HUANG HO AND YANGTZE-THE SEAT OF EARLY CIVILIZATION IN

CHINA
 Paleolithic Age- China’s history began with the discovery of the Peking
man.
 The civilization founded on the Yellow River or Huang Ho had led the
ancient world in arts, science, philosophy, and the skills in governance.
GEOGRAPHY OF CHINA
 China is bounded by mountain ranges at the northwest and high plateaus
at the southwest slope.
TWO MAIN PARTS OF CHINA:
1.China Proper- “heart of China”, “The Middle Kingdom”. It includes
the traditional “18
provinces”, surrounded by natural barriers.
2.Areas that surround China Proper- Tibet, Sinkiang, Mongolia, and
Manchuria.
THE BIRTHPLACE OF EARLY CIVILIZATION
Yellow River- deposits yellow powdered soil hundreds of feet deep in these
places called loess.
- also known as the Huang Ho River.
- measures 2,900 miles in length, and is very shallow.
- vital for irrigation.
- carries silt that usually settles at the bottom raising the water
level higher.
- dams built by the Chinese oftentimes break and the river runs
wild and causes
so much destruction.
- also called as “China’s Sorrow”.
Yangtze River- measures 5,471.62 km. long, and it is quite deep.
- allows large ocean-going ships to travel 600 miles upstream
to the great city
of Wuham.
Si River- measures more than 1,931.16 km.
- serves as an important commercial waterway.
THE DYNASTIC CYCLE IN CHINA

 Domesticated animals and used elephants in times of war.  Bronze works and other bronze materials were used for offering food and wines to their ancestors.  The government also employed priest-astronomers to determine the time of planting with the use of the calendar.PEACE AND PROSPERITY UNDER A STRONG DYNASTY DECLINES. It also includes reverence for older people in the family. REBELLION OCCURS REBELLION IS JUSTIFIED DYNASTIES OF CHINA THE SHANG DYNASTY (1500-1028 BCE)  Second Chinese dynasty after Xia Dynasty.  People grew millet and rice.  System of writing with written symbols and inscripted characters. THE CHOU DYNASTY (1028-256 BCE)  Longest dynasty that ruled China.capital of the Shang Dynasty.  Anyang.  Learned to weave silk cloth from silk thread.  Kaolin.  Ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as China proper in the Yellow River Valley.  Developed a lunar calendar for the king depended on good harvest. .  Shang rulers were noted to have become cruel and wicked (1028 BCE).  Shang artisans laid foundations for Chinese ceramics arts. and ancestor worship.very fine white clay used to shape potteries.was excavated around 1930.revealed bronze works that suggests an age of strong religious feelings. . POWER GROWS WEAKER NEW DYNASTY RESTORES PEACE AND ORDER REBELLION AND BLOODSHED.NEW DYNASTY EMERGES DISASTER OCCURS.  Its economy was mainly characterized by farming.  Religions: combination of animism. .

and the Legalists Group contradicted as to what kind of relationship should exist between a ruler and his subjects.  The emperor ordered the construction of the Great Wall of China to keep barbarians out of the borders of China.urged for social harmony. As the feudal states were numerous and became increasingly independent. .  IDEOLOGIES:  Confucius.  Legalists Group.wants a stern government of punishment and rewards. the states fought with one another (Warring States Period).  The people were confused because the ideologies of Confucuis.  Chin Shih Huang-ti.  Xianyang.given by the government to any man who was interested to serve the government.expanded the Chinese territory.provinces were ruled by governors. THE CHIN DYNASTY  Reunited China after the downfall of the Chou Dynasty.  Feudal system.  The Chou rulers became greedy and lost the loyalty of their subjects.  Mencius.  Its rule claimed to have the Mandate of Heaven. led by Hsiung Nu.orders from the gods.believes in Taoism.asserted the innate goodness of the individual.  There were officials for every task in the empire. Mencuis.capital.known to be the “First Emperor” (221-206 BCE). .  Civil service examination.  Lao Tzu.  Its government lasted for three thousand years because it was planned very well. protecting the country from nomadic invasions.conquered the barbarians at the southern part of his empire and subdued the Huns in the north. . Thus. Lao Tzu.  Different philosophies were formed on the meaning of life and the right way to live it.Wu Wang.founder of the Chou dynasty. believing that it was society's influence that causes bad moral character.

these rebels beat Chin's huge army and destroyed the capital at Xianyang.route discovered by the Chinese to the markets of Syria and other eastern Mediterranean lands. .  Great Silk Road.  Wu Ti.  Chang’an (now Xian)-capital city.  Rebellions against the new emperor began and in four years. Hsiang Yu and Liu Pang.  Pan Chao.  Civil service examination was the way by which Han officials were selected from the Confucian school. THE HAN DYNASTY  Liu Pang (9260 BCE – 220 CE)-founded the Han dynasty. the Chinese often referred to themselves as the “Man of Han”. PRECIOUS LITERARY PIECES  Five Classics of Confucius. he commanded the Chin officials to put the feudal states under their control. .  Confucianism triumphed. To put a stop to the warring states.collection of greatest writings of Confucius.  The two main rebel leaders.  Silk.  Confucius.greatest emperor of Han dynasty. fought over who would be the next emperor.first great historian of China who compiled the complete history of China.first to launch China with the rest of the world.  Gained high reputation so that until the modern times.  Buddhism was brought about by the traders. It reached China when disorder was spreading and spread rapidly as the dynasty neared its collapse.drove the barbarian Huns who had earlier broke through the great walls.  The death of Shih Huang-ti in Shandong Province came and he was succeeded by his son who wasn’t able to hold on to the powerful rule of his father.because of his successes in battles.  Analects.  Ssuma-Ch’ien.  Renewal learning was also emphasized.contain Confucius’ words of wisdom recorded by his students.one of the greatest female Chinese literary writers. people called him the “Martial Emperor”. .  Scholars were allowed to read and memorize the Confucian Classics.  An order to burn all books was commanded by the emperor.regarded with respect (revered) as a patron saint of scholars. in means of trading.

THE TANG DYNASTY  China was under this dynasty for 300 years.  Reached its height about 750 CE. and paper were made during this age.  Ordered the building of the Grand Canal. 2.  Short.reunited the Northern and Southern part of China in 589 CE.Sung emperors were threatened by Khitans (a group of Mongolian people) who decided to buy peace in the form of annual tributes. ACHIEVEMENTS: 1.This period was considered the Golden Age of painting.  In the 800s.Several inventions in the form of gunpowder. printing. 3. and they captured Kai-Yang.founded this dynasty.  Bribes failed to stop the barbarians.  It gradually declined under the rule of weak emperors.  Buddhism reached its height during the Tang rule. connecting Yellow and Yangtze River to unify the two parts of China. THE SUNG DYNASTY  Established by Sung Tai-Tsu in 960-1279 C.E.  Laid the foundation for the Golden Age of China. . a Tang emperor persecuted Buddhism. use of ink.  People turned against this dynasty because he ordered endless building of walls and palaces.Foreign trade was expanded.  Extended its frontiers to the farthest west invading the Turks in the North and a powerful cultural influence over neighboring states such as those in Korea and Japan.China achieved its most powerful and wealthiest status.lived. Their paintings done on silk scrolls showed their great tradition of landscape painting.  Civilizations of China remained at its greatest height under the Sung dynasty.  Golden Age of China. the capital of Sung.THE SUI DYNASTY  Yang Chien.  Middle 900s.  Li Yuang.

4.his empire also included Central Asia.led the Mongols. the Mongol capital.famous European traveler from Italy.it was during his time that China’s naval fleet developed. .Magnetic compass was invented and found to be useful for finding directions and for navigation.  1330's.he left Cathay – the name given by Khan to China.one of the greatest conquerors of the world. who succeeded him after he died.Genghis’ grandson. and a part of Russia.built the first Imperial Highway to bind his empire together. . .  Chu Yan Chuang.  Kublai Khan.1292. fearsome warriors from the grasslands north of China.one of the trusted officials of the Great Khan. .people all over the whole Mongol Empire were suffering from the Black Death. .built his capital in Nanking or the southern capital. .moved the capital to Peking (The Imperial City). .renamed himself Ming Tai Tsu when he became emperor.proclaimed himself emperor. CHINA UNDER THE MONGOLS: THE YUAN DYNASTY  Temujin. . . China had the greatest naval power.  1368 CE. . and captured Beijing. Persia.  Red Turbans.led the Chinese rebellion against the Mongols.replaced Chenglo as emperor in 1421.  With the leadership of Chenglo. served the court for 17 years.proclaimed himself as emperor of the Ming Dynasty. .conquered China and threw Mongols out.better known as Genghis Khan.an active movement in northern China during 1350s CE. THE MING DYNASTY  Native dynasty of China.  Kublai Khan died in 1295. .ruled the largest empire the world has ever known.the swollen (bubonic) plague.  Chu Yuan Chang.  Yunglo. .established the Yuan Dynasty with Khanbalik (Peking) as its capital.  Marco Polo . .

found in the center of Peking.  Wu San-kuei. Manchuria. Forbidden City. but it was not successful. Indochina.  The foreign invasion and the raid of Manchus of Manchuria broke to the Great Wall and raided the borders of Ming China. Tibet.the Chinese name of the Manchu. Heilongjiang. and Liaoning.only the emperor and his court can enter.  Kept the system set up by the Ming.led the first real rebellion against the Manchu in 1673. Jilin.  Ching Dynasty. and China Proper.  Originally formed by three provinces. Eastern Turkestan.  In the early 1900s. . Korea. THE MANCHU (MANCHU EMPIRE)  Included Mongolia. the Manchu people were down to only about 80% of the previous conquering population.