Chapter 33- From “The Age of Limits” to the Age of Reagan

 Politics and Diplomacy After Watergate
 The Ford Custodianship
 Nixon Pardoned
 Ford attempted to spare nation the ordeal of years of litigation and to spare Nixon himself any further
suffering
 Ford’s Diplomatic Successes
 Signed arms control accord that was to serve as basis for SALT II
 The Trials of Jimmy Carter
 Carter’s Lack of Direction
 Provided no overall vision or direction to his government
 High Interest Rates
 1980 interest rates exceeded 20%
 Human Rights and National Interests
 Camp David Accords
 A formal peace treaty signed by Begin and Sadat on March 26, 1979.
 This treaty between Israel and Egypt was Carter's biggest success.
 The Year of the Hostages
 Iranian Revolution
 Iranians were unhappy with the Shah for being repressive and trying to westernize their society. In 1979,
he left Iran.
 Khomeini, a religious leader that hated the United States, took control.
 On November 4, 1979, the American embassy was invaded by an armed mob. The mob took 53
Americans hostage for 444 days.
 Carter’s Falling Popularity
 Combo of domestic economic and international crises damaged already low standing with people
 The Rise of the New American Right
 The Sunbelt and Its Politics
 Rise of the “Sunbelt”
 SE (Florida) , SW (Texas) , and California
 Produced progressive and even radical politics
 Sagebrush Rebellion
 Happened in the West during the late 1970s. Showed the West as a victim of government control.
 Members wanted land that the government owned to be opened up for development.
 Suburban Conservatism
 Suburbs attracted people who wished to flee the problems and jarring diversity of cities
 Religious Revivalism
 Evangelical Christianity
 Grew in the 1980s. A belief in personal conversion through direct communication with God. Jimmy
Carter was a "born again" Christian.
 Moral Majority and the Christian Coalition
 Attacked the rise in "secular humanism."
 Opposed the government's interference in local affairs. Supported free enterprise and a powerful America.
 The Emergence of the New Right
 Ronald Reagan
 Right-wing leader that was raised in the Midwest.
 He was an actor at the age of 26. He became conservative after marrying Nancy Davis.
 He was president of the Screen Actors guild and a corporate spokesperson for General Electric.
 He became the governor of California in 1996.
 The Tax Revolt

provide a shield against missiles and make nuclear war obsolete  Reagan Doctrine  To support opponents of communism all over the world.  A tax reduction would lower the federal budget.  The Republican Party had won control of the Senate for the first time since 1952. remained difficult to identify and to control  The Election of 1984  America and the Waning of the Cold War  .k. This plan was made to restore the economy.  The American hostages in Iran were released on the day of Reagan's inauguration.  The “Reagan Revolution”  The Reagan Coalition  Corporate Elites  Kind of people who had dominated American politics and government through much of the nation’s history until the New Deal challenged preeminence.  Populist Conservatives  New right’s fundamental distrust of the “eastern establishment”  Reagan in the White House  “Supply-Side” Economics  “Reaganomics”  "Supply-side" economics.a ‘Star Wars’  Through use of lasers and satellites.  “Deregulation”  Environmental Protection Agency: relaxed/eliminated enforcement of major environmental laws and regulations  Civil Rights Division of Justice Department: eased enforcement of civil rights laws  Department of Transportation: slowed implementations of new rules limiting car emissions  Sources of the Recovery  Tight money policies by the Federal Reserve Board  Worldwide ‘energy glut’ produced temporary end to inflationary pressures of fuel costs  Federal budget deficits  The Fiscal Crisis  Soaring National Debt  Reagan promised a balance budget  Accumulated more debt in 8 years than the Amer.  “Neo-conservatives”  A group of intellectuals that wanted to reassert legitimate authority and reaffirm Western Democratic values and commitments. They used to be liberals or socialists. had accumulated in its entire previous history  Welfare Benefits Cut  Result of the aging population and dramatic increases in cost of health care  Reagan and the World  SDI  Strategic Defense Initiative a. Govt. Corporations and wealthy people would then be able to retain their wealth and make new investments.  Combating Terrorism  Generally.Proposition 13  Referendum question on state ballot rolling back property tax rates  Attacking Taxes  Way for members of the new right to discredit the government  The Campaign of 1980  1980 Election  Reagan won with 51% of the popular vote and 489 electoral votes. Meant new American activism in the Third World.

but pulled out of the race when the media scrutinized him. but then resigned as leader. A coup by Soviet leaders was collapsed because of public resistance. Gorbachev returned to power.  The Election of 1988  Bush’s Negative Campaign  Talks trash about Dukakis  The Bush Presidency  Political Gridlock  Promised no new taxes but had burden of national debt – faced a Democratic congress with agenda different from own  1990 Recession  Caused by the debt that corporations and individuals had amassed during the 1980s. This movement demanded greater democratization. but did not gain back all of his original supporters.  This recession caused bankruptcies and increased the fear and frustration of the middle.  The White House was selling weapons to the Iranian government in order to secure the release of the Americans being held by the radical Islamic groups. Persian Gulf War ends  The Election of 1992  Bill Clinton  Survives bruising primary campaign & personal controversies to win party’s nomination  Winner  Ross Perot  Led Bush and Clinton in public opinion polls. so the government had to step in to keep the whole industry from collapsing.  Some of the money from the arms deal had been illegally funding the contras. It also put pressure on the government. The Fall of the Soviet Union  Mikhail Gorbachev  Two new initiatives  Glasnost (openness) – dismantling of repressive mechanisms  Perestroika (reform) – effort to restructure Soviet economy  Reduced Soviet influence in Eastern Europe  Tiananmen Square  A bloody massacre on June 3.and workingclass Americans. to lead other nations in campaign to force Iraq out of Kuwait  Nov 29. United Nations voted at request to authorize military actions to expel Iraq  Allied bombings  Feb 28. . His resignation caused the Soviet Union to end.  The First Gulf War  Invasion of Kuwait  August 2.  Iran-Contra Scandal  This scandal did a lot of damage to the Reagan presidency. He reentered the race in October.S.  Reagan and Gorbachev  The Fading of the Reagan Revolution  Savings and Loan Crisis  Cost the government half a trillion dollars.  Dissolution of the USSR  Started in 1991. 1989. Saving banks were expanding.  The Chinese government sent military forces to stop the mass movement students started. 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait  U.