UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE BAJA

CALIFORNIA
SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES

SECOND LANGUAGE MORPHOLOGY
Manual

NAME __________________________________
Elaborado por:
M.C/M en Doc. Tirzza Y.A Tanahara Romero
2016-1

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

UNIT 1

2

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
MORPHOLOGY OF WORDS (INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND WORD FORMATION)
PRACTICE 1: Identifying Morphemes
Count the number of morphemes in each word. Write in the column the free and bound
morphemes. Example: unpresentable -- 3 morphemes; present= free, un- and –able are
bound morphemes.
WORD

# OF
MORPHEMES

FREE

1. alligator
2. calmly
3. running
4. blindness
5. stapler
6. bargain
7. regrouping
8. undeniable
9. assertion
10. certainly
11. corner
12. prepay
13. tighten
14. staying
15. dislocation

3

BOUND

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 2: Word Trees. For each word below, draw a word tree.
1. creating

2. seaward

3. wastage

4. poetic

5. Modernize

7. waiter

8. reconsider

10. incompletion

11. Shipper

6. unhealthy

9. keys

12. disobey

13. resettled

14. anticlimaxes

16. simply

17. Jumping

19. activity

20. confrontational

4

15. unemployment

18. digitizes

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 3: AFFIXATION From the following list of words. Place them in the
correspondent column (prefix or affix). Write them in the correspondent column. When
there is NO AFFIX write –none-.
WORD

PREFIX

SUFFIX

rider
unhappy
calculates
thinker
dresses
silver
colder
unleash
uncle
lens
boys
windows
melodies
untie
guess

5

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

PRACTICE 4. ROOTS
Instructions: find roots and affixes in the words below
Drawing
of
its
internal Root(s)
prefix
structure
PHILANTROPISTS

CHRONOLOGICAL

MONOTONOUS

GRAPHICS

DYSLEXIC

6

suffix

MEANING OF WORD

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
Drawing of internal structure

Root(s):
Latin or
word

Greek, prefix
English

PSYCHIC

VOCALIZE

CAPTIVITY

PROFITEER

DIFFERENT

7

suffix

MEANING OF WORD

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
Drawing of internal structure

Root(s):
Latin or
word

Greek, prefix
English

CORRUPTION

DIVERT

ATONAL

AUTISM

CREDENTIAL

INHALANT

8

suffix

MEANING OF WORD

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 5. INFLECTION OF NOUNS.
WORD

INFLECTION TYPE

EXTRA INFORMATION

SALMON
POTATOES
KNIVES
HIS
FUNGI
PAT´S
THEM
GODESS
ROOSTER
SHE
IT

PRACTICE 6. NOUN INFLECTION. Analyze the text below and identify the different
type of inflection of the underlined nouns and pronouns (CASE). Write your analysis on
the lines.
"These

apples'

______________________cores

_____________________________are
__________________________buy

are

usually
apples

hard,

soft.

but

apples

When

you

___________________________,

_____________________________should

first

pick

up

you

each

apple

________________________________and bounce it ________________________off the floor
several

times.

Then

check

it______________________

its_____________________________

is

bruised,

skin.

discretely

put

If
it

_____________________________back with the other apples__________________________,
making

certain

that

no

one

______________________

you_____________________¨.
9

is

watching

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

PRACTICE 7. IDENTIFY NOUN INFLECTION (NUMBER, CASE, PERSON,
GENDER)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Entertainment & Arts (TAKEN FROM BBC WORLD NEWS)
Revenant's Inarritu wins top directing award at DGA.
Alejandro Inarritu has won the top prize at the Directors Guild of America (DGA) awards for
The Revenant, adding weight to his chances at the Oscars.
The Revenant, starring Leonardo Di Caprio as a frontiersman fighting for survival, leads the
Oscars race with 12 nominations, including best director.
Past DGA award winners have often gone on to claim the best director Oscar and the best film
category.
Inarritu won the DGA award for Birdman in 2015 and then won the Oscars double.
The DGA is the industry's leading group of film and TV directors and its opinion carries a lot of
weight.
To date, there have been only seven occasions when the DGA winner has not then won the
subsequent Academy Award
The group also chose Matthew Heineman as best documentary maker for Cartel Land.
Heineman's film focuses on vigilante groups fighting drug cartels on both sides of the
US/Mexican border
Heineman said: "I hope that this film will give voice to those trapped by the cycle of violence in
hopes that one day the cycle will end."
For Inarritu, Saturday night's accolade makes the Mexican the first director to win back-to-back
DGA awards.

Line #

WORD FROM

TYPE OF NOUN

TEXT

INFLECTION

10

EXTRA INFORMATION

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

PRACTICE 8. VERB INFLECTION.
TENSE AND ASPECT ONLY. CIRCLE THEM, THEN WRITE THEM ON THE
COLUMNS.
SENTENCE
TENSE
ASPECT
a. Ann had thirty pairs of shoes.
b. Thomas had thought about the problem
for years.
c. She did well on her chemistry quiz.
d. How does water become snow?
e. Both did go to the game after all.
f. He was planning to leave in the morning.
g. She had not updated her Web page for a
long time.
h. Has your brother been feeling better?
i. Tony Gwynn has set many baseball
records.
j. We should have been home by now.
k. My friend offered me an apple, but I
wasn't hungry because I had just eaten
lunch.
l. By 2020 I will have been living in
Ensenada for 50 years.
m. James has been feeling a little
depressed.
n. How will you go back to your place?
o. Daisy teaches English at an Elementary
school.
p. Is he sitting or standing?
q. They were eating dinner, discussing
their plans, and having a good time.

11

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

PRACTICE 9. INFLECTION.
INFLECTION OF NOUNS, VERBS AND ADJECTIVES. ANALYZE
UNDERLINED WORD.
WORD
TYPE OF INFLECTION MORPHOLOGICAL
(NOUN, VERB OR ADJ)
EXPLANATION
JACK
COOKED
DINNER
THE
TEACHER
GAVE
THE
CHILDREN
CANDY.
HE IS CLEVERER
THAN I.
I SAW THE GIRL.
SHE
WAS
FRIGHTENED.
SO,
IT
BEGUN.
THE
ROOM

HAS

MEN´S

THE
KITCHEN
KNIVES ARE TOO
SHARP.
MY SPOUSE IS
VERY LOVING.
MARY
WAS
FEEDING
THE
DOGS.
MY
FRIENDS
WERE HAPPY TO
SEE ME.
PAT
PREPARED
DINNER
JUST
FOR ME

12

THE

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

PRACTICE 10. DERIVATION.
NOUN
NOTICE
FREEDOM
LOYALTY
TRUTH
INSTRUCTION
MODESTY

DERIVE AN ADJECTIVE

VERB
CREATE
EXPECT
ORIENT
CONSIDER
EDIT
EXPLODE
EXIST

VERB
GENERATE
DIAGNOSE
DREAM
DRINK
ELECT
DISTRIBUTE
AMAZE

DERIVE A NOUN

DERIVE A NOUN

DERIVE AN ADJECTIVE

13

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

Common Prefixes

Prefix

Definition

Example

anti-

against

anticlimax

de-

opposite

devalue

dis-

not; opposite of

discover

en-, em-

cause to

enact, empower

fore-

before; front of

foreshadow, forearm

In-, im-

in

income, impulse

in-, im-, il-, ir-

not

indirect, immoral,
illiterate, irreverent

inter-

between; among

interrupt

mid-

middle

midfield

mis-

wrongly

misspell

non-

not

nonviolent

over-

over; too much

overeat

pre-

before

preview

re-

again

rewrite

semi-

half; partly; not fully

semifinal

sub-

Under

subway

super-

above; beyond

superhuman

trans-

across

transmit

un-

not; opposite of

unusual

under-

under; too little

underestimate

14

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

Common Suffixes

Suffix

Definition

Example

-able, -ible

is; can be

affordable, sensible

-al, -ial

having characteristics of

universal, facial

-ed

past tense verbs; adjectives

the dog walked,
the walked dog

-en

made of

golden

-er, -or

one who;
person connected with

teacher, professor

-er

more

taller

-est

the most

tallest

-ful

full of

helpful

-ic

having characteristics of

poetic

-ing

verb forms;
present participles

sleeping

-ion, -tion, -ation, -ition

act; process

submission, motion,
Relation, edition

-ity, -ty

state of

activity, society

-ive, -ative, -itive

adjective form of noun

active, comparative, sensitive

-less

without

hopeless

-ly

how something is

lovely

-ment

state of being; act of

contentment

-ness

state of; condition of

openness

-ous, -eous, -ious

having qualities of

riotous, courageous, gracious

-s, -es

more than one

trains, trenches

-y

characterized by

gloomy

15

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
COMMON GREEK ROOTS
Greek Root

Definition

Example

anthropo

man; human; humanity

anthropologist, philanthropy

auto

self

autobiography, automobile

bio

life

biology, biography

chron

time

chronological, chronic

dyna

power

dynamic, dynamite

dys

bad; hard; unlucky

dysfunctional, dyslexic

gram

thing written

epigram, telegram

graph

writing

graphic, phonograph

hetero

different

heteronym, heterogeneous

homo

same

homonym, homogenous

hydr

water

hydration, dehydrate

hyper

over; above; beyond

hyperactive, hyperbole

hypo

below; beneath

hypothermia, hypothetical

logy

study of

biology, psychology

meter/metr

measure

thermometer, perimeter

micro

small

microbe, microscope

mis/miso

hate

misanthrope, misogyny

mono

one

monologue, monotonous

morph

form; shape

morphology, morphing

nym

name

antonym, synonym

phil

love

philanthropist, philosophy

phobia

fear

claustrophobia, phobic

photo/phos

light

photograph, phosphorous

pseudo

false

pseudonym, pseudoscience

psycho

soul; spirit

psychology, psychic

scope

viewing instrument

microscope, telescope

techno

art; science; skill

technique, technological

16

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
Common Latin Roots
Latin Root

Definition

Example

ambi

both

ambiguous, ambidextrous

aqua

water

aquarium, aquamarine

aud

to hear

audience, audition

cent

one hundred

century, percent

circum

around

circumference, circumstance

contra/counter

against

contradict, encounter

dict

to say

dictation, dictator

duc/duct

to lead

conduct, induce

fac

to do; to make

factory, manufacture

fort

strength

fortitude, fortress

fract

break

fracture, fraction

ject

throw

projection, rejection

jud

judge

judicial, prejudice

mal

bad

malevolent, malefactor

mater

mother

maternal, maternity

mit

to send

transmit, admit

mort

death

mortal, mortician

multi

many

multimedia, multiple

pater

father

paternal, paternity

port

to carry

portable, transportation

rupt

to break

bankrupt, disruption

scrib/script

to write

inscription, prescribe

sect/sec

to cut

bisect, section

spect

to look

inspection, spectator

struct

to build

destruction, restructure

vid/vis

to see

televise, video

voc

voice; to call

vocalize, advocate
17

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

UNIT 2

18

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
OPEN CLASS: NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS
PRACTICE 1. In the following sentences, underline the subject once and the predicate twice.
a. A calculator or an abacus will help you and will speed your calculations.
b. Have you or one of your friends ever used an abacus?
c. The abacus is an ancient arithmetic tool and consists of a frame with vertical wires or
slots.
d. Beads or balls may be moved up or down in the slots in various combinations.
e. In this way, the user quickly performs calculations such as addition and subtraction.
PRACTICE 2. In the following sentences, identify the subject(s). If it is a simple subject
underline it. If it is a compound subject double underline the words. Draw parenthesis around
the predicate [..].
a. My mother and brother want a new puppy.
b. In my school, both the Spanish club and the German club have at least twenty members.
c. Where are the batteries for this flashlight?
d. Neither Steve nor Katya borrowed that book.
e. The newspaper and the radio carried stories about the weather.
f. We could cancel the hike and meet at the museum.

PRACTICE 3. In the following sentences, identify compound nouns by drawing a circle
around the words and double underline the compound subjects.

a. Have you or Kimberly found your tap shoes yet?
b. My sister-in-law, a singer in a band, plays the guitar.
c. Did Dad change the batteries in the smoke detector that is in the family room?
d. After the children tossed snowballs, they built a snowman in the sidewalk.
e. In gym class, Coach Ellis let the students through a set of twenty push-ups.

19

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 4. Circle the Noun and place an “N” above them in the following sentences.
a) Look at these photographs of my friend James, who is a relative of Victor.
b) Many different countries make up the large continent of Africa.

c) On his journey back to America, Victor sailed on the Princess.
d) In gym class, Coach Ellis led the students through a set of twenty push-ups.
e) Did Dad change the batteries in the smoke detector that is in the family room?
f) Brad asked Jennifer to look in the mirror at her hair.
g) Karl Marx said the anger of the proletariat would lead to a revolution.
h) Her new Chevrolet with all its accessories pleased Valerie.
i) The audience remained quiet during the Swan Lake performance.
j) The huge ship hit an iceberg and sank as the band played a cheerful tune.
k) The committee decided on the best interest of the company.
l) Pandora stared curiously at the box in her hand.
m) Did the two men visit Madagascar, a large island near Africa?
n) Courage and curiosity are two qualities you will find in my friends.
o) After the children tossed snowballs, they built a snowman on the sidewalk.
p) My sister-in-law, a singer in a band, also plays the guitar

PRACTICE 5. FROM PRACTICE 4, FILL IN THIS CHART WITH AT LEAST 2 NOUNS OF EACH
LEXICAL CATEGORY
Proper N

Common N

Concrete N

Collective N

Compound N

Abstract N

20

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 6. From the following pair of nouns, Choose the word that is Coll-N and write it on
the line..
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)
k)
l)

collection
employees
wolves
council
gnats
whales
family
Congress
players
squad
batch
robins

DVDs
staff
pack
advisors
swarm
pod
children
senators
team
officers
biscuits
flock

________
_________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
_________
_________
_________

ADJECTIVES
PRACTICE 7. In the following sentences, circle all adjectives and draw an arrow to the
noun or pronoun each adjective modifies.
1. Our two turtledoves keep fighting with that stupid partridge in the pear tree.
2. Kate Chopin wrote many wonderful stories, but most people of her time would not read
them.
3. Some people see every movie that comes out.
4. Two accidents have happened on this street.
5. The basketball game was held in the neighborhood gym.
6. I parked my motorcycle next to John’s cat.
7. I own a blue and grey suit.
8. That is an ugly wound.
9. Poisonous plants are dangerous.
10. My rusty old Honda might give out if it does not see a competent mechanic soon.

21

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 8. In the following sentences, identify ADJECTIVES by drawing a circle around
them. Draw an arrow directing to the word it modifies.
a) Erik noticed their boat was drifting toward the falls, so he dropped its anchor.
b) Each of us should know which little piggy went to market.
c) The Minnow left the harbor for a three-hour tour, but it never returned.
d) Do you know what P.T. Barnum said about suckers?
e) Alicia stared at her cell phone and then excused herself from the table.
f) Who knows anything about quarks and quasars?
g) Jerome says rap and hip hop are the same thing, but Sheryl says they have distinct differences.
h) Many of the visitors to the Vietnam War Memorial of the 1960s, leave flowers and medals in
memory of those who died.
i) The new 2012 Chevrolet with all its accessories pleased Valerie.

j) Persephone reached for the pomegranate at the top of the bush.
k) Homer stared at the huge plate of Spam sitting on the table

VERBS
PRACTICE 9. In the following exercise, separate the subject and predicate of the sentence with
parenthesis [ … ]. Then, underline and write above all the action (AV) or state verbs (SV).
a) Madonna leaned on the drummer.
b) The milk from the back of the refrigerator tastes sour to me.
c) The sky was cloudy all day.
d) Cheryl was someone from another planet.
e) Hortense dyed her hair magenta yesterday.
f) Mr. Lincoln talked to General Grant on his cell phone.

22

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 10. In the following exercise, identify the complete verb (helping verb =HV and/or
main verb =MV) by drawing a circle around the word(s) and write HV and MV above them.
a. Ann had thirty pairs of shoes.
b. Thomas had thought about the problem for years.
c. She did well on her chemistry quiz.
d. Both did go to the game after all.
e. The bus was never on time.
f. He was planning to leave in the morning.
g. Will the telephone company raise its prices?
h. Nobody has ever proved the existence of the Loch Ness Monster.
i) Tony Gwynn has set many baseball records.
j) The Sirens have caused many shipwrecks.
k) Venus was selling herbal remedies to some of the older gods.
l) Has General Washington crossed the river yet?
m) Ishmael could have stayed safely at home.
PRACTICE 11. In the spaces provided, identify the underlined words as main verbs (MV) or
helping verbs (HV)
________

The cowboy is a popular figure in American folklore.

________

Early cowboys in the Southwest had the Spanish title of vaquero.

________

Soon American pronunciation had changed vaquero to buckaroo.

________

Buckeroos were not called cowboys until the1820s.

________

Cowboys were mostly simple ranch hands.

________

They did many physically demanding jobs on the ranch.

________

However, they did not drive cattle across the country until the late 1860s.

23

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 12. In the following sentences, first underline the complete verb (HV and/or MV).
Once you identify the complete verb, write the tense or Tense-Aspect on the lines.
Why was he sleeping on the street? ________________________
She’s been skiing with Roger for the past week. _______________________
This time tomorrow I will be flying South._______________________________
My fiancé says he will have bought the house before the weeding. ____________ , _____________
My neighbors are moving to LA. _______________________
She told me she had seen that movie before. ____________________ , ______________________
Ana’s just arrived from New York. ____________________
The sun rises in the east. ____________________
I went to the movies last weekend. _________________________
I will call you as soon as I can. __________________________ , _____________________
All the students passed the exam: they had been studying hard.______________, _________________
VERB TENSE AND VOICE.
PRACTICE 13. Turn the following active sentences into passive ones.
1) Julia rescued three cats.
_______________________________________________________________________
2) The students hand in the reports every Friday.
_______________________________________________________________________
3) Steven has forgotten the book.
_______________________________________________________________________
4) The mechanic has not repaired the DVD recorder.
_______________________________________________________________________
5) They play handball.
_______________________________________________________________________
6) Sue puts the rucksack on the floor.
_______________________________________________________________________
7) The girls had lost the match.
_______________________________________________________________________
8) The teacher is not going to open the window.
_______________________________________________________________________
9) Maria crashed into the blue car.
_______________________________________________________________________
10) They will meet Doris at the station
_______________________________________________________________________

24

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

PRACTICE 14. Change these active voice sentences into PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE.
1) She bought four apples. _______________________________________________________
2) We won the match. __________________________________________________________
3) The man stole the blue car. ____________________________________________________
4) The police arrested the thieves._________________________________________________
5) Jack swam the 200 meters. ____________________________________________________
6) The dog bit the old lady.______________________________________________________
7) Tom and Max ate five hamburgers.______________________________________________
8) Oliver taught the children._____________________________________________________
9) Victoria rode the brown horse.__________________________________________________
10) Grandmother told good stories.________________________________________________
PRACTICE 15. Change the following sentences with MORE OBJECTS into passive voice.
1) They don't speak English in this shop.
______________________________________________________________________________
2) Kevin asked Dennis a question.
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Somebody built the house last year.
______________________________________________________________________________
4) She gives him a box.
______________________________________________________________________________
5) Max will look after him.
______________________________________________________________________________
6) The waiter brought Fred a big steak.
______________________________________________________________________________
7) The teacher told us a joke.
______________________________________________________________________________
8) Michael has not sent me a text message.
______________________________________________________________________________

25

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 16. Put in the correct form of the verb in Passive into the gaps. Use the verb and
the tense given in brackets.
1) The words __________________________ by the teacher today. (to explain - Simple
Present)
2) We _____________________________a letter the day before yesterday. (to send - Simple
Past)
3) This car ___________________________. It's too old. (not/to steal - will-future)
4) This street ________________________because of snow. (already/to close - Present Perfect)
5) A new restaurant __________________________next week. (to open - will-future)
6) He ________________________to the party yesterday. (to invite - Simple Past)
7) The blue box _______________________. (can/not/to see - Simple Present)
8) I ________________________the book by my friend last Sunday. (to give - Simple Past)
9) The dishes ________________________by my little brother. (not/to wash - Present Perfect)
10) I ______________________________by Robert. (not/to ask - will-future)

PRACTICE 17. Circle the transitive verbs (TV), and underline the intransitive ones (IV).
a. Ann had thirty pairs of shoes.
b. Thomas had thought about the problem for years.
c. She did well on her chemistry quiz.
d. How does water become snow?
e. Both did go to the game after all.
f. The bus was never on time.
g. He was planning to leave in the morning.
h. Will the telephone company raise the prices?
i. Nobody has ever proved the existence of the Loch Ness Monster.
j. That poster of the waterfall has always been my favorite.
26

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
k. Has your brother been feeling better?
l. We should have been home by now.
m. She has not updated her Web page since March.
n. Tony Gwynn has set many baseball records.
o. The Sirens have caused many shipwrecks.
p. Venus was selling herbal remedies to some of the older gods.
Subcategorization of Verbs: VERBALS
In the following sentences identify: present participles and verbal infinitives.
a) I hope to pass this test.
b) The birds flying from tree to tree chased the car from their nest.
c) Jogging is good cardiovascular exercise.
d) Hotel California should be a good place to sleep.
e) Staring at his four aces, Bill hardly believe his good luck.
f) To please Hortense, Homer had prepared a Spam and celery omelet.
g) The class was looking at a picture of Mother Teresa giving a sick man a drink of water.
h) Paul had intended to reach Damascus before dark.
i) People have been talking about Mr. Gate’s attempt to monopolize the market.
j) Does Oedipus really want to marry Jocasta?
k) The Sphinx has a rather simple riddle for you.
l) Someone in the park must have seen the strange lights flickering in the night sky.
m) Picking up his guitar, Woody Guthrie was wondering what to play next.
n) To tell the truth, the Trojans should never have accepted that strange gift.
o) The prospectors have been trying to find the Lost Dutchman’s mine.
p)

I thought that I surely would go to jail.

27

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
CHECK FOR SOME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HELPING VERBS, MAIN VERBS
AND VERBALS
Place HV above all helping verbs and MV above all main verbs in the following sentences.
Circle any verbals.
a. Paul had intended to reach Damascus before dark.
b. People have been talking about Mr. Gates’s attempt to monopolize the market.
c. Does Oedipus really want to marry Jocasta?
d. The Sphinx has a rather simple riddle for you.
e. Someone in the park must have seen the strange lights flickering in the night sky.
f. Picking up his guitar, Woody Guthrie was wondering what to play next.
g. To tell the truth, the Trojans should never have accepted that strange gift.

ADVERBS
PRACTICE 18. In the following sentences, circle all adverbs and draw an arrow to the word
that each adverb modifies.
a) The detective quietly stepped into the corridor and slowly raised his revolver.
b) The fireman often told the story of that incredibly horrible day.
c) The black widow sometimes gleefully destroys her mate.
d) As Ichabod Crane rode swiftly down the lane, he was already beginning to worry about
the headless horseman.
e) Dido was excruciatingly sad as she stood on the rather sheer cliff.
PRACTICE 19. In the following sentences, circle all adverbs and draw an arrow to the verb or
adjective or adverb that it modifies
1. The president walked across the room quickly.
2. The president seemed unusually nervous.
3. The president left very quickly after the press conference.
4. My grandparents often bring gifts when they visit.
5. The turnips were grown locally.
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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

6. Rachel carefully removed the paint from the antique desk.
7. Homer is widely known as a trainer in a flea circus.

PRACTICE 20. In the following sentences, write “Adj” above all adjective and “Adv” above all
adverbs. Underline all subjects once and all complete verbs twice.

1. According to legend, Betsy Ross sewed the very first American flag in 1776.
2. Betsy’s grandson proudly revealed the story in 1870, thirty-four years after her death.
3. Supposedly, George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross were members of the
congressional flag committee.
4. They gave Betsy a rough sketch and then asked her to design the new flag.
5. She skillfully created a flag with symmetrical arrangement of five-pointed stars.
6. The grandson’s story quickly spread, and Betsy Ross became a famous historical figure.
7. Many Americans loved the idea that their flag had been cleverly designed by a simple
seamstress.
8. Most historians today do not believe the story.
9. Betsy Ross was a seamstress and did actually own an upholstery shop in Philadelphia.
10. She apparently did make some flags, but no evidence supports the grandson’s version.
11. There is no historical record of Betsy Ross making the flag.
12. There is also no record of a flag committee in 1776.
13. The Second Continental Congress did not even design the Stars and Stripes until 1777.

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

CLOSE CLASS: PRONOUNS, PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, INTERJECTIONS

PRONOUNS, PREPOSITIONS, COORD.
CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

PRONOUNS
PRACTICE 21. Circle and write “Pro” above all pronouns in the following sentences.
a) Many teens volunteer their time to worthy causes.
b) Lonny volunteers at an animal shelter. He grooms the dogs.
c) George Orwell, who wrote this fable, used animals as main characters.

d) Whom would you elect as Student Principal for a week?
e) Erik noticed his boat was drifting toward the falls, so he dropped its anchor.
f) Does Alfredo teach songs to the children at his church?
g) At the local hospital, Nina helps the nurses; she does simple chores for them.
h) Search the Internet for ideas. It lists volunteer programs in many cities.
i) Each of us should know which little piggy went to market.

j) The Minnow left the harbor for a three-hour tour, but it never returned.
k) Do you know what P.T. Barnum said about suckers?
l) Those are my handmade birthday cards.

m) What does the symbol on your ring mean?
n) The principal herself made the final decision.
o) The plot is about farm animals that chase away their owners!
p) We probably should examine both of the salamanders closely.

q) After I finished the story, I found myself laughing out loud.
r) Wouldn’t Aunt Suzy want a few of them?

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PREPOSITIONS AND OBJECTS.

About
Above
Across
After
Among
Around
As
at

Because of
Before
Behind
Below
Beneath
Beside
Between
by

Common prepositions
During
Near
Except
Of
For
On
From
Onto
In
Over
In spite of
Past
Into
Through
like
till

To
Toward
Under
Until
Up
Upon
With
Without

*remember to complete this chart by adding more

PRACTICE 22. Identify prepositions in the following sentences by DRAWING A CIRCLE
around them [ ]. UNDERLINE ITS OBJECT
a) Brad asked Jennifer to look in the mirror at her hair.

b) Hugh and Jim had accidentally passed Cairo in the fog.

c) Pandora stared curiously at the box in her hand.

d) Hans hoped the men near the wall would solve his problem.

e) Karl Marx said the anger of the proletariat would lead to a revolution.

f) Her new Chevrolet with all its accessories pleased Valerie.

g) Persephone reached for the pomegranate at the top of the bush.

h) Homer stared at the huge plate of Spam sitting on the table.

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
i) The huge ship hit an iceberg and sank as the band played a cheerful tune.

j) Lewis told Clark that the woman would guide them across the mountains.

k) Alice stared in amazement at the car with the enormous grin.

l) Love and tolerance are not usually characteristics of racism and prejudice.

m)The knight raced through the long and dismal night.

n) Mr. Duong sat in the waiting room and thought about his wife.

o) The trial suddenly disappeared near the top of the mountain.

p) During the silent meditation, Homer chewed slowly on his Spam sandwich.

q) A man from La Mancha had a rather strange obsession with windmills.

r) The Trojans behind the walls looked at the huge wooden horse.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
PRACTICE 23. In the following sentences, circle all coordinating conjunctions.
a) The cook or the dishwasher will clear the tables.
b) Homer loved Spam, but he had misgivings about escargot or sushi.
c) Yeni was glad, for summer vacation was almost here.
d) Sam did not like Gollum, nor did he care much for Shelob.
e) The sink in the kitchen would not drain, so we called the plumber.

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
PRACTICE 24. In the following sentences, add coordinating conjunctions that show the
relationship indicated in parenthesis.
1) We can go to the baseball game, _______________ we can see a movie, but we
cannot do both. (alternative)
2) Columbus was convinced he could reach the Orient, ____________ very few people
agreed with him. (contrast)
3) Uncle Julius tended the vineyard __________ sold grapes to his friends. (addition)
4) Anne worked diligently on her tax report, __________ April 15 wa almost
here.(cause)
5) Hansel and Gretel were lost and hungry, __________ they were relieved when they
saw the house of cake and candy. (result)
PRACTICE 25. Use coordinating conjunctions to connect these sentences.
1. The boy has a red coat. The boy has a blue coat.

2. The man was nice. The man had a good sense of humor.

3. The teachers are on strike. The students do not have school.

4. The dog ran down the street. The cat ran down the street

PRACTICE 26. Add COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.
1. Jonas was cold, __________he put on a coat.
2. Maria tried to read a novel in French, ___________ it was too difficult.
3. To get from Vancouver to Victoria, you can fly, ___________you can ride the ferry.
4. I bought a bottle of wine, _________ we drank it together.
5. The waiter was not very nice, ___________the food was delicious.
6. I went to buy a Rolling Stones CD, ___________ the shop didn't have it.

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
7. Anna needed some money, __________ she took a part-time job.
8. There's so much rain lately! Maybe it's because of El Nino, _________ maybe it's just
coincidence.
9. Julie has a guitar, _________she plays it really well.
10. The concert was cancelled, ___________ we went to a nightclub instead.
INTERJECTIONS.
PRACTICE 27. Add interjections according to the needs of what is written. Check your list of
interjections if necessary.
by: Lynn Ahrens
>> (when you are sick of your lung you produce this sound (at least 3 times)__________!,
__________ ! _________!
When Reginald was home with flu, (_____________)
The doctor knew just what to do:
He cured the infection,
With one small injection,
While Reginald uttered some interjections:
>> ________! That smarts!
>> ________! That hurts!
>> ________! That's not fair, giving a guy a shot down there!)
Interjections >> (___________ )
Show excitement, >> (__________!)
Or emotion. >> (___________!)
They're generally set apart from a sentence
By an exclamation point,
Or by a comma when the feeling's not as strong. (like thinking or waiting for something
_________________...
Though Geraldine played hard to get, (______________)
Geraldo knew he'd woo her yet.
He showed his affection,
Despite her objections,
And Geraldine hollered some interjections:
>> (___________ !) You've got some nerve!
>> ____________ ! I've never been so insulted in all my life!
>> ____________! You're kinda cute!)
Interjections
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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
Show excitement, >> (_______________)
Or emotion. >> (__________!)
They're generally set apart from a sentence
By an exclamation point,
Or by a comma when the feeling's not as strong.
So when you're happy >> (Hurray!)
Or sad >> (_____________!)
Or frightened and repulsive>> (_______________!)
Or mad >> (_______________!)
Or excited >> (____________!)
Or glad >> (_________________!)
An interjection starts a sentence right!
The game was tied at seven all,
When Franklin found he had the ball.
He made a connection,
In the other direction,
And the crowd starting shouting out interjections:
>> (___________! You threw the wrong way!)
>> (___________! You just lost the game!)
>> (___________! I'm for the other team!)
So when you're happy >> (____________!)
Or sad >> (_____________!)
Or frightened >> (_______________!)
Or mad >> (_______________!)
Or excited >> (_____________!)
Or glad >> (_______________!)
An interjection starts a sentence right!
Interjections!
Show excitement!
Or emotion! ______________! ______________!! ______________!!! ________!! The End.

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
LIST OF COMMON INTERJECTIONS
interjection

meaning

example

expressing pleasure

"Ah, that feels good."

expressing realization

"Ah, now I understand."

expressing resignation

"Ah well, it can't be heped."

expressing surprise

"Ah! I've won!"

expressing grief or pity

"Alas, she's dead now."

expressing pity

"Oh dear! Does it hurt?"

expressing surprise

"Dear me! That's a surprise!"

asking for repetition

"It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today."

expressing enquiry

"What do you think of that, eh?"

expressing surprise

"Eh! Really?"

inviting agreement

"Let's go, eh?"

expressing hesitation

"Lima is the capital of...er...Peru."

expressing greeting

"Hello John. How are you today?"

expressing surprise

"Hello! My car's gone!"

calling attention

"Hey! look at that!"

expressing surprise, joy etc

"Hey! What a good idea!"

hi

expressing greeting

"Hi! What's new?"

hmm

expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement

"Hmm. I'm not so sure."

expressing surprise

"Oh! You're here!"

expressing pain

"Oh! I've got a toothache."

expressing pleading

"Oh, please say 'yes'!"

ouch

expressing pain

"Ouch! That hurts!"

uh

expressing hesitation

"Uh...I don't know the answer to that."

uh-huh

expressing agreement

"Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."

um, umm

expressing hesitation

"85 divided by 5 is...um...17."

expressing surprise

"Well I never!"

introducing a remark

"Well, what did he say?"

ah

alas
dear

eh

er
hello, hullo

hey

oh, o

well

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

CONTEXTUALIZED EXERCISE 1. In the following sentences, identify each of the
underlined words as noun (N), pronoun (Pro), verb (V), adjective (Adj), adverb (Adv),
verbals (Vb), or conjunction (Conj). [Whenever possible, say what kind they are or all the
information you know about the underlined word]

According to many Native American legends, the animal character Woodpecker as instrumental
in bringing fire to earth.

Long ago, when there was no fire, the chief of the animal people

devised a plan to enter the sky country and bring back some fire. He told the animal people to
make bows and arrows to shoot at the sky. When they hit the sky, they would make a chain of
arrows down to the earth.

They would then climb the chain to the sky and steal some fire.

Unfortunately, none of them succeeded in hitting the sky with their arrows. Then Woodpecker
began to work.

He made a bow from the rib of Elk and arrows from the serviceberry bush.

He used feathers from Golden Eagle and Bald Eagle and arrow-heads from Flint Rock. When
the animal people met again, they all laughed at Woodpecker, saying he could not hit the sky
with his arrows.
Woodpecker to try.

However, their own arrows fell short of the sky, so the chief asked
When Woodpecker shot his first arrow, it hit the sky.

Then each

following arrow stuck in the neck of the preceding arrow until there was a chain of arrows down
to the earth.

One by one, they all ran swiftly up the chain of arrows to the sky.

After each one

had stolen some fire, they raced to the arrow chain, chased by the sky people, but the chain had
broken. To escape, each bird took an animal to earth on its back. When they reached the earth,
their chief told them to divide the fire among all people, so Horsefly and Hummingbird carried
the fire to all parts of the country.

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MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA
FILL IN THE CHART. WRITE THE UNDERLINED WORDS IN THE CORRESPONDENT
CATEGORY. EXPLAIN EVERY OTHER FUNCTION THE WORD MIGHT HAVE (IN
SOME CASES THERE IS NO FUNCTION, JUST THE TYPE OF WORD THERE IS)

NOUNS
(N)

PRONOUN (Pro)

VERBS
(V)

VERBALS
(Vb)

COORDINATING
CONJUNCTIONS
(Conj)

ADVERBS
(Adv)

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ADJECTIVES
(Adj)

MORFOSINTAXIS DE LA SEGUNDA LENGUA

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