Running head: CHILD ABUSE


July 29, 2015
Child Abuse
How do we define “abuse” when we discuss child abuse? “Abuse” is
defined as
Treating a person or animal with cruelty or violence, especially when it
occurs regularly and repeatedly.” When you add “child” it becomes “child
abuse.” “Child Abuse” is defined as “physical maltreatment or sexual
molestation of a child.”(Oxford Dictionary online) “Child abuse” may also be
defined as “a crime of inflicted physical or emotional injury on a child. And
the term can denote the use of inordinate physical violence or verbal abuse:
the failure to furnish proper shelter, nourishment, medical treatment, or
emotional support.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3.3
million referrals for alleged maltreatment were made in 2013. Out of the 3.3
million referrals, 899,000 children were officially documented as being
maltreated (Child Abuse & Neglect 2015). Child abuse is the mistreatment of
a child. Child abuse is recognized in several forms; physical, emotional,
sexual and neglect. Children who experience any form of abuse will tend to
withdraw themselves from their peers and sometimes from other family
members who are not aware of what is taking place. Child abuse occurs not
just in the homes of these children, but can also occur in schools, churches
and after school programs. Anywhere a child is present there is a chance that

These problems cause stress and tension which is sometimes expressed in neglect or violence toward a child. Certain situations increase the risk of child abuse. the effects of child abuse. The acceptance of violence as a way of life. societal values may perpetuate child abuse and neglect. Poverty is also a cause of child abuse. The addiction to drugs makes parents less responsible. reasons child abuse occurs and possible therapies to bring healing in the parties involved. The last cause of child abuse is lack of community ties. The pain that these abused children suffered will always be will them. There are many causes on the various types of child abuse. Drug addiction also increases the chances of child abuse. which leaves the children to bear the brunt of their parents’ frustration. The Rapid Assessment of Supervision Scale (RASS) was developed via a 3-step process: (1) a modified Delphi survey of child abuse experts identified the most important characteristics for use in the . This paper will review the forms of child abuse. Third. Parents’ fear of strangers leads them to isolate themselves and their children. Standardized evaluation tools have been shown to reduce variability in care. It also makes them more violent toward their children both physically and emotionally. and the conviction that parents have a right to treat children as they please is a part of this cause of abuse. First. The parents can’t cope with the stress of poverty. The objective of this study was to develop a clinically oriented evaluation tool for the rapid assessment of the adequacy of supervision of a young child.CHILD ABUSE 4 abuse can occur.

27-0.000) and 0. (2) the RASS was designed by using standardized definitions and the results of the Delphi survey. correlation coefficients for mean RASS scores indicated moderate to high correlation (0. The RASS scale has been shown to be efficient and. Sixty-seven child abuse experts participated in round 2 of the Delphi process and 50 participated in round 3.CHILD ABUSE 4 assessment of adequacy of supervision. indicating moderate to strong agreement.70. Further development could result in a tool that aids clinicians and researchers in the evaluation of supervision. To review new evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions and counseling in health care settings for reducing child abuse and neglect and related health outcomes. The RASS included 9 supervision characteristics identified from the Delphi process.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.67. Correlation for overall classification of supervision ranged from low to high (0. The interclass correlation coefficients for interrater reliability of the mean RASS scores and overall supervision classification were 0.63 (95% confidence interval: 0.83). and (3) a total of 4 medical professionals evaluated 139 real case scenarios by using the RASS.50-0.51-0.S. In 2004. For intrarater reliability. as well as adverse effects of interventions. the U. Preventive Services Task Force determined that evidence was insufficient to recommend behavioral interventions and counseling to prevent child abuse and neglect. Reliability and feasibility were assessed. to have moderate to substantial interrater agreement. P = . P = .80).000). respectively. standardized definitions.560. MEDLINE and PsycINFO (January . in a small sample. and a scoring system.

English-language trials of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions and counseling and studies of any design about adverse effects. the age group that this survey exposed to was not that big of a variety. maternal depression). emotional and social development of the child which can result them to more likely engage in criminality in their later life. SEEK HPs received training on CM risk factors (eg. However. child abuse has an effect on the intellectual and emotional development of the child and if it has effect on their adulthood.CHILD ABUSE 3 2002 to June 2012). and reference lists. designs. . with this research there were many limitations faced. Abusing a child physically. Eleven fair-quality randomized trials of interventions and no studies of adverse effects met inclusion criteria. comfort. judging from the data collected. sexually or emotionally seriously impairs their intellectual. and behavior of child health care professionals (HPs) regarding addressing major risk factors for child maltreatment (CM). The SEEK model included the parent screening questionnaire and the participation of a social worker. Investigators extracted data about study populations. Firstly. To examine whether the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model of enhanced primary care would improve the attitudes. 18 private practices were assigned to intervention (SEEK) or control groups. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (through the second quarter of 2012). In a cluster randomized controlled trial. and outcomes and rated study quality using established criteria. competence. Scopus. knowledge. In conclusion.

Bougatsos. Counseling. Heidi D: Behavior Therapy.Standards. Program Development -. Tryon. Lastly. Reference Jim . 4 . M Denise . Christina . it was difficult finding people that were victims of child abuse. Blazina. Tom Child Abuse -Prevention & Control. therefore the statistics reached in this report are not of a very pleasing variety. Questionnaires – Standards. Child Abuse -. Patricia . Shelley S .CHILD ABUSE Secondly. Dowd. there was only a limited amount of surveys distributed. Schnitzer. Ian . Nelson.Prevention & Control.

Organization & Administration Barr.Psychology. Primary Health Care. Elliott. Joshua N . Mamata . Semiatin. Child Abuse -. Ronald G: Caregivers -.CHILD ABUSE 3 Bentovim. Ian: Evidence-Based Practice.Prevention & Control. Venepally. Child Abuse -. Social Environment. Howard . Laurence S . Craniocerebral Trauma -. Arnon . Merel :Training. Child Abuse -Prevention & Control.Psychology.Prevention & Control. Wendy G .Prevention & Control. Safety. . Preventive Health Services -.Education. Shaken Baby Syndrome -. Pediatrics – Education. Parents -. Magder.Prevention & Control. Lane. Jans. Parenting -.