MANISH KUMAR SHARMA, A.

P CSE DEPARTMENT

1 AUG, 2016

UNIT-1
INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM SOLVING
DEFINITION:
Artificial Intelligence is the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment,
people are better.
SOME DEFINITIONS OF AI
Building systems that think like humans
 “The exciting new effort to make computers think … machines with minds, in the full
and literal sense” -- Haugeland, 1985
 “The automation of activities that we associate with human thinking, … such as decisionmaking, problem solving, learning, …” -- Bellman, 1978
Building systems that act like humans
 “The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when
performed by people” -- Kurzweil, 1990
 “The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people
are better” -- Rich and Knight, 1991
Building systems that think rationally
 “The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models” -Charniak and McDermott, 1985
 “The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act” -Winston, 1992
Building systems that act rationally
 “A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behavior in terms of
computational processes” -- Schalkoff, 1990
 “The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of
intelligent behavior” -- Luger and Stubblefield, 1993
TURING TEST
It is proposed by Alan Turing 1950 .According to this test, a computer could be considered to be
thinking only when a human interviewer, conversing with both an unseen human being and an
unseen computer, could not determine which is which.
Description:
2 human being,1 computer
The computer would need to posses the following capabilities:
The computer processing: to enable it to communicate successfully in English
Knowledge representation: to store what it knows or hears
Automated reasoning: to use the stored information to answer questions and to draw new
conclusions
Machine learning: to adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns.
To pass the total Turing test, the computer will need,
Computer vision: to perceive objects
Robotics: to manipulate objects and move about

MANISH KUMAR SHARMA, A.P CSE DEPARTMENT

1 AUG, 2016

Thinking and Acting Humanly
 Acting humanly
"If it looks, walks, and quacks like a duck, then it is a duck”
The Turing Test
-Interrogator communicates by typing at a terminal with TWO other agents.The human
can say and ask whatever s/he likes, in natural language. If the human cannot decide
which of the two agents is a human and which is a computer, then the computer has
achieved AI
- this is an OPERATIONAL definition of intelligence, i.e., one that gives an algorithm
for testing objectively whether the definition is satisfied
 Thinking humanly: cognitive modeling
-Develop a precise theory of mind, through experimentation and introspection, then write
a computer program that implements it
Example: GPS - General Problem Solver (Newell and Simon, 1961)
-Ttrying to model the human process of problem solving in general
 Thinking Rationally- The laws of thought approach
-Capture ``correct'' reasoning processes”
-A loose definition of rational thinking: Irrefutable reasoning process
-How do we do this
 Develop a formal model of reasoning (formal logic) that “always” leads to
the “right” answer
 Implement this model
-How do we know when we've got it right?
 when we can prove that the results of the programmed reasoning are
correct
 soundness and completeness of first-order logic
Example:
Ram is a student of III year CSE. All students are good in III year CSE.
Ram is a good student.
 Acting Rationally
-Act so that desired goals are achieved
-The rational agent approach (this is what we’ll focus on in this course)
-Figure out how to make correct decisions, which sometimes means thinking rationally
and other times means having rational reflexes
 correct inference versus rationality
 reasoning versus acting; limited rationality
RELATION WITH OTHER DISCIPLINES:
- Expert Systems
- Natural Language Processor
- Speech Recognition
- Robotics
- Computer Vision
- Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction
- Data Mining

MANISH KUMAR SHARMA, A.P CSE DEPARTMENT
- Genetic Algorithms

1 AUG, 2016