MAE 308

Fluid Mechanics
Lecture 9

MAE 308

Outline
• The Bernoulli equation
– head forms
– energy and hydraulic grade lines
– examples

• Fluid Kinematics
– Lagrangian and Eulerian flow description
– Control volume analysis
– Reynolds transport theorem

MAE 308

along a streamline 2 • Valid and invalid regions – air flow in a duct MAE 308 .The Bernoulli Equation • The Bernoulli equation for steady. frictionless flow v2   gh  P  Const. incompressible.

The Bernoulli Equation • The Bernoulli equation can be written in terms of heights called “heads” v2 P   h  Const. along a streamline 2 g g • Total head = elevation head + pressure head +velocity head • Very popular in civil engineering • Other usage − Pump head − Turbine head MAE 308 .

Turbine and Pump Head • Turbine • Pump Win  mghP Wout  mghT Wout  ghT Wout  m MAE 308 hT hP Win  ghP Win  m .

Energy and Hydraulic Grade Lines v2 2g EGL HGL P g • The energy grade line represents the total head available to the fluid • The hydraulic grade line is given by the sum of pressure and elevation head. H h v2 P   h  H  total head 2 g g MAE 308 .

The Bernoulli Equation .Examples Given: Siphon is used to transfer fluid from one tank to another Find: Maximum height of siphon hm P  Patm EGL (absolute pressure) EGL (gage pressure) MAE 308 Patm g Maximum height: hM  General height: Patm V 2 hG   g 2 g .

Lagrangian Flow Description • Tracking individual fluid particle • Fluid particles are “tagged” or identified. and their properties are determined as they move Joseph-Louis Lagrange 1736-1813 MAE 308 .

.y.z. • This method gives information about the flow in terms of what happens at fixed points in space as the fluid flows through those points z y x MAE 308 Leonhard Euler 1707-1783 ..t) .z.y.y...t)  =  (x.Eulerian Flow Description • Describing the field of flow • v = v (x.z.t) • p = p (x.

e.Lagrangian and Eulerian Flow Descriptions • Eulerian description looks easier for fluids • Eulerian description is often used in experimental and numerical studies • In some cases Lagrangian method is more convenient • We will use mostly Eulerian description in this course • We need to learn how to apply motions law. to the velocity field MAE 308 . Newton's second law.g.

mathematical treatment is difficult due to a constantly changing geometry MAE 308 . Q = U+W ) • However.tracking individual fluid particle • Following Lagrangian approach we should consider a system a collection of matter of fixed identity/ unchanging contents • It is easy to state the governing laws for a system ( Msys = Const.System • Lagrangian flow description . F = ma.

• surface around c. the governing equations formulated for systems should be modified for control volumes MAE 308 .s.v.Control Volume • Eulerian flow description – map the field of flow • It is easier to select a fixed volume and check how the fluid is coming through • We can select a volume in a fluid and write integral equations of conservation for this volume • we will call this volume – control volume c.v. • However. c.v. c.s. – c.

. turbine.v. planes.) than the effect of the object on the fluid. The mechanical objects like pipes. engines. Conservation of linear/angular momentum 3. 1... pump.. Conservation of energy • • For engineers it is more important to understand the effect of flowing fluid on some material objects ( engine. Conservation of mass 2. . can be readily considered as control volumes MAE 308 .Control Volume • • Instead of following the fluid we will control everything that is coming in and out We will formulate 3 basic conservation principles for c.

Examples • • The selection of control volume is important Control volumes can be fixed. moving. and deforming MAE 308 .Control Volume .

.the amount of property per unit mass m MAE 308 . B   •  .The Reynolds Transport Theorem • Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was formulated to convert basic conservations laws from system to control volume representation • Consider B – a fluid property related to mass (extensive property) − mass − momentum − energy − ..

The Reynolds Transport Theorem • RTT relates a change of the total (integral) property Bsys of the system with a variation of total (integral) property Bcv in the control volume • First we consider a simple example of 1-D flow BM M sys  M cv  min  mout dM sys  dM cv  dmin  dmout dM sys DM sys Dt MAE 308 dt DM sys ? Dt dM cv dmin dmout   dt dt dt M cv  in  m  out  m t  .

v.The Reynolds Transport Theorem • Consider general case c. Bcv    Bin  B out Dt t DBsys MAE 308 .

v.The Reynolds Transport Theorem • Consider general case Bcv    Bin  B out Dt t DBsys Bsys    d sys Bcv    d cv c. MAE 308 How to find Bin and Bout? .

   dBout  Bout    V  n dA dt    B   V  n dA out  cs / out MAE 308     .The Reynolds Transport Theorem How to find Bin and Bout?  Vdt dA   n dBout   dmout   dout   dout  Vdt cos dA  V  n dAdt  c.v.

v.The Reynolds Transport Theorem  Vdt How to find Bin and Bout? dA  n     dBin    V  n dAdt    Bin     V  n dA   cs / in c.  cs MAE 308       Bin  Bout    V  n dA .

s .  DBsys B out  Bin        V  n dA c.s .  c.        d     V  n dA Dt t  c.v. DBsys MAE 308   .The Reynolds Transport Theorem • General consideration using RTT (Reynolds Transport Theorem)        d   Bout  Bin Dt t  c.v.