeso²ceseYf emleJeself e~~ (Meghad¦ta Early. 2/76-16) There are a few references to Devad¢ru in the R¢m¢ya´a (2-76-16). the large one ‘Munakk¢’ is in Sanskrit ‘Gostan¤’. full of rivers.

Its rose coloured flowers usually fall on the river water. Its wood is strong and hence called ‘Dhanuv¨k¾a’. K¢vyam¤m¢¼s¢ Adhy¢ya 18) 1. flowers in clusters dark red like fire flame. The R¢m¢ya´a 1/24-15. DHAVA1 Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. This shows that it is a shade giving tree growing near the river bank. Aja goes with the army. Tilaka (Lecturer) has twice incorrectly mentions it. It is common in Rajpipla (Gujartat) hills and the Dangs. It is a well known tree. a tree about 12 ft. 2/94-8. lower surface whitish with minute black dots or dotted with bluish cover. 6/22-52 Dh¢tak¤ is Dh¢va²¤. The wind cooled by the sprinkling of the river water was swaying Naktam¢la trees. NAKTAM¡LA Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Pongamia glabra Vent. Naktam¢laª. ‘Dharmana’. leaves appear surface light green. Its meaning is that “it grows near the water”. Dh¢va²o Its another Sanskrit name is ‘Piº¢cav¨k¾a’. Dhau. high.290 291 Dhanvana is in the list of trees mentioned in the R¢m¢y¢´a. 4/1-81.) (Pongamia pinnata L. DH¡TAK£ Woodfordia floribunda Salisb Family: Lythraceae Dhana ûeer<ceesç³eceguueeefmeleOeelekeÀerkeÀ:~~ (“R¢jaºekhara. 4/50-25. Its fruits are known as ‘Dh¢ma´¢’. Its wound healing capacity is very great. It is surprising that K¢lid¢sa has mentioned it only once: vekeÌleceeue – vekeÌleb ceeuees Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on to remove this message.e-pdfconverter. flowers in summer. mostly grows near the bank of river or brooks.) Family: Fabaceae me vece&oejesOeefme meerkeÀjeêw: ce©efÓjeveefle&levekeÌleceeues~ (Raghu. Dhaur¢. commonly named as Ka´aji. Amarakoºa mentions four synonyms of Kara®ja tree ‘Cirabilvo. It flowers in the beginning of monsoon. Flowers are used in wine and hence its name ‘Madapu¾p¢’. sarga ºloka 42) On the occasion of selection of the bride by choice of Indumat¤. It flowers in March-April.) Wall. hence its name “Agnijv¢l¢ t¢mrapu¾pa”. The tree is common near rivers and brooks. Karajaºca. The string of the bow is made from its fiber. Its oil is a household medicine. Once “Dhanvano indrayavaª’ and second time ‘Dhanvan¢ª dhav¢ª’. ‘Dhanvangaª’. . Dhanvan is Grewia tiliaefolia of Family : Tiliaceae. ex DC. ex Bedome Family: Combretaceae Axlewood. Translator’s note: Its other Sanskrit names are ‘Dhanav¨k¾a’. There is no doubt about its identity. 3/15-18. Kara®jake’. The king encamped on the bank of Narmad¢ river because of his ‘Rajodh¦saraketu’ (tired) army.

1. There is no misunderstanding if ‘Nameru’ is fixed as ‘Surapunn¢ga’. the word. known as ‘¥´²¤’. Only once in the R¢m¢ya´a (6/4-73). ‘Punn¢ga’ is Callophyllum inophyllum L. known in Gujarat as ‘Ka´aj¤’ tree. 4/1-82). ¢efäÒeHeeleb HeefjËm³e lem³e keÀece: Hegj: Meg¬eÀefceJe Òe³eeCes~ Òeevles<eg mebmekeÌleveces©MeeKeb O³eeveemHeob YetleHeleseJf e&JesMe~~ At the time of the start. and ‘Naktam¢la is mentioned twice (3/73-4. This word is not found in Amarakoºa. Apte has two meanings of Nameru. It is present on the banks of river and on the ground there is a heap of flowers. 3-43. very fragrant flowering tree.e-pdfconverter. Its synonym is ‘Kuber¢k¾a’. ‘Surapunn¢ga’ is Sura¬g¤ or as sold in market as N¢gakesara. efJeMeÞecegve&cesªCeeb íe³eemJeO³eem³e mewevf ekeÀe:~ ¢<eoes Jeeefmeleeslme²e efve<eCCee ce=ieveeefYeefYe:~~ (Raghu. 4/74) The soldiers of Raghu rested on stones whose surface was made fragrant by the deer musk under the shade of Nameru trees. The first ºloka of Meghd¦tam eqmveiOe®íe³eele©<eg Jemeefleb jeceefie³ee&Þeces<eg states tender shade giving tree. Kar®ja’ is mentioned. as ‘Carela’ or ‘P¢pa²¤’. ‘NAMERU’ Trees1 Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth. Cilbil. It is mentioned by K¢lid¢sa in Kum¢rasa¼bhava sarga-3. Early-1. ºloka-55. kegÀeqlmeleb Jesjb Mejerjb ³em³e Fefle kegÀyesj: means the tree whose body form is hunch-backed. Pongamia glabra. in short “Kara®ja’ is of three types. Nameru . Its synonyms are ‘Naktam¢la’ and ‘Kara®ja’. but in the literature only ‘Ka´aj¤’ is mentioned. Cupid moved his sight from one place to mutually touching branches of Nameru tree. It is Caesalpinia bonduc (C.Kum¢ra. In Saurastra. It is Holoptelia intergrifolia. crista). veces©kegÀmegceHeebMegHeeefleefYe: (K¢dambar¤.292 293 OeejCecem³e~ Naktam¢la is one whose garlands are put on at night. Kara®ja has three varieties (1) It is ‘Kara®ja’. . It is a big tree but of no known use. (3) ‘P¦tikara®ja’ which is in Gujarat known as ‘K¢cak¤’ and its fruits K¢cak¢. ºloka-43 and sarga-1. The author of Sa®j¤vani means Nameru as ‘Surapunn¢ga’ ieCee veces©ÒemeJeeJelebmee Yetpe&lJe®e: mHeMe&Jeleero&Oeevee:~ ceve: efMeueeefJe®ígefjlee efve<esog: Mewues³eve×s<eg efMeueeleues<eg~ veces©: megjHegVeeie: Fefle efJeée:~ (Kum¢ra. known in Gujarat as ‘Ka´ajo’. para 131) The following reference is from the description of Siddh¢yatana. & Hooker Family: Calophyllaceae (Clusiaceae) N¢gakesara ‘Nameru’ meaning is a shade giving tree. sarga 1-55) Surapunn¢ga. the best of flowers. Family” Calophyllaeae. 4-57. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. C. bonducella. Rudr¢k¾a and Surapunn¢ga. Meghd¦ta. (2) Cirabilva. Pumn¢ga Raghu. 1-55. it means the tree with fruits big as eyes of Kubera (Deity of wealth).com to remove this message. Kara®ja is mentioned in K¢dambar¤ : efJekeÀefmelekeÀj¡ece¡ejerjpeesefJe®ígefjleleìw:~ (Early para 215).

Nalada also means ‘Ja°¢m¢ns¤’.com to remove this message.. Sevyam. a minister. Following reference is from K¢dambar¤. f. Nalada means Khasa is appropriate. Jal¢sayam. a Vaidya (doctor) were appointed by a king. M¨´¢lam. Nala means one who gives smell.294 295 NALA Phragmites karka (Retz. Meg<keÀveuekeÀeMekegÀmegceefveHeefleleeveue®eìgueJe=eÊf e efvel³ecemeefn<Ceg leHeeqmJeveeb levegleHemeeceefHe lespe: Òeke=Àl³ee YeJeefle efkeÀcegle mekeÀueYegJeveleueJeefvole®ejCeeveeceveJejleleHe: #eefHeleceueeveeb. It will be proper to mean it as of ‘V¤ra´am¦la’. N¢rakula keÀv³eevle: HegjyeeOevee³e ³eoOeerkeÀejeVe oes<ee ve=Heb Üew cev$eerÒeJej½e legu³eceieobkeÀej½e leeJet®eleg~ osJeekeÀCe&³e megÞeglesve ®ejkeÀm³eeskeÌles peevesçefKeueb m³eeom³ee veueob efJevee ve oueves leeHem³e keÀesçefHe #ece~~ (Nai¾adha. NALADA Chrysopogon zizanioides L. and to keep them free from diseases. Naladam. But Uº¤ira is different from ‘Nalada’. (Vetiveria zizaniodes (L. ..) Family: Poaceae N¢la. Kir¢ta referes: ceefn<e#eleeieg©leceeueveueomegjefYe: megoeieefle:~ J³emleMegkeÀefveceefMeueekegÀmegce: ÒeCegovJeJeew Jevemeoeb HeefjÞececed~~ (Sarga 12/50) The exertion of forest dwellers was removed by the wind. sarga 4-116) To protect the harem of maidens from perverse behavior.e-pdfconverter.(Para.) Nash) (Andropogon squarrosus L. The minister says that from a harem spy he knew that without a king named Nala nobody would be able to console Damayant¤. Its flowers are white like a tail of a camari cow. then what can be said of the penance of the great ascetic respected by all the world and having lotus like feet and who has emaciated his body with constant penance? Nala is Phrgmites karka. Even today it is known as ‘khasa’. Family: Poaceae N¢la. Its synonyms are Abhayam. Uº¤ram.. appears like a bamboo and whenever it grows it is in clusters and its 1 to 2 feet long panicle appears lovely. 39) The lustre of the ascetic with less penance and being nimble and ever intolerant also has fire that burns. veueob-veueb ievOeb ooeefle. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita refers as oMe JeerjCecetuem³e KeMe Fefle K³eelem³e. Khasa removes excessive heat.. ex Steud. Nagada is Chryopogon zizamiodes (A ndopogon squarrosus).) Trin. o³eles Jee~ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita). N¢rakula It is a beautiful grass of a type of Andropogon (¹ARA). Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. but Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita has explicitly explained it as Khasa and compared it with ‘Ja°¢m¢ns¤’. Which wind? The wind full of fragrance emitted out of the bruised barks of Agara and Tam¢la trees by elephants and Nagada (Khasa) crushed under their feet. The Vaidya on the basis of Caraka and Suºruta says that without ‘Nalada’ (Khasa grass) no medicine would lessen her heat.

2-49) considers ‘M¢lat¤’ as ‘Navam¢lat¤’ veJeceeefuekeÀekegÀmegceefve:mene HeefjefKeÐemes~ R¢jasekhara states ‘Navam¢lik¢’ or ‘Navam¢llik¢’ flowers in spring. “As this moonlight of the woods closes on with the appropriate plant she thinks deeply how to obtain a similar husband. . Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. but etymologically I am tempted to consider Saptal¢ as a synonym of Navam¢lik¢. Her friend Anas¦y¢ asks “Oh! Priyamvad¢! Do you know why ¹akuntal¢ gazes so much at Navam¢lik¢?” Anas¦y¢ replies.296 297 NAVAM¡LIK¡1 Jasminum sambac (L. Act-1. Sarga 9-42) Navam¢lik¢. 6-5. Fully bloomed flowers of Navam¢lik¢ add luster to the bluish hair of the enchanting women. §tu. because of its moon light colour of flowers. ¹akuntal¢ gazes at it with uninterrupted attention without moving from 1. emergence of flower clusters associated as with smiling and its own flower buds appearing as the lustre of lower lips was pleasing the minds of onlookers. Carmaka¾¢ and Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita distinguishes ‘Saptal¢’ as ‘S¤hu´²a Bheda’ a variety of Euphorbia. Navam¢lik¢. 2.e-pdfconverter. 6-5). ¹¢kunta. Mogaro. F³eb mJe³ecJejJeOet: menkeÀejm³e lJe³ee ke=ÀleveeceOes³ee Jevep³eeslmveself e veJeceeefuekeÀe~ veJekeÀgmegce³eewJevee Jevep³eeslmvee eqmveiOeHeuueJele³eesHeYeesie#ece: menkeÀej:~~ (¹¢kuntala Act-1) The poet here has stated Navam¢lik¢ as the “bride by choice” of the mango tree and ¹akuntal¢ has named it as ‘moonlight of the woods’. 9-42. the young lady with new flowers has twined round the tender leafed mango tree. Euphorbia or other similar emetic or V¢maka’ or purgative medicine. Batmogro her place. veJeceeefuekeÀekegÀmegceefve:mene HeefjefKeÐemes~ Bhavabh¦ti (M¢.com to remove this message. Tree loving and passion liking Navam¢lik¢ climber with its instinct of fragrance. the moonlight of the forest is a climber called ‘Ba°a mogar¢’.) Aiton Family: Oleaceae Navam¢lik¢. Which is this tree loving passionate Navam¢lik¢? Heg<Heb ®e HegÀuueb veJeceefuuekeÀe³ee: Òe³eeefle keÀeefvleb Òeceoepeveeveeced~~ (§tu. Raghu. meHle JeCee&evf e ceveesyeg×erevq ê³eeefCe Jee ueeefle Fefle meHleuee meHleuee meHleuee has explained its etymology. it is another form of ‘Kundam (Jasmin).” Deceo³evceOegievOemeveeLe³ee efkeÀmeue³eeOejmeblele³ee ceve:~ kegÀmegcemebYe=le³ee veJeceeefuekeÀe eqmcele©®ee le©®ee©efJeueeefmeefve~~ (Raghu. 5 Amara has given two names ‘Saptal¢ and Navam¢lik¢’. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita has explained Navam¢lik¢ as ‘M¢dhyam kundam’. To consider Navam¢lik¢ as ‘Saptal¢’ is to create doubt.M¢. Amarsinh identifies ‘Saptal¢’ as Bhurifen¢. But in native medicine saptala means not Navam¢lik¢ (Mogaro) but cik¢kh¢¤.

Ambuja J³eeOet³evles efve®eguele©efYe: ce¡ejer®eecejeefCe~ (Vikramo. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita mentions it as ‘Samudrafala’ ef v e®eg u ees efnppeueesçcyegpe: (Amarakoºa). Act. sambac) flowers in summer. The advantages of the fruit are given in Carakasamhit¢. N¡RA«G£FALA Citrus aurantium L. . efve®eesueefle~ ®egue meceg®í^e³es The tree grows very high. ‘In this variety. Barringtonia actuangula (L. but is not to remove this message. Mr.Decyegefve pee³eles Fefle also proves it. Nicula flowers in the early monsoon. usually growing in coastal region. Tilaka appellation interprets Niculaª as ‘vajjulaª’. (S¦tra 27). that flowers in Summer is ‘Grai¾m¤’ and that with small flowers is ‘Atimukt¢’.e-pdfconverter. describes summer in this ºloka.298 299 efJekeÀeMekeÀejer veJeceefuuekeÀeveeb oueeq®íjer<eÒemeJeeefYejece:~ Heg<HeÒeo: keÀeáevekesÀlekeÀerveeb ûeer<ceesç³eceguueeefmeleOeelekeÀerkeÀ:~~ (Act. jefJelegjbielevet©nlegu³eleeb oOeefle ³e$e efMejer<ejpees©®e:~ GHe³e³eew efJeoOeVeJeceefuuekeÀe: Mege®f ejmeew ef®ejmeewjYemebHeo:~~ (¹iºup¢lavadha) The poet M¢gha. That its flowers are in clusters is stated here. That summer in which ¹iri¾a (Albizzia) appears yellow similar to the fur of the sun horses and that summer which arrives with flowers of Navam¢lik¢ having the treasure of long lasting fragrance. Family: Lecythidaceae Samudralphala.Decyegvee Fefle efve®egue:~ ®egue meceg®íe³es~ The tree grows near water. Its another synonym Decyegpe . NICULA Barringtonia racemosa (L. Navam¢lik¢ with its long lasting fragrance is the beauty of summer. Hijagala. sepal reddish. one that flowers in spring it is ‘V¢r¾ik¤’. Meghd¦ta mLeeveeomceeled mejmeefve®egueeled The trees are big with clusters of flowers hanging.4) This is description of monsoon. J¢davj¤ Trikamj¤ ¡c¢rya writes in his book ‘Dravyagu´avi®j¢nam’ (Page 256). petals rose coloured. R¢jaºekhara remembers Nicula in the following: ouelkegÀìpekegÀ*dceue: mHegÀefìleveerHeHeg<HeeslkeÀjes OeJeÒemeJeyeevOeJe: Òeef®elece¡ejerkeÀepe&vg e:~ keÀocyekeÀueg<eecyej: keÀefuelekesÀlekeÀerkeÀejkeÀ: ®eueefVe®eguemeppe³ees njefle nvle Oecee&l³e³e:~~ (Adhy¢ya 18) veerjvO´eveerueefve®egueeefve JevemLeueeefve~~ (Uttarar¢macarita Act-2) Forest with bluish Nicula trees growing very densely. 18) Ba°amogaro (J.) Gaertn.) Spreng. ‘Hijjala’ is its another name. as vajjula means ‘Jalavetasa’ ( Salix Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. efve®eesu³eles . Family: Rutaceae N¢ra¬g¤ keÀke&ÀvOetveeb veeiej²erHeÀueeveeb HeekeÀesêks eÀ: KeeC[JeesH³eeefOejefmle~ R¢jaºekhar has referred N¢ra¬g¤ in the description of winter. The king says that Nicula tree’s clusters of flower buds like the tail of a Camari cow move in the air.

The Neem sprouts (vegetatively blossoms) in the spring and they are eaten in this season. during description of ‘Himag¨ha). There is only one reference in the R¢m¢ya´a (3/75-2). Bhavabh¦ti has mentioned in M¢lat¤m¢dhava(5/97) a place having a bad smell similar to that produced when garlic is fried in old Neem oil.300 301 tetraspesma ). Sanskrit names of Neem are : Ari¾°a. M¢laka. racemosa and B. The criticism by Ekan¢tha on the eleventh chapter of Bh¢gavata has mentioned in Marathi that one who takes neem everyday would not face any fatal affliction.. Picumarda. even though there are two different species. The beauty of red flowers of Nicula is worth seeing. Nimba (Amarakoºa). Family: Loganiaceae Chillam. K¢dambar¤ describes Nicula flowers: keÀef®eefVe®egueceppejerjef®ele jkeÌle®eecejeCeeb peueeê&efJeleevekeÀeveeb leues<eg. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita mentions efHeb®eg kegÀÿcesob ceo&³eefle Fefle efHe®egceo&:~ efHe®egcebo efvel³e mesefJeu³ee osKe~ l³eemeer yeeOeervee keÀesCeer efJeKe~ (Ekan¢tha) Picu means any one type of leucoderma. acutangula. I would also love my other co wives who are inferior to me. HegjeCeefvecyelewueekeÌleHeefjYe=p³eceeve jmeesveieefvOe~ NIRMAL£ Strychnos potatorum L. one who treats Picu is Picumarda or Picumanda. Juss.e-pdfconverter. The flower color for both the species is mentioned red or crimson by the author. Note: The author has given two scientific names for Nicula: A. You seem to have the same nobility as your mother has (spoken in satire).(Para to remove this message.. . Deece´b efílJee kegÀþejsCe efvecyeb Heefj®ejsleg keÀ:~ ³e½ewveb He³emee efmeáeVewJeem³e ceOegjes YeJesled~~ DeeefYepeel³eb efn les cevos ³eLee ceelegmleLewJe les~ ve efn efvecyeelm$eJesl#eewêb ueeskesÀ efveieefoleb Je®e:~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 5/22-55. Sarvatobhdra. Taking neem saves one from all fear. Cleaning nuts Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Neem is medicinally very useful. Hi¬guniry¢sa. 2/35-17) Who will water a neem tree to grow it after cutting a mango tree? If you irrigate a Neem tree with milk it would not be never experiences any inauspicious (Ari¾°a). Nai¾adha refers as follows ceg¡eevem³e veJeb efvecyes HeefjJeseJf e<eleer ceOeew~ meHelveer<JeefHe ces jeieb mebYeeJ³e mJe©He: mcejs:~~ (20/90) Today I remember you serving me frequently neem in anger thinking that as in spring people eat neem leaving sweets. Nri¾°am . NIMBA Azadirachta indica A. Lim²o Sumantra rebukes Kaikey¤ and Neem is mentioned as a simile.. Family: Meliaceae Neem.

S¢ku. Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) True indigo. the best disciple of an ancient sage about the Niv¢ra crop.14-28. N£V¡RA1 Oryza nivara Sharma & Shastry Family: Poaceae veerJeeje: MegkeÀieYe&keÀesìjcegKeYe´äemleªCeeceOe:~ (¹¢kuntala. Ga²¤ Jeveeefve veerueeroueces®ekeÀeefve OeejecyegOeewlee efiej³e: mHegÀjefvle~ HetiecYemee efYeVeleìemleefìv³e: meevê&ieesHeeefve ®e MeeÜueeefve~~ (K¢vyam¤m¢¼s¢ Adhy¢ya18) This describes the monsoon.15.302 303 The following ºloka spoken by Ga´ad¢sa in M¢lavik¢gnimitra (Act 2. Raghu. ¹r¤fal¤. critic of Suºruta describes its seeds as globular faeces of a rabbit: MeMekeÀHegjer<eÒeefleceHeÀueb DecyegÒemeeoveced~~. Amara has named it as ‘Rajjan¤. ¬eÀerlekebÀ ¬eÀ³eesçml³emLee:~ ¬eÀerlekeÀb efJeefvece³e:~ These words hide the history of its colour. hence forests are described bluish black. The leaves of indigo are dark green . This plant is famous for its natural dye. cevoesçH³ecevoleecesefle mebmeiexCe efJeHeef½ele:~ He¹eq®ío: HeÀuem³esJe efvekeÀ<esCeeefJeueb He³e:~~ When a stupid person of any kind comes in contact with a learned man .com to remove this message. 14) This grass grain is associated with the hermitage forest: Hermitages and sages have close relationship with this grain. In the same way the turbid water becomes pure when treated with the fruit powder of Nirmal¤. This forest grain which was an instrument of keeping the body balanced was stored as a part of oncoming guests. The clown : veerJeej<eÿYeeiecemceekebÀ leeHemee GHenjefve®eefle – Residents of the forest grove should give them sixth portion of ‘N¤v¢ra’ was suggestion of the clown is pointed on the following ºloka of Manu: Oeev³eeveeceäcees Yeeie: <eÿes ÜeoMe SJe Jee~ DeeooerleeLe <eìdYeeieb êgceebmeceOegmeefHe&<eeced~~ Raghu asks Kautsta. . veerJeejHeekeÀeefo keÀ[²jer³ewjece=M³eles peeveHeowve& keÀeq®®eled~ keÀeueesHeHeVeeefleefLekeÀuH³eYeeieb Jev³eb MejerjefmLeeflemeeOeveb Je:~~ (Raghu. 7. 5-9. The word ‘Pa¬kcchidaª fala’ used for Nirmal¤ fruit is appropriate. The tree in Sanskrit is called ‘Kataka’.Act-1 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Kl¤takik¢. King Du¾yanta enters into hermitage and sees grains of N¤v¢ra rice. 5-9) Raghu asks Kautsa whether this grain is not eaten away by cattle living above. Grains of N¤v¢ra had fallen from the hollow on the ground. Nirmal¤ trees are taller than of (Nux vomica) Kimp¢ka.e-pdfconverter. N£L£ Indigofera tinctoria L. ±alha´a. The tree trunks were hollow and parrots sat in them. ºloka 7) is good for the Nirmal¤ fruit. It is used for treatment of diarrhoea. 1. N¤l¤ is ‘Ga²¤’. he becomes clever/intelligent. Act 1.

These forest groves where N¤v¢ra plants as oblations were eaten by beasts of prey and S¤t¢ had companionship with girls of Vaikh¢nasa (specific girls observing penance) N¤v¢ra is a type of grass grain. 5/14-3. 4-50-26. It is considered as one of the most beautiful flowering trees. 4/1) The deer of the forest grove drinks hot.e-pdfconverter. translator’s remark) Raghuvaïºa (Sarga14-77) mentions about N¤v¢ra as yeerpeb ®e yeeues³eceke=Àäjesefn. It is appropriate that it is considered as one of the arrows of Kamadeva (Cupid). The R¢m¢ya´a 3/11-74. R¢m¢ya´a 3/73-4. Family: Calophyllaceae N¢gakesara. had drunk it. Kadamba trees grow well near banks . 4/1-78-83. N¢gacampo N¢gav¨k¾a is N¢gakesara tree or N¢gacampo. . a wild progenitor of the cultivated rice oryza. 6/ 39-3. veerJeejewoveceC[ceg<CeceOegjb meÐe:ÒemetleeefÒe³eeHeerleeoY³eefOekebÀ leHeesJevece=ie: He³ee&Hlecee®eeceefle~~ (Uttara. N¢gapu¾pa. Then the poet again remembers: Mejerjcee$esCe vejsvê efleÿVeeYeeefme leerLe&ÒeefleHeeefoleef×:~ DeejC³ekeÀesHeeleHeÀueÒemetefle: mlecyesve veerJeej FJeeJeefMeä:~~ (Raghu. N¤v¢rah as synonym of Kadamba is absent. obtained from fields without cultivation. 3/15-16 at both the places N¤v¢ra is mentioned in the list of trees.304 305 Raghu has given away all his property to Viºvajit sacrifice (ya®ja) and Kautsa knows that he has nothing with him. thick and sweet soup of N¤v¢ra rice after his wife who had recently delivered. it is called as ‘Nam¢ra rice’. veerJeejcegefäHe®evee ie=efnCees ie=neefCe~ (Uttarar¢macarita 1/25) The forest groves for penance of Vaikh¢nasas are described here. There is no word of this name in Amarakoºa. sarga 5 ºloka -15) O Sovereign! You have offered all your property to a holy place . 7/42-4 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on to remove this message. Bengali critics identify it as ‘U²iy¢dh¢nyam’. It grows wild in moist soil.a true person and you have kept your body yourself. proper for oblations for worship. In Til¢ appellation ‘N¤v¢raª jalakadambaª’ is interpretated. It is stated that for those ascetics who were observing vows and restring senses had N¤v¢ra rice as their main food item. In Gujarat. mee oäveerJeejyeueerevf e efnm$ew: mebye×JewKeevemekeÀv³ekeÀeefve~ F&³es<e Yet³e: kegÀMeJeefvle ievlegb YeeieerjLeerleerjleHeesJeveeefve~~ (Raghu. (scientifically it is considered oryza niv¢ra. 1. We should mean here as ‘Jalakadamba’. sarga14 ºloka 28) S¤t¢dev¤ expressed a desire to go again to the forest grove covered with Kuºa on the bank of the Ganges. N¡GAV§K½A1 Mesua ferrea L. You look attractive like a N¤v¢ra plant whose fruit production has been taken away by the foresters and who now remains only a residual stem. 6/4-79-43.

7/26-6).com to remove this message. Following from Nai¾adha reflects on N¢gakesara. therefore Portuguese named the tree coco. N¡LIKERA Cocos nucifera L. Its names ‘¹r¤fala’. The coconut fruit resembles the monkey’s head in shape. N¢gakesara. creating a drinking place were taking coconut wine in a vessel made from leaves of T¢mbula (Betelnut). it so appeared that the arrows of cupid wounded it and had the black cover had dried blood. Amarsinh has given its four synonyms. in a basket made of coconut leaves. Poet M¢gha also mentions soldiers of K¨¾´a drinking wine made from T¢la (Borassus) and coconut. When ¹akuntal¢ was going to her father-in-law’s residence. ieuelHejeieb Ye´ecf eYeef²efYe: HelelÒemekeÌleYe=²eJeefue veeiekesÀmejced~ me ceejveeje®eefveIe<e&CemKeueppJeuelkeÀCeb MeeCeefceJe J³eueeskeÀ³eled~~ (1/92) Nala saw N¢gakesara tree as if a touch stone of Madana. This was the poet’s imagination. Kesara. Only two references of coconut are observed in K¢lid¢sa works. flowers like white roses with golden stamens. The following ºloka is from poem Saundar¢nanda of Aºvagho¾a: Heg<HeeskeÀjeuee DeefHe veeceJe=#ee oevlew: mecegêwefjJe nsce&&ieYez:~ keÀevleejJe=#ee FJe og:efKelem³e ve ®e#egjeef®eef#eHegjmJe le$e~~ (Sarga7 ºloka 9) N¢gakesara with mid golden flowers and yellowish stamens were before Nanda but he did not look at them. From the trunk. It grows to 50 to 60 ft height. nueifera-to bear fruit. 6-22/55. It is also called golden campaka or N¢gakesara. How was the tree? Wasps while roaming about here and there were falling on the tree and as that black wasps’ covering remained attached to it.a monkey. a fruit usually used in all auspicious occasions is appropriate.e-pdfconverter. residing in the hermitage were eating coconut kernel after breaking the fruit.306 307 It is wanted in every Buddha temple in Ceylon. K¢dambar¤ reports in the description of Brahma heritage GHeueYeÒeveeefuekesÀjjeqmveiOeefMeueeleueced that young boys. Act 4) The second reference: When soldiers of Raghu. . Family : Arecaceae coconut The R¢m¢ya´a (5/1-200. I like to look at the rows and rows of coconut trees. sparks of fire in the form of pollen grains were coming out. her dear friend Anas¦y¢ had kept a garland of Bolasar¤ (Minusop) flowers whose fragrance lasts for a long time. Ka®can¢hvaya. C¢mpeya. DeeflejkeÌleHeÀueefvekeÀjeJeveleveeefuekesÀjJevew: (Para 131) questions how many fruits closely packed would be there on a tree? Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. tied on a branch of a mango tree. In Sanskrit Kesara means mostly Bakula-Bolasar¤. ®etleMeeKeeJeueeqcyeles veeefuekesÀjmecegêkeÀs SleefVeefceÊecesJe keÀeueevlej#ecee efveef#eHlee ce³ee kesÀmejceeefuekeÀe~ (¹¢kuntala. Many poets have praised this benevolent tree which sucks salty water and transforms it into sweet water in its fruit.

e-pdfconverter. Banyan at the Ganges might be big (6/28-2). S¤t¢j¤ seeing a banyan tree at Allahabad (¹y¢m¢va°a) bows down v³eûeesOeb mecegHeeiec³e Jewosner ®eeY³eJevole~ vecemlesçmleg ceneJe=#e Heeue³esvces HeefleJe´leced~~ ( R¢m¢ya´a 2/5524) and S¤t¢ elsewhere gives oblations and prays the tree seekting blessings to come again safely (2/55-6). This tree with its branches carries its own weight with its red bluish splendor ripe fruits and bluish leaves resembling the similar splendor of an umbrella spread over the island. Viº¢khik¢ means sole made of iron. The poet Har¾a has used it beautifully: v³eûeesOeveeefoJe efoJe:HeleoeleHeeosv³e&ûeesOeceelceYejOeejefYeJeeJejesn:w ~ les lem³e HeeefkeÀHeÀueveerueoue ÐegefleY³eeb ÜerHel³e HeM³e efMeefKeHe$epeceeleHe$eced~~ (Nai¾adha-11/30) Oh! Bhaim¤ (Damayant¤).com to remove this message. v³eûeesOe . osJe: mJe³eb Jemeefle le$e efkebÀue mJe³ecYet: v³eûeesOeceC[ueleues efnceMeerleues ³e:~~ (sarga 11/29) The God Brahm¢ himself resides under the Va°a tree. The true meaning of ‘Va°a’ is ‘Ni¾praroho va°aª’: the one that has not many branches and ‘Nyagrodhastu prarohav¢n’ (Caraka critic Cakrap¢´idattastha. The poet of Ve´¤saïh¢ra also remembers Va°a.308 309 Following reference in K¢dambar¤ shows that the external husk of the fruit was used in making slippers efJeMeeefKekeÀeefMeKejefveye×veeefuekesÀjerHeÀueJeukeÀuece³eOeewleesHeeveÐegieesHesleeced~ (Para 135). Ny¢grodha (6/4-73) and Va°a (3/75-23) are two words to name the tree. On the top of which freshly washed and whiten husk fibers of coconut fruit were fitted to prepare the shoes. Family: Moraceae Indian Banyan.v³ekedÀ ©Ceef× Fefle v³eûeesOe: is its etymology. K¢lidasa has described the beauty of Banyan tree in the following ºloka in Raghuvaïºa. It appears as if red diamonds (fruits) are studded among the green diamonds (leaves)! This is a nice description of a banyan with red fruits among dense green leaves! The poet of Nai¾adha has also mentioned the tree. 13-53) Oh S¤t¢! This is the same Banyan tree from whom you requested help. prevents the heat and rain coming from the sky or see this Banyan having very cool shade. Va²a. lJe³ee Hegjmleeled GHe³eeef®elees ³e: meesç³eb Jeì: M³eece Fefle Òeleerle:~ jeefMece&CeerveeefceJe iee©[eveeb meHe¨ejeie HeÀefuelees efJeYeeefle~~ (Raghu. Act. De³es keÀLecemeew mejmeermejespeef®eueesuevemegjefYeMeerleuecee©lemebJeeefolemeevêefkeÀmeue³e v³eûeesOeHeeoHe~~ The wind blowing across the nearby growing lotuses in the pond pervades its fragrance and cool through the abundant leaves of the banyan. 3. . criticism on ºloka 258) the Ny¢grodha with many branches. you see this umbrella like Banyan on this island. Va°a Banyan tree (Va²a) is a holy tree. NYAGRODHA Ficus benghalensis L. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The word ‘Va°a Ve¾°ane’ carries a meaning of its Va¾°a shade. Another synonym is ‘Bahup¢da’ indicating its propagating branches.

Whose heart is not full of jubilations for you? R¢jaºekhara has mentioned its flowering in spring: Kepetj& pecyetHevemeece´cees®eefÒe³eeueHetieerHeÀueveeefuekesÀjw:~ ÂvÂeefve Kesoeuemeleeceg (ce)Heem³e jleevegmevOeeveefceneefê³evles~~ (Adhy¢ya18) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ‘Panyate st¨yate’ (K¾irasv¢m¤) is ‘Panasaª’. Its spiny rough outer coat is for benefit of others. Its largeness is unique. a fruit pointed at two sides belongs to T. Fa´asa There are many references in R¢m¢ya´a1.310 311 PA¯OLA Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) Family: Cucurbitaceae Pointed gourd. included the wood of Padmaka along with the fragrant wood of Candana and Agara.e-pdfconverter. . Pointed gourd and its bitter variety are medically useful. known commonly by Ayurvedic practitioner. known as Cicindo. funeral pyre of Daºaratha. You have been jubilant because of these qualities and your romance is expressed by your spines. called Pa° to remove this message.) Family: Moraceae Jack fruit. efHeÊeb ³eefo Meke&Àj³ee Meec³eefle keÀesçLe&: Heìesuesve~ (Pa®catantram) If acidity (pitta) can be cured by taking sugar then what is the need of bitter Pa°ola? Pa°ola is Padwar. and it is T. Its beautiful flowers are dark red. (Atrocarpus integrifolia L. There is a bitter variety of this. Parval The author considered Padwar. T. Padwar. The 1. Its synonyms are Ka´°ak¤falaª. PADMAKA 1 Prunus cerasoides D. a common vegetable of the family cucurbitaceae. Sugar and grapes are not its worth.Don (Prunus puddum Roxb. The plant is praised for its sweet large fruits weighing sometimes 60 pounds.cucumerina is snake gourd. Before winter sets in. Skandhafalaª. Padwala. Padwal. Really they are signs of its identifications. Padmaka is mentioned at many places in the R¢m¢ya´a 4/1-79.cucumerina var. 4/27-17. A wise man has rightly praised it as below: iejer³e: meewjY³eb jmeHeefj®e³es veen&elf e megOee efmelee ce=ÜerkeÀeefHe ÒeefLeceefve efveceive: HeÀueYej:~ HejeLex keÀesMeÞeerejf efle HegueefkeÀleb keÀCìkeÀefce<eeones les ®eeefj$eb Heveme ceveme keÀm³e ve cegos~~ The fragrant is best in taste even the nectar cannot compare. 2-76-16. cucumerina but actually it belongs to T. Cicinda. PANASA Artocarpus hetrophyllus Lam. ex Wall) Family: Rosaceae Himalayan Cherry Its paper like bark gets separated and the inner wood appears reddish-yellow. ‘Pan¢thyate st¨yate’ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita).dioica. 6/4-81. it flowers twice in spring. 6/111-113. (Trichosanthes cucumerina L. anguina. Pa°ola is commonly found in monsoon growing on the vine on hedges.

In Gujarati it is P¢²ala. 7/266. 3/60-21. yengkegÀmegceefJeef®eef$elee ®e Yetecf e: kegÀmegceYejsCe efJeveeefcelee½e Je=#ee:~ êgceefMeKejueleeJeuecyeceevee: HevemeHeÀueeveerJe Jeeveje: ueueefvle~~ (M¨cchaka°ika Act-8) This is a description of a garden. means flowering in spring and T¢mrapu¾p¤’ means one with dark red flowers. Act-1. 19-46 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. This fact is supported by the summer description of §tusaïh¢ra. The trees have bent down with the weight of flowers and the monkeys are jumping hanging on the climber on the top of the tree. (Bignonia chelonoides L. Its Sanskrit names ‘Vasantad¦t¤’. fragrant with the flowers of P¢°al¢. ºloka 52).) Family: Bignoniaceae Papdri. . f. 3/15-16-18. ¹¢kunta. The time looks very pleasant during resting for the to remove this message. pleasant fragrance of P¢°al¢ flowers. It is a big tree. cevees%eievOeb menkeÀejYe²b HegjeCeMeerOegb veJeHeeìueb ®e~ mebJeIvelee keÀeefcepeves<eg oes<ee: meJex efveoeOeeJeefOevee Òece=äe:~~ Pleasant fragrant clusters of flower buds of mango. that summer time for getting pleasure of water bath and enjoying the moon rays and flower garlands. It grows wild as well cultivated in the gardens. This is a nice introduction of the tree. It gives peace when contact with the wind.) (Stereospermum suaveolens DC. Under its shade one has nice sleep. f. P¡¯AL¡1 Stereospermum chelonoides (L. 2/94-8.1-28) The lake water covered with lotuses. 3-11-74. §tu. P¢dal In the beginning of S¢kuntala the anchor sings addressed to summer time. 3/73-3.) DC. Raghuvaïºa (sarga 19-46) mentions ‘Raktap¢°alam’ ³elme YeivemenkeÀejceemeJeb jkeÌleHeeìuemeceeieceb HeHeew~ 1. The poet remembers the tree in the summer description in Raghuvaïºa (sarga 16. 1-28. 7/42-3 1.312 313 It is a tree of a family of Ficus. This proves that the tree flowers during spring and flowers are fragrant. megYeiemeefueueeJeieene: Heeìuemebmeefie&megjefYeJeveJeelee:~ Òe®íe³emegueYeefveêe efoJemee: HeefjCeecejceCeer³ee:~~ (¹¢kuntala Act-1 ºloka3) These are very nice days for water bath.e-pdfconverter. Ragh. Padeli. These monkeys supported with the climber appear attractive as if embracing the Panasa trunk. fascinating old wine of sugarcane juice and attractive perfumed flowers of P¢°al¢ – all these three have wiped out the faults of passionate people for the summer. 6/39-3. keÀceueJeveef®eleecyeg: Heeìueeceesojc³e megKemeefueueefve<eskeÀ: mesJ³e®evêebMegnej:~~ (§tu.

. 84) The mountain wind carrying the perfume of freshly opened P¢°al¢ flowers is blowing in the spring. ³egJeܳeere®f eÊeefveceppeveese®f eleÒeHetveMetv³eslejieYe&ie»jced~ mcejs<egOeerke=Àl³e efOe³ee Ye³eevOe³ee me Heeìuee³ee: mleyekebÀ ÒekeÀefcHele:~~ (Nai¾adha1/95) With the mind deluded with fear and worthy to go deep down ino the minds of men and women.. Deu³eemles veJeHeeìueeHeefjceueÒeeiYeejHeeì®®eje Jeeefvle keÌueeefvleefJeleeveleeveJeke=Àle: ÞeerKeC[Mewueeefveuee:~~ (Bhart¨hari ¹¨¬g¢ra. hence the name ‘K¢lav¨ntik¢’.314 315 lesve lem³e ceOegefveie&ceelke=ÀMe: ef®eÊe³eesefvejYeJeled Hegveve&Je:~~ That Agnivara´a king drank a soup made of tender leaves of mango and with fragrance of flower of P¢°al¢. oefuelekeÀesceueHeeìuekegÀ*dceues efvepeJeOetéeefmeleevegeJf eOeeef³eefve~ The gist of this ºloka is that the beauty of wives of Hari (God) was like that of beautiful fragrant flower of P¢°al¢.. This confirms that P¢°al¢ flowers are dark red and fragrant. He did not believe that its flowers could be to remove this message. M¢lat¤m¢dhava (3/76) HeefjceefueleHeeìueeyekegÀueefvece&LeveyenueHeefjceue. The clusters of P¢°al¢ flowers appear to take blackish hue. The place where wasps have gathered is multitude of P¢°al¢ flowers representing as if in front of is K¢madeva quiver showing dalliance. R¢jasekhara describes its flowers. ce©yekeÀHeefjJeejb Heeìueeoece keÀCþs (R¢jasekhar) ±amaro (Ocimum) was also with P¢°al¢ flowers in the garland which were worn around the neck. kesÀmejHeeìueeÒee³ele©ienvee:.. . once again the passion became activated. efceefueleefMeueercegKeHeeìueHeìueke=ÀlemcejletCeefJeueemes~ (G¤tagovinda 1/5) ¹il¤mukha’ means wasps and arrows. That is why he trembled believing them to be the quiver of K¢madeva arrows. ceeef ¡ eÿw c e& g k eÀg u ew ½ e Heeìuelejesjv³ewJe keÀeef®eefuueefHe: as dark as maj¤°ha (Rubia). the king Nala trembled to see the complete inner womb like hole of P¢°al¢ flowers in clusters resembling the quiver of arrows of K¢madeva. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.. and if they are put in water their perfume emits.~ mentions : The forest was fragrant with flowers of P¢°al¢ and Bakula. hence the name ‘Ambuv¢sin¤’. P¢°al¢ flower is trumpet shaped with a hole... Kir¢ta also mentions that P¢°al¢ flower is an arrow of cupid P¢°al¢ is called ‘Vasantad¦t¤’ indicating its flowering in spring.~ 177 P¢°al¢ is one of the beautiful trees of the R¢m¢ya´a. But with this wine (soup). The spring ended and the passion was reduced. King Nala believed that it can engross the minds of men and women.e-pdfconverter.. The poet mentions here the perfume of its flowers.

P¢rij¢ta is called ‘night blowing jasmine’. Nala (king) felt that she would surely put it around the neck of Indra. P¡RIJ¡TA yeengeYf e: efJeìHeekeÀejw: efoJ³eecejCeYete<f elew:~ DeeefJeYe&tleceHeeb ceO³es HeeefjpeeleefceJeeHejced~~ (Raghu. Therefore to indicate rose colour. There is reference in R¢m¢ya´a (7/42-3): Heáeles osJelejJe: cevoej: HeeefjpeelekeÀ: mevleeve: keÀuHeêgce½e ~ Among the five trees of deity (Deva). 10-11) It appeared that he like other P¢rij¢taka developed from water by divine ornamentally decorated hands resembling the branches. Is it the same P¢rij¢ta of today? Amarakoºa has its synonyms: HeeefjYeês efvecyele©: cevoej: HeeefjpeelekeÀ:~ Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita ®elJeeefj efvecyelejes: JekeÀeef³eveer Fefle K³eelem³e. m$ekeÌHeeefjpeelem³e $eÝles veueeMeeb JeemewjMes<eeceHegHetjoeMeeced~~ (sarga 6/86) Yeecee²CeÒeeOegefCekeÀs ®elegefYe&: osJeêgcewÐeezefjJe Heeefjpeeles~~ (10/24) Nai¾adha mentions the fact that in the courtyard of Satyabh¢m¢. P¢rij¢ta is one of them. Bak¢nanimba. the adjective ‘P¢°al¢’ has been used as HeefjHeeìueeypeoue®ee©Cee (¹isup¢lavadha) the flowers of P¢°al¢ and Lotus are compared.3/15-80. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita is not well acquainted with trees and hence is confused. P¢rij¢tka is Nyctanthus arbortristis.e. . the female messenger of Indra offers a garland of P¢rij¢taka to Damayant¤ and she gracefully accepts it as the Indra’s gift. but did not offer any satisfaction to Nala’s desire. The poet mentions that the P¢rij¢t garland satisfied all directions (wishes) by its fragrance.e-pdfconverter. he considers Bak¢na nimb (Melia species) as P¢rij¢ta.316 317 References in the R¢m¢ya´a : 1/24-15. 17-7) Out of the two one obtained half of the Indra’s seat and the second (lotus plants) snatched getting a share of P¢rij¢ta. i. ‘P¢dapa¬kaja’ also indicate the same. 6-6) Raghu’s son was looking attractive in his own brightness as P¢rij¢ta tree shines among the ‘Kalpa’ tree (imaginary tree fulfilling all desires). the colour of P¢°al¢ flower which is close to rose. ‘Mand¢ra’ is also its to remove this message. P¢°al¢ flower is one of them. jjepe Oeecvee jIegmetvegjsJe keÀuHeêgceeCeeefceJe Heeefjpeele:~~ (Raghu. the friend of ¹am¤ (Prosopis). The flower of Rose came to India during the Muslim reign there is no reference of rose in Sanskrit. Among the five arrows of K¢madeva (cupid). Words ‘P¢d¢ravinda’. le³ees: efoJemHeles: DeemeeroskeÀ: efmebnemeveeOe&êYeekedÀ~ efÜleer³eeefHe meKeer Me®³ee: HeeefjpeeleebMeYeeefieveer~~ (Raghu. In Nai¾adha. Mand¢ra. 6/39-4. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.6/480. Amara and his critics have also been confused. Its white flowers with orange stalks are beautiful. P¢rij¢t¢ka is seen. Sant¢naka. and tender. either rose or red colour can be understood. P¢rij¢taka and Mand¢ra are all different trees. 7/26-5.

¹ailya. The author refers here to Lichens and ‘‘clusters of blossom’’ (Ma®jar¤) referred in the ºloka is probably their fruiting bodies. mLeueerÒee³eJeveesÎMs es efHeHHeueerJeveMeeseYf eles~ yengHeg<HeHeÀues jc³es veeveeefJenieveeefoles~ (11-38) V¢lm¤ki mentions that the wind carried its pungency. Pipar¤. P¢rij¢ka tree was a guest in Satyabh¢m¢’s courtyard and hence it is absent in heaven! Aºvagho¾a (Saundar¢nda poem) has referred P¢rij¢ta with its great qualities superior to those of Mand¢ra trees and lotuses and other trees. It flowers in September-October and its fruits are ready in December-January. It is stated elsewhere that Lichens have been referred in Suºruta Sa¼hit¢. As they generally grow on stones their Sanskrit name. the meeting did not show up without real Nala (king). It also grows in forests. Its reference is only found in K¢dambar¤.com to remove this message. ¹il¢pu¾pa is sold in the market as ‘Daga²af¦la’. R¢janigha´°u has distinguished their four types: P¢¾¢´abheda. It appeared as if they are the stone carvings. PIPPAL£ Piper longum L. Family : Piperaceae Long peppera. even though these trees of deities were present. Other Sanskrit names are ¹ailaj¢. . Pipal¤ It is cultivated in Surat District (Gujarat) as a climber in mango orchards. P¤pera is a climber.318 319 Kalpav¨k¾a and Haricandana are four deity’s trees. in spite of them as the heaven does not show up without P¢rij¢ta.e-pdfconverter. ¹vet¢ ¹il¢valk¢ and Catu¾patr¤. so even with the presence of the Indra pretending as Nala and other deities. P¢¾¢´abheda is one type of plant. cevoejJe=#eeb½e kegÀMesMe³eeb½e Heg<Heeveleeved keÀeskeÀveoeb½e Je=#eeved~ Dee¬eÀc³e ceenelc³eiegCeweJf e&jepeved jepee³eles ³e$e me Heefjpeele:~~ (Sarga 10. Va°apatr¤. Here the reference is of ¹vet¢ ¹il¢valk¢. Most of the Sanskrit names of Lichens refer to genus Pamelia. Its Sanskrit names Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. efHeHHeueerveeb ®e HekeÌJeeveeb JeveeomceeogHeeiele:~ ievOeesç³eb HeJeveesefl#eHle: menmee keÀìgkeÀeso³e:~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 3/11-49) P¤pera that was growing in that forest came across the road leading to Agastya sage’s hermitage. ºloka 26) M¢lat¤m¢dhava (2/60) refers: kegÀlees Jee cenesoefOeb Jepe&e³f elJee Heeefjpeelem³e GÃce:~ That’s how can P¢rij¢taka grow without sea? meeiejcegeqpPelJee kegÀ$e Jee ceneveoer DeJelejefle? Where will Mah¢ River go leaving the sea? P¡½¡³ABHEDAKA Lichens DeeYeef²veerefYe©keÀerCee&efYeefjJe HeáeYe²kegÀefìueeefYe: Hee<eeCeYesokeÀce¡ejerefYe: peefìueerke=ÀleefMeueeleueevlejeuesve (K¢dambar¤ Para 127) The interspaces between two stones were covered by ‘P¢¾¢´abheda’ (Lichens) clusters of blossoms. Li´²¤ pipara. It is of many types.

elongated. 18) ¹r¤ Jadavaj¤ Trikamaj¤ (Vidyav¢caspati) mentions Sanskrit names ‘Surapunn¢ga’. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita explains Heáe HegVeeiem³e iegpe&josMes mebosmeje Fefle K³eelem³e What is said in Gujarat as Sandesaro is Punn¢ga which is Delonix elata (Poincinia elata). PUNN¡GA Sandesro Nagacamp¢.e-pdfconverter.) Gamble (Poincinia elata L. It is a fine tree. ce©JekeÀocevekeÀHegVeeieHeg<Heefue²evegJe=eÊf eefYe: megjefYe:~ HegVeeiejesOe´ÒemeJeeJelebmee JeeceYe´Jg e: keÀáegkeÀkegÀefáelee*dOe´:~~ (Act. leaves small like Acacia nilotica. ‘Nameru’. megievOeefHeg<He³egkeÌlee oef#eCeeHeLes megjHeefle veecvee Òeleerlee~ Kepetj& ermkeÀvOeve×eveeb ceoesÃejmegieefvOe<eg~ keÀìs<eg keÀefjCeeb Hesleg: HegVeeiesY³e: efMeueercegKee:~~ (Raghu. Sanskrit poets have mentioned it but not appreciated its beauty in words.) Bhandari (commiphora mukul ) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. because it is abundantly grown in Bihar (Magadha). ¹au´²¤. Kol¢ (Amarakoºa). flower with pleasant fragrance. big egg shaped and dark green. 7/42-2 sweet smelling from spring to monsoon. Devavallabhaª. flowers white. The trees are 15 to 25 ft in height. Callophyllum inophyllum. The critic of Suºruta. leaves thick like to remove this message. Family : Calophyllaceae Many references of Pann¢ga are noted in the R¢m¢ya´a1: Punn¢ga. 1. it helps in digestion and common illness. 5/15-9. K¨¾´¢. ¹au´²¤. ‘Surpar´ik¢’ for ‘Sura¬g¤’ (Ochrocarpus longifolius) and for ‘Punn¢ga’ or ‘¥´²¤n’ as Callophyllum inophyllum. 2/94-24. R¢jaºekhara has mentioned its flowering in winter. PURA Gugala Commiphora wightii (Arn. 3/60-22. It is black in colour and therefore is named as K¨¾´¢. becoming yellow after fully blossomed. . 7/ 26-5. 4/50-25. It is also called M¢gadh¤. Vaideh¤. ±alha´a has introduced ‘Punnag¢’ as: HegVeeie: megjHeefCe&keÀe. Ka´¢. U¾a´¢.320 321 are: M¢gadh¤. Kesara are four synonyms in Amarakoºa. because it might be planted near wine shop or given with drinking! It is a home medicine. Sultan campa Delonix elata (L. 23. Upkuly¢. I agree with his opinion. very common in Ghats and Konkan. Capal¢.) Family : Caesalpiniaceae OR Calophyllum inophyllum L. 3/75-16. Was this tree called Punn¢ga during the times of Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita is uncertain? I believe that what is called in Maharashtra as ¥´²¤n is Punn¢ga. 4/57) Wasps from Punn¢ga trees fell upon the cheeks perfumed from the liquid oozed from the rutted elephants tied with the date palm trees. 3/15-16. Tu¬ga.

Sindh (now in Pakistan) and other arid regions. Udvega. Khapura are synonyms of betel nut. believing this Nala made incense of Gugala in a ¹iva temple. It is an important medic for Vaid¢s. Guv¢ka. Udvega is Sop¢r¤ (Betel nut). ‘Gokºur¢di’. The front four teeth are known as king teeth. Sop¢r¤. ‘Simhan¢da gugala’. the enemy of both. It is an important part of Ayurvedic medicine like ‘Mah¢yogar¢ja gugala’. The following ºloka is from Nai¾adha: Òeerelf eces<³eefle ke=Àlesve ceces¢keÌkeÀce&Cee HegjefjHegce&oveeefj:~ lelHegj: Hegjcelees³eceOee#eer×tHeªHeceLe keÀeceMejb ®e~~ (21/37) Pur¢ripuª is ¹iva. le$e ceO³es ÜeJeg Ê ejew jepeovlemeb % eew YeJele:~ (K¢ºyapasaïhit¢. an enemy of Cupid. Gugulu. Among all the teeth. Pug¤fala. ‘Trifal¢g¦gala’. ‘Ka®can¢ra gugala’. it is also used as incense. Betel Palm Areca catechu L. The resin from this plant is Gugala. Devesve Jee Fefle cegkegÀì:~ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita’s criticism). The poet recalls here that tooth powder made of burnt betel nut mixed with camphor etc. . Burn pura (Gugala) to please ¹iva. The men sleeping with sopari wrapped in betel leaf in the mouth after sexual union are lucky. Gugala grows in Saurastra. makes the teeth shine among the brahamins. Kauºika. an enemy of devils. Family : Arecaceae jepeew efÜpeeveeefcen jepeovlee: mebeyf eYe´elf e Þeese$f e³eefJeYe´ceb ³eled~ GÜsiejeieeefoce=peeJeoelee½elJeej Sles leoJewefce cegkeÌlee:~~ (Nai¾dha 7/46) Kramuka. Dantajanmik¢dhy¢ya). Guvaka. The one that purifies or cleans the mouth is P¦ga. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. P¥GA Sup¢r¤. learned ones are considered the to remove this message. Guv¢. The redness due to Sop¢r¤ and cleansing by Khadir¢di (Ayurvedic medicine). efHeve×HeÀefueveJ³eevece´Hetieêgcee:~ (M¢lt¤m¢dhava 6/19) The word ‘Pinaddhda’ indicates as if hundreds of Betel nuts trees are growing closely. iegpees J³eeOes: (Guda and rak¾´e): “that one which protects us from disease is Gugulu.322 323 Family : Burseraceae Pura is Gugala..Gujarati name is Gugala. Betel nut is worshipped in sacrificial and auspicious ceremonies and considered sacred. It means by offering Gugala incense he worshipped ¹iva. P¦ga. or Hetp³eles ceev³eles mes®eveeefovee HeÀueÜejsCe. The betel-nut trees are bent with the weight of their fruits. etc. their lustrous quality is unique. Gugala gives surprising results in curing prolonged diseases. the four royal teeth of teeth series free learned Brahamins from illusion of sensual enjoyment.e-pdfconverter. the four royal teeth were shining purified from grief and passion. Je=Êees©mlevekeÀeefceveerpeveke=ÀleeMues<ee ie=neY³evlejs leecyetueeroueHetieHetejf lecegKee Oev³ee: megKeb Mesjles~~ (Bhrt¨hari ¹¨¬g¢raºataka ºloka 97) The poet refers here to the happiness of the men sleeping with sopari keeping in the mouth. Pura are synonyms. Refer GUGGULU. and ‘Madan¢riª’ is also ¹iva.

As the two words are separately mentioned. PR¡C£NA ¡MALAKA kesÀoej SJe keÀuecee: HeefjCeecevece´e: Òee®eerveceeceuekeÀce&Ieefle HeekeÀveerueced~ (K¢vyam¤m¢¼s¢ Adhy¢ya18) This ºloka describes autumn when the paddy ripens. Here betel nut tree is described as a climber. The R¢m¢ya´a beautifully acquaints us with this plant. The branches have bent because of clusters of flowers are at their tips. sarga 3-31) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. This word is present in caraka and Suºruta. When the betel-nut trees oscillate in wind. .) Family : Anacardialiaceae ce=iee: efÒe³eeueêgcece¡ejerCeeb jpe:keÀCeweJf e&eIq vele¢efäHeelee:~ ceoes×lee: Òel³eefveueb efJe®es©: JevemLeueerce&ce&jHe$ecees#ee:~~ (Kum¢ra. Some believe their leaves as ‘T¢l¤sapatra’. cevees%eievOew: efÒe³ekewÀjveuHew: Heg<HeeûeYeejeJeveleeûeMeeKew:~ megJeCe&ieesjw: ve³eveeefYejecew: GÐeesefleleeveerJe JeveevlejeefCe~~ (4/30-34) This forms a part of description of winter. and others consider ‘ Flacourtia cataphracta ’ as Pr¢c¤na ¡malaka (Refer my Nigha´°u ¡darºa early P. cirongi Buchanania lanzan spreng. The word Pr¢c¤na means old. they appear as if the delicate women are dancing. (B. PRIYAKA Priyaka is used as a synonym of three trees Kadamba. Earlier we have discussed this plant in detail. says Òee®eerveeceuekebÀ ÒeeiosMeesÓJeb Heeveer³eeceuekeÀced Fefle ueeskesÀ~ (S¦tra A. Priya¬gu and ¡sana. c¢roli. Hundreds of Priyaka trees have flowered. Suºruta critic. In winter (¹arada) it is costly.324 325 HetieerueleeoesueeefOe©{JeveosJelew:~ (Para 36). I fail to understand the importance of ‘old ‘¡mal¢’. Old ¡ml¢ (¡malaka) (Emblica officinalis) is prized. eye catching and with pleasing smell. The flowers are to remove this message. 46). but I am not able to identify it. But Tilak¢kakhy¢ says Priyaka is ¡sana ( Pterocarpus marsupium) .139). In Hemanta it is abundant.e-pdfconverter. Its qualities are described (Caraka S¦tra-27.100). DekeÀþesjHe$eHegìHetieefJeìefHeHeefjJe=lew: (K¢dambar¤ Para 131) Coconut. Date palm and other trees were grown in Siddh¢yatana temple which was surrounded by betel-nut trees with newly emerged leaves. cejkeÀlenefjefvle J³eHeveerlelJeef½e ®ee©ce¡ejerYeeef¡e #eerejf efCe HetieerHeÀueeefve~ (K¢dambar¤ Para 206) PRASEKA ®ecHekeÀebefmleuekeÀeb½etleeved ÒemeskeÀeeqvmevOegJeejkeÀeved ~ (R¢m¢ya´a 3/ 4-72) Praseka tree is listed in the trees of Sahya Mountain. ±alha´a.latifolia Robx. PRIY¡LA C¢ro²i. it is proper to mean as old ¡mal¢. Bharata also rested under the shade of Priyaka trees (2/71-22).

Its fruits are like zizyphus and to remove this message. printed in Trivendram HeekebÀ Je´pevleer efncepeeleMeerlewjeOet³eceevee meleleb ce©efÓ:~ efÒe³es efÒe³e²§: efÒe³eefJeÒe³egkeÌlee efJeHeeb[lg eeb ³eeefle efJeueeefmeveerJe~~ (§tu. 109. 5/2-9. the Priya¬gu climber becomes pale after being constantly struck by wind in winter. but nobody has accepted this interpretation. on the other hand its name indicates that it is a climber. Priy¢la resembles Madhuk¢ (Mahu²o) (Bassia latifolia) tree and its leaves like in Madhuk¢ fall off in autumn. It appears that both the words are accepted. Its seeds are also used. Sanskrit series uses the word Priy¢la. M¢lavik¢. While running on the forest land. Amarakoºa of Nir´ayas¢gara uses the word Piy¢la but N¢mali¬g¢nuº¢sana. 6-12. M¢lavik¢. sarga 4-10) As a woman separated from her husband becomes pale in the winter cold. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Amarakoºa uses the word Piy¢la and the other word is Priy¢la. . In the forest of Panchamahal in Gujarat Priy¢la trees are seen. Act-3. R¢ya´a has no cluster of flowers. R¢jaºekhara mentions that Priy¢la flowers in summer. R¢j¢dana is R¢ya´a ( Mannikara hexendra ). Kum¢ra. ¹y¢m¢ . Priy¢la means everybody likes it. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita . Falin¤ : Raghuvaïºa 8-6. Act-2 Amarkoºa has considered Priy¢la and R¢j¢dana as synonyms.e-pdfconverter.Megha. sarga 6-12) The layer of Priya¬gu. Amarkoœ has also shown distinction between the two. Later. efÒe³e²§keÀeueer³ekeÀkegÀ¹§ceekeÌleb mleves<eg ieewj<s eg efJeueeefmeveereYf e:~ (§tu. Kepetj& pecyetHevemeece´cees®eefÒe³eeueHetieerHeÀueveeefuekesÀjw:~ ÜvÜeefve KesoeuemeleecegHeem³e jleevegmevOeeveefceneefê³evles~~ PRIYA«GU1 Amarkoºa has following name for Priya¬gu M³eecee leg ceefnuee»³ee~ uelee ieesJevoveer iegvêe efÒe³ebieg: HeÀefueveer HeÀueer~ efJeéekeÌmesvee ievOeHeÀueer keÀejcYee efÒe³ekeÀ½e me:~~ It means Amarsinh has given above 12 names. The intoxicated deer was hence running against the wind. 8-61. There are references of Priy¢la in the R¢m¢ya´a 1. 3-18. on the fair breast of 1. Priya¬gu : §tusaïh¢ra 4-10. §tu. Priy¢la is C¢ro²i (Buchanania langan). K¢l¤yaka (sandal wood) and Kumkuma-saffron was spread.critic of Amarakoºa writes ‘Priya¬guv¨k¾asya’ indicating that it is a tree. Authors of Nigha´°u have considered two names of trees as separate plants. 2/94-8. 7/26-6 1. murmur (sound) was coming out of the fallen dry leaves. I have come across only one reference of Priy¢la tree in the works of K¢lid¢sa. Mallin¢tha interprets Priy¢la as a R¢j¢dana tree. K¾¤rasv¢m¤ says “Priy¢la tastes sweets”. Narahari gives 20 names in R¢janigha´°u. 3/-37-3. Therefore Mallin¢tha is incorrect.326 327 Pollen grains from clusters of flowers of Priy¢la trees were moving in air because of that the eye vision of ¹iva was impaired.

it is fair (4) it flowers in autumn (5) in winter it withers (6) its entire look appears fair.328 329 romantic women.¹y¢m¢ but its identity is not found. stone seat named of Aºoka is twined round by Priya¬gu climber. It shows Priya¬gu is fragrant. Priya¬gu and Falin¤ words from works of K¢lid¢sa and on this basis I conclude that (1) Priya¬gu is a climber (2) it is a tender climber like a tender 1. Vaidyas believe ‘Ghaunl¢’ a fragrant material used as a paste as Priya¬gu. 341). Priya¬gu is commonly referred from times of Vedas. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. K¢lid¢sa has referred its use as a paste for breasts. tender and attractive (7) the luster of its flower would be brilliant. At present what is marketed as ‘Ghaunl¢’ is a flower of a tree Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae). Ghaunl¢’ fruit is fragrant and marketed. “He sees the beauty of his beloved in ¹y¢m¢ climber”. This is mentioned in Medical dictionary. But K¢lid¢sa has not mentioned which part of Priya¬gu is used as the to remove this message. While the others believed that it is Aglaia Roxburghiana fruit. Later 41). which grows in autumn and flowers in winter but in western Malav¢ there is a wild ‘sema’ whose seeds are used as Priya¬gu for eye diseases. On this basis ¹y¢m¢ appears to be a beautiful plant and its synonym word ‘Pandura’ also justifies its meaning. ke=ÀlJee M³eeceeefJeìHemeÎMeb ñemlecegkeÌlebefÜleer³eced~ (M¢. one for ‘Ghaunl¢’ and second for ‘K¢¬ga’. Priya¬gu of K¢lid¢sa is a lovely climber . That the word ‘Sem¤’ or ‘Sima’ is distored form the word “¹y¢m¢” is doubtful. M³eeceemJe²s ®eefkeÀlenefjCeerÒes#eCes ¢efäHeeleced~ (Megha. Here Mallin¢tha explains ‘¹y¢m¢’ as ‘Haridva´¤m’. sarga 8-61). M³eecee uelee: kegÀmegceYeejveleÒeJeeuee: m$eerCeeb njefvle Oe=leYet<eCeyeengkeÀeefvleced~ (§tu. . What is sold in the market as ‘Ghaunl¢’ is the fruit pulp of Prunus mahaleb. M¢lavik¢gnimitra refers Priya¬gu as a climber: efÒe³ebiegueleeHeefjef#eHleced DeMeeskeÀefMeueeHeÆce1 (M¢. But from beginning it has double meaning. The simile here is for the brightness of a ripe fruit. It is used as a medicine for gonorrhea as it is cooling and perfumed. But both belong to trees. ¹y¢m¢ is a synonym of Priya¬gu. hand of a woman (3) like a separated woman. I have obtained ¹y¢m¢. “the vernacular name of Priya¬gu climber is ‘Sema’ and its Bangali name is ‘S¤m¢’. A synonym of Priya¬gu is ‘Falini’ which is used for ‘flame’.e-pdfconverter. 3-68) In autumn ¹y¢m¢ climber bends down with the weight of flowers and with it its leaves also bend and this scene resembles the women adorned with ornaments losing the beauty of their hands. Late Dr. Great spiritual teacher Harapras¢da ¹¢str¤ writes. 29) ¹y¢m¢ climber is compared with a tender hand. It flowers as per the description of K¢lid¢sa in autumn and withers in winter. HeM³e HekeÌJeHeÀefueveerHeÀueeqlJe<ee (Kum¢ra. V¢mana Ga´eºa Desai writes that in medicine fruits of Aglia and seeds of Prunus are used.

Gorocana (medicine from cow dung). The description of winter in Kir¢ta. Some believe it to be Priya¬gu. but he has not quoted its scientific name. What is sold in the market as ‘ghaunl¢’ is cooling and reduces body heat and is fruit pulp of Priya¬gu tree. Summary:G¦nd¤ is not Priya¬gu. Kapurak¢cal¤. The word ‘gandhapriya¬gu’ used in Caraka first chapter (S¦trasth¢na Act.330 331 efceLegveb HeefjkeÀefuHeleb lJe³ee menkeÀej: HeÀefueveer ®e veeqvJeceew The poet imagines a couple of mango and Priya¬gu where the latter is a climber as it twines round the mango tree. Bhavbh¦ti has mentioned Priya¬gu in M¢lat¤m¢dhava (3/9). trees: observed fragrant Priya¬gu trees (5/2-10) The following ºloka is from Aºvaghoºa (Saundar¢nanda poem sarga 7 ºloka 6) efÒe³eeb efÒe³ee³ee: Òelevegb efÒe³e²§b efveMeec³e YeerleeefceJe efve<Helevleerced~ memceej leeceÞegcegKeeR meyee<He: efÒe³eeb efÒe³e²§ÒemeJeeJeoeleeced~~ It shows the delicate wife like the Priya¬gu flower is weeping.5/2-10. In Hindi. efÒe³e²§M³eecee²Òeke=Àeflejefle®eeHeC[gjceOegjb JeHeg: #eeceb #eeceb Jenefle jceCeer³eb ®e YeJeefle~~ Naturally her body is black as Priya¬gu and general appearance sweet and fair but emaciated and yet attractive. 25) indicates its smelling nature. 4/26-27. It is definite that it is a climber with fragrant fruits. Priya¬gu etc. Supu¾pita. Priya¬gu. My friend B¢bu Bh¤macandra Ce°araj¤ in his book “Economic Botany of India” considers Priya¬gu and ¹y¢m¢ as different plants and informs me that my opinion is incorrect. materials like Ak¾ata (paddy) J¢tar¦pa (gold). were to remove this message. He considers that what is called ‘Day¢lo’ ‘¹veto day¢lo’ in Nepal is real Priya¬gu. ghee. ‘Govindan¤’ is another synonym of Priya¬gu.e-pdfconverter. Priya¬gu means Kang but it is a poor grain. Kar´ik¢ra. honey. . Manaªºil¢ (red arsenic). during coronation of Sugr¤va. (10/28) mentions DeefJejueHeÀefueveerJeveÒemetve:~ In the R¢m¢ya´a 1 . Vetiveria (V¢lo) and Sandal. Nigha´°us have given many versions of Priya¬gu and ¹y¢m¢ hence it is difficult to pinpoint K¢lid¢sa Priya¬gu climber.7/42-5 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. etc.7/26-5. Ku°aja.(4/26-27). Kharjura. Hanum¢n while crossing the sea saw La¬k¬ city from the Triku°a mountain and also observed Sarala. it is ‘Govindan¤’ which has nice orange fruits. I have discussed this matter in details in my article published in the monthly “¡yurveda Vij®¢na”. 1. “efÒe³ee²§vievOeHetCee¥½e” shows densely growing ‘Ghaunl¢’ trees flower. It was an ancient custom to apply body lotion made of ghaunl¢. Ketaka.

In the description of sunset HeefjCeleefÒe³e²§ce¡ejerjpeesefvecesve efHe¡eefjcCee jp³eceeves efJeueeqcyeefve ye´IveceC[ues (K¢dambar¤ Para 179). His following ºloka explains: lem³e Òeme¿e Ëo³eb efkeÀue MeeskeÀMe¹§:~ Hue#eÒejesn FJe meewJeleueb efJeYeso~~ (Raghu. otJee&³eJee¹§jHue#elJeieefYeVeHegìesÊejeved~ %eeefleJe=×w: Òe³egkeÌleevme Yespes veerjepeveeefJeefOeced~~ (Raghu. Its flowers are fragrant.) Family : Moraceae Many have seen Banyan or P¤pal¤ plants growing in walls or terraces. K¢lid¢sa is famous for his similes and observations. sarga 8-93) The dart of grief violently pierced the heart of the king as the P¤pal¤ plant comes out piercing the floor of the terrace. efncemece³ekeÀeveveefceJe mHegÀefìleefÒe³e²§ce¡ejerieewjced (K¢dambar¤ Para 142) The fairness of a young saint is compared with the blossoming Priya¬gu in winter.) and ‘Gardabh¢´²a’ is P¢rasa P¤palo ( Thespesia populneae). Amarsinh and authors of Nigha´°u have considered ‘Plak¾a’ and ‘Gardabh¢´²a’ are synonyms but both are different trees. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The circular region around the setting sun appeared redish-yellow like the pollen of the opened Priya¬gu flowers in clusters. sarga 13-71) The king because of their skilful inquiries presented in merciful glances and very sweet language welcome the old ministers who were bowing down to him. often cultivated. Birds after eating the seeds sit on these places and lay the seeds through their excretes. PALAK½A P¤pal¤ Ficus amplissima Smith (Ficus tsiela Roxb.e-pdfconverter. P¤pal¤ bark and Madhuka flowers given by his old community people. kegÀmegce³evHeÀefueveerjJew: ceoefJekeÀeefmeefYe: Deeefnlengbke=Àefle:~ (M¢gha 6/62). The author of K¢dambar¤ has mentioned the growing or cultivation of ‘Priyu’ in the fields of forests (Para 215). . Because of the beard and mustache on their bodies their figures had changed considerably and because of that their looks appeared complex like the P¤pal¤ branches. Barley sprouts. P¤pal¤ branches (aerial roots) are not many but are short and in clusters. that is why the poet has pictured as ‘Plak¾aprarohaja°ila’. But here ‘Priya¬gu’ means K¢¬ga which is a kind of poor grain. P¤pal¤ is considered sacred. Sarga. ‘Plak¾a’ is P¤pal¤ : Hue#ees peìer Heke&Àìerm³eeled (Amara.17-12) The king performed a kind of military and religious ceremony with D¦rv¢. Priya¬gu climber flowers in winter and wasps hum around to remove this message. It appears like P¤pala. Sometimes the walls because of these plants split. The seeds getting moisture sprout at these places. MceÞegÒeJe=e× f peefveleeke=ÀefleefJeef¬eÀ³eeb½eT[ Hue#eevÒejesnpeefìueeefveJe ceefv$eJe=×eved~ DevJeûenerlÒeCecele: MegYe¢efäHeelew: Jeelee&veg³eesieceOegje#ej³ee ®e Jee®ee~~ (Raghu.332 333 The poet M¢gha remembers Priya¬gu climber in the description of winter.

. Family . Ja°¤ and Parka°¤. appearing fine outwardly. Hitopadeºa also mentions it.. Hitopadeºa mentions Deefmle YeeieerjLeerleerjs ie=Oe´ketÀìveeeqcve HeJe&les ceneved Heke&ÀìerJe=#e:~~ Parka°¤ means P¤pal¤. Amarakoºa has three synonyms... Sanskrit poets call them ‘R¢jabadara’ and its qualities are wind forming.Rhamnaceae (This plant is described scientifically as a straggling shrub or small tree.. The Bandh¦ka flower’s redness is compared with that of the blood in Raghuvaïºa: 1. 2/94-9 There is another plant known as ‘Gho°avela’ belonging to Copac¤n¤ family growing in Bor¤vall¤ (Mumbai) hills.. sarga 3-25) Women with beauty of moon on the faces. There is another large climber known in Gujarati as ‘Tora´a’(Badaravall¤) growing at Girnar mountain. I have seen both the trees growing closely in the forests of Rajapipada. all these abandoning the autumn beauty goes somewhere (Indicates arrival of winter). so I can imagine the bluish forest. K¢lid¢sa instead of comparing the lower lip with the bright red ripe fruit of Bimba. tinkling melodious sound from jewels adorned anklets. Madhyadina Pentapetes phoeniceae Family : Malvaceae m$eerCeeb efJene³e Jeoves<eg MeMee¹ue#ceeR keÀeceb ®e nbmeJe®eveb ceefCevetHegjs<eg~ yevOetkeÀkeÀeefvleceOejs<eg ceveesnjs<eg keÀeefHe Òe³eeefle megYeiee MejoeieceÞeer:~~ (§tu. 8-40 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. we have explained before.334 335 In the R¢m¢ya´a. There is a ‘Bh¦badr¤’ trailing on the ground in the field which is used as an animal fodder in Kutch. BANDH¥KA1 Dhupah¢riya.. 25. ‘Karkandhu chanibor. -3-5. Saundar¢nanda poem mentions that Buddha achieved enlightenment under a Plak¾a tree. increasing vigor. Plak¾o. There is a seedless variety of Bora in Surat (Gujarat) veeefjkesÀuemeceekeÀeje ¢M³evles efn megËppevee:~ Dev³es yeoefjkeÀekeÀeje yeefnjsJe ceveesnje:~~ (Hitopadeºa mitral¢bha) Gentlemen appear as Coconut trees. 11-24. In Gujarati we call P¤pal¤.veerueb Òes#³e ®e keÀeveveced~ meuuekeÀer yeojer efceÞeb.e-pdfconverter. J. R¢m¢ya´a 1/24-15. The trees of P¤pal¤ are very large. . §tu.. he compares it with the Bandh¦ka flower. Badar¤ is not a fine tree but its sweet sugary fruits are called ‘K¢ºibora’ to remove this message.~~ (2/55-8). ‘P¤ppal¤’ is used for Plak¾a: ef H eHHeueer J eveMees e f Y eles (3/11-38). BADARI1 There is a references in the R¢m¢ya´a that forests appeared azure with Sallak¤ (Boswallia serrate) and Badar¤ trees . Its leaves resemble to those of Bora (Zizyphus jujuba). Raghu. but others are like Bora trees. reddish attractive lips with Bandh¦ka flowers. The comparison of Band¦ka red flower with the crimson lead powder is appropriate. Saubh¢gyasundar¤. J. thirst and it reduces fatigue. It was introduced to me as ‘Sour grape’. Shah) 1. (See Aºvattha). Zizyphus rugosa. Kum¢ra. 2/55-9.

lotus with eyes and Campaka Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Dopahariy¢ is corrupted into Gujarati as “Baporiyo”? It blossoms in afternoon hence its name is ‘Madhy¢hnapu¾pa” and it flowers in autumn hence it is called “¹aratpu¾pa”. 8-40) The west appears beautiful with bright red sun whose few rays can be measured. The poet uses Bandh¦ka flowers to describe the redness. . DeuekeÌleleece´eOejHeuueJeefÞe³ee meceeve³evleerecf eJe yevOegpeerJekeÀced~~ (4/7) Elsewhere also to show redness or compare to it cegkegÀefueleceefleMe³³e yevOegpeerJeb~ (10/27). if the moon is worshipped with the flower of Campaka. seeing the beauty of K¨¾´a eyes in the lotus. 2) mcejMejefvekeÀjefvece&eLf eleHeevLemeeLe&Òenej©efOejefve<³evoefyevogmeboesn FJe JevemLeueer<etevq ce<eefle yevOetj yevOetkeÌkegÀmegceÒekeÀjs~~ There is a very nice prose to show the redness of Bandh¦ka (Nalacamp¦). Comparing Bandh¦ka flower with the lips. Baporiyo. Kir¢ta mentions red resin (Alaktaka) applied on lower lip resembles to the redness of Bandhuj¤va flower. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita explains oesHenefj³ee Fefle K³eelem³e.336 337 Jeer#³e Jeseof ceLe jkeÌleefyevogeYf e: yevOegpeerJeHe=LegeYf e: Òeote<f eleeced~ (Raghu. efJeOee³eyevOetkeÀHe³eespeHetpeves ke=Àleeb efJeOeesie&vOeHeÀueeryeefueefÞe³eced~ efveefvevo ueyOeeOejuees®evee®e&veb ceve: efMeueeef®e$ekeÀcesl³e levcegKeced~~ (Nai¾adha sarga 15-28) After worshiping the moon with the flowers of Bandh¦ka and Utpala (lotus). sarga 3. redness superior to that of the Bandhuj¤va flower is here. wept. because it flowers in autumn. “The one who pulls up the mind is Bandh¦kas” (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita). R¢jnigha´°u gives a name ‘¹aratpu¾paª’. ºloka 25) P¨thu seeing the altar depraved with blood dots as red as the Bandhuj¤ve (Bandh¦ka) flowers. ieesHekeÀocyeefvelecyeJeleercegKe®egcyeveueeqcceleueesYeced~ yevOegpeerJeceOegjeOejHeuueJeceguueefmeleeqmceleMeesYeced~~ (G¤tagovinda 2/4) The redness of Bandhuj¤van¤ is compared with that of the lower lip. otjceûeHeefjYes³ejeqMcevee Jee©Ceer efoie©Cesve Yeevegvee~ Yeeefle kesÀmejuelesJe ceefC[lee yevOegpeerJeefleuekesÀve keÀv³ekeÀe~~ (Kum¢ra. yevOetkeÀÐegefleyeevOeJeesç³eceOej:~ (G¤tagovinda10/6) yevOetkeÀkegÀmegcekeÀeefvleovle®ío SJe ueeskeÀuees®eveceveesceesnvee³e ceensvêceefCe:~ (Nalacamp¦ Uttara. ºloka 24) In the autumn. Deefmeleve³eveue#ceeR ue#eef³elJeeslHeues<eg keÀefCelekeÀvekeÀkeÀe_®eeR ceÊenbmemJeves<eg~ DeOej©ef®ejMeesYeeb yevOegpeerJes efÒe³eeCeeb HeefLekeÀpeve FoeveeR jesefoefle Ye´evleef®eÊe:~~ (§tu. sarga-11. the lustre of the moon pales. The R¢m¢ya´a also mentions (4/30-62) Bandhuj¤va. a synonym of Bandh¦ka. Bandhuj¤va. Bandh¦ka. the traveller. Raktaka are synonyms. sweet tinkling of rattles of golden girdle in the sound of intoxicated swans and the fine beauty of lips in the flower of Bandh¦ to remove this message.e-pdfconverter. Realy its red flower fascinates the mind. like the girl looking lovely with a mark of Bandhuj¤va flower with stamens on her forehead. Bandhuj¤va and M¢dhy¢hnika belongs to Malvaceae.

) Family : Cucurbitaceae (coccinia indica) (Cephalandra indica. like The famous shlok in Meghad¦ta is remembered: “levJeer M³eecee efMeKeefjoMevee HekeÌJeefyecyeeOejesÿer DeuekeÌlekeÀ efyecyeeOejesÿer”. . rows of teeth. At the end of childhood and beginning of youth the redness of the lower lip is intense. 4 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. M¢lavik¢. The woman with the lower lip intensely red can only be considered beautiful. Kum¢ra. The poet says that on that mountain Bandh¦ka flowers had blossomed and it appears that the mountain had a crown of these to remove this message. Megha. Act-3. Raktafal¢. This idea is shown below: yevOetkeÀyevOetYeJeosleom³ee cegKesvogveevesve menesepf enevee~ jeceefÞe³ee MewMeJe³eewJeveer³eeb mJeceen mebO³eeceOejesÿuesKee~~ (7/37) R¢jaºekhara mentions that Bandh¦ka flowers in autumn: mee Yeeefle Heg<HeeefCe efveJesMe³evleer yevOetkeÀyeeCeemevekegÀ¹§ces<eg~ (Act.338 339 buds (Gandhafal¤) with red arsenic forehead mark. Synonyms of B¤mb¤ in Amarakoºa are “Tu´²iker¤.e-pdfconverter. the sentiment of likeness with the moon is expressed. megieefvOeefve:éeemeefJeJe=×le=<Ceb efyecyeeOejemeVe®ejb efÜjsHeÀced (Kum¢ra. Following ºloka is by M¢gha: The above shows that in the ancient time moon was worshipped with Bandh¦ka flowers. 2-12. 18) Describing S¤t¢ with unblamable body Prasannar¢ghavam: in yevOetkeÀyevOetjOej: efmelekesÀlekeÀeYeb ®e#egce&OetkeÀkeÀefuekeÀeceOegj: keÀHeesue:~ ovleeJeueer efJeefpeleoeef[ceyeerpejeefpe: Deem³ebHegveefJe&keÀ®eHe¹peoÊeoem³eced~~ (Act 2. The poet explains that the redness of a rising sun is that of dark red flowers of Baporiya (Bandh¦ka). Dhanvantr¤ Nigha´°u gives a name ‘O¾°hopamafal¢’. var. Raghu. sweet) The lower lip streak of the child born with the lovely face of Damayant¤ related with the evening says I am the evening. veJekeÀjefvekeÀjsCe mHeäyevOetkeÀmetvemleyekeÀjef®elecesles MesKejb efyeYe´leerJe~ At the sunrise the Udayagiri mountain was dark red. those of pomegranate seeds and the face. early. 3-56) 1. ºloka 8) The lower lip was as reddish as the Bandh¦ka flower. The description here is of a woman with her lower lip as intensely red as of ripe Tin²or¢ fruit. The eyes were white like Ketak¤ leaf (Pandanus). worthy of service by blossomed lotus. B£MB£1 Tindor¢. 83. P¤lupar´yapi. During the interim period between the morning and evening twilight just as the moon arises with it and the redness of the evening is seen. Gilo²¢ Coccinia grandis (L.Act-6. Ivy gourd. 13/26. 3/56-67. §tu. Bimbik¢. Sanskrit poets are lovers of “Bimb¢dharo¾°h¤” (lower lip as red as B¤mb¤ fruit). forehead was fair like Madhuka flower (Bassia). in the same way the twilight period between the childhood and youth the streak of the lower lip is seen. The poet compares this redness with that of Bandh¦ka flower. ¹¢kunta.

e-pdfconverter. ³elÒeerelf eceefÓJe&ovew: mJemeec³eeo®egecq ye veekeÀefOeHeveeef³ekeÀeveeced~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. The B¤mba fruit is inferior to lips. All eyes were focused on the face of Um¢ because of her B¤mb¤ fruit like lips. Oh! King! The word ‘Adharab¤mba’ is proper for the lips of Damayant¤. indica). R¢ma tells S¤t¢ ceece#eceb ceC[vekeÀeueneves JesÊeerJe efyecyeeOejye×le=<Ceced (sarga 13. I will imprison you in the hollow of the lotus. There cannot be any comparison of the very dry B¤mb¤ fruit with very attractive lips of Damayant¤.” “B¤mb¢dharabddhat¨¾´am” shows intention of B¤mba lips showing cleverness in the sporting skill for love. If it was born filled with the nectar then its comparison was proper. To increase the redness of Bimba lips. The lips of Damayant¤ which in redness and moreover complete with nectar of immorality were many times superior to the B¤mba fruit. B¤mb¤ is Coccinia grandis (L. The comparison of the latter’s beauty. “I am unable to endure your delay in wearing the ornaments because of my attachment to your B¤mb¤ like lips. (Cephalandra indica Var. if possible could be with the coral tree but it is improper as the coral is not born along with the nectar. The comparison of the B¤mb¤ fruit born in the nectar filled field is justified as it is juicy. On the other hand B¤mb¤ fruit dependent upon the tree is dry. ¡laktaka was used jkeÌleeMeeskeÀ©®ee efJeMesef<eleiegCees efyecyeeOejeuekeÌlekeÀ: (M¢lavi. Dem³ee cegKesvoeJeOej: megOeeYegeyf e&cyem³e ³egkeÌle: Òeefleefyecye S<e:~ lem³eeLeJee Þeerêgceceeefpe osMes mebYeeJ³eceevem³e leg efJeêgces mee~~ (7/38) The reflection of lips of the moon like face of Damayant¤ is equal to the B¤mba fruit. ºloka 16). The comparison of the B¤mb¤ fruit and coral is proper with lips of common women but it is improper with uncommon lovely lips of a fascinating woman like Damayant¤. Ordinary B¤mba fruit can never be compared. (C. 3-67) Wasps were moving about the B¤mb¤ coloured lips of P¢rvat¤ because of the fragrance of her exhalation. 3-5). and which I have tastefully enjoyed during festival like love making occasions. The following ºloka from ¹¢kuntala expresses a desire for the B¤mba lips: DeeqkeÌueäyeeuele©HeuueJeueesYeveer³e Heerleb ce³ee meo³ecesJe jleeslmeJes<eg~ efyecyeeOejb mHe=Meefme ®esod Ye´cej efÒe³ee³eemlJeeb keÀej³eeefce keÀceueesojyevOevemLeced~~ Oh wasps! If you touch my wife’s B¤mba lips which are undisturbed and beautiful like the leaves of a young to remove this message. The sweet is used as a vegetable. (1) sweet and (2) bitter. 2-12) indicates intense redness of and delicate nature of lips. The following ºloka is interesting: ³eoOejlegueeÒeme²elmeÐe Òe%eenje legC[er~ leemeeb mee#eelmebie: efkebÀ efkebÀ ve njsefoob ve peeveerce:~~ Following is from Nai¾adha: DeOejb efkeÀue efyecyeveecekebÀ HeÀuecemceeefoefle YeJ³ecevJe³eced~ ueYelesçOejefyecyeefcel³eo: Heocem³ee jove®íob Jeoled~~ (2/24) Lips hide the teeth. .). efyecyeeOej®ee©HeuueJee: (§tu. born in the field of immortality full of nectar.340 341 GceecegKes efyecyeHeÀueeOejesÿs J³eeHeej³eeceeme efJeuees®eveeefve (Kum¢ra. the bitter is used in medicine. Sweet) B¤mb¤ is of two types.

2/91-49. Bili Aegle marmelos (L. Bijoran Citrus medica Linn. Her grace and loveliness are pictured in them. came and kissed the moon with love. king of heaven. ‘Y¢va means Alaktaka’. B¤l¤ is Aegle marmelos. Sanskrit poets have described the round and hard beautiful breasts with B¤l¤ fruits. Family : Rutaceae Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. health. if you have seen my wife who is glossy like leaves. dressed in yellow garment and having Bilva fruit like breasts. The second meaning is : Breasts like the B¤l¤ fruit scratched by the spine like nail tips of sensuous paramours imitating the deities. ce©uueuelHeuueJekeÀCìkewÀ: #eleb meceg®íue®®evovemeejmeewjYeced~ me yeejveejerkegÀ®emebef®eleesHeceb ooMe& ceeuetjHeÀueb He®esefuececed~~(Nai¾adha 1/94) King Nala saw a ripe fruit on a B¤l¤ tree. R¢m¢ya´a 2/56-7. ¹ailu¾a. Family: Rutaceae eqmveiOeHeuueJemebkeÀeMeeb HeerlekeÀewMes³eJeeefmeveerced~ MebmemJe ³eefo mee ¢äe efyeuJe efyeuJeesHecemleveer~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 3/60-13) Tell me Oh! Bilva tree. Alaktaka was applied on their lips so while kissing they touched the forehead of the moon. beauty and loveliness. B£JAP¥RAKA Bijaro. sweet fragrance coming out by crushing them and round 1.) Corr. Citron. tender. There were scratches on the fruit made by moving leaves and spines by wind. Its redness is addressed as like the day break.e-pdfconverter. 1/24-15.342 343 lelemleoer³eeOej³eeJe³eesieeled Goself e efyecyee©Ceefyecye S<e~~ The mistresses of Indra. mee efyecyeeOejceeOegjerelf e efJe<e³eeme²sçefHe ®esvceevemeb lem³eeb ueivemeceeefOe Fvle efJejnJ³eeefOe: keÀLeb JeOe&les~~ (G¤tagovinda 3/15) Sweetness of lips with B¤mb¤! It is a splendid idea? The entire beauty of the woman is concealed in the sweetness of her B¤mb¤ like lips. ‘Bilva’. Family: Rutaceae. Bale. golden apple. ¹r¤fala are synonyms of B¤l¤. ‘¹¢´²ilya’. The young fruits resembled the heads of children. 3/6013. In K¢dambar¤ (Para 216). B¤l¤ fruits are pickled. That is how the moon is to remove this message. The red lips are suggestive of her self reliance (pride). having a red circle like the ripe B¤mb¤ fruit. 6/22-53 green fruits becoming yellow. Nala saw ripe B¤l¤ fruits like the prostitute’s breasts. The beauty of this tree is unique in its shining three leaflets. 3/11-74. in description of Ca´²ik¢ jkeÌle®evoveKeef®elemHegÀjlHeÀueHeuueJekeÀefuelew½e efyeuJeHe$eoeceefYe: yeeuekeÀcegC[Òeeuecyewejf Je~ The big garland of B¤l¤ leaves and fruits for C¢mu´²¢ included Raktacandana. B¤l¤ fruit emits very nice sandal like fragrance hence its name ‘H¨dyagandhaª’. 2/94-8. unripe B¤l¤ fruits are used for diarrhoea. ¹iva is worshipped with B¤l¤ leaves. Bhavabh¦ti (M¢lat¤m¢dhava Act-9) has also described forests in mountains with B¤l¤ trees having fragrant ripe fruits. BILVA1 Bael. . M¢l¦ra. Pallava also means hand (P¢´i) and Pallavaka´°ak¢ means nails. Bijoru.

Its leaves are larger than those of S¢ga (Tectona). The deity has ordered her to bring B¤jap¦raka fruit to offer as a gift. Sustrutas critic ±alha´a has finally introduced it as leeueHeÀueesHeceb JeukeÀuemebneflecee$eefcel³eHejs~ (S¦tra Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. its large leaf is used as a plate. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita quotes in its criticism as YeefC[jes YeefC[uees Jee Fefle Jee®emHeefle:. The latter is ‘Papanasa’ citrus maxima (C. meep³emewvOeJecejesJekeÀeHenbceelegueg²HeÀuekesÀmejb mce=leced~~ (Vaidyaj¤vana By Lolimbar¢ja). a quotation of V¢caspati. She goes to Madhurik¢. It grows in abundance near Palanpur and orchards in Amals¢²a (Gujarat). Tilk¢khy¢ interpreted it as banyan (Va²a). Amarakoºa notes ¹ir¤¾a as a synonym of Bha´²ila. Elephant apple. It is used to cure swelling of spleen and liver. Bijora fruits are large. elliptical. Refer ¹ir¤¾a. It is citrus medica (Citron). BHAVYA Karmal. Near Nasik (Maharastra). It is therefore proper to consider Bha´²ira as ‘Black Sarasa’ – ¹iri¾a. Family : Dillieniaceae (R¢m¢ya´a 2/94-8. thick skinned. Fanily : Fabaceae (R¢m¢ya´a 3/75-24). The tree looks splendid with its mega leaves. 5/14-3). There are many species of the genus. family Rutaceae. and green when unripe and yellowish when to remove this message. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita says Üs ceelegueg²m³e efyePeewje Fefle K³eelem³e~ but M¢tulu¬ga is Papanusa (Pomello). .e-pdfconverter. large white flowers and big fruits like those of palm. Bhavya means Karambala or Karambaka. Calata Dillenia indica L. Its orange coloured small pulps mixed with pepper and salt is eaten to freshen the mouth. To improve the mouth taste Papanasa pulp vesicles with ghee and rock-salts are taken. but Amarakoºa and Nigha´°us note Bha´²ira is not a synonym of Banyan. grandis).(Albizzia lebbek). It is used as pickles and jam. Black Sarasa Albizzia lebbek (L. Nigha´°us considered ‘B¤jap¦raka’ and ‘M¢tulu¬ga’ as synonyms but it is incorrect. Karambala.) Benth. That is why I wish to offer B¤jap¦raka as a gift to her” B¤jap¦raka is Bijorun in Gujarat. the keeper of the garden of the pleasant forest to get it. B¤jap¦raka is mentioned in the R¢m¢ya´a (3/75-23). The trees are big.344 345 The third chapter of M¢lavik¢gnimitra opens with the entry of the female attendant of the wondering female mendicant Parabh¨tik¢. BHA³±£RA ¹iri¾a. The leaves of Dillenia pentagyna are also very large. Madhurik¢ enters and meanwhile Parabh¨tik¢ welcomes her and says: YeieJeleer Dee%eeHe³eefle DeefjkeÌleHeeefCevee Demcee¢Mepevesve le$eYeJeleer osJeer êäJ³ee~ leod yeerpeHetjkesÀCe MegÞete<f elegecf e®íeefce Fefle~~ “The deity Bhagavat¤ commands “People like us should not go empty handed to the Goddess. the inner pulp is much less.

responsible for the sound from the hollow bamboo and carrier of the water drops of Ganges began consoling the king on the way. Bhavya word is also used for ‘Karmara¬ga: keÀce& j ²lejew YeJ³eced . The latter is ‘Kamarakha (Carambola). . I sometimes feel that this plant is ‘Do´¤’.346 347 Act 46): its fruits are like those of palm and each have an outer scale. Shanskrit names of Bh¦rja are ‘Lekhyapatra’. its fruits are pickled. sarga 1-7) Dark red letters like red dots on the body of the elephants indicating their age were written on the bark of Birch with red lead and other materials. BH¥RJA Himalyan Birch Betula utilis D. rustling through dry leaves of Birch. Its sepals are used for chatany and fruits are eaten by animals. ºloka 63) The wind. In the forest a shrub Leea macrofhyll (Do´¤). ieesjes®eveeefueefKeleYetpe&He$eieYee&vcev$ekeÀjC[keÀevegJeen (K¢dambar¤ Para 56) She was going with talisman carrying inside Bh¦rjapatra having a writing with Gorocana. It is surprising that this fine tree did not invite any attention from K¢lid¢sa and Bhavabh¦ti.e-pdfconverter. sarga 9. The meaning is that it was a place of pleasure for semi divine women. 1-55) ¹iva’s first attendants dressed with reddish (coloured with red arsenic) and soft to touch bark of Birch and putting on Surpunnaga flower on ears sat on the stony surface of the mountain. ieCee veces©ÒemeJeeJelebmee Yetpe&lJe®e: mHeMe&Jeleero&Oeevee:~ ceve: efMeueeefJe®ígefjlee efve<esog: Mewues³eve×s<eg efMeueeleues<eg~~ (Kum¢ra. Maji°ha Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. This is an account of Raghu climbing the Himalyas. there is a reference of a plant ‘Hastikar´apal¢ºa’. 2) Yetpe&ieleesç³ece#ejefJev³eeme:~~ GJe&MeeroMe&veefJeeqmcelesve ce³ee leced Yetpe&He$eb ÒeYe´äceefHe nmleelÒeceeosve ve efJe%eeveced~~ GHeve³eleg YeJeeved Yetpe&He$eced~ The following ºloka indicates that bark of Birch was used for wearing. v³emlee#eje Oeelegjmesve ³e$e Yetpe&lJe®e: kegÀ¡ejefyevogMeesCee:~ Je´peefvle efJeÐeeOejmegvojerCeeceve²uesKeef¬eÀ³e³eesHe³eesieced~~(Kum¢ra. There is reference in Vikramorvaº¤yam of communication written on Birch bark as indicated below: ÒeYeeJeefveefce&lesve Yetpe&He$esCe mebHeeefoleesÊeje YeeefJeleg&ce®íeefce~ (Act. ‘Bahuvalkala’. on his universal to remove this message. In early times the bark of Birch was used for writing. Don Family : Betulaceae (R¢m¢ya´a 2/94-24) Yetpex<eg cece&jerYetlee: keÀer®ekeÀOJeefvensleJe:~ ie²eMeerkeÀjCees ceeiex ce©lemleb efme<esefJejs~~ (Raghu. like an ear of an elephant. but it is misleading. family Vitaceae has leaves larger than S¢ga and Bhavya. ‘Bh¦rjapatra’ is synonym of ‘Bh¦rja’. K¢lid¢sa has mentioned it above accordingly. MA-JI½¯H¡ Indian Madara. In Sanskrit literature.

com to remove this message. Mahv¢ Madhuca longifolia (J. hence its names are ‘Yojanavalli’ and ‘Bhandiri’. ) Sun rays are shown as red as Ma®j¤°ha. Bhavabh¦ti has mentioned that celibate Nala had clothes dyed with Maj¤°ha. Spreading long distance is ‘Yojanavall¤’ and growing fast is ‘Bha´²igato’. . ce¡eew MeesYeves JeCex efleÿefle Fefle ceef¡eÿe (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita) that colour which is fine and permanent is Maj¤°ha. Raghu. nscevles oefOeogiOemeefHe&jMevee ceef¡eÿeJeemeesYe=le:~ (¹¨¬g¢ra. It is a climber spreading wide. ‘Madhudrumaª’. MesHeÀeefuekeÀemeHleHeueeMekeÀkeÀeMeYeeC[erjmeewieefvOekeÀceeueleer<eg~ ¹ef¢lik¢. Mahuda. Maj¤°ha. ceef¡eÿjeieueesefnles efkeÀjCepeeues (Para-24) ceef¡eÿeueesefnlemkeÀvOekesÀmejyeeueHeuueJew:( K¢dambar¤ Para-85. Mahu²o. the honey is in the ovary of the flower. ‘Male¾°¤laª’. Kum¢ra -7-14 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. smelling small lotus and M¢lat¤ flower in this season. Clothes dyed with Maj¤°ha appear reddish. ‘Rodhrapu¾paª’. Konig) (Bassia latifolia) Family : Sapotaceae Madh¦ka in Sanskrit is Madh¦ka/Mahu²o tree and Madh¦ka in Gujarati is ‘Je°h¤madha’. R¢jaºekhara in his description of autumn has referred Bh¢´²ira as Maj¤°ha. K¢ºa. 97) Actually the assertion to wear red clothes is mentioned for the spring efveJee&le YeJeveb megjkeÌleJemeveb JeÚs: Hejb mesJeveced~ but to wear it in Hemanta (winter) is not at all improper. 6-25. ieg[ FJe Heg<Hecem³e Fefle ieg[Heg<He~ “Gu²apu¾paª” means one having fruits as sweet as jaggery is ‘Gu²apu¾pa’. Its colour is bright red. Family : Rubiaceae keÀeefvleb keÀ<e&efle keÀe½eveejkegÀmegceb ceeef¡eÿOeewleelHeìeled~ (K¢vyam¤m¢ns¢) The beauty of red Ka®can¢ra flowers spreads like the clothes dyed with Maj¤°ha. Bhart¨hari suggests take more curd. Here the poet recalls once the familiar and current tradition of our country to dye the clothes with Maj¤°ha. Saptapar´a. milk and Ghee and women to wear fine reddish clothes in Hemanta (winter). Mahu²¢ trees are in lakhs in Panchamahal district 1.348 349 Rubia cordifolia L. ‘Madhusravaª’. MADH¥KA1 Mahua. mee Yeeefle Heg<HeeefCe efveJesMe³evleer~ Jeeme½e ceeef¡eÿkeÀced (4/20). ceOeg ÿerues ieYex ³em³e Fefle ceOegÿerue:~ means one having honey in the pulp is Madhu¾°hilaª. Since the times of Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita it is called “Ma®j¤°ha”.e-pdfconverter. Sanskrit names of Mahu²o are ‘Madh¦ka’. Following ºloka is from Kir¢ta: ceele²esvceefLelemejespejsCegeHf e²b ceeef¡eÿb Jemeveefceyeecyeg efveye&Yeemes~ (sarga 7/36) The water appeared red because of fallen red pollen from the red lotus snatched by the elephant. ‘Gu²apu¾paª’.

3/11-74. 6/4-79. Wine is also prepared from them. 7/42-2 The poet has described this garland as a cupid’s noose: Òemetvee³egOeHeeMeYeemeb ceOetkeÀceeueeceOegjb keÀjb mee keÀCþesHekeÀCþb JemegOeemegOeebMees: (14/17) The moon on the earth is Nala (King). Bhavbh¦ti (Mah¢v¤rcarita 2/21) has referred to Madh¦ka in the following: Deele*dkeÀÞecemeeOJemeJ³eeflekeÀjeslkeÀcHe: keÀLeb me¿eleeced~ De²: cegiOeceOetkeÀHeg<He©ef®eefYe: ueeJeC³emeejwj³eced~~ How could it be endured the fever born exertion and shivering for the body having lustre and loveliness of Madh¦ka flowers? Here the body with the beauty and loveliness is present in full abundance like that of graceful Madh¦ka flower described.350 351 of Gujarat. they also prepare loaf. 3/42-17. essence (extract) prepared from them is used as medicine in Dysentery and Tuberculosis. remove stamens.e-pdfconverter. How to prepare vegetable from flowers is mentioned in the book ‘K¾emakut¦hala’: meÐe®³egleb mLetueceOetkeÀHeg<Heb mebMeeseOf eleb kesÀMejOeteuf eJeefpe&leced~ mebHeeef®eleb MegYe´emf eleeOe=leeY³eeb mepeerjkebÀ peerJeveob efn peereJf eveeced~~ Take fresh flowers. strength giving and nutritive. Damayant¤ during her choice marriage function went to Nala carrying a Madh¦ka garland in her hand. They are sweet but initially not tasty. 2/94-9. Pearls like flowers fall on the to remove this message. The temple of the woman is compared with the fairness and paleness of the Madh¦ka flowers. yevOetkeÀÐegelf eyeevOeJeesç³eceOej: eqmveiOees ceOetkeÀ®íefJeie&C[: ®eefC[ ®ekeÀeefmle veerueveefuevebb Þeercees®eveb uees®eveced~~(G¤tagovinda 10/6) It is a useful tree. Then add sugar. Damayant¤ like £ndumat¤ had also prepared a garland of D¦rv¢ and Madh¦ka flowers for Nala (husband) otJee&¹j§ e{îeeb veuekeÀCþveeues JeOetce&OetkeÀñeppeceglmemepe&~~ 4/48 1. ghee and spices. clean them and season with ghee and cumin. Mahu²¢ flowers are whitish yellow. 4/1-78. Indumati during her choice marriage function wore a garland of D¦rv¢ and yellowish flowers of Mahu²¢ (Kum¢rasaïbhava sarga 7-14). M¢rica has transformed himself into a deer and in describing him in the R¢m¢ya´a1 ceOetkeÀ efveYeHeeée&½e kebÀpeefkebÀpeukeÀmebefveYe: (3/42-17) Both the sides of the deer were slightly yellowish as colour of the Mahu²¢ flowers and of the lotus stamens. Following is an apposite saying: cetueeosJe ³eom³e efJemle=elf eYej®íe³eeH³evev³ee¢Meer les ³em³e ÒemeJee: megce¡eguejmewjevevo³evle: Òepee:~ mvesnb ®e ÒekeÀìerkeÀjesefle Hejceb Yet³e: HeÀueeveeb iegCew efnlb JewkewÀkeÀiegCeebmleªvYepe meKes lemceevceOetkeÀêgceced~~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. . Its sweet nectar like fruits. The poor dry the flowers and eat. They are healthy. In Caitra-Vaiº¢kha season the flowers fall on the ground. its oil like ghee and compact shade serve its usefulness.

32. MAND¡RA1 ³em³eesHeevles ke=ÀlekeÀleve³e: keÀevle³ee JeefOe&lees ces nmleÒeeH³emleyekeÀveefcelees yeeuecevoejJe=#e: (Megha. 8-75. 8-71). Megha. 11-50. Raghu. ¹¢kuntala Act-7.72. protectors of all directions. In other meaning as stated in Amarakoºa: Heáewles osJelejJees cevoej: HeeefjpeelekeÀ:~ mevleeve: keÀuHeêgce½e Hegbefme Jee nefj®evoveced~~ It means Mand¢raª P¢rij¢takaª. 2-39. removing the heat of the fatigued men with its wind blowing through its dark green leaves. 76) The women who went to meet their lovers and while hastily returning in the early morning saw Mand¢ra flowers fallen from their braid on the road which evidenced the path of their journey at night. Act. Kum¢ra.80. 17-26. . heaps of their flowers have fallen on the water with the smell of spirituous liquor of elephants.4. Which is Mand¢ra tree? Mand¢ra flowers were beautifying the braids of the women cevoeefkeÀv³ee: meefueueefMeefMejw: mesJ³eceevee ce©efÓ:~ cevoejeCeecevegleì©neb íe³e³ee Jeeefjlees<Cee:~~ (Meghad¦ta. Act-7). Raghuvaïºa sarga 6-23. extending unique shade. Early. ‘Kalpataru’ (Raghu. .e-pdfconverter.8-68) and ‘Kalpalat¢’ (¹¢kuntala. Early. sarg 6-6 refers ‘Kalpadrum¢´¢miva’. 79) The young tree with clusters of flowers which could be easily plucked by bending the branches was planted in the courtyard and which was grown with love by women. Raghuvanºa also shows that Mand¢ra flowers were used by women for their braids: Me®³eeef½ejb HeeC[gkeÀHeesueuecyeeved cevoejMetv³eeveuekeÀeb½ekeÀej~ (sarga 6-23) cevoejHeg<HewjefOeJeeefmelee³eeb ³em³ee: efMeKee³eece³eceHe&Ceer³e:~ mewJe efÒe³ee mebÒeefle ogue&Yee ces efkeÀcesveceñeesHenleb keÀjesecf e~~ (Vikramo. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita gives etymology of Mand¢ra as cevoe Deeje Dem³e. Early 31) Which are these Mand¢ra trees that are on the banks of river Mand¢kin¤ and which prevent the heat with their cool shade? 1. But no where the identity of this plant is observed.this Madh¦ka tree with varying qualities is worthy of worship. Mallin¢tha has introduced this tree as ‘Mand¢raª Kalpav¨k¾aª’ and K¢lid¢sa has used the word ‘Kalpadruma’ (Raghu. 14-48. 75. 2-75. iel³egkeÀcHeeouekeÀHeeflelew³e&$e cevoejHeg<Hew: He$e®íso:w keÀcekeÀkeÀceuew: keÀCe&eJf eYe´eb Mf eefce½e~ cegkeÌleepeeuew: mleveHeefjmejeq®íVemet$ew½e nejwvezMees ceeie&: meefJeleg©o³es met®³eles keÀeefceveerveeced~~ ( Megha. Kum¢ra. ‘Kalpav¨k¾a’ (Megha. Sant¢naª. Meghad¦ta. 6-49. mejuelJeeled Fefle Jee and cevoej: m³eeled megjêgces JeeefjYeês Deke&ÀHeCex ®e HeefjYeês efvecyele©: means for Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Kum¢ra. ¹¢kuntala. It appears to be a shade tree. Kum¢ra 6-6. Act-6/5) DeeHuegleemleerjcevoejkegÀmegceeslkeÀjJeere®f e<eg~ J³eesceie²ÒeJeens<eg efo*dveeieceoieefvOe<eg~~ (Kum¢ra sarga 6-5) Mand¢ra trees are on the river bank.352 353 Madh¦ka flowers giving joy with sweet to remove this message. Raghu. Kum¢rasaïbhava sarga 6-5. Vikramo. exhibiting the best love. Early. Act-7) etc. Early 77. 5-52. 6-6. Kalpadruma and Haricandana are five trees of the deity.

cevoesojerkegÀefìuekeÀesceuekesÀMeHeeMecevoejoececekeÀjvojmeb efHeyevle:~ ceefÜkeÀceb ceOegkeÀje DeefHe keÀerle&³eefvle~~ (Parasannar¢ghava. According to modern Botanists Bak¢na neem is not indigenous in India still Mand¢ra can be a Bak¢na neem tree which is a nice tree with flower clusters. ‘Sant¢naka’ should be ‘Mand¢ra’. But Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita suggests that these four names are of Bak¢na neem (melia azedarach). means “the tree with extensive spread”. There is a reference that these trees were planted on the main roads. It is difficult to decide out of these five which one is Mand¢ra of K¢lid¢s. ‘Bh¢vaprak¢ºa’. P¢´tharavo (Erthrina variegate L. Still P¢´tharava in hindi is ‘Farahada’. Mand¢ra and Sant¢na are synonyms mec³ekedÀ leveesefle Fefle mevleeve:~ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita). R¢janigha´°u uses ‘Mand¢ra’ for Devdara. Mand¢ra and P¢rij¢taka. an ayurvedic book refers ‘P¢ribhadra’ as ‘Farahada’ and ¡thamalla. But the opinion of Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita is not reliable as his subject was not Botany. I do not understand the use of bark of Mand¢ra. Hindi name of P¢´tharvo is ‘Farahada’. Bak¢na neem and Calotropis. Travellers sleep under the shade of ‘Mand¢ra’ tree. ‘Mand¢ra’ word is used. Now the two remain but P¢rij¢taka and P¢´tharavo are two different trees. in Marathi Pa¬g¢r¢ and Mand¢ra. Paribhadra usually is used for a neem tree. Amara uses four names ‘Paribhadra.354 355 ‘Suradruma’ (Kalapataru). ‘Mand¢ra’ is mentioned in K¢dambar¤ but is worded as ‘Mand¢ravalkala’: cevoejJeukeÀuesve GHeHeeefoleDecyejÒe³eespeveced~ (K¢dambar¤ Para 142) peerCe&cevoejJeukeÀuesveeye×HeefjkeÀj: (K¢dambar¤ Early). The leaves fall off in winter. R¢va´a has made this statement. thus it concludes that ‘Mand¢ra’ is only ‘Paribhdra’.e-pdfconverter. Butterflies and birds move about them to suck. critic of ¹¢¬gargadhara Sa¼hit¢ refers as: HeefjYeês efvecyele©: means ‘P¢ribhadhara is Farahada. resembling the parrot’s beak. neem. Bak¢na neem. to remove this message. Calotropis and P¢rij¢taka. Now remember “Sant¢na” (remember Amarsinha’s sentence: Heáewles osJelejJe:). sarga 6 ºloka 46) and mebleevekeÀekeÀerCe&ceneHeLeb le®®eerveeb efMekewÀ: keÀefuHelekesÀlegceeueced (sarga 7. I think Mand¢ra cannot be neem. P¢ribhadra. . So Mand¢ra can be P¢ribhdra. ) (Syn. P¢´tharavo. K¢lid¢sa has used the word ‘Sant¢na’ two times in Kum¢rasaïbhava. Act 1-58) Here it is mentioned that Mandodar¤ used Mand¢ra flowers in her braid of hair and wasps were sucking the nectar. ºloka 3) Mallin¢tha refers ‘Sant¢naka’ as ‘Mand¢ra’. mevleevevekeÀle©®íe³eemegHleefJeÐeeOejeOJeieced~ (Kum¢ra. The flowers have sweet nectar.). It has dark red flowers in clusters. (Family: Fabaceae) in Hindi is Mand¢ra. Critic of ‘Bhai¾ajyaratn¢val¤’ refers HeeefjYeê: cevoej: and cevoej HeeefueOee Fefle K³eeleced. indica mam. E. P¢ribhadra (which in Gujarat is ‘P¢´tharavo’ Erythrimum Indica and calotropis leaf for these three. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.

In description of Rambh¢ (Apsar¢) ef o J³e®evoveef u eHlee²er cevoejke=ÀlecetOe&pee~ (7/26-15). efn²èppeJeueb oÊecejer®e®etCex J³eeOeeefjleb lewueIe=lesve efceÞeced~ YegkeÌleb ce³ee HeejYe=leer³eceebmeb keÀLeb veenb ceOegjmJej Fefle~~ (M¨cchaka°ika) Today I have eaten meat of cuckoo mixed and seasoned with oil. She had ‘Mand¢ra’ flowers in her hair braids. 4/1-80). both these names are in R¢m¢ya´a. ceokeÀuekegÀjjkegÀue¢M³eceeveceefj®eHeuueJee (K¢dambar¤ Para 17) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Kunda is ever flowering.e-pdfconverter. ¹¨¬g¢raºataka. The soldiers who were wounded by elephant’s teeth were not injured by the stroking garlands of Mand¢ra which were cool like the lap of the sweet-heart and thrown by the deities from the sky. meaning Aºoka and ‘P¢ribhadra’ have intensely red flowers which appear as beautiful as Pal¢¾a (Kes¦²o). but Mand¢r flowers in spring . . but Priya¬gu flowers in spring may be seen in winter. The word ‘Gulma’ means a cluster or thickets. The fruits are also in clusters or thickets. Mand¢ra trees are ‘P¢ribhadra’. black pepper It is a climber. and one with the eyes of the deer capable of escaping cold in the winter but not embracing-not giving the warmth of the breast of paramour. should be understood as incapable to remove the grief of the young during the winter long nights appearing as the dwellings of death. ‘Mand¢ra’(7/ 26-5. 15. Ghee. Its synonyms are ‘Dharmpattanam’. 98) Piled with blossoming flowers of Priya¬gu. ‘Dhanvantari’. common in Saurastra (Gujarat). MARICAGULMA Black pepper. pe³eÞeereJf ev³emlewce&enf le FJe cevoejkegÀmegcew: mJe³eb efmevotjsCe efÜHejCecegoe cegefêle FJe~ (G¤tagovinda sarga 11/11) Jayaºr¤ worshipped with ‘Mand¢ra’ flowers which were red coloured. may be the climbers while growing form a thicket. The poet mentions these trees as: DeeqivecegK³ee DeMeeskeÀe½e megjkeÌlee: HeeefjYeêkeÀe. ‘U¾a´am’. 16/11). with intoxicated wasps humming over the lustrous opening Kunda flowers. 7/42-4). and dwelling with wind blowing through severe cold pervading through garlands of flowers of Mand¢ra trees.‘Vall¤jam’. efÒe³ee¹Meerleecevoejceeuee (Kir¢ta. ‘P¢ribhdra’(3/73-5. Hi¬ga (Asafoetida) and Mar¤ powder. Here all the flowers referred above are mentioned as flowering in winter.356 357 ÒeewÐelÒeew{efÒe³e²Ðegelf eYe=elf e efJekeÀmelkegÀvoceeÐeefÜjsHesÀ keÀeues Òeeues³eJeeleÒeJeueefJeueefmeleesoejcevoejOeeeqcve~ ³es<eeb vees keÀCìueivee #eCeceefHe legefnve#eesoo#ee ce=iee#eer les<eecee³eece³eecee ³ecemeovemecee ³eeefceveer ³eeefle ³etveeced~~ (Bhart¨hari. Mar¤ Piper nigrum L. Family : Piperaceae ‘Marica’ means Mar¤.com to remove this message.

The crystal like white splendid multitude of Mallik¢ flowers are superior to Kail¢sa. ceefuuekeÀekegÀmegcejeefMejkeÀe<eealed ³e$e ®e mHeÀefìkeÀmeevegceveg®®eced~ (Nai¾adha. flower in the intermediate period between winter and autumn. etc. R¢jaºekhara states: Heg<Heef¬eÀ³ee ceªyekesÀ ce©yekeÀocevekeÀHegVeeieHeg<Heefue²evegJe=eÊf eefYe: megjefYe:~.Jamu adane”. Damano. Its synonyms are ‘Sam¤ra´aª’. MARUBAKA ±amaro. Its leaves are fragrant that last for a long time.e-pdfconverter. Mogara means the best of flower. Kurara birds were making sweet sound in intoxication and eating the leaves of Mar¤ climber. MALLIK¡ Mogaro Jasminum sambac (L. whose wet Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita calls it ‘Maru¢’ means ‘Maravo’. 4/1-76).) Family : Oleaceae mettles mebÒeefleogiOecegiOemegYeieb Heg<Heesêgceb ceefuuekeÀe~~ (B¢lar¢m¢ya´a) Mallik¢ means Mogaro. Maravo Ocimum basilicum L. ÒemLeHeg<He: ÒemLes meeveew Heg<H³eefle It flowers well on the mountain tops. others interpret that whose leaves and flowers are like the hood of the cobra. Amarsinh has used the word “Mi´dhala” as a synonym of Marubaka as prior to this he mentions ce©b yeeefle~ efvepe&uesçefHe éeefmeefle~ one who can live in an arid region. HeÀefCeppekeÀ: HeÀCeer GpPekeÀes Jepe&keÀesçm³e Fefle kesÀef®eled (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita) means the snakes do not come near. ceeuee: keÀCþs HeeìueeceefuuekeÀeveeb meÐees ûeer<ceb nvle nscevle³eefvle~~ (K¢vyam¤m¢¼s¢) Wearing a garland of P¢°¢l¢ and Mallik¢ gives a feeling of winter in the to remove this message. .358 359 In the description of the great Vidhya forest. It seems that the plant is used as a garland. N¢gakesara. Navamallik¢ also means Mogaro.16/50) The K¢madeva (Cupid) who was weakened after the fading of the spring became strong in women. ‘Marubakaª’. Family : Lamiaceae Marubaka is ±amaro or Maravo. Note: The author has given the scientific name of this plant as Origanum marjoana. It flowers in winter. Flowers white as milk. ‘Jamb¤roapi’(Amarakoºa). ‘Prasthapu¾paª’.one which is eaten. ce©yekeÀHeefjJeejb Heeìueeoece keÀCþs~ ±amaro was also present in the garland of P¢°al¢ flowers. Its fragrance is unique. ±amaro. Flowers of Kadamba and Mallik¢ were used in making garlands for braid hair. belongs to Tulas¤ family. Dem³ee: Keueg ûeeqvLeefveye×kesÀMeceuueer keÀocyeÒeefleefyecyeJesMeeled~ (7/88) The wreaths made of red button like round flowers of Kadamba and crystal like white flowers of Mallik¢ should look showy. mveeveeê& cegkeÌles<eg DevegOetHeJeemeb efJev³emlemee³evleveceefuuekesÀ<eg~ keÀecees Jemevleel³e³ecevoJeer³e&: kesÀMes<eg uesYes yeuece²veeveeced~~ (Raghu. ‘Fa´ijjakaª’. ‘Jamb¤ra’ is another name but its meaning is Lemon and still today it is known as ‘Jamb¤ra l¤mbu’ “Jamyte .

Following is an apposite saying: ve ®e ievOeJensve ®egeqcyelee ve ®e Heerlee ceOegHesve ceefuuekeÀe~ efHeefnlewJe keÀþesjMeeKe³ee HeefjCeecem³e peieece iees®ejced~~ If a small plant grows under a big tree. Some synonyms of Mallik¢ are: ‘N¢r¤¾°¢’.e-pdfconverter. M¡KANDA Mango.dear to women. ºloka 84) The cluster of mango flowers which intoxicate the fire of separation of women who have gone abroad. Fefle efJejef®eleceefuuekeÀeefJekeÀeme: mce³ele FJe mce ceOegb efveoeIekeÀeue:~ (Kir¢ta-10/36) Mallik¢ flowers in spring.360 361 hair were scattered after their bath and were made fragrant after wearing the night blooming Mallik¢ flowers in their hair. ueeqcyelemLetueceefuuekeÀecegkegÀuenjeCeeced (K¢dmbar¤). ojefJeoefueleceuueerJeefuue®eáelHejeieÒekeÀefìleHeìJeemewJeefme³evkeÀeveveeefve~ (G¤tagovinda 1/10) The blooming flowers of Mallik¢ producing pollen were perfuming the forest.afraid of summer. M¡TULU«GA Yeeiee: Òesef±leceelegueg²Je=le³e:~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava. it does not grow and becomes yellow. Ker¤ Mangifera indica L. ‘¹¤tabh¤ru’. because your cruel branches covered you”. “S¢yantanamallik¢’ – evening blossoming Mogaro. the wasps did not favour you. the poet comments “the wind does not kiss you. Sarga 16-47) The intense fragrance of evening blossoming Mallik¢ flowers was spreading in the forest. Jeves<eg mee³evleveceefuuekeÀeveeb efJepe=cYeCeesÃefvOe<eg kegÀ*dceues<eg~ Òel³eskeÀefveef#elHeHeo: meMeyob mebK³eeefceJew<eeb Ye´cej½ekeÀej~~ (Raghu. ‘Vanacandrik¢’ – moon of the forest. ¹¨¬g¢raºataka. Pikabh¢ndhava HeevLem$eereJf ejneveueengelf ekeÀueeceelevJeleer ce¡ejer ceekeÀvos<eg efHekeÀe²veeefYejOegvee meeslkeÀCþceeueeske̳eles~ (Bhart¨hari. Here the large ‘Mallik¢’ flowers are mentioned : the garlands of large ‘Mallik¢’ flowers were hanging down from the neck. its other names are. The value of other seasons decreased because of blooming of Mallik¢ in spring. Family: Anacardiaceae ojoefuelekegÀvoceekeÀvoceOegeyf evogmevoesnJeeefnvee YeJeveesÐeeveHe³e&vlecee©lesve GÊeec³eefle~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava) M¢lat¤ grieves with the wind carrying the nectar drops of blossoming flowers of kund and mango and blowing through the palace garden. . ¡ma. M¢kanda means a mango tree. Ras¢la. Looking at the same condition of Mallik¢. c¦ta. The humming wasps were around them as if they were counting each of to remove this message. 6/19) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. now are enjoying with cuckoos. appropriate because of its snow like white flowers.

3-2. The author mentions Papanasa as Citrus decummana . But to me it looks proper to have ‘J¢ti’ as J¦¤. sarga -3/2) The earth with flowers of K¢ºa (Darbha). M¢lat¤ is Cambel¤ and Suman¢ is night blooming queen (Solanum). Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita has quoted from Haima ceeueleer ³egJeleew keÀekeÀcee®³eeb peeefleefJeMeu³e³ees: p³eeslmvee³eeb efveefMe veÐeeb ®e~~ (Iti Haima)” and $eerefCepeeles: ®eByesueer: Fefle K³eelee³ee: and mentioned the then current name ‘Cambela’. M¢lavik¢. keÀeMewce&ner efMeefMejoereOf eeflevee jpev³ees nbmewpe&ueeefve meefjleeb kegÀcego:w mejebemf e~ meHle®íow: kegÀmegceYeejvelewJe&veevlee: MegkeÌueerke=Àleev³egHeJeveeefve ®e ceeueleerefYe:~~ (§tu. ‘M¢lat¤’ as Cambel¤ and ‘Suman¢’ as queen of night (Rajanigandh¢) (Solanum). It is difficult to find out of this confusion of meanings. leeceglLeeH³e mJepeuekeÀefCekeÀeMeerleuesveeefveuesve Òel³eeéemleeb mececeefYeveJewpee&uekewÀ: ceeueleerveeced~~ (Meghd¦ta. The critics have mistaken in considering all three trees as synonyms. Early-103. and gardens with M¢lat¤ flowers. river water with swans. M¢lavik¢. Another name of M¢lat¤ is ‘P¢°h¢’. M¢lat¤ and Suman¢ are three different plants. bending with the flowers. M¢tulu¬ga is Papanasa or Cakotaru. 2-24. Bijoru (Gujarati): Citrus medica L.362 363 Parts of hedges having swinging trees of M¢tulu¬ga.19. Early) The wife. Act-3). Orange coloured pulp vesicles of Papanasa mixed with black pepper and rock salt tastes very good. forests with trees having seven leaves. 24) M¢lat¤ flowers like a husband creating a rainy cloud on the head of his wife create a garland of fragrant flowers with new bloomed flowers of J¦i (Jasminum) for her. ceeueefJekeÀeH³es<eg efoJemes<JevegYetlecegkeÌlesJe ceeueleerceeuee cuee³eceevee ue#³eles~ (M¢lavik¢gnimitra. J¢ti. all these appear white in winter. sarga 2. but Papanasa (Pomelo) is Citrus maxima (C. §tu. The women were wearing garlands of M¢lat¤. night with the cool moon. to remove this message. R¢janigha´°u refers names with three meanings: mHe=keÌkeÀe leg megkegÀceeje³eeb vesHeeueer ceeueleer mce=efle: ‘Sp¨kk¢’ (a fragrant plant but doubtful as a medicine) is considered as ’ M¢lat¤’ and in this book elsewhere ‘M¢lat¤’ and J¢ti’ are synonyms. Amarsinh has confused by stating ‘Suman¢ m¢lat¤ j¢ti’.e-pdfconverter. The author also mentions. M¡LAT£1 Cambeli Jasminum grandlflorum L. lakes with lotuses. Megha. Bh¢vamiºra author of ‘Bh¢vaprak¢ºa’ has also named J¢ti as Cambel¤. awakened by him by the wind cooled by water drops got up well with the perfume of recently bloomed M¢lavika flowers. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita has interpreted ‘M¢lat¤’ as “M¢lam tanoti” or “Mam Lak¾m¤ lartata”. Family : Oleaceae efMejefme yekegÀueceeueeb ceeueleereYf e: mecesleeb efJekeÀefmeleveJeHeg<Hew³e&tefLekeÀekegÀ*dceuew½e~ (§tu. like a used garland of pearls also appeared pale. 18.grandis). .

M¢lat¤ is the only resting place for to remove this message. M¡½A Vigna mungo (L. keÀefle meefvle ueJe²uelee ueefuelee veJekeÀesjefkeÀlee OejCeermegleues~ keÀefle yevOegjievOeYe=lemlejJees iegjJees efveJemeefvle efiejew ceue³es~~ Deef³e ceeueefle meewjYemeejefJeefveefpe&lemebeJf ekeÀmelkeÀceueeefveue³es~ ceOegHeeveefJeOeew ceOegHem³e HegveYe&Jg eves YeJeleercenceekeÀue³es~~ 1.. I suppose that mogaro (jasmimum).) Family : Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) A²ada. Camel¤? also blooms in the evening. Flowers of M¢lat¤ have bloomed here and there. Monsoon has arrived...) Hepper (Phaseolus radiatus L. Urada Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. gets kindled by the wind carrying the pollen of M¢lat¤ in the morning: DeefJejlejleueeruee®eemepeeleÞeceeCeecegHeMececegHe³eevleb efve:mens²veeveeced Hegve©<eefme efJeefJekeÌlew: ceeleefjéeeJe®etC³e& pJeue³eefle ceoveeeqiveb ceeueleerveeb jpeeseYf e:~~ (¹iºup¢lavadha.364 365 ceeOeefJekeÀeHeefjceueueefueles veJeceeueefle peeeflemegievOeew~ cegefvecevemeeceefHe ceesnvekeÀeefjefCe le©CeekeÀejCeyevOeew~~ (G¤tagovinda 1/7) This is a description of spring. In the description of monsoon (Kir¢ta) . Water drops of rains have removed the dust of the earth.e-pdfconverter. 4/27-10. The beloved showing intoxication with deep embrace all these added is heaven. . The spring is a friend without reason – a friend of nature for the young. the paste of sandal and saffron applied on entire body. 4/28-52. The sexual heat. chameli and jai bloom in the evening. The beautiful women themselves leaving their pride are searching the young in the spring. These stories of non existing heaven are useless. The following aphorism praises m¢lati quite properly. 3/75-24.mecegHeovcegkegÀueeefve ceeueleerveeced~ efJejueceHepenej ye×efyevog: mejpeleeceJevesjHeeb efveHeele:~~ (10/20) The dust is pressed as it rains. Bhrt¨hari says: ceeueleer efMejefme pe=cYeCeb cegKes ®evoveb JeHege<f e kegÀ¹§ceeefJeueced~ Je#eefme efÒe³elecee ceoeuemee mJeie& S<e HeefjefMeä Deeiele:~~ M¢lat¤ flowers or their braids in the hair. which I think is for ‘M¢dhav¤’ or ‘M¢lat¤’. How is spring? It is lovely with the fragrance of madhavi climber and capable of agitating the minds of the sages perfumed with flowers of ‘Navam¢lat¤’ and Cambel¤. sarga 11 ºloka 173) veJeHe³e: keÀCekeÀesceueceeueleer kegÀmegcemebleeflemeblelemeef²efYe:~ The tender petals of M¢lat¤ and Cambel¤ are like the fresh water drops! Tender M¢lat¤ like the fresh drops of milk! There is a reference to ‘M¢linilat¢’ in K¢dambar¤. getting cooled over the body which is unable to endure it because of the fatigue developed by the sexual sports by the beautiful women. Nigha´°u therefore recognizes as sandhy¢pusp¢ manoram¢. We have referred ‘S¢yantana mallik¢(Refer Mallik¢). 4/1-76 The poet says that wasps do not find resting place in any other tree. the intoxicated yawns created by the Cupid in the mouth. The description of rainy season in the R¢m¢ya´a1: efJekeÀmevl³ee ®e ceeuel³ee ieleesçmleb %ee³eles jefJe:~ The M¢lat¤ flowers bloom in the evening and that indicates the sun setting.

Sth¢. Caraka considers Urada as the lowest of the pulses. with upper surface green and lower surface is bluish. Lemon (R¢m¢ya´a. MUCULINDA Citrus limonum Risso Family: Rutaceae to remove this message. 5/2-9.) Willd. green gram.366 367 (R¢mayana 7/91-20) M¢¾a is Urada or A²ada. MUCUKUNDA Pterospermum acerifolium (L. . MUDGA Vigna radiata (L. The sick are given liquid essence of Munga to drink. it is known by the same name. It is referred to in the ceremony of horse sacrifice. The wild Munga is also found and is known as Mudgapa´¤. (Pterospermum glabrescens Wight & Arn. This is a description of a calibate. Wilczek (Phaseolus trilobatus (L. Moong (R¢m¢ya´a of /91-19). 6/4-80 ) The elucidator R¢matilak¢ introduces as ‘Muculind¢ª jamb¤r¢ª’. I have not come across this name in Amarakoºa or Nigha´°u. Refer Caraka. Flowers large. Green and black Munga are available. Mudga is Munga considered the best of pulses. The tree grows up to 50 to 60ft height. kegÀMe®eerJejJeememee ceg¡ecesKeueekeÀefueleceO³esve (K¢dambar¤ para 18). Caraka considers that Munga removes cough and pitta and is best among pulses ‘supyottamah’ (Caraka s¦tra Act 27/23).) Family : Fabaceae Munga.e-pdfconverter. Jamb¤ra means lemon.) R. In Gujarat. ‘M¢¾apar´abh¨t¤ya’ chapter. It is easily digestive and nutritive.10/96) refers ‘ ¹¢rav¢n mudg¢n’. egg-shaped and grey coloured.) Scherb. A celibate had to wear it as a waist band. Its leaf is five angled. We have referred to ‘Mucukunda but what is ‘Muculinda’? we will follow its meaning of ‘Jamb¤ra’ as citrus limonum until further is enlightened. Family: Poaceae The author has not given its botanical name. strength giver and invigorating. He describes it as a type of grass considered sacred. Its meaning in scientific literature is “a tough Asiatic grass whose culms are used for ropes and baskets” (as per internet). MU-JA Saccharum munja Roxb. Its flowers.) Family : Malvaceae Kanaka Campa (R¢m¢ya´a 4/1-81). efÜef$eceg®egkegÀvokeÀefuekeÀefm$e®elegjcegkegÀue: ¬eÀcesCe ueJeueer<eg~ Heáe<eHeÀefueveerkegÀmegcees pe³eefle efnceleg&ve&JeeJeleej:~~ (K¢vyam¤maïs¢) “It indicates that even in winter 2-4 (a couple of) flowers of Mucakunda can be observed. It is a wholesome food. white and fruit about five inches long. Maga. But it is nutritive. Caraka (Ci. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. if crushed and applied on the forehead cure headache. ceg¡ecesKeueeiegCesve Heefjef#eHlepeOeveYeeieced (para – 142) carpets were made from this grass.

‘Mudg¢ ¹am¤dh¢ny¢n¢m’ (Caraka s¦tra 25) means mung is the best of all grains. §tu 1-17. That is why ‘Motha’ is named “krodesta and var¢h¤ : K¢lid¢sa has described beautifully the pigs chewing the Motha tubers and path strewn with the fallen crushed pieces of ‘Motha’ from their mouths all along the way.’ The shallow water pools dry in the summer. .368 369 Cakrap¢´idatta says Meejoeved cegÃeved Fefle nefjlecegÃeved. There are varieties of ‘Motha’ as ‘N¢gara Motha’. ‘Bhadra Motha’ Keva²¤ Motha and ‘Bhadra Motha’ is Must¢. munga that grows in autumn. sarga 15-19) The demon intimidating ¹atrughna uprooted a big tree from the ground to kill him as easily as one snatches the ‘Motha’ plant. This is a description of hunting. Raghu. Bhadra Motha. Family: Cyperaceae to remove this message. ) This is a description of resting after deer hunting. It appears to the poet that pigs in crowd confounded by the extreme heat of the sun are entering into the earth. like fragrant materials. ‘Allow the pigs uprooting ‘Motha’ plants without fear and let our bow also rest with their strings unsnatched. Motha has fragrance in its tubers (rhizome) which are used in the preparation of the hair oil. MUST¡1 Cyperus rotundus L. Refer §tusa¼¢ra sarga 1. efn²§ppJeuee peerjkeÀYeêcegmlee Je®ee³ee: ûeeqvLe: meieg[e ®e MegCþer~ S<ee ce³ee mesefJelee iebOe³egeqkeÌle: keÀLeb veenb ceOeggjmJej Fefle~~ (M¨cchaka°ika) I have taken the best Hi¬ga (asofoetida ). 9-59. K¢lid¢sa mentions ‘Bhadramust¢’ in the description of summer. Should not then I have a sweet voice? Bhadramust¢ is considered here as improving the vocal chord. Nutsedge. He saw that path which showed the crushed pieces of Motha fallen from the mouth of pigs and by the long muddy wet footsteps observed all along the way. 15-19. vagra (Kuºa grass) and dried ginger etc. meYeêcegmleb HeefjMeg<keÀkeÀo&ceb mej: KeveVee³eleHeesle=ceC[uew:~ jJesce&³etKewjefYeleeefHelees Ye=Meb Jejen³etLees efJeMeleerJe Yetleueced~~ The pigs dig the pond in which mud along with ‘Bhadra Motha’ has dried. Pigs uproot the ‘Motha’ digging them. Act-2 efJeÞeyOeb ef¬eÀ³eleeb JejenHeefleefYe: cegmlee#eefle: HeuJeues efJeÞeeve ueYeleeefceob ®e efMeefLeuep³eeyevOecemce×veg:~~ (¹¢kuntala.e-pdfconverter. cumin seeds. les efn Òee³e: Mejefo YeJeefvle~ It means ‘¹¢rad¢n mudg¢na’. mostly it is green mung. The pigs very much like the ‘Motha’ tubers and they were digging them from the pond. 1. Motha GÊemLeg<e: efMeefMejHeuJeueHe¹ceO³eeod cegmleeÒejesnkeÀJeueeJe³eJeevegkeÀerCe&ced~ peûeen me êgleJejenkegÀuem³e ceeie& megy³ekeÌleceeê&HeoHebekq eÌleefYeje³eleeefYe:~~ The king selected the path which the pigs selected for running away and who had just escaped from the cool mud of the pond. Fefle meblep³e& Me$egIveb je#eme: leeqppeOeebme³ee~ ÒeebMegceglHeeì³eeceeme cegmleemlecyeefceJe êgceced~~ (Raghu. ºloka 17. ¹¢kuntala. Fle: ¬eÀes[kegÀue¢M³eceeveYeocegmleejmeeceesn: (K¢dambar¤ Para 25) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www.

Raghu. Kum¢ra. Suºrutas critic. 9/43. Others consider ‘M¦rv¢’ as Senseveria zeylanica Family : Asparagaceae. Suºruta’s Robh¢diga´a mentions ‘Moc¢’ as mewueJeeueHeefjHesueyecees®ee Brahm¢ created Damayant¤’s eyes by removing the skin of Banan¢ tree and outer petals of the lotus by using their beauty. “Kar´¢rpitayavaprarohaª” (Kum¢ra. clematis triloba. Dev³es ®eesjmvee³egceeng:~ (S¦tra A.fruticosa).370 371 Pigs eat Moth tubers and spread their perfume. 86. Many consider ‘Murv¢’ as ‘Mora vela’. MOC¡ ‘Moc¢’ is Banan¢ tree. 38): means ‘M¦rv¢’ is a climber and its fibers were used to make strong strings for the bows. Family : Ranunculaceae. A sanskrit scholar named Bopadeva Considers it as Cadaba indica (C. 13/49. Motha plants can be easily uprooted in dried shallow pools but it is difficult to uproot them from the fields. sarga 8-62) 1. The young sprouts of Barley are compared with the tender moon rays. DeeflemeevêYeêYegmleemlecyeYeeefpe Heef¹HeuJeueÒeosMes (Nalacamp¦ -1) The wet region where ‘Motha’ can grow densely.e-pdfconverter. The celibate used to wear ‘M¦rv¢’ waist girdle. K¾atriya celibate had worn majith coloured reddish grey clothes and over it was worn ‘M¦rv¢’ waist girdle.71) ‘Moc¢’ has another meaning : ¹ima²o’(Prosopis) YAVA1 Hordeum vulgare L. mentions ‘M¦rv¢’ as Oevegie&gieesHe³eesi³ee otOeG[ Fefle ueeskesÀ.com to remove this message. known in Gujarat as Teliohemkanda” (translator’s comment). The fibers of this climber are strong enough to bear the heavy weight. Kum¢ra. Family : Asclepiadaceae. 24. sarga 7-17) “That the sprouts of ‘Yuva’ were used as earrings are mentioned many times. 17/12 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. sarga 8-62. M¥RV¡ ceewJ³ee& cesKeue³ee efve³eefv$eleceOeesJeeme½e ceeq¡eÿkeÀced (Uttarar¢ma. . Family: Poaceae Barley. lJe®e: mecegÊee³e& oueeefve jerl³ee cees®eelJe®e: HeáeMeHeeìvee³eeced~ meejwie&n= erleweJf e&eOf e©lHeueesOeeom³eeceYetoer#eCeªHeMeeefueveer~~ (Nai¾adha. sarga 7-82) The face of the wife became pale like the flowers of ‘Yuva’ used as an earring because of her observing in plenty the rules of conduct and sacrificial ceremonies. The synonym of ‘M¦rv¢’ is ‘Madhuras¢’. sarga 7. but it is not a climber. DeÒeieuYe³eJemetef®ekeÀesceuee: (Kum¢ra. But it is Marsdenia royalli. Java JeOetcegKeb keÌueevle³eJeeJelebmecee®eejOetceûenCeeod yeYetJe~~(Kum¢ra. ±alha´a. 4/20) Lava. Family : capparaceae. sarga 7-17. “The author considers it as a climber but it is a shrub.

Their tenderness with their delicate touch on the forehead is a beautiful imagination. One can enjoy it if one has seen the white sprouts of wheat and Barley. Flowers of J¦h¤. Act-4) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. S¤t¢ saw that the deer was trembling. ceokeÀue³egJeefleMeefMekeÀueeiepe³etLeHe³eteLf ekeÀeMeyeuekesÀMeer~ efmLej³eewJevee efmLelee mes otjeueeskeÀe cegKeeueeskeÀe~~ (Vikramo. Y¥THIK¡ Jasminum auriculatum Vahl Family: Oleaceae J¦h¤. (Raghu. The chaste woman. It is used in medicine. R¢jaºekhara describing winter mentions Òeª{ieesOetve³eJee ®e meercee~ nscevleefue²eefve pe³evel³ecetefve~~ (Adhy¢ya 18).372 373 De©Cejeieefve<eseOf eefYejbMegkewÀ: ÞeJeCeueyOeHeow½e ³eJee¹§j:w ~ HejYe=leeefJe©lew½e efJeueeefmeve: mcejyeuewjyeuewkeÀjmee: ke=Àlee:~~ (Raghu. efJeÞeevle: mevJe´peJeveveoerleerjpeeleeefve efme¡eVegÐeeveeveeb veJepeuekeÀCew: ³eteLf ekeÀepeeuekeÀeefve~ (Meghad¦ta . Sarga 13-39).ºloka – 26) After resting for sometime and sprinkling water drops on the flower buds of J¦h¤ in (artificial garden?) on the banks of the river flowing by the forest. Barley water is used for drinking for patients suffering from urinary problems. Jue. mentally moved with compassion covered the bow with a part of her clothes (S¢r¤) and plucking the barley sprout from a field and put it on the ear of R¢ to remove this message. ‘Yuva’ is BarleyHordeum valagare. This is a description of monsoon and the Juhi flowers during it. sarga 9-43) The passionate warriors were engrossed in thinking of women (Abalaikaras¢ª – those who have interest only in the women) by the soldiers of the Cupid such as the sprouts of Yuva set as earrings by the rays disdaining the reddish dawn and wabblings of cuckoos. like that of the ‘yuva’ looks beautiful on the pale forehead. The plants of Barley and wheat growing in this season. M¢lat¤ and Bakula are all used to make a garland and the head used to be adorned with it.early . Y¦thik¢ efJekeÀefmeleveJeHeg<Hew³e&tefLekeÀekegÀ*dceuew½e~~ (§tu. This earring. De³eb megpeeleesçvegeif ejb leceeue: ÒeJeeueceeoe³e megieefvOe ³em³e~ ³eJee¹§jeHeeC[gkeÀHeesueMeesYeer ce³eeJelebme: HeefjkeÀefuHelemles~ There is a Tam¢la tree near the mountain. sarga 2-24) “New flower buds of J¦h¤ bloomed’. Prasannar¢ghava’s ºloka: Yeerleb efJeueeske̳e nefjCeb keÀ©Ceeê&ef®eÊee Hel³egefve&pesve efHeoOes OevegjbMegkesÀve~ kesÀoejmeerecq ve meo³eb ®e ³eJeÒejesnceeoe³e meeOeg efJeoOes ÞeJeCeeJelebmeced~~ (Act 5. ³eJe¹§jeHeeC[gkeÀHeesue ³eJeÒeOeevemleg YeJeslÒecesner (Caraka) This is a nice comparison. ºloka 23) R¢mabbhadra was aiming the bow at a deer. Yuva sprouts as earrings are considered as a part of cupid’s soldiers. J¢i. I have made an earring from the fragrant sprout of Tam¢l. .

Then he speaks “her round breasts which were daily besmeared with the chandan paste would be cut off by the demons and coated with her blood and would be dirty with the mud. fragrant and very valuable. Its Guajarati name is ‘Rat¢®jal¤’.374 375 Oh ! Intoxicated captain ! have you seen a woman who is worth looking. f. The wood is bright red. ®evovesve ®e jkeÌlesve leHeveer³eefvecesve ®e~ megHegC³eieefvOevee ³egkeÌleb Deeefol³ele©Ce Hececed~~ (5/9-18) The poet has shown the pu¾paka plane. and still why am I still alive?” As R¢ma thinks about S¤t¢. ®evovesve ceneO³exCe ³em³ee²cegHemeseJf eleced~ ceuesve lem³ee²efceob keÀLeced Dee³e&m³e mesJeles~~ (2/99-35) How (R¢ma’s) his body which used to be covered with precious paste of chandan earlier would look now smeared with dust and mud?” we come across many references of Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. me meuuekeÀermeeueefMeueervO´e³etLeerÒeHetveo: Hege<f Heleuee²ueerkeÀ:~(K¢vyam¤m¢ïs¢) Sallak¤. like very hot and dark reddish as ‘Raktacandana’. steadily youthful. RAKTACANDANA Pterocarpus santalinus L. It is very to remove this message. leew ueesenf lem³e efÒe³eoMe&vem³e meoese®f eleeJegÊece®evovem³e~ Je=Êeew mleveew MeesefCeleHe¹efoiOeew vetveb efÒe³ee³ee cece veeefYeHeele:~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 3/63-8) After S¤t¢’s abduction by R¢va´a. jkeÌle®ebovemebkeÀeMee mebO³ee Hejceoe©Cee~ pJeuele: ÒekeÌleel³esleoeefol³eeeqiveceC[ueced~~ (6/23-6) One who has seen ‘Raktacandana’ tree will only be able to appreciate this comparison. pure. red as the early sun. her braids adorned with ‘Yuthik¢’ flowers and who is the best of all as the moon is best among the planets? (³etefLekeÀeHeg<Hew: Meyeuee: ef®e$ee: kesÀMee: ³em³ee: mee) The flower buds of J¦h¤ are still used to make braids. during his coronation was besmeared with a paste of chandan dark red in colour. Bharata also thinks about R¢ma. R¢ma bewails. This ºloka is also mentioned in 7/41-25. It is dark reddish like the redness of the rising sun.e-pdfconverter. Family: Fabaceae Jejen©efOejsCeeYesCe Megef®evee ®e megieefvOevee~ DevegefueHleb HejeL³exCe ®evovesve HejbleHeced~ (2/17-9) The king Daºaratha. . like that of the blood of a pig. The great poet has described the precious two hands of R¢va´a as red as the rabbit blood smeared with ‘Raktacandana’ MeMe#elepekeÀuHesve megMeerlesve megieefvOevee~ ®evovesve HejeO³esie mJevegefueHleew mJeuebke=Àleew~~ (5/10-19) The touch of ‘Raktacandana’ should be very cooling. The king and queen would be using it as a great offering. S¢la. Red powder (Ka¬ku) is prepared from it. ¹il¤ndhra and Y¦thik¢ flower in monsoon as L¢¬gal¤ does. The evening was excessively red like ‘Raktacandana’.

Synonyms of garlic according to Amarakoºa are ‘Mahau¾adha’. one that is salty is absent. Why is it called ‘Mah¢kanda’? Is it because it is precious among the Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. RASONA Allium sativum L. It was believed that chanting the holy mantras of sun would lead to immediate granting of one’s wishes. Laºuna. Its seeds are dark red in colour. he speaks. its meaning is ‘Salagama’.com to remove this message. What is available in the market as ‘Rat¢®jal¤’ is not genuine ‘Raktacandana’. Ari¾°a. . Lasuna (M¢lat¤m¢dhava 5-97) Mendicants following the black arts (magic) where they would cook garlic in neem oil. I will destroy you now.) Muell. Family: Amaryllidaceae Garlic. Oh! wicked mendicant! stop. ‘Mah¢kanda’ and ‘Rasona. Arg. Nobody has meant it as a carrot.376 377 ‘Raktacandana’ in the R¢m¢ya´a. G¨®janaka. leÊeo³e&cejnm³epeHes<eg m$e*dce³e: Me³ececegO³e yeYeepe~ jeqkeÌleceeveefceJe efMeef#eceg®®ew jkeÌle®evoveyeerpemeceepe:~~ (21/33) He chanted holy mantras with the rosary made out of Raktacanda seeds. meJe&iee$es<eg efJev³emlew jkeÌle®evovenmlekewÀ:~ efHeä®etCee&JekeÀerCe&½e Heg©<eesçnb HeMegke=Àle:~~ (M¨cchaka°ika Act-10) When Arya (respectable) C¢rudatta is led to the gallows. ‘Mahau¾adha’ is mostly used for dried ginger but garlic is very well used in medicine. Family: Euphorbiaceae (R¢m¢ya´a. that is why ‘Rasona Y¦naª’ Rasonaª” Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita has suggested rasona’s etymylogy differently : jmeves DeemJeeoves Tv³eles HeelekeÀnsleglJeeled~ Tve HeefjneCes~ means one abandons it as it is sinful.” Is ‘Rakatam¦laka’ carrot or salagam? Where ever the word ‘Ga®janaka’ is used in Caraka Suºruta. ve efjäced DeMegYeced Demceeled Fefle Deefjäb means nothing inauspicious will happen after its use is ‘Ari¾°a’. RAKTAM¥LAKA efleÿ js ogäÞeceCekeÀ efleÿ~ DeeHeevekeÀceO³eÒeefleäm³esJe jkeÌlecetuekeÀm³e Meer<e¥ les Ye*d#³eeefce~ (M¨cchaka°ika) “As the drunkard removes the top portion of carrot or salagam kept in liquor-shop to eat it. Lasa´a.e-pdfconverter.” RA-JAKA Mallotus philippensis (Lam. Rasona means having five tastes out of the six. 6/4-79) Ra®jaka is kapilo : Refer Kampillaka. “I am being treated as an animal whose body is smeared with Raktacandana to be offered to the black coloured animal deity. sprinkled with the black powder of rice.

. ¹aka people introduced Garlic in India. that is why “Pl¤han¢ºaka’. Raktarohitaka in Bengal is Amora rohituka. Garlic and onion are mentioned in Carakasaïhit¢. Family Meliaceae. Caraka considers Garlic as a brain tonic. Rohitaka means Rayatarohi²a. Family : Meliaceae. it is turnip – Raktapal¢´²u. M¢dhav¤.com to remove this message. Following qualities of garlic are described in Suºruta S¦trasth¢na Adhy¢ya 46. Its wood is reddish. Brahamins opposed its use but Charaka Susruta recommended it. On the other hand. So that they were looking jesefnCees jesnCe Fefle K³eelele©:~ OeesOeieefle Fefle K³eelees Jee~ jesefnleesçefHemeSJe~ Dele SJe jesefnle: HueernveeMekeÀ: Fl³ecejesçefHe~~ critics by Jagdhdara.) G. ¡mr¢taka. Brahamins therefore named it as ‘Yavane¾°am’. ¹obha®jana are trees which bend down in spring due to the weight of their flowers.e-pdfconverter. 5/15) Pale and bigbodied ghosts were bringing out their tongues from their mouths like caverns. Family Bignoniaceae ( Ventilago denticulata) others consider it ventilago madraspatensis (madraspatana). the bark is bitter and it reduces fever. it is known as Tecoma undulata . Raktarohitaka or only Rohitaka. The former is a big tree like a neem tree. Rohi´a is still known as ‘Roha´a’ in Gujarat. K¢vyam¤m¢¼s¢ Act 18) Rohitaka . Roha´a is Soymedia fabrifuga. ROHITAKA (R¢jaºekhara. It is a big liana also named as ‘Ragatarohi²o’. ferocious as the restless pythons were looking fierce in the lairs of old burning ‘Rohi´a’ trees. Ki¬kir¢ta. ‘Mlecchabhojanam’s Aruveda has named it Rasonakalpa. eqmveiOees<Celeer#Ce: keÀìgefHe®íue½e ieg©: mej: mJeeogjme½e yeu³e:~ Je=<³e½e cesOeemJejJeCe&®e#egYe&iveeefmLemevOeevekeÀjes jmeesve:~ ËêesiepeerCe&pJejkegÀef#eMetueefyeyevOeiegucee©ef®ekeÀemeMees<eeved~ ogvee&cekegÀÿeveuemeeopevlegmeceerjCe½eemekeÀHeÀeb½e nefvle~~ ROHI³A Tecomella undulata D. Rohita – Roh¤ means ‘Ragatarohi²o’ is considered a sure cure for spleen. Roha´a is a different tree from Rohi´a (Ragatarohi²o). The Vedas also praise it. (Tecoma undulata) is a beautiful Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Moc¢. Honey tree Rohita. Ragatarohido ueueopeiejOeesjkeÀesìjeCeeb Ðegelf eefcen oiOeHegjeCejesenf Ceeveeced~~(M¢lat¤.Don) Family: Bignoniaceae Roheda. Don (Tecoma undulate (Sm.378 379 tuberous? Caraka considers ‘G¨®jaka’ different from Garlic. Madh¦ka. Family : Rhamnaceae.

Here ‘chuptapatram’ word is used. Devesve meeOe¥ efJenjecyegjeMes: leerj<s eg leeueerJevecece&j<s eg~ ÜerHeevlejeveerleueJe²Heg<Hew: DeHeeke=ÀlemJesoueJee ce©efÓ:~~ (Raghu. It means it shrinks as soon as it is touched. living on the sea shore where the rustling sound of the palm forest constantly strikes their ear and the wind blowing over the sea carrying the fragrance of the Lava¬ga trees from the islands would every day dry your sweat drops. I believe that ‘Rohitaka’ is Tecomella undulata. Touch-me-not. ígHleHe$eefJeefveceereuf eleel#egHeelkeÀ®íHem³e Oe=le®eeHeueelHeueeled~ lJelmeKeer<eg mejìeeq®íjesIe=le: mJeb efYe³eesçefYeoOeleer<eg JewYeJeced~~(Sarga 18-148) Malaya place is in the south. 4-25) ueefueleueJe²ueleeHeefjMeeruevekeÀesceue³emeceerj~s ceOegkeÀjefvekeÀjkeÀjeqcyelekeÀesekf eÀueketÀefpelekegÀ¡ekegÀìerj~s ~ (G¤tagovinda) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. LAJJALU Miniosa pudica L. Its synonyms are ‘D¢²imacchada’. LAVA«GA Syzygium aromaticum (L. 6-57) Young princess! In rendezvous with the king. deity as a flower and a flower fit for a deity. moving chandan trees and carrying the aroma of Lavanga flowers removes the grief of the wife. lem³e peeleg ceue³emLeueerjlesOet&le®evoveuele: efÒe³eeuuececed~ Dee®e®eece meueJe²kesÀmej½eeìgkeÀej FJe oef#eCeeefveue:~~ (Kum¢ra.380 381 tree with small leaves like that of a pomegranate and dark red flowers. Lajjalu. Family: Mimosaceae Lajamani. The slowly blowing south (Malaya) wind. . Chhuimui It is surprising that Sanskrit poets have not mentioned this plant except there is only one reference in Nai¾adha. during the sexual sports at Malay place.) Merrill & Perry Family: Myrtaceae Lavi¬ga Other Sanskrit names of ‘Lava¬ga’ are ‘Devakusuma’ and ‘¹¤sa®jna (Amarakoºa). The compound word of ‘Devakusuma’ is interpreted as a flower of a deity.e-pdfconverter. like the sweet voices of the to remove this message.‘Lajj¢lu’ means it is bashful on touch and hence called as ‘Laj¢ma´¤’ or ‘Ris¢ma´¤’ (To sulk) The following ºloka is related with the choice marriage ceremony of Indumat¤ where her friend introduces every king : ÜerHeevlejeveerleueJe²Heg<Hew:. ‘D¢²imapu¾pa’. During the times of K¢lid¢sa Lava¬ga was brought in India from other islands. Candana and clove trees grow also in south.

‘Lava¬ga’ is mentioned in M¢lat¤m¢dhava (10-3). . mango and Laval¤ were used in the hermitage. At another place ueJeefuekesÀ keÀuHe³e kesÀlekeÀerOetefueefYeue&JeueerueleeueJeeceC[ueeefve (para 188) oh! Lavalika! This name is based on ‘Laval¤’. The fruit is quadri or hexagonal and hence named ‘Ka¬ka´a’. to remove this message. The aroma of ‘Laval¤’ flowers is indicated in another description of the forest: meHle®íoyekegÀuewueeueJe²ueJeueerueleeueesuekegÀmegcemegjefYe Heefjceue³ee (para 130). wore garlands of fragrant flowers of Lava¬ga.e-pdfconverter.) Family: Phyllanthaceae (Euphorbiaceae) Haraf¢reva²i. 3-15) me SJee³eb lem³ee: legenf veefvekeÀjewHec³emegYeiees ce³ee ueyOe: HeeefCe: ueefueleueJeueerkeÀvoueefveYe:~~ (Uttarar¢macarita 3-40) I have to day obtain your hand which is like a sprout of lovely ‘Laval¤lat¢’ and auspicious as ice. There is a reference that fruits of emblica (¡mal¢). drank coconut water and ate green betel nut.) Skeels (Phyllanthus distichus Müll. Another reference shows. sarga 3-81) Could Lava¬ga trees grow on the kutch seashore? Coconut and betel nut trees could grow but there is no limit for the imagination of a poet. R¢yakankanan DeefYeveJejeiejmeesç³eb YeJelees ke=ÀlekeÀewlegkeÀ: Heefj<Je²: ueJeueerueJe²³eesefjJe efve³eefleceneJeel³e³eeefYenle:~~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava) The mutual embrace of both you which was enjoyable and wonderful with the new cupidity (passion) has been destroyed by destiny as the mighty whirl wind destroys the embrace (twining) of ‘Laval¤lat¢’ (climber) and Lava¬ga tree. LAVAL£ Phyllanthus acidus (L. The soldiers of ¹r¤ K¨¾´a went to the seashore of Kutch. Bhavabh¦ti has considered ‘Laval¤’ as a climber (Lat¢) twining around a Lava¬ga tree. The elephant eating the ‘Laval¤’ leaves is mentioned (para 131). It is pickled or used as salad. It is also named as ‘¡mala’. But ‘Laval¤’ is a tree locally named as ‘Haraf¢reva²¤’ or ‘R¢yaka¬ka´¢n’. K¢dambar¤ has many references of ‘Laval¤’. The cuckoo “Utfullapallavalaval¤” is shown hiding behind the mature leaves of Laval¤ (para 141). ueJe²ceeuee keÀefueleeJelebmee les veeefjkesÀueevlejHe: efHeyevle:~ DeemJeeefoleeê&keÀcegkeÀe: mecegêeoY³eeielem³e ÒeefleHeefÊeceer³eg:~~ (¹iºup¢lavadha. These are Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. keÀefHeyeueefJeuegHleefJejueueJeueerueleeHeÀueeled (para 47) the monkeys eating the rare fruits of ‘Laval¤lat¤’.382 383 Here ‘Lava¬ga’ is mentioned as ‘lat¢’ (climber) just to alliterate for pleasing the ear. Bhavabh¦ti has mentioned the young elephant snatching the ‘Laval¤’ leaves attached to S¤t¢’s ear (Uttara.

com to remove this message. The face is pale as the lovely leaf. The breast nipples are black. ‘Makarike’. The priest then asked the bride to throw Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ‘C¦talatike’. ueefueleueJeueerYe²wj²wJevew ®eefuelee meleer~ pevekeÀleve³ee HeeCeew Oe=lJee ve leefÜefveJeeefjlee~~ (Prasannar¢ghava Act 5-33) K¢lid¢sa has used only once the word ‘Laval¤’ (Vikramo. ‘Pallavike’. Its leaves are like those of K¢sund¤ and Sundarasen. Ievee eqmveiOee nefjlÒeebMeg: keÀemeceo&me¢kedÀ®íoe~ megievOecetuee ueJeueer HeeC[gkeÀesceueJeukeÀuee~~ ‘Laval¤’ is a shade giving tree.384 385 some of the names of Laval¤. ‘Nipu´ike’. keÀef®euueJeueerHeÀueêJesCeeêeaef¬eÀ³eceeCeebmle=CeMetkeÀce¡ejerkeÀCe&Hetjeved (Para 209). yellowish green and with lower surface pale green or white (Nigha´°u ¡darºa. ‘M¨´¢like’. . ‘Kesarike’. ‘lovely leaves are compared with ‘P¢´²ur¢nana’. ‘Kumudike’. The paleness of ‘Laval¤ leaf is well known. kes À meef j kes À .e-pdfconverter. leew obHeleer ef$e: HeefjCeer³e JeefÚcev³eesv³emebmHeMe&evf eceereuf elee#eew~ me keÀej³eeceeme JeOetb HegjesOee: leeqmcevmeefve×ef®e&e<f e ueepecees#eced~~ (Kum¢ra. ‘Kamalinike’. They are thin. ‘Rajanike’. ±alha´a. Act-5) out of all references I have referred. JevejeefpeefceJe HeeC[gM³eeceueJeueerueleeuebke=ÀleceO³eeced (para 191). The central body part of K¢dambar¤ looked pale as the ‘Laval¤’ leaf. critic of Suºruta has also mentioned ‘Laval¤’. L¡J¡ Roasted Paddy (Fruit of Oryza sativa) L¢j¢ is mentioned as an offering to Ya®ja during sacrificial ceremony (Ya®ja) performed on the engagement ceremony of ¹iva and P¢rvat¤. The pointed extended wire like tips of the white spikelets are named in sanskrit as MetkeÀm$eer Mue#Celeer#Ceeûes (Amarakoºa). 7-8) The husband and wife (couple) who had closed their eyes because of mutually touching their bodies went round fire three times. (these are all names for addressing). etc. ‘Utpalike’. The eyes look tired. Laval¤k¢ has been entrusted to prepare a field around ‘Laval¤’ with the pollen grain of Ketak¤ flowers. It is a big tree and it looks bright green. ‘M¢latike’. Such pointed ‘¹uka (spikelets) were moistened in ‘ Laval¤ juice’ and were used as ear rings (Kar´ap¦gan) The body parts of S¤t¢ are described as delicate and beautiful as lovely ‘Laval¤’. Its shade is dense and tender. DeeefJeueHe³eesOejeûes ueJeueeroueHeeC[gjeveve®íe³eced~ keÀefleef®eoneefve JeHegjYetlkesÀJeueceuemes#eCeb lem³ee:~~ The Poet described the body characters of a pregnant woman. early 372). ‘Nalinike’. ‘Lava¬gike. efmeáeceefojejmesve yekegÀuekegÀmegceceeueeie=neefCe (Kesara here is Bakula. The name is related according to the work allotted as for example. Bolasar¤). ‘Kadalike’.

Dee®eejueepewefjJe HeewjkeÀv³ee~~ (Raghu. During marriage. 7-25) The priest as a br¢hamin made the bride Indumat¤. 1410. with their flowers like the city girls welcome the king with ‘L¢j¢’. 4-27) ‘L¢j¢ on Raghu. same repeated in Raghuva¼ºa.Akha´²ata´²ul¢ª . DeJeeefkeÀjvJe³eesJe=×e leb ueepew: Heewj³eese<f ele:~ The old women of the city showered (Raghu. “Look. same sentiment. This rite of ‘L¢j¢homa’ is still prevalent. Sarga 7. Kum¢ra. ruby and pearl studded bangles and lens garland her neck were broken and for a moment Damayant¤ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 26.. as per the instruction of the priest allowed the sweet aroma released from L¢j¢ oblations to come near her face. The poet has also mentioned L¢j¢mok¾a (salvation) during the marriage of ¡ja and Indumat¤. 7-81) P¢ravat¤. . ºloka 26. sarga 15-75) Damayant¤’s friend spoke to her..386 387 ‘L¡J¡’ grains which were in her hands into the fire of the altar. worship and honouring the king after the victory. P¦mbh¦mni and ‘Ak¾at¢ª’. There is a difference between ‘L¢j¢ and Ak¾ata. 2nd line.. ³es kesÀ ®e Je´er¿ees Ye=äe: les ueepee Fefle keÀerefle&lee:~ (R¢janigha´°u) (Ram¢y¢´a 6/11-219) meKeer veueb oMe&³eceeve³ee¹lees peJeeogomlem³e keÀjm³e keÀ¹Ces~ efJe<ep³e nejwm$egeìf lew: Deleefke&Àlew: ke=Àleb Je³eeefHe #eCeueepecees#eCeced~~ (Nai¾adha. having heavy buttocks. ‘Ak¾at¢ª’ . 7-25. . L¢j¢ is roasted paddy. 4-27. L¢j¢ was also used.. bashfulness and eyes like that of a passionate chakora bird to offer L¢j¢ in the fire. She was so confused that because of the shock her diamond. efvelecyeiegJeea ieg©Cee Òe³egkeÌlee JeOeteJf e&Oeele=Òeeflecesve lesve~ ®ekeÀej mee ceÊe®ebkeÀesjves$ee ueppeeJeleer ueepeefJemeie&ceiveew~~ (Raghu. 83 Raghu. Nala is coming”. But who knows the meaning of this rite? mee ueepeOetcee¡eefueefceäievOeb iegªHeosMeeÜoveb efvevee³e~ keÀHeesuemebmeefHe&efMeKe: me lem³ee: cegntle&keÀCeeslHeueleeb ÒeHesos~~1 (Kum¢ra. 2-10) The vines on the road welcomed Dil¤pa.Ak¾at¢ª is intact whole rice is Ak¾ata which is correct. 1.e-pdfconverter. Amarakoºa gives three names L¢j¢. HegjmleeosJe efnleb efJeOeles Fefle HegjesOee: Hegjesefnle:~ efJeJesMe meewOeesÃleueepeJe<ee&cegÊeesjCeecevJe³ejepeOeeveerced~~ ( to remove this message. 14-10) When the king entered the ancient capital. 80. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita explains it as ‘Bh¨¾°avr¤hi’ as roasted paddy. That smoke touching the forehead of the goddess formed a figure of blue lotus near the ear. very big streamers were hanging on the roads and there was a shower of L¢j¢ from the white houses coloured by lime. 2-10 L¢j¢ (roasted paddy) is our holy material. going towards Vasi¾°ha’s hermitage. 7-68.

Bread fruit (Mah¢v¤racarita 5/32) Likuca or Lakuca is known in Hindi as a ‘Ba²ahara’ tree. Caraka describes it as the lowest of lowest fruit. Bahirvy¢ja etc.e-pdfconverter. Family: Symplocaceae Lodhra is referred in the R¢m¢ya´a1. ueesOe´e½e efieefjHe=ÿs<eg efmebnkesÀmejefHe¡eje: (4/1-79). ievOeb cegáeefle efmekeÌleueepeme¢Me Je<exCe oiOee mLeueer~~ When the first rain comes. me Heeìuee³eeb YegefJe leefmLeJeebmeb OevegOe&j: kesÀmeefjCeb ooMe&~ DeefOel³ekeÀe³eeefceJe Oeelegce³³eeb ueesOe´êcg eb meevegcele: ÒeHegÀuueced~ (Raghu. 2/94-8. incisa). Jackfruit. Fa´asa. clumsy. 7/26-5. LIKUCA Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. Another fruit allied to Jack fruit is Bread Fruit : Artocarpus altilis (A. its women welcomed him (Hari) with L¢j¢ flowers offered with two folded hands resembling a bloomed lotus and which resembled the pearls separated from the opened two valves of a shell. Kadal¤ (Banana). 4/1-79. 13/37) When K¨¾´a entered Hastin¢pura.388 389 experienced (as if as the poet visualized) she had offered ‘L¢j¢mok¾a´a’ with the pearls of the broken garland. R¢jaºekhara mentions ‘L¢j¢’ at the beginning of rains. There is a reference of ‘L¢j¢’ in ‘Magha’ keÀj³egiceHe¨ecegkegÀueeHeJeefpe&lew: ÒeefleJesMce ueepekegÀmegcewjJeeefkeÀjved~ DeJeoerCe&Megekq eÌleHegìcegkeÌleceewekq eÌlekeÀÒekeÀjwes jf Je efÒe³e jLee²ce²vee:~~(sarga. Jackfruit is mentioned in K¢dambar¤ (para 3) GHemebie=nerleeceuekeÀueJeueerkeÀke&ÀvOetkeÀoueeruekegÀ®eHeveme®etleleeueHeÀueced It is mentioned in the description of Brahmaloka hermitage. R¢jasekhara considers Lacuca and allied ones as “Antarvy¢ja”. Ba²ahara is a large tree. R¢jsekhra has distinguished six types of a fruit Antarvy¢ja. Karkandhu (Zigipus). palm. . Emblica (¡malaka). sarga 2-29) 1. The name of the earth is ‘Gandhavat¤’. 7-42-4 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ‘L¢j¢mok¾a´a’ is always performed on every auspicious festival. Lakuca is a little Fa´asa tree. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita calls Lakuca as Ba²ahara. Laval¤ (Haraf¢rava²¤). The fruits are of various shapes. all these fruits were stored in the hermitage.) Fosberg ) Family: Moraceae Jack fruit. (Artocarpus altilis ( to remove this message. Vy¢ja means pretence. the earth heated in summer emits fragrance like that of ‘L¢j¢’. Lodhara trees having yellowish pollen like the lion’s mane have bloomed on the mountain tops. LODHRA Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Mango.

Describing the characteristics of all seasons of Alak¢ city (Meghad¦ta. sarga 4-1) M¢dhava believes that M¢lat¤ has been killed and her lustre in Lodhra flowers. The comparison of the pale face of a pregnant woman with that of yellowish colour of ‘Lodhara’ flowers. The blooming of ‘Lodhra’ flowers in Hemanta and their paleness in ¹iºira expressing maturity is mentioned. ºloka 2). her motion in the elephant. veerlee ueesOe´ÒemeJejpemee HeeC[gleeceeveves Þeer:~ ÒeHegÀuueueesOe´: the beauty of face looked pale with the pollen of ‘Lodhra’ flowers in ¹iºira. veJes<eg ueesOe´ÒemeJes<eg keÀeefvle ÎMe: kegÀj²s<eg ieleb iepes<eg~ ueleemeg vece´lJeefceefle ÒeceL³e J³ekeÌleb efJeYekeÌlee efJeefHeves efÒe³ee ces~~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava. Early Megha. Plants producing resin like Benzoin and storax have perfume. dark green fields. Many types of Lodhara are found and the flowers of some of them have fascinating smell efve®eef³eefve ueJeueerueleeefJekeÀemes peve³eefle ueesOe´meceerjCes ®e n<e&ced~ efJeke=ÀeflecegHe³e³eew ve HeeC[gmetveg: ®eueefle ve³eeVe efpeieer<eleeb efn ®esled~~ The passion arouses with blooming of flowers (sarg 1029) of Laval¤lat¢ (vine) showing with expanding leaves or with the wind carrying Lodhra perfume. Lodhra trees bent with flowers and early morning dew.390 391 The king having a bow with him saw a lion standing on a cow it appeared as if the Lodhara tree had grown up on the red chalky coloured hillock of the Himalays.’ HegVeeiejesOeÒemeJeeJelebmee JeeceYe´Jg e: keÀáegkeÀkegÀefáelee²îe:~ Je¬eÀesuuemelkegÀ²kegÀceefmekeÀLekeÀe¹e: megievOelewuee: keÀyejerJe&nefvle~~ Punn¢ga and Rodhra bloom in Hemanta (R¢jaºekhara). In the description of Hemanta K¢lid¢sa mentions ‘Prafullalodhra. eyes’ splendour in deer. Kum¢rasaïbhava (sarg 7 ºloka 9) states that Lodhra is astringent and its powder might be used to remove greasiness after oil massage. The signs of Hemanta are emergence of new leaves. MejerjmeeoeomeceûeYet<eCee cegKesve meeue#³ele ueesOe´HeeC[gvee The queen having a emaciated body had worn limited ornaments and like the yellowish flowers of ‘Lodhara’ tree her face was pale. Describing the body parts of a pregnant woman. Men wishing to conquer the world do not falter in observing ethics in fulfuling their to remove this message. Flowers of ‘Lodhra’ are fragrant. . The word ‘Lodhrasam¤ra´a’ indicates that its flowers are fragrant. Act 9-27) veJeÒeJeeueesÃcemem³ejc³e: ÒeHegÀuueueesOe´: HeefjHekeÌkeÀMeeefue:~ efJeueerveHe¨e: ÒeHeleÊeg<eejes nscevlekeÀeue: mecegHeeieleesç³eced~~ (§tu. K¢lid¢sa remembers a Lodhara Tree. The poet shows that ‘Lodhara’ tree with light yellow coloured flowers growing on red soil looks attractive.e-pdfconverter. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. and her humility in vines have been distributed. But Arjuna’s mind did not grieve.

Here the name ‘Lodhra lat¢’is used as lat¢ (climber) out of fondness of Sanskrit poets for it though ‘Lodhra’ is a tree. 7-17) The goddess had an earring of barley sprout. YeJeÜwejf JeOetJeoves Jeves ®e veejbieleªHeMeesYes Yeeefvle ieC[MewuemLeueeuebkeÀejOeeefjC³ees ueesOe´uelee:~~ (Nalacmp¦ Uttara. The faces of enemy wives were without application of ‘Lodhara’ and the forests were without ‘Lodhra’ vines. VA-JULA There is a reference in the R¢m¢ya´a. Therefore use of ‘Va®jula’ as ‘Aºoka is justified. eflejerì-leer³e&les ceuecevesve~ means one which removes the dirt. keÀCee&eHf e&lees ueesOe´keÀ<ee³e©#es ieesjes®evee#esHeefveleevleieewj~s lem³ee: keÀHeesues HejYeeieueeYeeod yeyevOe ®e#ete<f e ³eJeÒejesn:~~ (Kum¢ra.392 393 leeb ueesOe´keÀukesÀve nlee²lewueeceeM³eevekeÀeues³eke=Àlee²jeieeced~~ The greasiness of the body after oil massage was removed with the powder of lodhra and the paste of yellow candan that was applied on the body. The etymology of ‘Lodhra’ is Ru´advi’ “Rudhira ¢var´e”: one that stops bleeding. ‘Tilva’ and ‘M¢rjana (Amarakoºa).com to remove this message. and it has no relation with Lodhra.e-pdfconverter. 2) The women of enemies were devoid of beauty because of non applications of Lodhralat¢ which beautify the foreheads.. The sprout of barley was touching. The poet has mentioned trees and climbers on the banks of Saray¦ and Varad¢. Va®jula is used as a synonym for Aºoka. 3/11-74. The R¢m¢ya´a uses ¹ukladrumaª’ word for ‘Lodhra’.1 Tilakavy¢khy¢k¢ra interprets ‘Va®jula’ as Aºoka. Lodhra is a beautiful tree. . 1. sarga 16-54) are references. Synonyms of Lodhra are ‘G¢lava’. ‘Rodhav¨k¾a’ (M¢lavik¢. osJe. 4/1-78. Act 5 ºloka 1) and ‘Rodholat¢ (Raghu. 6/4-79 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. There are two types of ‘Lodhra’ : (1) white and (2) red. removal of greese and cooling the body. efleuJe-efleueefle Devesve De² efleue mvesnves indicate the qualities of application. That is why it looked attractive. But I consider that its meaning should be what is known in Marathi as V¢dunja which is misspelt of the word ‘Va®jula’. V¢gbha°a’s famous ‘Rodhradiga´a’ mentions the use of white and red types. Tiniºa and Vetasa plants. ‘Tir¤°a’. that is it is a medicine for eyes. Lodhra’s another synonym is ‘Cak¾urbhi¾ajyam’. The forehead was beautiful with application of Lodhara and exceedingly fair with the use of medicine made from cow dung. K¢lid¢sa has mentioned ‘Rodhov¨k¾a’ twice or thrice but its meaning is trees on the river bank’. ‘¹¢vara’. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita considers ‘G¢lava’ and ¹¢vara as white ‘Rodhra’ and the remaining four words for Red ‘Lodhra’. 4/50-25. ‘Lodhra’.

. ‘Jalavetasa’ grow near the river.Adhy¢ya105 ºloka 8) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ‘Vetra’ is ‘Netara’ (Nic¦la). Ones ‘Vidula’. The clusters of male and female flowers appear beautiful. ‘V¢n¤ra’ – in the R¢m¢ya´a (4/2718). ‘Vetasa and ‘Jalavatasa are similar trees. The word ‘Vetasa’ has two uses. one side green and other side white. ‘Vetasa ‘ and ‘Vetra’ are two different words. the one that blooms with sky coloured flowers or blooms when there are rainy cloulds. ‘Vetasa’. ‘Vetra’ is ‘Veta’ (Nic¦la) which is mentioned in the R¢m¢ya´a. ‘Tiniº¢’ and ‘Vetasa’. In spite. vetasa and ‘Jalavetasa’. Lak¾ama´a prepared for S¤t¢ a nice seat of branches of ‘Vetasa’ and ‘Jamb¦’. Its branches bend down as those of a willow tree. V¢n¤ra and ‘N¢dey¤’ are with ‘Jalavetasa’. beautiful trees of V¢dunja grow and a glance at them one is convinced that they are ‘Va®jula’ trees. But that Va®jula is distinguised from Aºoka and ‘Timiº¢ would be the appropriate one. I feel there are two varieties of a tree. I have observed this tree in Mah¢baleºvara. 4/2718). ‘Va®jula’ is a nice tender tree growing near water in monsoon.e-pdfconverter. lelees JewlemeMeeKee½e pecyegMeeKee½e leer³e&Jeeved~ ®ekeÀej ue#ceCe: efíÊJee meerlee³ee: megKeceemeveced~~ (2/55-15) It is believed that chairs are made from ‘Vetasa’ wood in Punjab. ‘Vetasa’ – in the R¢m¢ya´a (2/ to remove this message. ‘Vetasa ‘tree does not flower! that ‘Vidula’ does not flower is stated in the Mah¢bh¢rata: efJeoguem³e SJe lelHeg<Heb ceesIeb peveef³eleg: mce=leced (Anuaº¢naparva . Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita interprets ‘Vetra’ as ‘Veta’ means ‘Kh¢tasya’ and creates confusion. and ‘Va®jula’ are mentioned in the R¢m¢ya´a. All the synonyms are mentioned in Amarakoºa and all these names have been used in Sanskrit literature. In the R¢m¢ya´a. Nigha´°u mentions it introducing as “Ma®jar¤namra”. Je³eefle DecYeesçvegJele&les efJelem³eles Jee Fefle Jesleme:~ (K¾¤rasv¢mi) efJeoesu³eles veoerJesiesve Fefle efJeogue:~ (K¾¤rasv¢mi) Jeveefle Yepel³ecyeg Fefle Jeeveerj:~ (K¾¤rasv¢mi) Jeeb Meg<kebÀ Dee mecevleeled veerjcem³e Fefle Jeeveerj:~ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita) Jee³eefle DeesJew Mees<eCes Fefle Jeeveerj:~ (Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita) veÐeeb YeJee Fefle veeos³eer~ All these above expressions introduce this tree in a nice way and indicate the close relation of this tree with water. one which grows near water and the other which grows away from water. so we consider ‘Vetasa and ‘Ve®jula’ as two separate. during the descent of the Ganges. ‘Jalavetasa’ has two synonyms: ‘Vidula’ and ‘V¢n¤ra’.394 395 On the bank of God¢var¤ river. ‘V¢n¤ra’. It flowers in monsoon and that is why its name ‘Abhrapu¾pa’ . ‘Vetra’ is confused with ‘Vetasa’ because the tender branches of ‘Vetasa’ are used as those of netar. ‘Va®jula is used as synonym of ‘Aºoka’. Leaves like those of Nerium.

1. References of ‘Nicula’ and others except ‘Va®jula’ are mentioned in various works of K¢lid¢s. Forests of ‘V¢n¤ra’. sarga 13-45) R¢ma tells S¤t¢ “I had slept alone putting my head in your lap. some of them like ‘Jalak¢yaª’. Meghd¦ta early . Many ‘V¢n¤ra’. Cool breeze blowing along God¢var¤ removed my fatigue. Its forests are in the south.e-pdfconverter. ‘Nicula’. ‘V¢nora’1 – Uttarar¢macaritra (Bhavabh¦ti) Fn meceoMekegÀvlee¬eÀevleJeeveerjefJe©led~ ÒemeJemegjefYeMeerlemJe®ílees³ee Jenefvle~~ The ‘V¢n¤ra’ (Virudh) trees bloom on God¢vari river with its clean water. Family Salicaceae. ‘V¢n¤ra’ means ‘V¢dunja’. ‘Virudha’ trees are seen on God¢var¤ bank. In short ‘Va®jula’ is salix tetrasperma Roxb. 37.396 397 The learned critic of Caraka. Raghuvaïºa sarga 13-35. The birds were chirping on these trees and their passion was humming lenjesgien the arbour of ‘V¢n¤ra’ trees. Deece¡egJe¡egueueleeefve ®e leev³ecetevf e veerjvOe´veerjefve®egueeefve meefjÊeefve~~ (sarga. Indian willow. K¢lid¢sa mentions ‘V¢n¤ra’ trees in the following reference. Today I remember this occasion”. 13 -30) My look coming from a higher level to a lower one feels with regret as if it is drinking water of Pamp¢lake. Cakrap¢´idutta has given an example of ‘Vetasa’ tree having no relation with flower: DeH³esJe leg YeJeslHeg<Heb HeÀuesveevegyeefvOe ³eled Deece¡egJepeg¡eueleeefve ®e leev³ecetefve meefjÊeìeefve (Uttarar¢macarita 2/23) Bhavabh¦ti mentions beautiful ‘Va®jula’ trees (here shown as a climber) growing all round on the banks of God¢var¤ river. ‘Jalaukaª’. These trees grow near water. 1-21. tired after hunting in V¢n¤r forests on the bank of God¢var¤. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. De$eevegieesob ce=ie³eeefveJe=Êe: lejbieJeelesve efJeveerleKeso:~ jnmleoglme²efve<eCCecetOee& mcejeefce Jeeveerjie=n<s eg megHle:~~ (Raghu. sarga 16-21) K¢lid¢sa grieves seeing forests without ‘V¢n¤ra’ trees on the bank of ‘Saray¦’ river. . Some synonyms of ‘V¢n¤ra’ like ‘Va®jula’. ‘Vetasa. The cool clean water of God¢var¤ was perfumed with their to remove this message. Among its many names. ‘Vetra’ etc are available. 2-23) The poet mentions ‘Va®julat¢’ to dense groups of lovely and lustrous ‘V¢n¤ra’ trees growing on the bank of the river. ‘Virodha’ trees are present on its bank and a few active S¢rasa birds hiding in these houses are seen. kesÀefuekeÀueekegÀlegkesÀve ®e keÀeef®eocegb ³ecegveepeueketÀues~ ce¡egueJe¡eguekegÀ¡eieleb efJe®ekeÀ<e& keÀjsCe ogketÀues~~ (G¤tagovinda 1/6) The recreation of R¢dh¢k¨¾´a in pleasant arbour of ‘Va®jula’ trees on the bank of Yamun¢ river is mentioned in many places by the poet Jayadeva.43 GHeevleJeeveerjJeveesHeiet{ev³eeue#³eHeeefjHueJemeejmeeefve~ otjeJeleerCee& efHe³eleerJe Kesoeocetefve HecHeemeefueueeefve ¢efä:~~ (Raghu. GHeevleJeeveerjie=neefCe ¢äJee Metv³eeefve ot³es mej³etpeueeefve~~(Raghu. ‘N¢dey¤’. ‘Jalavetasaª’ are appropriate with their habitat.

a tree of the forest. When Viºv¢mitra takes R¢ma with him. VI¹ALYAKARA³£ It is the most important plant of the R¢may¢´a. Cakrap¢´idatta has distinguished between ‘V¢n¤ra’ and ‘Vetasa’. sometime known as “crowmango”. The critic of Carakasamhit¢. ‘Vika¬kata’ is ‘Vikalo’ ‘Vika²o’. eventhough is a variety of ‘Vetasa’ is without fragrance. V¢yavara´o. it is one of the most beautiful trees. became fearful. Pleasure couches were prepared in such arbours. Its lemon like fruit ripens in late monsoon. It grows in B¢l¢r¢ma near the river in north Gujarat. The tree grows abundantly in Panchamahal district of Gujarat. repeating the mantra (charm). the mother Kauºaly¢ had tied the plant on R¢ma’s wrist for his protection. Family: Celastraceae It is mentined only once by K¢lid¢sa Jeer#³e Jeseof ce³e jkeÌleefyevogeYf e: yevOegpeerJeHe=LegeYf e: Òeeote<f eleeced~ mebYe´ceesçYeJeoHees{keÀce&Ceeced $eÝeqlJepeeb ®³egleefJekeÀ¹le©®eeced~~ (11-25) ‘Bandhuj¤va’ means ‘Bandhuka’. The root of ‘Vetasa’ is fragrant and ‘V¢n¤ra’. (Crataeva religiosa Forst. Act3 Candan¢di oil chapter). vara´o (R¢m¢ya´a 2/94-9). VIKA«KATA Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth. On seeing the sacrificial altar being made impious by blood drops as dark red as the flower of ‘Bandhuka’. It blooms in Chaitra month with white flowers with shades of blue and purple. Both for its beauty and medicinal quality.e-pdfconverter. his mother Kauºaly¢ ties a part of this on R¢ma’a wrist for his protection. Jesleme: megieefvOecetueb. It is a large tree with three leaflets.) Family: Capparaceae Temple plant. It is V¢yavara´o or Vara´o. Deew<eOeer ®e megemf e×eLeex efJeMeu³ekeÀjCeer MegYeced~ ®ekeÀej j#eeb keÀewmeu³ee cev$ew: DeefYepepeeHe ®e~~ (2/25-38) fully accomplishes one’s desires.Forst f.Ggymnosposea montana. which could fully Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. It is thorny and it blooms in winter with very small white flowers which have mild fragrance. This is the only difference between the two. It is a very useful medicinal plant. the sages. VARU³A Crateva religiosa G.398 399 ³ecegveeleerjJeeveerjefvekegÀ¡es cevoceeefmLeleced~ Òeen ÒesceYejesoYd e´evleb ceeOeJeb jeefOekeÀemeKeer~~ (4/1) me¹sleerke=Àlece¡egJe¡egueueleekegÀ¡esçefHe ³eVeeiele:~~ (7/3) mebÒeefle ce¡egueJe¡eguemeerceefve kesÀefueMe³eveceveg³eeleced~~ (11/1) Love affairs took place in the arbour of lovely ‘Va®jula’ trees. Jeeveerj: leoYesoesçH³emegieefvOecetue:~ (chikitsasthana. Its one name is ‘Kum¢raka’ – the tree that has a long to remove this message. efJekeÀ¹le: ñeg®eeb Je=#e:~ (Amarakoºa). incorrectly printed as ‘Vara´a’ instead of ‘Varu´a’. . Its wood is strong and ladles are made from its wood. who had left offering the sacrifice and from whose hands the wooden ladles made from ‘Vika¬kata’ tree fell down.

the monkeys went to mountains in the center of the (K¾¤ra) ocean of milk and brought this medicinal plant. D¦dhiyo Vachan¢ga. Baliospermum montanum ‘Gu²¦c¤’. ‘L¢¬gal¤. There is no reference of ‘Viºalyakara´¤’ in the works of K¢lid¢sa. Il¢yac¤. ce=lemebpeerJeveeR ®ewJe efJeMeu³ekeÀjCeerceefHe~ megJeCe&keÀjCeeR ®ewJe mebOeeveer ®e cenew<eOeerced efJeMeu³ee uee²ueer ovleer ieg[®t eer ef$eHegìemeg ®e~ Meu³esve jefnlee³eeb ®e efÒe³ee³eeb ue#ceCem³e ®e~~ Fefle nsce®evê:~~ Hanum¢n brought all these medicines which cured R¢ma and Lak¾ma´a. R¢ma was terribly disturbed when Lak¾ma´a was unconscious. He brought them and Su¾e´a was a Vaidya (doctor). I feel that it is difficult to find out what these ‘Divine medicines’ are. Tinospora cordifolia ‘Tripu°¢’.com to remove this message.nj³emleg efJepeeveefvle HeeJe&leer les cenew<eOeerced~ mebpeerJekeÀjCeer efoJ³eeb efJeMeu³eeb osJeefveefce&leced~~ (6/50-28 -30) Hanum¢n went to this mountain and saw on all sides divine medicines on ‘Mountain of medicines’: lele: meb#eesoef³elJee leecees<eOeeR JeevejesÊece:~ ue#ceCem³e ooew vemle: meg<esCe: megceneÐegl& e:~~ meMeu³e: me meceeIe´e³e ue#ceCe: HejJeerjne~ efJeMeu³es efJe©pe: MeerIe´cegoefleÿvcenerleueeled~~ (6/101-43 -44) He crushed the medicines on a stone slab and obtained their juice.. Vatthav¢ra²¤ (Gujarati). When R¢ma and Lak¾ama´a were wounded and became unconscious. At that time: efJeMeuHekeÀjCeeR veecvee mee¢C³e&keÀjCeeR leLee~ mebpeerJekeÀjCeer Jeerj mebOeeveer ®e cenew<eefOeced~~ mebpeerJeveeLe& Jeerjm³e ue#ceCem³e lJeceeve³e~~ (6/101-31) Su¾e´a asked Hanum¢n to bring these medicines.) or ‘Ga²o’. Viºaly¢’ is also a synonym of ‘Agniºikh¢’. Cardamom These are the meanings of Viºaly¢. leeveelee&Veämeb%ee½e ieleemetbÞe ye=nmHeefle:~ efJeÐeeefYe: cev$e³egkeÌleeefYe: Dees<eOeerefYe: ef®eefkeÀlmeefle~~..Gloriosa superba. Amarsinha has named ‘Viºaly¢’ as a synonyms of ‘Gu²uc¤’ (Tinospora sp.400 401 accomplish any desires and was able to remove any obstacle.Gado. . But there is a reference of ‘great medicines’ brought by Hanum¢n.Bhadra El¢. ‘Dant¤’-D¢nt¤. He then put it in Lak¾ma´a’s nostrils and with this Lak¾ma´a became conscious.e-pdfconverter. leeJegH³egYeew ceeveg<ejepeHeg$eew leb ievOeceeIe´e³e cenew<eOeerveeced~ yeYetJelegmle$e leoe efJe<em³eeJegÊemLegjv³es ®e nefjÒeJeerje:~~ (6/75-69) They were awakened with the smell of these great medicines and felt better and regained conciousness. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. free from anxiety and stood up without any pain.. What Suºruta has said about ‘Somarasa’ is applicable to ‘Divine medicines’ (Sinful people would never identify these divine medicines).

It has sweet smell of Jasmine. Here the meaning of ‘great medicines’ is what in the R¢m¢ya´a is mentioned as ‘Viºalyakara´¤’. The other synonyms are ‘Uº¤ra M¨´¢la. its name is ‘Kalal¢v¤’ – that induces the birth pangs. Its leaves are used by mid-wives to facilitate the birth and hence its name is ‘¡y¢p¢na’. The poet shows that the labaourers are uprooting “V¤ra´astambo” (khasa khasa grass) V¤ra´a means V¢²¢. Some believe that ‘Viºalyakara´¤’ is ‘¡y¢p¢na.) Roberty (Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Hem¢dri interprets it as follows: ce=lemebpeerJeveer cegK³ee efJeMeu³ekeÀjCeer Heje~ mebOeevekeÀjCeer ®eev³ee meeJeC³e&keÀefjCeer leLee~~ The word ‘Viºaly¢’ is used for ‘L¢¬gal¤’ (Gloriosa sp. yellow and red coloured clusters of to remove this message. growing in arid region. It grows abundantly in Panchmahal district (Gujarat) with its familiar name “Valantaro”. It grows near water and hence its name ‘Jalav¢sa is proper. It is difficult to decide if ‘Viºalyakara´¤’ mentioned in the R¢m¢ya´a is ‘L¢¬gal¤’. . They are fragrant.402 403 me cee©eflemeceeveerlecenew<eefOenleJ³e³e:~ ue¹em$eerCeeb Hegve½e¬esÀ efJeueeHee®ee³e&kebÀ Mejw:~~ (Raghu.) Nash Family : Poaceae khasa khasa grass. its wood is very strong. It has white rose. Mallin¢tha has interpreted it as ‘Sa®jivani’ (that revives the dead). sarga 12-78) Lak¾ma´a who was cured by the ‘great medecines’ brought by Hanum¢n taught the women of La¬k¢ how to endure his arrows (or made them wailing on the death of their husbands).) it is used to facilitate the birth of a child from the uterus. In Marathi. Uºira means V¢²o. Its clusters of roots form a pillar like structure.e-pdfconverter. Abhayama. khasa khusa grass. Labourers are cleaning the road. Caritravardhana and Sumativijay both mean ‘Viºaly¢’. ‘V¤ra´am¦lakam’.f. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ‘Am¨´¢la. Eupatoriam ayapan. v¢²¢ In the R¢m¢ya´a (2/80-8) Bharata gets ready to go after R¢ma. Suºruta mentioned it as ‘V¤ratarv¢diga´a’ and ±alha´a introduces it nicely as follows: Jesuuevle©: peieefle Jeerjle©Òe&efme×: éesleeefmelee©CeefJeueesefnleHeerleHeg<He:~ m³eeppeeeflelegu³ekegÀmegce: Meefcemet#ceHe$e: m³eelkeÀCìkeÀer efJepeueosMepe S<e Je=#e:~~ ‘V¤rataru’ is famous by its name ‘Vellantaru’. It is thorny. V¤rataram and ‘Jalav¢sam’. V£RATAKA Semecarpus anacardium L. V£RA³A Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Family: Anacardiaceae Bhilama? Bhilva? (Not confirmed) This tree is famous in Aryuveda texts. hence its name is ‘V¤rataru’.

VETASA If the tree growing near or in water remains erect how can it survive unless it bends to protect oneself. Act-5) Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Daºartha killed ¹rava´a with a bow and when ¹rava´a dying shouted “Oh ! Father!” Daºartha immediately ran and searched for him in the arbour of ‘Vetasa’ trees. This fact indicates that ‘Vetasa’ plant grows near water and save itself against water current by bending. DeJe©iCeleg²megjoe©lejew efve®e³es Hegj: megjmeefjlHe³emeeced~ me ooMe& JeslemeJevee®eefjleeb ÒeCeefleb yeueer³eefme mece=ef×keÀjerced~~ (Kir¢ta. K¢dambar¤ also refers ‘T¤rataru’ for V¤rataru’. Family: Anacardiaceae Rattan Palm efJevO³eJeveYetefceefjJe Jes$eueleeJeleer (K¢dambar¤. Para 5) Calamus resembles a gate keeper with a stick of netar in his hand or as ‘Vetralat¢vt¤’ is for the great Vindhya forest and gate keeper is for ‘Vetralat¢dh¢r¤’. One should inquire whether the horse eats green leaves and fruits of Bh¤l¢mo. sprouts and fruits. Family Anacardiaceae. Therefore it will be proper to consider ‘V¤rataru’ as ‘Bh¤l¢mo’: Semecarpus anacardium . as the ‘Vetasa’ plant humbly saves itself against the strong water current. Devece´eCeeb meceg×le&:g lemceeled efmevOegj³eeefoJe~ Deelcee mebjef#ele: megïew: Je=efÊeceeef#el³e Jewlemeerced~~ (Raghu. .404 405 The reference in K¢dambar¤: Jeerjle©HeCee&¹§jHeÀuew½e ke=ÀlJee #egOe: ÒeleerkeÀejced (Early p. The messenger of ¹iºup¢la says: the army of ¹iºupala is marching like the flood of the river Mah¢. leo³eb mecegHewefle YetHeefle: He³emeeb Hetj FJeeefveJeeefjle:~ DeefJeueeqcyelecesefOe Jesleme: le©JevceeOeJe cee mce Yep³eLee:~~ (Sarga /6-53) Refer for more details “Va®jula” VETRALAT¡ Semecarpus anacardium L. protect yourself by being humble like the bending ‘Vetasa’ tree. Dee®eej Fl³eJeefnlesve ce³ee ie=nerlee ³ee Jes$e³eefä: DeJejesOeie=ns<eg je%e:~ (¹¢kuntala.598) mentions a horse satisfying his hunger by eating its leaves. but ‘Vetasa’ tree which grows near water was saved because of the bending tendency of ‘Vetasa’. The horse could not eat flowers from a thorny tree therefore I believe that ‘V¤rataru’ should be ‘Bh¤l¢mo’ because one synonym of ‘Bh¤l¢mo’ is ‘V¤rature’.com to remove this message.e-pdfconverter. against the king who is ready to destroy the arrogant ones. otherwise you will be swept away. The tendency of becoming humble against the strong enriches one. 6/5) The strong great Devad¢ra tree was uprooted and swept away in the Ganges current. This tendency of bending is called ‘Vaitas¤ v¨tti’. sarga 4-35) Suhya people showing the tendency of a ‘Vetasa’ plant saved themselves and lived. Bh¤l¢mo leaves are large and fruits are also edible for the horses.f.

Prosopis cineraria. The messenger speaks to Yudhi¾°hira (Kir¢ta. Act-1. Its wood is very hard. As those shouting ran away with the raising of calamus sticks by the gate keepers of kings. similarly it is difficult to enter the entrance gate of the king for many. 90). Its another name is Agnigarbh¢. As it is difficult to enter into hundreds of calamus thickets. The virtues flee where there is fear of calamus. The female gate keepers were pompous with calamus sticks. surrounded by oceans has a treasure of wealth in its interior.406 407 Further in the description of the great Vindhya forest: keÌJeef®eoJeefveHeefleÜejYetefceefjJe Jes$eueleeMeleog<ÒeJesMee (para 17). Jes$eoC[wefjJeeslmee³e&vles iegCee: (Para. ¹am¤ is ‘Sama²¤’ or ‘Kh¤ja²¤’ in Gujarat. . Kings themselves became gatekeepers. sarga 3 ºloka 9) As earth. 1/32).) Family: Fabaceae Khejar¤.) Druce (Prosopis spicigera L. Sam¤. the king at last knew the pregnancy of his queen. R¢janigha´°u names it ‘Tapanatanuju¾°¢’ ¹am¤ tree is worshipped on Daºer¢ (Day of victory) Its Sanskrit names are ‘£º¢n¤’. ¹AM£ Prosopis cineraria (L. That is why Du¾yanta after observing ¹akuntal¢. the stream of Sarasvat¤ river is secret. ºloka 17) “God K¢ºyapa is really non ascetic. 122). ‘Ma¬galy¢’. keÀ: ve ÒeefleHeVee Jes$euelee: (Para. even so the fire is hidden in the ¹am¤ tree. There are many such references of ‘Vetra’ in K¢dambar¤’. ¹am¤ efveOeeveieYee&ecf eJe meeiejecyejeb MeefceefceJeeY³evlejueerveHeeJekeÀeced~ veoerecf eJeevle meefueueeb mejmJeleer ve=He: memeÊJeeb ceefn<eercecev³eled~~ (Raghu. keÀLeb ve cev³eg: pJeue³el³egoerefjle: Meceerle©b Meg<keÀefceJeeeqive©eq®íKe:~~ Why is your righteous anger not on fire like the swiftly ¹ami tree? Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Òe®eefueleJes$euelee®eefkeÀlemeecevle®e¬eÀ®ejCeMele (Para. 105). ‘Vetra’ means water in varnacular. It is a well known tree. fire is in its interior. It is said that P¢´²avas hid their weapons in the ¹am¤ tree. daughter of K¢ºyapa engaged in religious rites of the hermitage says (¹akuntala. 106). ‘P¢pan¢ºin¤’ to remove this message.” Fob efkeÀueeJ³eepeceveesnjb JeHegmleHe:#eceb meeOeef³elegb ®e F®íefle~ Oe´Jg eb me veerueeslHeueHe$eOeej³ee Meceerueleeb ísÊegce=e<f eJ³e&Jem³eefle~~ Does (he) wish (her) to be capable of self mortification for such an innately beautiful body? Really this sage labours to cut the ‘¹am¤lat¢’ with the leaf of a blue lotus. v³em³eceeve Jes$eoC[ced (para 36).e-pdfconverter. the expressions of noble men become useless before Goddess of wealth. GlmeejCeJes$euelee melHeg©<eJ³eenejeCeeced (Para. That is why she is engaged in this work of the hermitage. ‘¹am¤ is mentioned in the R¢m¢ya´ (3/15-18).

¹ARA1 Sorghum halepense (L. Kam¢ra. The poet has pictured this beautiful scene in words DeLeeefOekeÀefmveiOeefJeuees®evesve cegKesve meerlee MejHeeC[gjCs e~ Deevevoef³e$eer HeefjCeslegjemeerove#ejJ³eef¡ele oewËosve~~ S¤t¢. 14-26. the poet begins this ºloka worshipping the god Skanda born in the forest of ¹ara.e-pdfconverter. Act-3. Raghu. critic of Suºruta Samhit¢ introduces ¹ara as “Baru iti loke (S¦tra Act 46). MejkeÀeC[HeeC[gieC[mLeues³eveeYeeefle HeefjefceleeYejCee~ ceeOeJeHeefjCeleHe$ee keÀefleHe³ekegÀmegcesJe kegÀvouelee~~ (Malavik¢gnimitra.which were conveying her pregnangcy speechlessly – started giving pleasure to her husband. K¢lid¢sa recounts this story in Meghd¦ta (Early Megha. the face of the pregnant women also becomes like it.) Pers. . The stem was used as writing pens. In earlier days it is proper that the whitish yellow face of a beautiful woman is compared with the colour of the stem of Baru.) Brot) Family: Poaceae Baru The story of birth of Skanda in the forest of ¹ara is well known. with her whitish yellow face like that of ¹ara and more loving and her bright eyes .com to remove this message. ¹ara is that plant called Baru. ºloka 45): DeejeO³esve MejJeCeYeJeb osJeced. Page 97. (Andropogon halepensis (L. M¢lavi. Act-3) M¢lavik¢ having a few ornaments and the whitish yellow face resembling that of ¹ara stem looks like a Kundalat¢ (Jasminum species) whose leaves are ripe with a few flowers on it in the spring. Poet M¢gha in his eleventh chapter on the fine description of early morning mentions. Baru was used for making writing pens from its stems. Megha. the clown appropriately comments: S<eeefHe YeJeeefveJe YeêveJ³eeefOevee Hejece=äe YeefJe<³eefle this also appears to be love sick like you or the face has become whitish yellow because of it” As the face afflicted with love sickness becomes whitish yellow. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Baru plants mostly grow on river banks and their leaves are like those of sugarcane. 8-7. The similes as ¹ara like whitish yellow face or forehead are interesting. 1. K¾urik¢patraª’. R¢ma making S¤t¢ seated in his lap asks for her pregnant longing. “The foreheads of the pale looking beautiful women like the ripe stem of Baru. ±alha´a. The king’s friend. In Gujarat the same word is used for this plant. hence Nigha´°us name Baru as ‘Ik¾uª.408 409 DeeJeeme³eesefve: HeJevees ³eLee efn ³eLee MeceerieYe&Me³ees ngleeMe:~ DeeHees ³eLeevleJe&megOeeMe³ee½e og:Keb leLee ef®eÊeMejerj³eesevf e~~ Aºvagho¾a (Saundar¢nda poem) (Sarga 16-11) ‘The fire withing the ¹am¤’ is a beautiful phrase.



whose leaf arrangement is hidden during the sexual union
and in spite of that, whose passionate beauty is increased,
were looking as if they ridiculed the depraved beauty of
the moon in the morning - the reference of ‘¹ara’ is
noteworthy, the last verse of the ºloka is: HeefjCeleMejkeÀeC[e
HeeC[geYf eie&C[Yeeie:~”
Tectona grandis L.f.
Family: Lamiaceae
Tika, S¢ga, Teak
¹¢ka is teak or S¢ga. It is famous for timber wood.
Nigha´°us have named it as ‘¹re¾°hak¢¾°aª’. Its synonyms
are Krakacapatraª, ‘Karkaºacchada’, Kkarapatraª’,
‘D¤rghacchadaª’, ‘Bh¦misahaª’ and ‘Atipatrakaª’. Its
leaves are rough and hard and were used for treatment of
wounds. R¢janigha´°u has named it S¢ga and in Gujarat it
is also ‘S¢ga’. Its leaves are large and greenish yellow.
MeekeÀ: MegkeÀ®íomece®íefJeHe$eceeueYeejer nefj<³eefle le©mleJe le$e ef®eÊeced~
³elHeuueJeewIeHeefjjcYeefJepe=ecq Yelesve K³eelee peielmeg nefjlees nefjle: mHegÀjefvle~~
(Nai¾adha. 11/38)
This s¢ga tree which has a lustre of a wing of a parrot
and has a garland of such leaves and whose display
(exhibition) of green with its relation of multitude of
leaves has earned a name of ‘Harita’. Such a S¢ga tree
will surely faseinate your mind. Here ‘Harita’ has two
meanings (1) directions and (2) green colour.

mHeMe&sve le$e efkeÀue leÊe©He$epevcee ³evcee©le: keÀceefHe mebceoceeJeOeeefle~ (11/39)
The poet shows the feeling of unique happiness created
by the wind blowing through leaves of S¢ga.
Meeke̳eJe=#eÒeefle®íVeb Jeemeb ³emcee®®e ®eef¬eÀjs~
lemceeefo#JeekegÀJebM³eemles YegeJf e Meeke̳ee Fefle mce=lee:~~(Saundar¢ndapoem 1/24)
Grandsons of Ik¾v¢ku race who reside in a place covered
with forest of S¢ga were known as ‘º¢kya’
When the messenger of ¹iºup¢la remained silent after
telling unspeakable words to K¨¾´a, K¨¾´a suggested to
S¢tyaki with the sign of his eye to reply. The following
shloka represents the gist of the reply
Deefle keÀesceueceskeÀleesçv³ele: mejmeecYees©nJe=vlekeÀke&ÀMeced~
Jenefle mHegÀìceskeÀcesJe les Je®eveb MeekeÀHeueeMeosM³eleeced~~ (Sarga 16-18)
“Your speech clearly conveys a similarity with the leaf
of S¢ga, first it appears tender and then on the other side is
rough like the stalk of the lotus. I have not come across
such an introduction of S¢ga leaf.”
Bombax ceiba L.
Family: Malvaceae
Kapok, Sima²o, Silk cotton tree
leHlekeÀeáeveHeg<Heeb ®e Jewot³e&ÒeJej®íoeced~
ê#³emes MeeuceueeR leer#Ceeb Dee³emew: keÀCìkewÀef½eleeced~~
(R¢m¢ya´a 3/53-20)1
1. R¢m¢ya´a 3/53-20; 4/1-83/6/40-19; 6/88-71

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Dark red flowers like the heated gold, dark green (azure)
leaves like a sapphire, and thorns like the iron spikes. These
three characteristics are enough to introduce the Kapok.
The leaf is five foliate. Leaves shed in winter and in spring
the tree is full of deep red flowers.
K¢lid¢s introduces “forest conflagration” in the
description of summer in §tusaïh¢ra:
yenglej FJe peele: Meeuceueerveeb Jeves<eg
mHegÀjefle keÀvekeÀieewj: keÀesìjs<eg êgceeCeeced~
HeefjCeleoueMeeKeeveglHelevÒeebMegJe=#eevêceefle HeJeveOetle: meJe&leesçeqiveJe&veevles~~
The fire has spread in the forest by wind. The summer is
a season of leaf-fall and hence all leaves are ripe (mature).
The fire has spread on the branches with such leaves on
the high trees, in the cavities of the trunks fire is like the
bright red gold and the fire has spread in the forest of Kapok
trees. When kapok tree is tender, thick tuber like roots
arise which are called ‘Semula musal¤’ which are
considered nutritive as those of ‘Musal¤’. (Orchid root) and
are used for physical strength.
When the fruit opens, hairy seeds disperse hence its
another name “Tulini”.
There is a maxim for this tree. There is no fragrance in its
beautiful flower. Leaves are fine but there is no canopy, fruits
are large but not edible - in spite of this oh! Kapok tree! Kapok
tree! Why have you remained as a boundray tree?

keÀe³e: keÀCìkeÀYetef<elees ve ®e Ieve®íe³eerke=Àlee: HeuueJee:
Heg<HeeefCe ®³eglemeewjYeeefCe ve yeueÞesCeer ceveesneefjCeer~
efkebÀ ye´ct e: HeÀueHeekeÀcem³e ³eogHev³eemesçefHe ueppeecens
leÓes: kesÀve iegCesve Meeuceefuelejes peeleesçefme meerceêgce:~~
There is a description of a great old worn-out ¹¢lmal¤
tree in K¢dambar¤ (para11). It is mentioned as a captain
(N¢yaka) of all trees and considered as a place for the deities
of forest to climb up to look at the earth below.
It was previously included in family Malvaceae but now
included in a separate family Bombacaceae. The gum of
Kopak tree is named as ‘Mocarasa’. It stops blood bleeding.
For additional reference see ‘Ku°aº¢lmal¤’.
Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth
Family: Fabaceae (Mimosoideae)
¹iri¤¾a, K¢²iyo sarasa
¹ir¤¾a is called black Sarasa. It is a big tree. Its fragrant
white very tender flowers are very attractive. Their
fragrance is very nice. It has many varities with white, red
and yellow flowers.
Bhat¨hari’s ºloka YesÊegb JeýeceefCeb efMejer<ekegÀmegceÒeevlesve meVe¿eefle states
that its exceedingly tenderness of the flowers can not be
1. “Nothing can be more beautiful than the cotton shaken alowly
out of a ripe capsule till it forms a downy heap” Nairne, P. 33
1. ¹ir¤¾a : Meghad¦ta early. 71; ¹¢kuntala. Act-1; 6; Kum¢ra 141;5-4; Raghuvaïºa 16-48;61, 18-45

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compared with any other flower. Both the hands of P¢rvat¤
are more delicate than ¹ir¤¾a flowers:efMejer<eHeg<HeeefOekeÀmeewkegÀcee³e&: Kesob
me ³ee³eeoefHe Yet<eCesve~ (Raghu. Sarg 18-45). Here is the description
of a young handsome king: ¹ir¤¾a flowers were used as earrings and they looked very attractive for a beautiful woman.
The stalk of the flower is long and the flowers with
filamenfous stamens are in clusters.
mJesoevegeJf e×eê&veKe#elee¹s Yete³f eÿmeboÿefMeKeb keÀHeesues~
®³egleb ve keÀCee&oefHe keÀeefceveerveeb efMejer<eHeg<Heb menmee HeHeele~~
The filamentous stamens of ¹ir¤¾a flowers remain adhered
well and do not immediately shed. K¢lid¢sa is famous for
his similes, but they cannot be imagined without good
knowledge of plants. ‘Sved¢nuviddhakapola’.
‘¹ir¤¾a’ flower, though slipped from the ear of the one
whose cheek showed the scratches of the nails, did not fall
down as the filamentous stamens were well adhered.
Women used its flowers as ear - rings. ®ee©keÀCex efMejer<eb
(Megha. 3-2). During the water sport they (¹ir¤¾a flower
blossoms worn as ear-rings) fell from their ears and were
floating on water disorderly. The fishes used to eat the
aquatie plants (planktons) scrambled to catch these flower
blossoms. The observation of K¢lid¢sa is extraordinary.
Deceer efMejer<eÒemeJeeJelebmee ÒeYe´eb Mf evees JeeefjefJeneefjCeerveeced~
HeeefjHueJee: ñeesleefme efvecveiee³ee: MesJeeueueeueebMíue³eefvle ceerveeved~~
(Raghu. 16-61)

K¢lid¢sa is not tired describing the delicacy of ¹ir¤¾a
flower. Heob mensle Ye´cejm³e HesueJeb efMejer<eHeg<Heb ve Hegve: Heleef$eCe: (Kum¢ra.sarga
5-4). “The delicate flowers of ¹ir¤¾a can endure the weight
of wasps but cannot endure the weight of birds”. The body
of P¢r¢vat¤ was delicate how could her delicate body endure
such terrible self mortification?
......ueefueleefMejer<eHeg<HenvevewjefHe leec³eefle ³eled~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava 5/31)
How can dear M¢lat¤ endure this weapon blow when she
faints with the stroke of lovely flowers of ¹ir¤¾a? M¢dhava
speaks thus when he happens to see on his arrival the cruel
scene of Aghoragha´°ta ready to kill M¢lat¤.
keÀes Jee efMejer<ekegÀmegcekegÀceejm³e les Mejerjm³e owJeogeJf e&ve³eHeefjCeece SkeÀeefkeÀv³ee GHevele:~
(M¢. M¢.10/204)
If any tender thing is to be compared with, none but the
¹ir¤¾a flower is the best. ¹ir¤¾a is mentioned in R¢m¢ya´a
J³eeueb yeeuece=CeeuelevlegeYf ejmeew jes×bg mecegppe=cb Yeles
YesÊegb JeýeceefCeb efMejer<ekegÀmegceÒeevlesve meVe¿eefle~
It is like somebody who desires to catch or subdue the
intoxicated elephants with stamens of a young lotus.
That person is foolish who attempts to try impossible
thing like cutting a diamond with the stalk of the ‘¹ir¤¾a’
flower even taking the help of this much of opposite tender
Kir¢ta (4/36) mentions a row of parrots as expression
of tender ‘¹ir¤¾a’.

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cegKewjmeew efJeêgceYe²ueesenf lew: efMeKee: efHeMe²er: keÀuecem³e efyeYe´leer~
MegkeÀeJeefueJ³e&keÌleefMejer<ekeÀesceuee Oeveg:efÞe³eb iees$eefYeoesçvegie®íefle~~
The rows of parrots like ‘¹ir¤¾a flowers and having coral
like deep red beaks bearing reddish brown ears of paddy
are compared with the rainbow. The poet compares the
rainbow with green colour of the parrot, its beak like palas
(Butea species) flowers, yellowish paddy ears and rows of
parrots like the tender ‘¹ir¤¾a’.
keÀCex mcesjb efMejer<eb pe³eefle ce=ie¢Meeb ûeweq<cekeÀes Jes<e S<e:~~ (R¢jaºekhara)
Women used ‘¹ir¤¾a’ flower as ear-rings in summer.
¹ir¤¾a flowers in summer.
efJekeÀeMekeÀejer veJeceefuuekeÀeveeb oueeq®íjer<eÒemeJeeefYejece:~
ûeer<ceesç³eceguueeefmeleIeelekeÀerkeÀ:~~ (R¢jaºekhara)
When Sanskrit poets want to compare the tenderness
of a thing, without exception, they mention ‘¹ir¤¾a’.
efMejer<ekeÀes<eeoefHe keÀesceuee³ee JewOee efJeOee³eeÃceMes<ecem³ee:~
ÒeeHleÒekeÀ<e&: megkegÀceejmeiex meceeHe³eÜeef®e ce=olg JecegÃece~~
Brahm¢ has achieved excellence in creating each body
part of Damayant¤ tenderer than the ‘¹ir¤¾a’ flowers in the
world of creation and completed this excellence by offering
a medal for softness (sweetness) in her speech (voice). This
is an interesting attempt on the part of the poet to show
that Damayant¤’s voice was very sweet.
efveJesÐeleeb nvle meceeHe³evleew efMejer<ekeÀes<ece´eof ceeefYeceeveced~
Heeoew efkeÀ³eÎtjefceceew Òe³eemes efveefOelmeles leg®ío³eb cevemles~~ (Nai¾adha 8/24)

“Oh! The best of man! Tell me please how long your
mind having no compassion would inspire your feet for long
travels. Your feet have ended the pride which ‘¹ir¤¾a’
flowers had that in this world no one is tenderer than them.
This is a reference for lotus like feet of Nala king. This
statement is for Nala when he consumed the guarding
deities of space.
GHejef®eleefJekeÀ®eefMejer<ekegÀmegcekeÀCe&HetjefceJe keÀHeesueleueeceeYeeefle (K¢dambar¤ Para 83)
‘¹ir¤¾a’ flowers were worn as ear-rings and cheek
surfaces became attractive.
kesÀJeuecekeÀþesjefMejer<eHeg<Hece=ogÒeke=Àles kegÀle: ÒeeieuY³e SleeJeVeejerpevem³e efJeMes<elees
yeeueYeeJeYeepe: kegÀceejerueeskeÀm³e (K¢da. Para 226)
How could the woman folk, having sweet (tender)
temperament like the ‘¹ir¤¾a’ flowers could show so much
boldness? In addition she is a young child. For comparison
of tenderness ,‘¹ir¤¾a’ is the only apt one.
keÀeueevegmee³e&Je=×eMceHeg<HeMeerleefMeJeeefve leg Mewues³eced Fefle Decej:~~ (Kir¢ta. 12/
50) or ‘K¢l¢nusar¤’, Aºmapu¾pa, ‘¹¤taºiva, ‘¹aileyaon’ are
all synonyms. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita interprets ¹aileya as ‘¹il¢jita’.
But ¹alaieya means Chadilo (Lichen). Even today in Sindh
(now in Pakistan) Chadilo is known as ‘flower of stone’.
This plant grows on stones and if removed from its place, it
appears like a flower! It is used in medicine.

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M¢l¢t¤m¢dhava 9/16
DeeefJeYe&lt eefMeueervOe´ueesOe´kegÀmegcemcesje Jeveeveeb leefle:~
The forest became evident with laughing (blooming) of
flower of ¹il¤ndhra and Lodhra.
R¢jaºekhara mentions that ¹il¤ndhra blooms in monsoon.
me meuuekeÀermeeueefMeueervO´e³etLeerÒemetveo: Hege<f Heleuee²ueerkeÀ~~
Sallak¤, S¢la, and ¹il¤ndhra bloom in monsoon.
keÀleg¥ ³eáe ÒeYeJeefle cenercege®q íueervOe´eceJevO³eeb
(Meghad¦ta Early Megha. 11)
The Gujarati translator has interpreted it as mushroom
(called ‘helmet of cat’).
DeeefJeYe&lt eÒeLececegkegÀuee: keÀvoueer½eevegkeÀ®íced~ (Meghad¦ta Early 21)
cegoceyoYegJeeceHeeb ce³etje: menmee³evle veoer HeHeeì ueeYes~
Deefueveejceleeefueveer efMeueervOe´s men mee³evleveoerHeHeeìueeYes~~
With the setting monsoon, the Kandal¤ plant growing in
the moist soil first blooms and the deer eating its flower
buds marks the direction of monsoon?. The flower buds
of ¹il¤ndhra, fragrant and resembling those of Kandal¤
indicate that ¹il¤ndhra is a plant and not a mushroom.
Amarakoºa considers ‘Kadal¤’ and Kandal¤ etc. belong to
category of deer and not plants.

Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.
Family: Fabaceae (Papilionoideae)
S¤sama, Sissoo, Indian rosewood
It is mentioned in the R¢m¢ya´a1. It is S¤sama. Dalbergia
latifolia. It looks really beautiful when it blooms. Its leaves
are smooth and shining. Upper side is deep green and lower
surface is pale yellow. Flowers are whitish yellow in clusters,
pod bluish and flat. The plants are planted on main roads.
V¢lam¤ki has mentioned it in the following ºloka:
megHege<f Heleeûeeved ©ef®ejebmle©Cee¹§jHeuueJeeved~
leecee©¿e ceneJesie: efMebMeHeeb HeCe&mebJe=leeced~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 5/14-4)
S¤sama is a climber also (2/91-71) which appears
attractive. Here S¤sama is shown fully covered, bloomed at
the top, relishing, youthful with apical buds and full of leaves.
The R¢may¢´a (3/75-23). Tilak¢khya teacher has
interpreted it as ‘Lodhra’ which is of two types (1) white
and (2) red. It appears that for white Lodhra ‘¹ukladruma’
word is coined.
Refer ‘Lodhra’ for more information.

1. 4/1-81; 5-14;6/4-80; 2/91-51.
2. §tusa¼h¢ra 3/14

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MesHeÀeefuekeÀekegÀmegceievOeceveesnjeefCe mJemLeefmLeleeC[pekegÀueÒeefleveeefoleeefve~
The poet describes the garden looking very pleasant with
the fragrance of Sef¢lik¢ flowers. The plant flowers in
I have not come across any other reference of this plant
except the one referred above.
Amarakoºa mentions : MesHeÀeefuekeÀe leg megJene efveie&gC[er veerefuekeÀe ®e mee~
Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita interprets as K¨¾´apu¾pa Nirgu´²¤ and
suggets two words for ‘Nirgu´²¤’.
Dhanvantari’s Nigha´°u has different description of
‘Sinduv¢ra’. ¹ef¢lik¢ is same as Nago²a (¹ef¢lik¢ is other).
N¤lam®jar¤’ is synonym of ¹ef¢lik¢. In this book ‘¹ukl¢¬g¤’
(¹ef¢lik¢ – addition) is also referred. That means there are
three references. ‘Nago²a’ (Sinduv¢ra), ‘Nago²a’ with
blue flowers (¹ef¢lik¢) and ‘Nago²a’ with white flowers
±alha´a who is well acquainted with plants and a critic
of Suºruta Sa¼hit¢ introduces ‘¹ef¢lik¢’ as “Raktav¨nt¢
¹¢rdakusum¢” (S¦. Sth¢. A. 1). That means he considers
¹ef¢lik¢ as P¢rij¢taka which is known in Gujarat “H¢ra¹a´ag¢ra”. That is why Sidhamantra distinguishes
‘¹ef¢lik¢’ as ‘Pu¾pavr¾i´¤’ P¢rij¢taka flowers in autumn
that is why ±alha´a consideres ¹ef¢lik¢ is P¢rijataka.
But Cakradatta describes ‘Nirgu´²¤’ as mebYee© Fefle ueeskesÀ~ The
reference of Amarakoºa also goes in favour of Nigu´²¤.

R¢janigha´°u and Dhanvantari also favour ‘¹ef¢lik¢ as
‘N¤lanirgu´²¤’. Hence references of two sides confuse us.
K¢lid¢sa has referred to P¢rij¢ta at many places but it
has been used as a tree of a deity (Devav¨k¾a). R¢jaºekhera
includes ¹ef¢lik¢ in his description of Autumn in
K¢vyam¤m¢ïs¢ :
G<e:meg JeJegjeke=Àäpe[eJeM³ee³eMeerkeÀje:~
MesHeÀeefuekeÀefuekeÀekeÀesMekeÀ<ee³eeceeseof veesçefveuee:~~
Saptapar´a, K¢sa etc with ¹ef¢lik¢ flower in Autumn.
The flower buds of Sef¢lik¢ when bloomed, their fragrance
is carried with wind.
Denes Je=#eJeeefìkeÀe³ee: meÞeerkeÀlee~ megJeCe&³eteLf ekeÀe – MesHeÀeefuekeÀe – ceeueleer – ceefuuekeÀe
– veJeceefuuekeÀe – kegÀjyekeÀ – DeeflecegkeÌle – ÒeYe=efle kegÀmegcew: mJe³eb efveHeeflelew: ³eled mel³eb
ueIetkeÀjesefle vevoveJevem³e meÞeerkeÀleeced~~ (M¨cchka°ika)
The beauty of this garden of trees which in comparison
with the garden of Indra is a trifling one. It has brightened
with shedded flowers of Suvar´a–yuthik¢ (golden Jasmin).
¹ef¢lik¢, M¢l¢t¤, Mllik¢, Kurabaka, Atimuktalat¢, etc.
veJekeÀþesjMesHeÀeefuekeÀekegÀmegceveeueefHe¡ejsCe (K¢dambar¤ para 23).
¹ef¢lik¢ with the newly bloomed flowers along their
reddish coloured stalks looked reddish yellow. This
reference proves that ¹ef¢lik¢ is P¢rij¢taka.
In short, ¹ef¢lik¢ is used for both P¢rij¢ta and
N¤lanirgu´²¤ and depending upon its context, its proper
meaning is to be understood.

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The following reference from ‘Svapnav¢savadatt¢m,
(Act 4) proves that ¹ef¢lik¢ is P¢rij¢t¢ka’
He¨eeJeleer – nuee! leeefve leeJeod MesHeÀeefuekeÀeieguceuee: Òes#es kegÀmegefcelee Jee veJesefle~
®esìer – Yele=o& eefjkesÀ! leeefve kegÀmegecf eleeefve veece ÒeJeeueevleefjlewejf Je ceewekq eÌlekeÀeuecyekewÀjeef®eleeefve
®esìer – HeM³eleg HeM³eleg Yele=&oeefjkeÀe~ DeOe& ceveefMeueeHeÆkewÀefjJe MesHeÀeefuekeÀekegÀmegcew:
Hetefjleb cesç¡eefue:~
He¨eeJeleer – Denes efJeef®e$elee kegÀmegceeveeced~ HeM³eleg HeM³elJee³ee&~
JeemeJeoÊee – Denes oMe&veer³elee kegÀmegceeveeced~~
Red arsenic like ¹efalik¢ flowers appears as ‘P¢rij¢taka’
flowers with their orange coloured stalks. The appearance
of these flowers is fascinating. The flowers of ‘Nargundi’
are fine but can not stand in comparison with that of
P¢rij¢taka flowers
Parmelia perforata (Sm. & Sowerby) Gray
Family: Parmeliaceae
Dagadful, Chadilo
veeveecevees%ekegÀmegceêgceYete<f eleevleevËäev³eHegäefveveoekegÀuemeevegoMs eeved~
Mewues³epeeueHeefjCe×efMeueeleueewIeev¢äJee peve: ef#eefleYe=lees cegoceself e meJe&:~~
(§tu. sarga 6, ºloka 25)
Any person will be glad to see the trees adorned with
varying beautiful flowers, resonant with cuckoo’s cooing,
and mountains with surfaces of stoned covered with
Lichens. ¹aileya is in Gujarati as Cha²ilo, in Marathi as
Daga²af¦la, and in Hindi Char¤l¢. It is Parmelia perforata.
¹il¢kusuma is mentioned inJ³emleMegkeÀefveYeefMeueekegÀmegce: ÒeCegovJeJeew Jevemeleeb

HeefjÞececed~ (Kir¢ta. sarga 12/50). The poet mentions the cool
breeze blowing over ¹il¢kusuma was removing the fatigue
of the forest dwellers. ‘Daga²af¦la’ word has originated
from ‘¹il¢kusuma’. It is a plant called Lichens growing on
The Lichens are fragrant : Mewues³eb efMeefMejb eflekeÌleb megieefvOe keÀHeÀefHeÊeefpeled~
K¢lid¢sa in stating Mewues³e peeueHeefjCe×efMeueeleueewIeeved indicates his
observation of Lichens growing on stone.
DeO³eem³e ®eecYe: He=<eleese#f eleeefve Mewues³eievOeerevf e efMeueeleueeefve~
keÀueeefHeveeb ÒeeJe=ef<e HeM³e ve=l³eb keÀevleemeg ieesJeOe&vekeÀvojemeg~~ (Raghu. 6-51)
“Sitting on the water moistened flat stones having the
scent of Lichens, (you) look at the peacocks dancing in
the fine caves of Govardhana mountain in the monsoon.”
Kum¢ra (1-55) also mentions similar idea.
“¹aileyanadhde¾u ¹il¢tale¾u” Refer ‘¹il¢kusuma’.
¹aiv¢la, ¹evala
efoves efoves MewJeueJevl³eOemleelmeesHeeveHeJee&efCe efJecegáeocYe:~
GoC[He¨eb ie=noerefIe&keÀeCeeb veejerefvelecyeܳemebyeYetJe~~ (Raghu. Sarg 16-46)
Day after day the water level was receding in the stepwell and reached down the steps covered with ¹aiv¢l¢
(Algae) (Note by the translator: two words in Gujarati ‘Lila
and ‘Sev¢la or Sev¢²a’ have two meanings in English. Both
are used for an algae or a moss. Here the meaning of
‘¹aiv¢la’ (Sanskrit word) is used in my opinion for algae

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as per the descriptions of the ºlokas). There was lotus, its
stalks were upright when the water had receded. Atlast the
water receded upto the level of a woman’s buttocks.
MewueesHeceb MewJeuece¡ejerCeeb peeueeefve keÀ<e&Vegjmee me He½eeled~ (Raghu. 5-46)
The elephant of a height of a mountain reached the shore
snatching network of ‘¹aiv¢la’. The word “¹aivalama®jar¤’
used here is confusing. The plant is non - flowering and
cannot have therefore flowers. But this is a poet’s
Deceer efMejer<eÒemeJeeJelebmee ÒeYe´eb Mf evees JeeefjefJeneefjCeerveeced~
HeeefjHueJee: ñeesleeefme efvecveiee³ee: MewJeeueueesueebMíue³eefvle Yeerveeved~
(Raghu. 16-61)
The flowers of ¹ir¤¾a worn as earrings by the beautiful
women playing water sports got separated from the ears
and were floating on the stream. The fishes thinking them
as algae (water plants)and were trying to catch them. The
poet mentions that fish enjoy eating algae.
mejefmepecevegeJf e×b MewJeuesveeefHe jc³eb ceefueveceefHe efnceebMeesue&#ce ue#ceeR leveeself e~
(¹¢kuntala. Act. 1-18)
The lotus surrounded by algae appears attractive. The
moon has blots still its beauty is unique. ¹aiv¢la is a non
flowering nonvascular plant.
®eueerke=Àlee ³e$e lej²efj²Cew: DeyeeueMewJeeueueleeHejcHeje:~~ (Nai¾adha 1-14)
Swaying of the waves moved them (algae plants) in the
ponds with big algal plants (creepers). Here the word ‘Lat¢

(creeper) is used to convey abundance. ‘¹aiv¢la’ is not a
creeper. For poets ‘Lat¢’ is a common word.
In the description of an attractive lake (R¢m¢ya´a 7/77-5)
He¨eeslHeuemeceekeÀerCez meceefle¬eÀevleMewJeueced~
The water was full of red and blue lotuses and there was
no algae. There is also another reference in the R¢m¢ya´a
(4/30-55). Bhavabh¦ti (M¢lat¤. 9/33) in veemeVeelmejme: keÀjesefle
keÀyeueeveeJeefpe&lew: MewJeuew:~ states that elephant is not collecting
‘¹aiv¢la’ from the near lake for her wife to eat as there is
none in the lake.
Moringa oleifera Lam.
Family: Moringaceae
Drumistick, Sekto, Muanga, Saragavo
jesnerlekeÀece´elekeÀefkeÀef¹jelee ceOetkeÀcees®ee: men ceeOeJeereYf e:~
pe³eefvle MeesYee¡evekeÀ½e MeeKeer mekesÀmej: Heg<HeYejwJe&mevles~~
(R¢jaºekhara – K¢vyam¤m¢ïs¢, sarga 18)
Rohitaka – Ragatarohi²o Tecomella undulate
¡mr¢taka – Amb¢²o
Spondias pinnata (S.mangifera)
Ki¬kir¢ta – Sorang¤
Ochrocarpus longifolius
Madh¦ka – Mahu²o Madhuca latifolia (Bassia latifolia)
Moc¢ – S¤ma²o
Bombax ceiba
M¢dhav¤ – M¢dhav¤lat¢ Hiptage madablota
¹obh¢®janaka – Saragavo Moringa olifera
Kesara – Bolasar¤ or Borasal¤ Mimusops elengi

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Which are they? Clothes having variegated colours. Jeemeef½e$eb ceOeg ve³eveeseJf e&Ye´ceeosMeo#eb Heg<HeesÓos b men efkeÀmeue³ewYet<& eCeeveeb efJekeÀuHeeved~ uee#eejeieb ®ejCekeÀceuev³eeme³eesi³eb ®e ³em³eeceskeÀ: metlt es mekeÀueceyeueeceC[veb keÀuHeJe=#e:~~ (Meghd¦ta . Its synonyms are ‘¹igru’. ¹¢kuntala. 1. SAPTAPAR³A1 Alstonia scholaris L. §tusa¼h¢ra. The tree appears beautiful with its white flowers. Its young leaves are edible as cooked vegetable. early megha. Sarja and Nipa trees (she) went to ‘Saptapar´a tree’ in flowering season of autumn.e-pdfconverter. DeeflemegjefYejYeeefpe Hegef<HeÞe³eeceleveglejle³esJe mevleevekeÀ:~~ (M¢gha) Here the poet describes Santanaka tree bending by the weight of abundance of fragrant flowers. sarga 4-23) The flowers of this tree have fragrance similar to that of the liquid oozing from the forehead of the rutted elephants. ‘T¤k¾´agandha’.com to remove this message. 5-48. 5) Servants (Yak¾a) of Kubera who are staying in Kubera’s capital. shoot tips with tender leaves alternating for various types of ornaments and alaktaka colour to be offered at the lotus like feet – all these items can only be obtained from Kalpav¨k¾a. Its fruit (pod) is used as a vegetable. 3-13. Raghuva¼ºa. Its flowers are used in curry.426 427 All these trees fully blossom in spring. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita has named it ‘Sahe®jana’which was prevalent in his time.12) Kalpav¨k¾a is the only one which can create all the items of ornamentations for women. Sant¢naka lat¢ (creeper ) 5/ 15-2 is mentioned in commentary. beautiful bloomed flowers.R. . Br. Another known as ‘Raktaºigru’ has red flowers and is also called ‘Madhuºigru’. Act-1 Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Arjuna. DeemesJeles ceOeg jefleHeÀueb keÀuHeJe=#eÒemetleb~ (Meghd¦ta.early . Family: Apocynaceae cegkeÌlJee keÀocyekegÀìpeepe&vg emepe&veer³eevmeHle®íoevegHeielee kegÀmegceesÃceÞeer:~ Leaving Kadamba. 3-23.3-2) ÒemeJew: meHleHeCee&veeb ceoieefvOeefYejenlee:~ Demet³e³esJe leVeeiee: meHleOewJe ÒemegñegJeg:~~ (Raghu. Its name ‘Ak¾¤va’ is proper as its seeds are like eyes. ‘Kalpav¨k¾a (wish yielding tree) has remained for us a tree of imagination or heaven. ‘Ak¾¤va. It is surprising that the Sanskrit poets have not paid their attention towards it. wine capable of inducing amorous movements of eyes. Ku°aja. ¹obh¢®janaka is saragavo or sekato. SANT¡NAV§K½A The R¢m¢ya´a (5-14-26). This tree is medicinally very useful. In describing this season he mentions that it has white flowers : meHle®íow: kegÀmegceYeejvelewJe&veevlee: MegkeÌleerke=Àleev³egHeJeveeefve ®e ceeueleereYf e:~~ (§tu. it is a valuable medicine for abscess. le©Ceerpeve FJeeefOeieleMeesYee¡evees Jemevlemece³e: Òeeogjemeerled~ Its leaves contain vitamin A. drink the wine as sweet as the wife of cupid which is a fruit of a Kalpav¨k¾a.

¹am¤ (Prosopis species) has five leaflets and ‘Sapatapara´a” has seven leaves. Here the month of K¢rtika is a metaphor of a rutted elephant. seeing Lak¾am´a angry. 6/22-53. 1-16) ‘Ayugmacchada = ‘Saptapar´a’. sarga 5-48) The elephants smelling the bitter perfume of their oozed liquid. meHle®íoeveeb kegÀmegceesHeievOeer <eìdHeeoJe=vow: Devegieer³eceeve:~ 2 ceÊeefÜHeeveeb Heoveevegmeejer oHex efJeves<³eVeefOekebÀ efJeYeeefle~~ (4-30-30) 1. meHle®íolejJe FJe kegÀmegcejpeeseJf ekeÀejw: DeemeVeJeefle&veeb efMej: MetueceglHeeo³eefvle (Para 146). It is also stated that the tree oozes latex (milky liquid) when the leaf is removed. DeveskeÀjepev³ejLeeéemebkegÀueb leoer³eceem³eeefvekesÀleveeefpejced~ ve³el³e³egice®íoieefvOejeê&leeb Ye=Meb ve=HeesHee³eveoefvleveeb ceo:~~ (Kir¢ta. As smelling the flowers (pollen) of ‘Saptavar´a’ for a long time forms headache. meHleHeCex efJeMeeuelJekedÀ Meejoes efJe<ece®ío: (Amarakoºa). Its other name ‘¹¢rad¢’ is also proper for its flowering in autumn. HeJevecevegmejefle le®íerue:~ efJeves<³eved peueb Mees<e³eved MejlkeÀeue (Tilak¢khy¢) ¹aratk¢la is a subject here. resembling that of the ‘Saptapar´a’ tree were running wild and their riders could not control them. and Hanum¢na. the wasps in crowds are tuning their music (humming) with it. 6/39-4. so the kings because of their ‘Rajogu´a’ (active in worldly activities) become thorny for those who stay with them MeeKeemeg meHle®íoHeeoHeeveeb ÒeYeemeg leejeke&ÀefveMeekeÀjeCeeced~ ueerueemeg ®ewJeesÊeceJeejCeeveeb efÞe³eb efJeYep³eeÐe MejlÒeJe=Êee~~ (4-30-28) The autumn has divided its beauty in three parts : (1) in branches of ‘Saptapar´a’ (2) in the lustre of the moon rays and (3) in the water sport of the best elephants. Deef®ejÒenleiepekeÀHeesueie=nerlesve meHle®íoHeefjceueJeeefnvee ke=À<Ceeieg©He¹svesJe megjefYeCee ceosve ke=Àlee²jeieced (K¢dambar¤ para 28). 7/42-4 to remove this message. warned Sugr¤va’. You look at the fully blossomed tree ‘Saptcchada’ indicating the arrival of autuman. There are many references to the tree in the R¢m¢ya´a1. Sugr¤va was engaged in love making with his wife T¢r¢ in monsoon. The rutting elephants became more intoxicated with this wind perfumed with flowers of ‘Saptapar´a’. 4/30-28. The autumn wind is perfumed with flowers of ‘Saptapar´a’. lJeb ÒeceÊees ve peeveer<es keÀeueb keÀeueefJeoeb Jej~ HegÀuuemeHle®íoM³eecee ÒeJe=Êee leg Mej®ígcee~~ You have forgotten the time in your intoxications. The tree blooms in autumn and its passionate smell can attract elephants. The friends of ¹akuntal¢ ask king Du¾yanta to sit on a pedestal built under ‘Saptapar´a’ tree. . 4/32-13. R¢m¢ya´a 3/75-24. In short it is a tree of autumn. Autumn arrived but he was not prepared for war.e-pdfconverter. The smell of ‘Saptapar´a’ flowers resembles that of rutted elephant. ‘Saptapar´a’ flowers in the month of Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 30. 62. Nigha´°u names it as ‘Gucchapu¾paª’. Lord R¢ma sent Lak¾am´a. 5/15-5/2-10.428 429 meHle®ío#eerjkeÀìgÒeJeenceme¿eceeIe´e³e ceob leoer³eced~ efJeueeq*Od eleeOeesjCeleerJe´³elvee: mesveeiepesvêe efJecegKee yeYetJe:~~(Raghu.

Arjana and Ketak¤. K¢lid¢sa has mentioned this word at two places. Sarja : 2-13. Arjuna and Kandala trees have made the forest fragrant. 3-13. perfumed with the fragrance of their flowers and cooled with the rainy clouds filled with water drops ? K¢lid¢sa mentions the above ºloka in relation to rainy season. shoulder as large as of a bull. . sarga 3/13) As the Sarja does not bloom in autumn. ¹arja like Kadamba flowers in rainy season. keÀocyemepee&pe&vg ekeÀvouee{îee JeveevleYetecf e: ceOegJeeefjHetCee&~ ce³etjceÊeeefYe©leÒeYe=lew: DeeHeeveYetecf eÒeefleYee efJeYeeefle~~ (R¢m¢ya´a 4/28-34) Kadamba. mesJ³eceeveew megKemHeMez: Meeueefve³ee&meieefvOeefYe:~ Heg<HejsCeteqlkeÀjw: JeelewjeOetleJevejeefpeefYe:~~ (Raghu. Suºruta also states that ‘Sarja’ blooms in monsoon.e-pdfconverter. 10/50) keÀocyemepee&pegv& ekesÀlekeÀerJeveb efJekeÀcHe³ebmlelkegÀmegceeefOeJeeefmele:~ memeerkeÀjecYeesOejme²Meerleue: meceerjCe: kebÀ ve keÀjeself e meeslmegkeÀced~~ Which man would not be desirous of the blowing wind. SARJA Shorea robusta Roth Family: Dipterocarpaceae S¢la. 1-38. cegkeÌlJee keÀocyekegÀìpeepe&vg emepe&veerHeevmeHle®íoevegHeielee kegÀmegceesÃceÞeer:~~(§tu. ‘Sarja’. ‘S¢la’.44). though now the resin is mainly obtained from Pine trees. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. energetic as an incarnate idol with kshatriya duty. Every body was assured of the arrival of K¢ratika. Òeke=Àäsve Je<ee& ³em³eeced Fefle ÒeeJe=ìd the season in which rains are heavy is Pr¢v¨°. J³et{esjmkeÀes Je=<emkeÀvOe: MeeueÒeebMeg: ceneYegpe:~ DeelcekeÀce&#eceb osnb #ee$ees Oece& FJeeefÞele:~~ (Raghu. ¹¢la: Raghu.13 1. which spread their smell like that of a rutted elephant.Vanau¾adhivarga . Sarja. The synonym of ‘¹arja’ is ¹¢la 1. quivering the forests of trees Kadamba. ÒeekeÀejJe=#e³ees: Meeue: Meeue: mepe&le©: mce=le: Meeue: mepe&le©: mce=le:~ ¹¢ºvata. R¢la tree means ‘ to remove this message. it went to ‘Saptacchada’ tree which blooms with flowers. big arms as the giant tall ‘¹¢la’ trees1 . This forest land looks like a wine bar 1. The resin obtained from ¹arja’ is called “R¢la”. Wasps start their humming with the blooming of flowers. Salwa ke=Àleceob efveieovle FJeekegÀueer ke=Àlepeiel$e³ecetpe&cele²peced~ JeJegjlegkeÌíoieg®ímegievOe³e: meleleiee: leJeieeveefiejesçefueefYe:~~ (M¢gha. Bh¢ravi has mentioned this tree as a creeper (10/34). Sarg 1-38) The king and the queen went forward enjoying the blowing wind mildly quivering the forest trees and perfumed with the resin of a S¢la tree and spreading the pollen grains giving them their pleasant touch. Sarja. sarga1 ºloka 13) Dil¤pa was with broad chaste (vyudha). meeues leg mepe&keÀe<³ee&éekeÀCe&keÀe: mem³emeJej:~ (Amarakoºa. The body of Dil¤pa was well built and full of self confidence.430 431 K¢ratika. ‘K¢r¾ya’ and ‘Sasyasamvara’ are five synonyms.

8-33. The wealth of noble men is for removing the pains of distressed people. SARALA 1 Pinus roxburghii Sarg. chir Sarala trees are very tall growing in the Himalayas. The Pine has its male and female cones. known as ‘gandhabiroza’ or ‘berajo’ used in medicine. They scratched barks of the trees secrete the resin which perfumes the entire forest and the surrounding atmosphere. leb ®esÜe³eew mejefle mejuemkeÀvOemebIeÆpevcee yeeOesleesukeÀe#eefHele®ecejeryeeueYeeies oJeeeqive:~ Den&m³esveb Meceef³elegceueb yeeefjOeejemenñew: DeeHeVeeefÊe& ÒeMeceveHeÀuee: mebHeoes ¿egÊeceeveeced~~ (Meghd¦ta. Act-4 ‘Sallak¤’frequently meerleeosJ³ee: mJekeÀjueefuelew: meuuekeÀerHeuueJeeûew:~ Deûes ueesue: keÀefjkeÀueYekeÀes ³e: Hegje JeefOe&leesçYetled~~ and efMeefMejkeÀìgkeÀ<ee³eml³ee³eles meuuekeÀerveeefveYeoefueleefJekeÀerCe&ûeeqvLeefve<³evoievOe:~~ Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 1-9 1. Raghua. 6/4-81. Kum¢ra. SALLAK£1 Boswellia serrata Triana & Planch Family: Burseraceae Shallaki. S¢ledi. 4/21-17. 2/91-50. ex Lamb. Resin is obtained from it. 4-75. Indian frankincense. Turpentine oil is also obtained from its resin. Vikrama. That light reflected at night was serving as lamps without oil for the military officers at night. 5/ to remove this message. Thay have a distinct smell in the air.e-pdfconverter. East -54) The fire produced by rubbing of two branches of the pine tree burned the locks (tufts) of hair of tails of chamri cows and that fire spread as forest fire. in . sarga 1-8) Elephants used to rub their foreheads against the pine trunks to remove their itching. Its wood is also fragrant. keÀHeesuekeÀC[t: keÀefjefYe: efJeveslegb efJeIeefÆleeveeb mejueêgceeCeeced~ ³e$e m$egle#eerjle³ee Òemetle: meevetevf e ievOe: megjYeerkeÀjeself e~~ (Kum¢ra. Salai.) Family : Pinaceae Chirpine. sarga 4-75) The bright brilliant light of medicines was falling on the chains put on the necks of elephants tied with the pine trees at night. Kum¢ra. Megha. Reproductive parts (stamens and carpels) are in cones. Early -55. sal¢i gugul mejueemekeÌleceele²ieûewJes³emHegÀefjleeqlJe<e:~ DeemeVeew<eOe³ees vesleg: vekeÌlecemvesnoerefHekeÀe~~ (Raghu. It is proper for you to extinguish this fire completly with thousands of water spurts.432 433 with cooling and dancing of peacocks and moistened with sweet nectar like water. The references of Pine in the R¢m¢ya´a are 2/76-16. Bhavabh¦ti mentions Uttarar¢macarita: 1. (Pinus longifolia Roxb.

plucking very tender leaves of a sallaki tree was feeding baby elephant. var. The elephant rubs his body on the sallaki’s bark which peels off resulting into oozing of resin. ‘Ka°usnehaª’. bitter and astringent oozing resinous odour. Vaidas (Aryuveda doctor) call it ‘Kundarun’ or K¤daru’.. etc. keÀefjkeÀueYeYep³eceevemeuuekeÀerkeÀ<ee³eievOe (K¢dambar¤. ‘Bh¦taghna’ means germicidal. The trees of Sarala. feeds the remains of them to his cow elephant and in this way he develops intimacy with her (Uttarar¢macarita. The elephant loves it. He. . A resinous odourous substance is obtained from it. SIDDH¡RTHA Brassica campestris L. Mah¢v¤racarita 5/41). Act-4) Sallak¤ tree had fresh new tender leaves. De³eceef®ejesÃleHeuueJecegHeveerleb efÒe³ekeÀjsCegnmlesve~ DeefYeue<eleg leeJeoemeJemegjefYejmeb MeuuekeÀerYe²ced~~ (Vikramo. Act 9-32) mejuemeeuemeuuekeÀerÒee³ewjefJejuewjefHe efve:MeeKele³ee efJejuewejf JeesHeue#³eceeCew: HeeoHew: GHeslesve (Para 127). The sight of white rapseeds between the deep green grass was fine. N¢gar¢ja wished to receive such a branch from his wife Kari´¤. The synonym of ‘Sallak¤’ is ‘Gagabhak¾y¢’. The tree blooms in monsoon (R¢jaºekhara.) Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) mee ieewjefme×eLe&efveJesMeJeefÓ: otJee&ÒeJeeuew: ÒeefleefYeVeMeesYeced~~ (Kum¢ra. This ‘Sallak¤’ branch with just emerged new leaves had the resinous liquid having wine like sweet odour. after eating parts of the new leaves of ‘Sallakk¤’. Rapseed is of two types (1) red and (2) to remove this message. This tree is observed in the forests of R¢japipl¢ and P¢v¢gaddha (Gujarat). 2/21. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. they appeared less in numbers. 3/6. Elephants love the leaves of ‘Sallak¤’ mLeeveceeefÚkeÀceHeem³e oefvleve: meuuekeÀereJf eìHeYe²Jeeefmeleced~ Elephants went to other place (evening place) leaving the place (daytime place) perfumed with the peeling of the sallaki’s bark. para 25). The rapseed oil is famous. 7-7) P¢rvat¤ was throwing white rapseeds and their beauty increased uniquely with sprouts of Durv¢ grass.e-pdfconverter..434 435 S¤t¢. The sweet odour was coming out from leaves and bark of ‘Sallakk¤’ tree crushed by baby elephants. K¢lid¢s has mentioned this resinous odour in Kum¢ra. This intoxicated male elephant of the forest is fortunate. sarson Prain (Brassica rapa L. S¢la and Sallak¤ are very closely situated but as they had very few branches. The ‘Sallak¤’ tree is known as ‘¹¢le²¤’ or Dh¦apa²un’ is Gujarat. The white one is more useful. sarga 8 ºloka 33. peiOeeOez: veJemeuuekeÀerekf eÀmeue³ew: Dem³ee: efmLeefle keÀuHe³eved Oev³ees Jev³ecele²pe: Heefj®e³eÒeeieuY³eceY³em³eefle~~ (M¢lat¤m¢dhava. releasing cool. act 18). ‘ Bh¦taghnaª’. The rapseed in Sanskrit is ‘Siddhartha’.

flowers of Nago²a making to forget the whiteness of pearls: The poet picturises P¢ravat¤ wearing the ornaments as flowers of the spring. perhaps to keep away house ghost. The custom of attaching white rapseeds might be prevalent in the past. sucking you. Nago²a with while flowers is rare. (the Vasanta) has set in. Family: Lamiaceae (Verbenaceae) Nirgundi. It is also present in the description of Prastrava´agiri Mountain (4/27-10) and in the vegetation of Sahya mountain (6/4-72-78). inspite of this explanation confusion is created by considering them as synonyms. flowers of Kar´ik¢ra scorning the lustre of golden ornaments. efmevOegb iepeceob Jeej³eefle Fefle efmevOegJeej:~ Its leaf has a peculiar smell which is more severe than the rut of the elephant. Which old woman does not desire to enjoy this sight? “I have no fortune to see your baby sleeping in your lap. the colour of flowers changes from lilac to to remove this message. The ruby ashamed by flowers of Aºoka (in colour). Actually Nago²a with white flowers is Sinduv¢ra and Nago²a with azure flowers is ‘Nirgu´²¤’. . sarga 10-30) ¹iºira. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. Nago²a has only a few flowers. along with the leaves. The mango trees have a few blossoms now (not in full blossoms as in spring). Nago²a is a nice small tree. indicating the ending of Hemanta and forecasting of arrival of spring. Nago²a is included in the list of trees of pampa lake (the R¢m¢ya´a (4/1-77). The cold is less as compared with Hemanta (winter).e-pdfconverter. sarga 3-53) by K¢lid¢sa. The ºloka indicates that flowers of Nago²a are white. It is also mentioned in cegkeÌleekeÀueeHeerke=ÀleefmevOegJeejb JemevleHeg<HeeYejCeb Jenvleer (Kum¢ra. In reality ‘Sinduv¢ra (Muku°a writes ‘Sinduv¢ra) and ‘Nirgu´²¤’ should be distinguished as two distinct trees. Nago²a keÀefleHe³emenkeÀejHeg<Hejc³emleveglegenf veesçuHeefJeefveêefmevogJeej~ megjefYecegKeefnceeieceevleMebmeer mecegHe³e³eew efMeefMej: mcejwkeÀyevOeg:~~ (Kir¢ta. ¹iºira. Amarakoºa and other Nigha´°u instead consider them as synonyms have created confusion.436 437 DekeÀejCemcesjceveewnjeveve: efMeKee ueueeìeefHe&leieewjme<e&He:~ leJee¹Mee³eer HeefjJe=ÊeYeei³e³ee ce³ee ve Îä: leve³e: mlevebOe³e:~~(M¢. Nago²a with azure flower is found every where. with innocent lovely face and on whose chest and forehead the white rapseeds are present. Sephali. M¢ 10-6) K¢m¢ndk¤ wishes to see a baby playing in the lap of M¢lat¤. with trifoliate or pentafoliate leaves. efme×eLe&³eefä<eg ³eLeesÊejner³eceevemevleeveefYeVeOevemete®f eHejcHejemeg~ efÜ$eeJeMes<ekegÀmegceemeg peefve¬eÀcesCe HeekeÀ¬eÀce: keÀefHeefMeceevegHeeoOeeefle~~ (K¢vyam¤m¢¼s¢ Adhy¢ya-18) SINDUV¡RA Vitex negundo L. (late winter) the friend of love making season has set in. It has many varieties. The clear distinction is mentioned: “Sinduvarah svetapushapah ‘Nirgu´²¤’ N¤lasindhukaª”.

I will follow as the trunk of the elephant accordingly” “If my husband is poor without the kingdom. STHAGARA Putranjiva roxburghii wall. early para 43) Lakes with white lotuses along with the moon rays.e-pdfconverter. or considering the golden colour of flowers of Kar´ik¢ra ( Cassia fistula ) and its synonym ‘Suvar´aka’.438 439 efleefcejpeueOejmece³eeHeieceevevlejceefYeveJeefmeleefmevOegJeejkegÀmegceHeeC[gj:w DeCe&Jeeielewjiee¿evle nbmewefjJe kegÀcegomejebefme ®evêHeeow:~~ (K¢dambar¤. There are many references in K¢dambar¤ stating the whiteness of ‘Sinduv¢ra flowers: When the ugly cheerful female monsters were advising S¤t¢ to engage with R¢va´a. as the sunflowers follow the sun”. The young lady with lustrous beauty. ceOegefyevogm³eefvoefmevOegJevejeefpejpeesOetmeefjleleerjeefYe: (para 215. Putijia Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. SUVAR³AV§K½A The R¢m¢ya´a (5/14-38-40) mentions at many places this tree but there is no tree like this. Probably this word is used for a tree with a golden look.5/24-9 Oece&mleg iepeveemees© meefÓje®eefjle: Hegje~ leb ®eenb DevegJeefle&<³es ³eLee met³e& megJe®e&uee~~ (2-30-30) “As the sunflower follows the sun.kegÀmegce®íefJeefYe: FJe Guueefmeleeced (Kanyak¢m). still he is my master and I will always follow him. When S¤t¢ did not relent from her obstinacy of accompanying R¢ma to the forest. these golden trees could be Kar´ik¢ra trees. 203) The poet describes the white seat of pearls like the garland of white ‘Sinhuv¢ra’ flowers. Surajamukhi. The poet mentions trickling of nectar drops from ‘Sidhuv¢ra’ flower.. Family: Putrnjivaceae (Euphorbiaceae) to remove this message. cegkeÌleeefMeueeHeÆb DeefOeefMe<³es~~ (K¢damar¤.. he agrees to take her and speaks. Kunda and Sindhuv¢ra. There is a phrase K¢®can¢n v¨k¾¢n (4/50-25-29). There were rows of such trees trickling nector drops on the bank of the river. Family: Asteraceae Sunflower. . early para. she replies as follows: oervees Jee jep³enervees Jee ³ees ces Yelee& me ces ieg©:~ leb efvel³ecevegjkeÌleeeqmce ³eLee met³e& megJe®e&uee~~ (5/24/4) kegÀìpekegÀvoefmevOegJeej. like the freshly blossomed white flower of ‘Sindhuv¢ra’ after the monsoon. 30. Suryamukhi 1. That Sindhuv¢r has white flowers and it blossoms in autumn is also mentioned. SUVARCAL¡1 Helianthus annuus L. The R¢m¢ya´a 2/30. DeJeoeleefmevOegJeejoeceesHenejb nefj®evovejmew: Òe#eeefueleb. like the white swans are here mentioned.. resembling that of the flowers of Ku°aja.

but lotus does not grow on ground. The tree is ever green. vikram. Vaidyas consider Raktacandana as Rat¢®jal¤ whose wood is red like red powder (Ka¬ku). having garlands of pearl wearing on his shoulders. Indra likes this paste.440 441 (R¢m¢ya´a 2/99-24). Raghu 6-60.e-pdfconverter. its name is ‘J¤vaputa’. Hence its name: HeeC[îeesç³eceebmeeefHe&leuecyenej: keÌue=Hlee²jeiees nefj®evovesve~ DeeYeeefle yeeueeleHejkeÌlemeeveg: meefvePe&jesÃej FJeeefêjepe:~~ (Raghu 6-60) The king of P¢´²u state. hence. oimtment of Haricandana applied over the body and where rivers flow from his mountain peakssuch a king was looking as a fabulous man having the face of a man and a tail of a serpent. 1. Many interpret Haricandana as heavenly sandal paste. Act-1) The stalk of the flower is so tender that it can be easily detached from its attachment with the stem.13 which appers as deep red Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. After referring Haricandana. But it is not undershoot what is “Padmac¢ra°¤? Sthalaj¢ni Ambuj¢ni ca! (R¢m¢ya´a 4/26-26). 4/1-82. Tiniºa and Syandana trees are present in the list of trees of Pa®cava°¤. Mallin¢tha explains “Haricandana” as ‘Goºir¾¢khya’ which means ‘scented paste or red sandal’. SYANDANA R¢m¢yana 3/15/ to remove this message. Sthalakamalin¤ means lotus growing on ground. ‘¹yandana’ is ‘Ta´achha’. Her tender heart like the attachment of the flower is still trembling because the ointment of Haricandana applied between the two breasts is tossing due to breathing. Its leaves are deep green. ±alha´a introduces this tree as ceO³eJele&gue: leer#CeeûeHeÀuees pecyeerjHe$ees Je=#e: The garland of the flower of this tree is worn for prolonging the life of a child with a tendency to die. Refer ‘Tiniºa’ and ‘Atimuktaka’. early 30) Deveem³eLee metvekeÀjÒemeeefjCeer ooMe& otve: mLeueHeef¨eveeR veue:~~ (Nai¾adha. 1. Nigha´°u has a word ‘Padmac¢ra°¤’ whose synonyms are ‘Sthalapadmin¤’ Sth¦laruh¢’. . HARICANDANA1 cegáeefle ve leeJeom³ee: keÀcHeb kegÀmegcemeceyevOeveb Ëo³eced~ HeM³e nefj®evovesve mleveceO³ees®íJeeefmevee keÀefLeleced~~ (Vikramo. but one can interpret it as one growing near the bank of a water body. shining. Deece=äJe#eesnefj®evovee¹e cevoejceeuee nefjCee efHeveÓe~~(¹¢kuntala Act-7) Mand¢ra garland broken by Haricandana and whose upper chandana layer was upturned out by Indra. 1/88) The satisfied king Nala saw a ‘ground lotus’ extending his hand like a flower. ellipitical and serrate STHALAKAMALIN£ ®e#eg: Kesoelmeefueueieg©efYe: Heef#ceYejíeo³evleerced~~ meeYe´sçÚerJe mLeuekeÀceefueveeR ve Òeyeg×eb ve megHleeced~~ (Meghd¦ta. let us decide its real mening. Tilak¢khy¢ interprets as ‘Putra®j¤vaka’.

along with camphor and snow (M¢lat¤m¢dhava. nefj®eboveb megjen¥ nefjievOeb ®evê®evoveb efoJ³eced~ efoefJepe ®e ceneievOeb vevopeb ueesefnleb ®e veome%eced~~ Dhanvantari and R¢janigha´°u mention candana. Kucnadana. In addition lew u eHeef C e& k eÀiees M eer < ex nefj®evoveceefm$e³eeced ~ (Amarakoºa Manu¾yavarga page 247). Jewons erHeefjjcYe S<e ®e cegn½g ewlev³eceeceerue³eved Deevevoer nefj®evovesvogeMf eefMejeqmveiOees ©Ce׳ev³ele:~~(Mah¢v¤rcarita 2/22) The touch of fragrant embrace of Vaideh¤ (S¤t¢) is animating. Deemeeráeveb veg nefj®evoveHeuueJeeveeced (Bhavavbhuti. During coronation of Sugr¤va ‘Canan¢ni ca divy¢ni’ (4/26-26). R¢va´a sees a unique beautiful girl Rambh¢. I feel Haricandana means very best and very fragrant one. one among the God’s five trees. Rktacandana. Barbarika and Haricandana.e-pdfconverter. All these are “Special candana”. efoJ³e®evoveefueHlee²er cevoejke=ÀlecetOe&pee~ efoJ³eeslmeJeke=ÀleejcYee efoJ³eHeg<HeefJeYete<f elee~~ Rambh¢ (a beautiful woman). In short Hari and Divya Candan are the best. The great poet mentions Deieg©Ceeb ®e efoJ³eeveeb ®evoveeveeb ®e meb®e³eeved (4. Dhavantari Nigha´°u gives nine names and difficult for human beings to know their qualities. with application of Divyacadana over the body. . Divyacandan along with other auspicious candans were present. On the other hand. It means Raktcandana can be a synonym of Haricandana. but here Rudhira means Ku¬kuma (Kesara) and candana. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita explains its meaning as “Hariª kapilavar´a candanam”. The embrace is cooling and delicate like ‘Haricandana’ and moon light. Bh¢nuj¤ D¤k¾ita explains it as a type of chandana visesanam as a type of chandan. adorned with flowers and as if deeply engaged in a divine festival is shown. There is another separate reference. Hanum¢n with other monkeys reached at the residence of a very reputed female ascetic in search of S¤t¢. cooling and fragrant. showing a braid of Mand¢ra flowers in her hair. There is a reference of ‘Sn¢naºik¾¢®j¢ª’ experts. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. 6/12) ‘Harichandana’ is considered red. M¢lavik¢gnimitra 4-66 mentions ‘Raktacandana’.442 443 Amarakoºa considers it as Pa®caite Devetaravaª. V¢gbha°a critic Aru´adatta mentions ‘Haricandana” as ³e®ísos ueesefnleceeflemegiebOe megÿg MeerleJeer³e¥ ®e leod nefj®evoveced G®³eles means that candan which is deep to remove this message. During coronation of R¢ma. water treated with Haricandana was brought in golden pots to anoint (2/658). Amarsinh explains it as ‘Tilapar´¤’ as a synonym for Raktacadana. very fragrant and cooling. ±alhana interprets as “Stricandana”. Therefore ‘Haricandana’ is synonym of Raktacanda and tawny (Kapila) coloured chandana. K¢liyaka. ‘Raghuvaïºa (sarga 11-20) mentions “Rudhiracandan¤k¾¤t¢”. From this one concludes that Haricandana is not “Raktacandana”.50-55) and shows the collection of Divyacandana. early 3/11). R¢ma is awakened with S¤t¢’s touch Then he says that he feels as if somebody is applying to my body the juice of leaves of Haricandana tree.

Rajan¤ are synonyms of ‘Haridr¢’. The poet points out that these marking on trees indicate the path the elephants traversed. Niº¢. But the rut of foreheads of elephants produced during scratching was present on the trees. ce³ee ve ¢ä: leve³e: mlevebOe³e:~~ (Act 10) What is the mystery in the word “Haridravasana dh¢ri´¤”? Was the yellow dress necessary for a mother. Haladara efnvleeueeveeb HeeìueerefkebÀMegkeÀeveeved. They are equally used for turmeric. . keÀoe neefjêJemeveOeeefjCeer meglemeveeLeeslme²e ÐeewefjJeesefolejefJeceC[uee meyeeueeleHee ceeceevevoef³e<³eefle osJeer (K¢dambar¤ para 54). Another name is ‘Yo¾itpriy¢’ (dear to women) HINT¡LA HARIDR¡ Curcuma longa L. keÀ<eCekeÀcHeefvejmleceneefnefYe: #eCeefJeceÊece²peJeefpe&lew:~ Fn ceomveefHelewjvegceer³eles megjiepem³e ieleb nefj®evovew:~~ (sarga 5/47) The elephants of Indra were scratching the trunks of ‘Haricandana’ trees. The blowing of breeze through lotus forests was reducing the fatigue of sexual union. sarga 5/28) The abundant creepers in the mountains were only the palace. breast feeding the baby? Was it nessary when a baby was just born? Turmeric is anti – inflammatory and anti-germ. Family: Zingiberaceae Turmeric. In short all things which make one forget the heaven are present here. The idol of goddess of the sixth to remove this message. The sleeping bed was the new leaves of Haricandana. The medicinal plants were only the lamps. Heg<HeeHeer[v³eemenslegJe&mevle:~~ (R¢jaºekhara) Hint¢la flowers in spring. T¢²a (palm) and Hint¢la as T¨´adruma.nefjêeêJeefJe®ígjCeHeefjefHe¡ejecyejOeeefjCeer (para 64). In Sanskrit there are many names of night are present. When will the Dev¤ (goddess) give me the joy of having a baby in my lap and wearing a yellow coloured dress or dyed in my turmeric. So the trees were trembling and big serpents living inside were furiously hissing. Her clotheme were painted with turmeric colour mixed with other colours. The new born baby is here compared with a rising morning sun. So elephants feared and ran away.445 444 ÞeerceuueleeYeJevecees<eOe³e: ÒeoerHee: Me³³ee veJeeefve nefj®evoveHeuueJeeefve~ DeeqmcevjefleÞecevego½e mejespeJeelee: mcele&gb efoMeefvle ve efoJe: megjmegvojerY³e:~~ (Kir¢ta. Amarsinha considers Kharj¦r¤. Please purchase 'e-PDF Converter and Creator' on http://www. ‘R¢tri. Hint¢la is a type of a palm (Phoenix). A similar instance is expressed in M¢lat¤m¢dhava when Kamandak¤ speaks : DekeÀejCemcesjceveesnjeveve: efMeueeueueeìeefHe&leieewjme<e&He:~ leJee¹Mee³eer HeefjJe=ÊeYeei³e³ee.e-pdfconverter. Ketak¤.

) Corr. 311 Atrocarpusintegrifolia L. 233 Areca catechu L. 298 Barringtoniaracemosa (L. To remove the line. 300 Azadirachtaindica A.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF. f. AcroPDF . 25 Azadirachtaindica A.) Wall. Br.) Brot 294 Andropogonsquarrosus L.) Fosberg 311 Artocarpushetrophyllus Lam. 382 ArtocarpuslakoochaRoxb. 10 AlangiumlamarckiiThw. ex Bedome 90 Anthocephaluscadamba(Roxb.R.F. 238 Asparagus racemosusWilld. 279 Artemisia indicaWilld. 315 Albizialebbeck (L.) Spreng.) Miq 6 AquilariaagallochaRoxb.Page No.) Benth 413 Albizialebbeck (L. 279 Artemisia princepsPamp. ex DC.) willd 342 Aegle marmelos(L. buy a license. 290 Anogeissuslatifolia (Roxb. 427 Alstoniascholaris L. .) Gaertn. Juss. 6 Aquilariamalaccensis L. 71 Balanitesroxburghii Planch 298 Barringtoniaacutangula(L.) Benth 377 Allium sativum L. Botanical Name 241 Abrusprecatorius L. 382 Artocarpusaltilis(Park. 236 Acacia catechu (L. 322 Areca catechu L. Juss. 408 Andropogonhalepensis(L.

325 B.Don.) Schrad 298 Citrus aurantium L. 339 Cephalandraindicavar. 325 Buchananialanzanspreng. ex Schult. 149 CapparisaphyllaRoth. 19 Calotropisgigantea (L. Don 312 Bignonia chelonoidesL. Br.) J. 178 Butea monosperma (Lam.) Edgew. sweet Naud.) Roberty 294 Chrysopogonzizanioides L.) R. buy a license. 171 BerberisasiaticaRoxb. 214 Carthamustinctorius L. 402 Chrysopogonzizanioides (L. 149 Capparis decidua (Forssk.Ham) T. 158 Cinnamomumcamphora(L. 346 BetulautilisD. latifoliaRobx.) Taub. 168 Bauhinia variegata L. f.H.var.) G. 231 Bauhinia variegata L. 263 Cinnamomumtamala(Buch. Presl. 217 Cassia fistula L.sarsonPrain 435 Brassicarapa L. To remove the line. 433 BoswelliaserrataTriana& Planch 435 BrassicacampestrisL. Ebern. Nees& C.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF.349 BassialatifoliaRoxb. . 243 Cicer arietinum L. 320 CalophylluminophyllumL. 286 Cedrusdeodara (Roxb. 366 Citrus limonumRisso AcroPDF . 411 Bombaxceiba L. 76 Citrulluscolocynthis (L.

272 DiospyrosmelanoxylonRoxb. 80 Cordia myxaauct. 306 Cocos nucifera L. . 419 DalbergialatifoliaRoxb. 444 Curcumalonga L. 339 CocciniaindicaWight &Arn. 24 ClerodendronphlomoidesHort. 17 Clitoriaternatea L. 81 Datura innoxia Mill 320 Delonixelata(L.Ital. 191 Crocus sativus L. ex Stocks) Engl.Forst f. buy a license.343 Citrus medicaLinn.) Bhandari 321 Commiphorawightii (Arn. 85 CucumissativasL.) Gamble 345 DilleniaindicaL. 339 Cocciniagrandis(L. 240 Commiphoramukul(Hook.) Bhandari 80 Cordia dichotomaForst. AcroPDF . ex DC. 240 Commiphorawightii (Arn.) Voigt. To remove the line.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF. 398 CratevareligiosaG. 86 Elettariacardamomum(L. 272 Diospyrosembryopteris Pers. 283 Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers. 24 ClerodendronmultiflorumBurm. 209 DolichosbiflorusL.) Maton 52 EmblicaoofficinalisGaertn. 398 CrataevareligiosaForst. 368 Cyperusrotundus L. 239 Coixlacryma-jobi L.

. 289 GrewiatiliaefoliaVahl. 280 Eragrostiscynosuroides (Retz.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF.) P. 296 Jasminumsambac (L. 302 IndigoferatinctoriaL. buy a license. 362 JasminumgrandlflorumL. Beauv. 13 HiptagemadablotaGaertn.209 Eragrostiscynosuroides(Retz. 175 GmelinaarboreaRoxb. 166 Lathyrussativus L. 332 FicusamplissimaSmith 308 FicusbenghalensisL. 257 Eugenia jambolanaLam. To remove the line.) Aiton 30 Lagenariasiceraria (Molina) Standl 30 Lageneria vulgaris Ber. 11 HardwickiapinnataRoxb.) Aiton 359 Jasminumsambac (L. 235 Linumusitatissimum L. 194 Holarrhenaantidysenterica (L. 332 FicustsielaRoxb. 46 Ficusreligiosa L. Beauv. 13 Hiptagebenghalensis (L.) P.) Kurz. AcroPDF . 256 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 197 Jasminumarborescens Roxb. 436 Helianthus annuus L.) wall 371 Hordeum vulgare L. 78 FicusracemosaL. 373 JasminumauriculatumVahl 260 JasminumauriculatumVahl. 399 Gymnosporiamontana (Roth) Benth.

110 NelumbonuciferaGaertn.232 Luffa acutangula (L.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF.F. 148 Mallotusphilippensis (Lam.) J. 335 PentapetesphoeniceaL.) Rox. 217 Pandanus odoratissimusL. & Hooker 175 Ochrocarpuslongifolius Benth. 292 OchrocarpuslongifoliusBenth. 101 Musaparadisiaca L. 365 Phaseolusradiatus L. 291 Millettiapinnata(L. 251 Mesuaferrea L.f. AcroPDF .) Bosser 148 NeriumodorumAiton. 361 Mangiferaindica L. & Hook. 358 OcimumbasilicumL. 54 Mangiferaindica L. 380 MiniosapudicaL 425 Moringaoleifera Lam.) Muell.) Clarke 349 Madhucalongifolia(J. 148 Nerium oleander L. &Sowerby) Gray 230 Paspalumscrobiculatum L. f. 305 Mesuaferrea L. buy a license. 273 OugeiniadalbergiodesBenth.) Panigrahi 225 Mimusopselengi L. 376 Mallotusphilippensis(Lam. varamara (Roxb. 303 OryzanivaraSharma &Shastry 160 Oryza sativa L. Kontg.) Muell. Arg. Arg. 422 Parmeliaperforata(Sm. 90 Neolamarckiacadamba (Roxb. To remove the line. . Macbr. 12 OugeiniadalbergioidesBenth.

319 Piper longumL. ex Lamb. 374 Pterocarpussantalinus L. 366 PterospermumglabrescensWight &Arn.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF. exSteud. 382 Phyllanthusacidus(L. 281 Punicagranatum L. 52 Phyllanthusemblica L. buy a license.) Skeels 382 PhyllanthusdistichusMüll.) Roxb. 67 Saccharumofficinarum L. 236 Phoenix sylvestris (L. 439 Putranjivaroxburghiiwall. f. 265 Piper betleL. 291 Pongamiaglabra Vent. 310 PrunuscerasoidesD. 320 PoincianaelataL.) Scherb.) Druce 406 Prosopisspicigera L. Arg. 85 Ricinuscommunis L. 432 PinuslongifoliaRoxb. .) Willd. 291 PongamiapinnataL. 406 Prosopis cineraria (L. 366 Pterospermumacerifolium (L.Don 310 PrunuspuddumRoxb. ex Wall 48 Pterocarpus marsupiumRoxb. 89 Piper cubebaL.f. 294 Phragmiteskarka (Retz.) Trin. 348 RubiacordifoliaL.367 Phaseolustrilobatus(L. 171 Saccharumspontaneum AcroPDF . 432 PinusroxburghiiSarg. 357 Piper nigrumL. To remove the line.

301 Strychnospotatorum L. .) Skeels 271 Tamarindusindica L. 274 Sesamumindicum L. f. 176 Strychnosnux-vomica L.) Pers. 405 SemecarpusanacardiumL. AcroPDF . 389 SymplocosracemosaRoxb. 24 Sapindustrifoliatus L. 66 Spondiasmangifera W. 378 Tecoma undulate (Sm.) G.f. 25 SapindusemarginataVahl. 20 Terminalia arjuna(Roxb. buy a license.) Kurz. 312 StereospermumsuaveolensDC. 66 Spondiaspinnata (L. 242 Taxusbaccata L.f. f. Don 410 TectonagrandisL.) Poir 430 Shorearobusta Roth 408 Sorghum halepense (L. 403 SemecarpusanacardiumL.f. 244 Santalum album L.f.Don 378 Tecomellaundulata D. 312 Stereospermumchelonoides (L.) wight&Arn.367 SaccharummunjaRoxb.) Merrill & Perry 257 Syzygiumcumini(L.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF. 4 Sesbania grandiflora (L. 215 Saussurealappa Clarke. To remove the line. 31 Saracaasoca(Roxb.) DC.) Wilde 31 Saracaindica L. 10 Semecarpusanacardium L. 380 Syzygiumaromaticum (L.

) K.) Nash 402 Vetiveriazizanioides (L.) Nash 365 Vigna mungo (L. 262 ValerianahardwickiiWall.) Roxb. 290 Woodfordia floribundaSalisb 150 Ziziphusnummularia(Burm.) R. . To remove the line.A Quality PDF Writer and PDF Converter to create PDF. 84 Vetiveriazizanioides(L. 289 Vitisvinifera L.) Hepper 367 Vignaradiata(L. AcroPDF .f. Schum.1 Terminalia belerica (Gaertn. 310 TrichosanthesdioicaRoxb.) Nash 294 Vetiveriazizaniodes(L.) Wight &Arn. buy a license. 310 Trichosanthescucumerina L. 149 Thevetiaperuviana (Pers. 242 Triticumaestivum L. Wilczek 436 VitexnegundoL.