1454

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1998, 37, 1454-1463

Metal-Anion Sorption by Chitosan Beads: Equilibrium and Kinetic
Studies
Eric Guibal,*,† Ce´ line Milot,† and John Michael Tobin‡
Laboratoire Ge´ nie de l’Environnement Industriel, Ecole des Mines d’Ale` s, 6 avenue de Clavie` res,
30319 Ales Cedex, France, and School of Biological Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland

Chitosan is a well-known biopolymer, whose high nitrogen content confers remarkable ability
for the sorption of metal ions from dilute effluents. However, its sorption performance in both
equilibrium and kinetic terms is controlled by diffusion processes. Gel bead formation allows
an expansion of the polymer network, which improves access to the internal sorption sites and
enhances diffusion mechanisms. Molybdate and vanadate recovery using glutaraldehyde crosslinked chitosan beads reaches uptake capacities as high as 7-8 mmol g-1, depending on the
pH. The optimum pH (3-3.5) corresponded to the predominance range of hydrolyzed polynuclear
metal forms and optimum electrostatic attraction. While for beads, particle size does not
influence equilibrium, for flakes, increasing sorbent radius significantly decreases uptake
capacities to 1.5 mmol g-1. Sorption kinetics are mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion
for beads, while for flakes the controlling mechanisms are both external and intraparticle
diffusions. The gel conditioning increases the intraparticle diffusivity by 3 orders of magnitude: intraparticle diffusivities range between 10-13 and 10-10 m2 min-1, depending on the sorbent
size and the conditioning.
Introduction
Recent developments in environmental quality standards highlight the need for improved wastewater
treatment of dilute metal-bearing effluents. Biosorption, or sorption to material of biological origin, is
recognized as an emerging technique for the depollution
of heavy-metal polluted streams (Volesky and Holan,
1995). Several sorbents can be used: bacterial, algal
(Volesky and Holan, 1995), or fungal biomass (Guibal
et al., 1992) as well as biopolymers (Deans and Dixon,
1992). Chitosan is a biopolymer which is extracted from
crustacean shells or from fungal biomass. The high
proportion of amine functions in this natural polymer
results in novel binding properties for metal ions such
as cadmium, copper, lead, uranyl, mercury, and chromium (Eiden et al., 1980; Coughlin et al., 1990; Argu¨elles-Monal and Peniche-Covas, 1993). Modifying
chitosan by organic acid grafting can improve sorption
performances (Muzzarelli et al., 1985). The low porosity
of native material introduces diffusion constraints which
are rate-limiting (Findon et al., 1993). Intraparticle
diffusion occurs in a restricted external layer of the
particle for raw chitosan and in the whole mass of the
sorbent for modified chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy allows this layer thickness to be estimated at
approximately 40-50 µm for uranium sorption in raw
chitosan (Guibal et al., 1995). These diffusion limitations result in a decrease of the sorption capacity of the
polymer according to the volumetric ratio between
usable and total volume of the particle. Similar results
were observed with microcrystalline chitosan (Guibal
et al., 1995).
* To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Tel.:
+33 (0)4 66 78 27 34. Fax: +33 (0)4 66 78 27 01. E-mail:
eguibal@ensm-ales.fr.
† Ecole des Mines d’Ales.
‡ Dublin City University.

An alternative protocol to improve the porosity of the
chitosan has been proposed by several authors. Derived
from a standard alginate bead formation procedure, it
involves dissolution of chitosan flakes in an acetic acid
solution followed by a precipitation in a dilute sodium
hydroxide solution (Kawamura et al., 1993; Rorrer et
al., 1993). Acid environments produce the partial
dissolution of the polymer. Cross-linking of chitosan
particles, in glutaraldehyde, epichlorhydrine, or EGDE
(ethylene glycol glycidyl ether) enhances the resistance
of sorbent beads against acid, alkali, or chemicals (Inoue
et al., 1993; Rorrer et al., 1993).
As the above treatments are expected to modify
equilibrium or kinetic behavior, the aim of this study
focuses on the diffusion properties of porous chitosan
chelating resins in order to correlate diffusion characteristics to chitosan conditioning. The structure of the
chitosan polymer and its low “porosity” contribute to the
low-metal-ion diffusivities. Diffusivities as low as 10-1110-14 m2 s-1 are reported in several studies (Findon et
al., 1993; Guibal et al., 1995). These values are 3-4
orders of magnitude lower than metal-ion diffusivities
in pure water (Vanysek, 1993). The first part of this
work is devoted to pH optimization. Other parameters
are investigated in terms of both equilibrium and kinetic
performances. Parameters investigated for their influence on metal-ion diffusion include metal-ion concentration, size of the beads, and agitation speed.
Materials and Methods
Materials. Chitosan was supplied by ABER-Technologie (France) as a flaked material, with a deacetylation percentage of approximately 87% (defined by IR
spectrometry, Baxter et al., 1992). The mean molecular
weight was measured at MWm ) 125 000 (using a size
exclusion chromatography (SEC) method coupled with
a differential refractometer and a multiangle laser lightscattering photometer, Piron et al., 1997). The pore size

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precipitation. 100. The final weight percentage of chitosan was approximately 4 w/w %. 50. The procedure indicated an opening size ranging from 14 to 30 nm. q (mg g-1). Eng. However.2 93. Sorption Kinetic Modeling. Agitation was provided at two agitator speeds (150 and 260 rpm).5 wt % glutaraldehyde solution. 37. 1998 1455 Table 1. and (iv) uptake which can involve several mechanisms: physicochemical sorption. Dissolution testing in sulfuric acid solutions (pH ca. Chitosan Cross-Linking. Kinetic studies were performed by mixing cross-linked chitosan wet beads or cross-linked flakes (equivalent dry mass of 170 mg) with 1 L of metal-anion solution. Ammonium molybdate (or vanadate) salts were used. The sorption rate is known to be controlled by several factors including the following processes (Findon et al. External mass-transfer resistance (ii) and intraparticle mass-transfer resistance (iii) are likely to be ratecontrolling. Chemical cross-linking of chitosan chains with the bifunctional reagent glutaraldehyde occurs by a Schiff’s reaction of aldehyde groups on glutaraldehyde with amine groups on the chitosan biopolymer chain (Roberts. the coupling between liquid and solid phases. solutions (of varying initial metal-ion concentrations: ca. or complexation.. at early times of contact (between 0 and 15-20 min of contact) the system can be simplified by assuming that the concentration at the sorbent surface tends toward zero (pure external diffusion) and the intraparticle to be negligible. for external diffusion. was difficult to measure by standard methods for gel beads in comparison with usual porous sorbents.77 10. No.5 M) through a hypodermic nozzle (diameter of the nozzle. and analyzed as described previously. 1. The solution was then pumped dropwise into a casting solution of sodium hydroxide (2. ammonium vanadate. Res. Three bead diameters were studied: 0.). Chem. 4. hydrolyzed species.1 × 10-3 13.19 6. and the initial and boundary conditions. 1992). This network opening has been measured on cross-linked chitosan beads using the same analytical sytem (SEC) with high-molecular-weight dextran probes.95 mm 1.085 13. Mass transfer is governed by several relationships. Physical Properties of Sorbent Particles sorbent dp F (g L-1) experimental A/Va (m2 m-3) water content (%) external surfaceb area (m2 (wet) g-1) flakes G1 flakes G2 flakes G3 beads 1 beads 2 beads 3 0-125 µm 125-250 µm 250-500 µm 0. etc. and acetic and sulfuric acids were supplied by Prolabo.2 93. 1996): (i) diffusion of the solute from the solution to the film surrounding the particle. The solution generally requires a numerical analysis.11 × 10-3 3. All experiments were performed at room temperature and with a constant pH control. b The external surface area has been determined by the calculated ratio 6/dpF. filtered.4 × 10-3 27. Bead Formation Procedure. and 2. achieved by adding microvolumes of molar sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid solutions. These findings demonstrate that the cross-linking is stable in our experimental conditions. and 200 mg L-1) with known weights of wet cross-linked chitosan beads or cross-linked chitosan flakes (dry sorbent masses varying between 20 and 200 mg). 1985). Vol.6.6 × 10-3 7. Similar procedures were applied to manufactured cross-linked chitosan flakes at three particle sizes: G1 < 125 µm < G2 < 250 µm < G3 < 500 µm. Milled chitosan flakes passed through a 250-µm sieve were dissolved in 4 w/w % acetic acid. The metal-ion content. 3 mm). Sodium hydroxide. Weber and DiGiano. ion exchange.Ind.0 13. Cross-linking occurred for 16 h. (iii) diffusion from the surface to the internal sites (surface diffusion or pore diffusion). 3) has shown that chitosan does not significantly dissolve after the cross-linking step: chitosan concentration in the solution was measured using the acid red titration method (Gummow and Roberts.66 17. External Diffusion. ammonium molybdate.90 5. Bulk diffusion (i) is nonlimiting when agitation is sufficient to avoid concentration gradients in solution. Samples were collected over time. Sorption is seen as a quasi-instantaneous mechanism.72 × 10-3 2. The metal-ion content was determined by ICP spectrometry.6 mm 2.8 mm. Ficks’ laws may be applied to describe mass-transfer rates. 0. to be independent of the form of the metal ion (free molybdate or vanadate. 1993. Thus. The cross-linked chitosan beads were extensively rinsed with demineralized water. diameter of annular space of the apparatus around the nozzle. the solution is given by ln C(t) A ) -kf t C0 V (1) . The cross-linking bath contained a 2.0 13. taking into account the diffusion mechanisms and their related equations. (ii) diffusion from the film to the particle surface (external diffusion)..8 mm 1180 1180 1180 1021 1023 1021 15. In this paper. Sorption isotherms were determined by contact of 200 mL of molybdate.3 81. Samples were collected and separated (filtration through a 1.30 2. The formed beads were allowed to stand in the precipitation bath for 16 h and then were washed and rinsed with demineralized water several times to a constant pH.04 × 10-3 a The experimental A/V is calculated with a dry sorbent concentration of 170 mg L-1. all metal concentrations in both solid and liquid media are expressed as total metal (mg).95. or vanadate. air was blown through the annular space of apparatus with an increasing flow rate.2-µm pore glass fiber membrane) after 72 h of agitation on an adjustable reciprocating shaker (150 rpm). The ratio of glutaraldehyde to chitosan beads was approximately 15 cm3 g-1 of wet beads. The solution was allowed to stand for 7 days (the viscosity of chitosan solution decreased sharply with the time in the first days and then decreased more slowly).8 94. while the sorbate is called the molybdate or vanadate ion as a general term.6 mm. in the solid was determined by a mass balance (between solid and liquid phases). Experimental Procedure: Metal-Ion Adsorption. Physical properties of the products are presented in Table 1. The concept of pore diameter is not adequate and we will speak of the network opening as a general term. Depending on the diameter of the beads to be manufactured. Glutaraldehyde is a Fluka AG product.

52. Eng. the initial external mass-transfer coefficient. assuming the solute concentration always being uniform (initially C0) and the sorbent sphere to be free from solute. Similar observations have been cited by Inoue et al. No. the optimum pH for metal-ion uptake was determined. The fractional approach to equilibrium. Chem. 2/4.8. C0 the initial sorbate concentration (mg L-1). Intraparticle Diffusion II. This distribution may influence metal uptake so that the optimum pH then depends on the total concentration. A slight shift appears with an increase of the molybdate concentration. In acid solution. b/O.e. It appears that the optimum pH is in the range 3-4. 52.5) (McKay and Poots. R is the effective volume ratio. 1984). 107 mg L-1) for cross-linked chitosan beads (filled symbols. 4. 1988). which are proportional to the boundary layer thickness.5 has been deduced by considering the sorption mechanism to be controlled by diffusion in the sorbent (as spherical particles) and by convective diffusion in the solution. FATE. which represents up to half of the total concentration. Results and Discussion pH Optimization. 1998 where D is the intraparticle diffusion coefficient (m2 min-1) and d is the particle diameter (m). eq 3 was used to determine the overall intraparticle diffusivity which best fitted the experimental data (minimizing the sum of the square of the differences between experimental results and calculated data). Figure 1 represents the molybdenum removal efficiency at equilibrium for varying pH. the total amount of solute Mt (mg g-1) in a spherical particle after time t. external film resistance). At pH 3. the optimum pH is at 3. expressed as a function of the equilibrium partition coefficient (solid/liquid concentrations ratio) and is obtained by the ratio C∞/(C0 . These results are generally consistent with previous observations on molybdate sorption by fungal biomass for which metal-anion binding was attributed to interaction with functional groups protonated at lower pH values (Tobin et al. McKay and Poots (1980) observed that the fraction of solute adsorbed can be expressed in terms of the square root of time.5. Under these conditions.. 8. is Mo7O23(OH)5-.. the major species. The initial curve portion of the plot is attributed to boundary layer diffusion effects (i.5. may be used to estimate the intraparticle diffusion coefficient D. expressed as a fraction of the corresponding quantity after infinite time (M∞.. The uptake capacity decreases about 25% at pH 2. qn represent the nonzero solutions of equations: tan qn ) Figure 1. with a pH significantly lower than the pKa of chitosan. (1993). while at a lower concentration optimum pH is approximately 3. Prior to the sorption isotherm studies. Vol. Figure 2 shows the distribution of molybdate species at both total molybdate concentrations 10 and 100 mg L-1.5 may be used to estimate the intraparticle diffusion rate in the linear range. k′ (mg g-1 min-0. 37. open symbols. uptake capacity (mmol of Mo g-1)). The fact that the optimum pH range varies slightly with the concentration may be related to the predominance of particular hydrolyzed species which are more favorable for sorption on pro- .. from thermodynamic data presented by Baes and Mesmer (1976) and calculations performed with the program HYDRAQL (Papelis et al. the concentration varies as a function of t0. kf (m min-1) may be determined (C(t) is the solution concentration. At high concentration. when the external diffusion coefficient is being neglected. The solubility increases above pH 1.5 as given by eq 2: q(t) ) xi + k′xt (2) The slope of the linear part of the curve (uptake capacity vs square root time) gives the initial rate of sorption (here taken between 10 and 30-90 min). The distribution of metal-ion species is also an important parameter in the interpretation of the pH effect on sorption performances. Intraparticle Diffusion I. At low concentrations. molybdate is not adsorbed.5 and is not expected to affect sorption processes above pH 2. This mathematical dependence of concentration in the solid on t0. At near-neutral pH. Crank (1975) proposed a model whereby diffusion is controlled only by intraparticle mass transfer for a well-stirred solution of limited volume (V). the nitrogen-containing functional groups (amines in free or substituted forms) of the biosorbent are protonated and the positive charge would be expected to attract anions.8. A the sorbent exchange surface (m2) and V the volume of solution (L)).1456 Ind. mononuclear and polynuclear hydrolyzed species coexist. 1980). with initial metal concentrations of 8. the electrostatic balance between anionic and cationic groups on the polymer would be expected to be less favorable for molybdate binding. mg g-1) is given by Mt M∞ )1- ∞ 6R(R + 1) exp(-Dqn2t/d2) n)1 9 + 9R + qn2R2 ∑ (3) 3qn 3+ Rqn2 and Mt 1 ) VC0 1 + R (4) The infinite sum terms are summed until the summation does not vary. By plotting ln C(t)/C0 against t (min).C∞). controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Influence of pH on molybdate sorption with varying initial molybdate concentrations (9/0. while at pH 5 or 6. Res. The solution of the diffusion equations leads to a relationship between the concentration in the solid and the parameter (Dt/a2)0. The extrapolation of the linear straight lines to the time axis gives intercepts xi. and 107 mg L-1. In this study. efficiency. while at high molybdate levels. molybdate occurs solely in condensed form. Since D and a are considered constant during the experiment. A plot of fraction of solute adsorbed against t0.

4. . (1988) report that cadmium sorption capacity drastically increases with a lowering of the chitosan sorbent size. interactions which may occur in raw chitosan between neighboring sites are less likely.Ind. 4). (b) HMoO4-. These calculations were first performed on the cumulative data for beads of 0. Mo7O23(OH)5. the Dubinin-Radushkevich model assumes that ionic species bind first with the most energetically favorable sites and that multilayer adsorption then occurs. such as HMoO4. 1995).. Experimental data were further compared to the Langmuir and Freundlich sorption isotherm models (Figure 3). The Langmuir model assumes the surface of the sorbent to be homogeneous and the sorption energies to be equivalent for each sorption site. are shown in Figure 4a. as no major differences in speciation over the pH range 3-4 are observed at the different metal concentrations. Jha et al. it is not possible to identify the cause of the variation in optimum pH for sorption. The Langmuir and Freundlich models are commonly used to fit experimental data when solute uptake occurs by a monolayer sorption. 1996). In particular. Solute immobilization occurs without mutual interactions between the molecules sorbed on the surface. However. The absence of transmigration of sorbate in the plane of the surface may explain the good fit observed with the Langmuir model. Conditioning of Chitosan.existing in high-concentration solutions.5. while at higher initial concentration. They do not not assume an energetically homogeneous surface and propose a nonhomogeneous distribution of sorption sites. While the maximum uptake varies little between G2 and G3 classes. and zinc. Gel formation expands the structure of the chitosan network. The influence of bead size on sorption isotherms was investigated through covariance analysis.4. molecules adsorbed on the surface can interact. in a less acid medium. Experimental data and modeled curves (solid line: Langmuir model. 56. At low initial concentration Mo7O246. a phenomenon commonly cited in the solvent extraction of Mo(VI) with acidic extractants. No. Consequently. The Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models are more general than those of Langmuir and Freundlich (Nestle and Kimmich. Figure 3. nickel.95-mm diameter versus the data at other diameters. (1993) indicate that the reduction in molybdate sorption. shows that varying the initial concentration (27. (g) Mo7O246-.5.and MoO42-. Molybdate sorption isotherms for several flake particle sizes. has been omitted). 1. (f) Mo7O23(OH)5-. Inoue et al.is the predominant species. It appears that the Langmuir model best fits the experimental results over the experimental range (Tables 2 and 3). compared to those of beads. Res. This confirms that the sorption level is dependent on the initial concentration: metal speciation and high hydrated metal-ion radius control steric hindrance and access to internal sites.6 mm. In contrast. B3. Figure 3 shows the molybdate sorption isotherm at pH 3 for several bead sizes. McKay et al.1 and 1 mM (symbols correspond to (a) MoO42-. indicating that metal-ion accumulation occurs by a surface mechanism. A statistical study (ANOCOV table) on beads. dashed line. Uranium sorption by chitosan and glutamate glucan have previously shown contrasting behavior: equilibrium uptake is independent of the particle size (and external surface) for substituted chitosan while chitosan adsorbs uranyl solely at its surface (Guibal et al. the form Mo19O59.predominates at pH 3. Chem. Molybdate sorption isotherms at pH 3. (d) Mo7O21(OH)33-.95 mm. These models were tested in the present work (data not shown) but did not exhibit good fit to the sorption data. 37. Beads Size. 1998 1457 Figure 2. 0. Molybdate chemistry: distribution of molybdate species as a function of pH and total molybdate concentration 0. B2. it increases considerably for the smallest particles G1. ]. (c) H2MoO4. tonated amine sites. but varied slightly with the particle size for copper. Eng. Several other equations and models exist to describe such equilibrium conditions. Moreover. Vol. at pH 3. Effect of Conditioning and Particle Size on Sorption Isotherms..8 mm. (1989) observed that sorption behavior varies for different metal ions: the separation factor was found to be independent of the particle size for mercury. Both are strongly anionic species. which is consistent with the high-sorption levels observed. and 100 mg of Mo L-1) leads to a Fisher-Snedecor coefficient rather higher than the limiting coefficient at a probability yield of 95%. The Freundlich model is based on an exponential distribution of sorption sites and energies. of diameter 0. 0. 2.5. (e) Mo7O22(OH)24-. Freundlich model) for several bead sizes (B1. Comput- ing the ANOCOV table (co-variance analysis) confirms that sorption capacity is independent of the bead sizes (the Fisher-Snedecor coefficient relative to the corresponding table is lower than the critical value with a 95% probability yield).95 mm. results from the formation and predominance of nonadsorptive anionic species. at pH lower than 1.

2-dihydroxyethyl)tetrahydrofuryl]chitosan: a chitosan-based poly- .121 (11. b (L mmol-1). Vol. Eng.82 4. It is well-known that the sorption rate is controlled by the agitation speed for systems controlled by external diffusion (Hellferich.0 (8.2 mM g-1 (150 and 400 mg g-1.97) 40. 1.52) 124.42) 165. It appears that metal-ion removal is controlled by surface sorption or by sorption/diffusion restricted to an external thin layer. b (L mmol-1).7 20.9 (2.1 × 10-4 to 8. Increasing the agitation speed increases turbulence in the solution.86 40.80) 761.2 (3.5 37.4 9.92) b (L Freundlich model mg-1) MSRb 0.1 26.8 (2.1) 58.7 (7. F.29) 211.44) 193.9) 165.40 6.9 (7.01) 0. flakes.28 4.7 (1.595 (57.25) 0.3 12. Flakes: G1.5 52.9) 0.3 × 10-11 to 5. kF (L1/n g-1 mmol1-1/n)).40 9. B3.0 (7.22) 0. beads.3 (7.4 (4.9 (2.80 (40. 4.44 3.82) 271.i)2] i)1 n Table 3.5 (1. numbers into brackets represent molar determination of parameters instead of massic representation: qm (mmol g-1).5 (2.3 (8. Two agitator speeds were used in these studies: 150 and 260 rpm (initial molybdate concentration 100 mg L-1.90) 197.. The variation in agitator speed was restricted to these values to avoid mechanical degradation of the bead structure.6 mm.9 63.95 mm 1. Rorrer et al. and dry sorbent concentration 170 mg L-1).8 mm.95 mm. 0-125 µm. No. 125250 µm.6) 6.24 (11.9 × 10-11 m2 min-1.95 mm 0-125 µm 125-250 µm 250-500 µm 402.02) 184.62) 0. while the intraparticle diffusivity is decreased from 6.169 (16. A similar trend is observed for vanadate removal by chitosan flakes (Figure 4b). However the difference between flake and bead maximum sorption levels is less than that for molyb- date: 2.6 40.5 14.18 4.7 (3.550 (13.8 (7. beads: B1.22 (11. Agitator Speed. The maximum uptake of chitosan flakes does not exceed half that obtained with chitosan beads: approximately 3. Conditioning effect on (a) molybdate and (b) vanadate sorption isotherms. Figure 4.4 11.94) 748. G2. The intraparticle diffusion coefficient (k′) varies by less than 3% and the boundary layer thickness parameter (xtlim) is almost unchanged.98) 0.2) 95.95) 747. 0. They suggested that the variation in sorption capacity was not due to exchange surface area.Xcal.1458 Ind. kF (L1/n g-1 mmol1-1/n)).i .177 (17. Sorption Kinetics: Influence of Experimental Parameters.3 196.5 mM g-1 (350-400 mg g-1) compared to 7 mM g-1 (about 700-750 mg g-1). Sorption Isotherm Constants for Molybdate Uptake at pH 3a experimental runs type size B1 B2 B3 beads G1 G2 G3 0. Res.2 (3.07) 62. 37.95 mm.8 mm Cumul 0-125 µm 125-250 µm 250-500 µm Langmuir model qm (mg g-1) 763..7 (3. Langmuir model.2 5 12.) This trend has also been observed for uranium removal by a chitosan sorbent (Guibal et al.0 10.4 27. which in turn reduces the thickness of the external boundary layer. b MSR ) mean square deviation calculated as: [ ] 1/2 n ∑[(X exp.11) 0.3 5.27 3. Tables 2 and 3 summarize the Langmuir and the Freundlich model parameters for varying experimental conditions (conditioning forms and particle sizes) for molybdate and vanadate. These results confirm the nonlimiting influence of external diffusion in the overall sorption process in the speed range investigated.4 a B. These results confirm the strong influence of the conditioning and of the expansion of the diffusion network on the sorption capacity of chitosan-based sorbents. Similar trends have been observed on uranium sorption by glutamate glucan and NDTC (N-[2-(1.2) 146.9 × 10-4 m min-1.6 a Numbers into brackets represent molar values: qm (mmol g-1).78) 78. 1995).5 (4.5 (7. 1995).9) 250.4) 121. respectively). (Curves. but that it was related to the formation of adsorbed metal clusters which may constrict or completely block pores. The differences observed on rate parameters are not appreciable: the film masstransfer coefficients decreased from 10.45 98. G3. 1998 Table 2.140 (52.3 72.179 (17.5 (7. Chem.80) 329. pH 3.36) 0.82) n MSRb 3. B2. chitosan bead diameter 0.4 87. respectively.17 4.9 mM g-1 compared to 4.6 mm 2.60 14.42) 0. 250-500 µm. (1993) have reported similar findings and proposed a pore blockage model. size.2 93.3 (8. diameter or class size.21 (10.2 kF (g-1 L1/n mg1-1/n) 201. Sorption Isotherms Constants for Vanadate Uptake at pH 3a experimental runs Langmuir model Freundlich model type size qm (mg g-1) b (L mg-1) MSR kF (g-1L1/n mg1-1/n) n MSR B1 G1 G2 G3 0. 2.65) 0.

]. Diffusion coefficients are summarized in Table 4 (for molybdate) and Table 5 (for vanadate).. (Mo-G1) 10. the calculation of the intraparticle mass-transfer coefficients of both molybdate and vanadate by the McKay procedure gives negative values for the axis intercept. and 87. and 91. and 108. (V-G1) 9. respectively. principally for flakes. 28. This would appear to indicate that no single controlling-mechanism model can be applied to accurately describe the sorption mass transfer for chitosan kf ) (3. The lower the xtlim. Metal-Anion Concentration. Eng. Res. However. 46. the layer is very thin. 23. No. 37. (c) G3 (250-500 µm). 54. Effect of initial concentration on vanadate sorption ((a) B1 beads (diameter 0. Table 4). 24. it appears that external diffusion contributes to the control of the sorption rate. 170 mg L-1). (b) G1 flakes (0-125 µm). dry sorbent concentration. and 0 represent respectively the following: (V-B1) 10. and 107. At all present molybdate concentrations.382 × 10-3)C0. for G3 flakes. and 0 represent respectively the following: (Mo-B1) 12. Increasing the initial concentration reduces the contribution of the external film resistance (column 4. (c) G3 (250-500 µm). 1998 1459 Figure 5. Under these conditions. 25. The symbols 4. The symbols 4. agitation speed. 46. 1995).291 (R2 ) 0. and 91. Molybdate and vanadate sorption kinetics for varying initial concentrations for flakes G1 and G3 and beads B1 particles are shown in Figures 5 and 6. This influence is likely related to the varying distribution of molybdate species with increasing concentrations. Regression analysis shows that kf varies as a power of the initial molybdate concentration for sorbent beads according to the following equation: tude with increasing initial concentration for each particle size. agitation speed. (Mo-G3) 10. Vol. It can be seen that kf varies inversely with C0. 47.. (1993) also reported copper and mercury sorption to chitosan to be independent of the agitation speed. the value of xtlim is lower than 1. (V-G3) 9.Ind. (b) G1 flakes (0-125 µm). Figure 6. 4. the thinner the external boundary layer. 150 rpm.95 mm). 51.979) 0 (5) This effect is considerably more marked in the flake studies where kf decreases by over an order of magni- . O. 150 rpm. Therefore. 26. O.95 mm). mer obtained by ascorbic acid substitution on chitosan) (Guibal et al. 27. 170 mg L-1). ]. dry sorbent concentration. Effect of initial concentration on molybdate sorption ((a) B1 beads (diameter 0. Findon et al. and 107. 54. Chem.

.008 0. This kf decrease has also been reported for uranium sorption by glutamate glucan (Guibal et al. For G3 flakes the intraparticle diffusivity slightly increases (around 5 × 10-12 m2 min-1) with increasing initial concentration.6 2.3 × 10-12 4.644 0 (R2 ) 0. postulated a non-Fickian diffusion to explain the variation of the diffusion coefficient with the concentration.95 mm. (1990) obtained an increase in the copper diffusivity in alginate beads when the copper concentration was increased.9 1.9 1.95 mm.7 3. The diffusivity mag- nitude is of the same order for both molybdate and vanadate ions. the sorption rate decreased with increasing sorbent particle size as the time required to reach equilibrium significantly increased. the external mass-transfer coefficient decreased less than twice with increasing beads size.14 0.6 0.3 2. For flakes.6 1. 2. the reciprocal of the ratio of atomic masses of molybdenum and vanadium elements. for low initial concentrations. 1. Moreover.0 6.657C0. In contrast to the present work. 1995) and for copper sorption by raw chitosan. Comparing experiments performed at the same initial molar concentrations.6 3. the predominant control depending on the experimental conditions. Moreover.9 12.01 NS 0.7 2.003 0. Type. Jang et al. Figure 5 shows the effect of the bead diameter on the sorption kinetics.8 × 10-13 7.1 2. Variations in diffusivity may be explained by partial inadequacy of the present simple diffusion models to describe phenomena resulting from heterogeneities of the gel matrix and the possible occurrence of mixed absorption and adsorption mechanisms. Type.6 B1 B1 B1 B1 B2 B3 G1 G1 G1 G1 G2 G3 G3 G3 G3 7.01 0. Effect of the Molybdate Concentration.8 mm.9 1.6 × 10-10 4. Vol.6 × 10-13 1.8 2.3 0. B3.689 p (R2 ) 0. and Size of Sorbent on the Sorption Rate and Diffusion Coefficientsa k′ C0 sorbent kf × 104 xtlim (mg g-1 (mg L-1) type/size (m min-1) (min0.7 2. 4.8 0. Eng. regression analysis shows that the variation of the initial internal sorption rate with the concentration obeys the following relation for molybdate and beads: k′ ) 1. Res. Flakes: G1 < 125 µm < G2 < 250 µm < G3 < 500 µm.8 1.4 × 10-11 1. 1989). kf.6 mm.5 13.4 × 10-11 2.8 3. 37. NS: nonsignificant. it is interesting to note that. Table 4 summarizes the diffusion coefficients obtained for molybdate sorption by several beads and flakes sizes.71 0.5 26..9 12.. Table 4 shows that for studies at equal initial concentration (108 mg L-1).05 0. the surface diffusivity being a function of the surface coverage (as shown by Gilliland et al.1 × 10-10 1.5) min-0.3 50. vanadate sorption exhibites a similar trend: the variations are not very marked with increasing initial concentration.2 107.96 0. Mass transfer is controlled by both intraparticle and external resistance for flakes.5) min-0.011 0.7 4. regression analysis shows that the initial sorption rate obeyed the following relation: k′ ) 0. the external masstransfer coefficients for beads are markedly greater than those for flakes.7 × 10-12 4.8 29.2 × 10-12 6.6 × 10-12 2. 1998 Table 4.0 22.2 × 10-13 7.3 × 10-12 a Beads: B1.2 33.008 0. Table 5. mercury sorption to chitosan is not controlled by intraparticle diffusion (McKay et al. the vanadate intraparticle diffusivity is frequently higher than that of molybdate and often in the ratio of 2:1. diffusivity into chitosan beads is seen to reach a value lower (approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower) than the molecular diffusivity in water (Vanysek.8 3.3 0.999) (6) Some differences are observed between beads and flakes.0 9.3 1.8 × 10-12 3.003 0.016 0.7 46.13 0.9 46. diffusivities in the solid decrease with the initial concentration (i.9 1.6 4. B2.0 23.0 × 10-10 5.5 1. the intraparticle mass transfer is enhanced by the gel formation and the external mass-transfer coefficient is less sensitive to particle size in comparison with nonporous flakes.8 25. Similarly.4 0.8 106.2 0.8 mm. As expected.6 B1 B1 B1 B1 B2 B3 G1 G1 G1 G1 G2 G3 G3 G3 G3 19. For molybdate sorption by cross-linked beads.1 90. 0. while for G1 flakes the variation is not continuous (order of magnitude: 10-13 m2 min-1). while for G1 flakes this difference can reach about 5 orders of magnitude.48 0. and Size of Sorbent on the Sorption Rate and Diffusion Coefficientsa C0 sorbent kf × 104 xtlim k′ (mg g-1 D (mg L-1) type/size (m min-1) (min0.3 107.003 NS NS 3.3 10.6 × 10-12 1.9 × 10-11 5.4 21. with the uptake capacity and the surface coverage).0 6.3 16. 1993).4 10.2 1.7 45. 0. Gel expansion offers a greater external surface for a same dry mass and favors external mass transfer.4 × 10-10 2. in a study of copper diffusion in alginate gels.2 × 10-14 8.0 0. flakes. while the external boundary layer thickness slightly increased and the intraparticle mass-transfer coefficient k′ slightly decreased.25 0. Effect of the Vanadate Concentration.8 5.2 × 10-11 7.6 × 10-12 3.4 × 10-10 1. As shown in Table 5.6 0.3 27.7 × 10-12 a Beads: B1.2 NS 2.55 NS 0.6 mm.0 54.2 0.6 × 10-11 1.5) 10 25 47 87 47 47 9.e. 1. Beads or Flakes Sizes.6 × 10-12 8.2 14.55 29.6 1. the variations with particle size are nonappreciable. Nestle and Kimmich (1996).286d-0.2 4.2 × 10-13 2. Here.01 NS 0.2 × 10-10 5.5 1.75 0.04 0.989) (7) The initial intraparticle mass-transfer rate does not vary with the reciprocal of the first power of the beads size.0 4.3 0.8 1.1 3.5) (m2 min-1) 12 28 53 108 108 108 10.02 NS NS 0. In contrast. No. For beads. B3.1 10.4 2. Morris and Weber (1962) have observed that the intraparticle mass-transfer rate (here denoted k′) varied with the reciprocal of the first power of the sorbent particle diameter in two cases: when sorption occurs . Flakes: G1 < 125 µm < G2 < 250 µm < G3 < 500 µm. 2. (1974) for gases adsorption). Chem.4 × 10-13 1. The high metal uptake capacities reached with those sorbents involved possible variations in the isosteric heat of adsorption.6 × 10-14 1.5 D (m2 min-1) 2.0 2.3 × 10-14 1. B2. The diffusivity of molybdate into chitosan beads decreases slightly with a 9-fold increase of the initial concentration (order of magnitude: 10-10 m2 min-1).1460 Ind.8 90.9 5.0 × 10-10 1. A mixed external and intraparticle diffusion model would likely be required..02 NS NS NS 8.

metal-anion biosorption to chitosan gels is enhanced as compared to the native polymer (Figure 7). and models cited previously cannot be easily applied to evaluate variations in rates and diffusivities with the particle size. Such differences indicate that sorption kinetics are welldescribed by an intraparticle diffusion model for beads sorbents. 50 mg L-1) sorption (G1/B1.5 pH range. For flaked sorbents. In terms of kinetic behavior. for intraparticle diffusion controlled sorption kinetics onto porous sorbents. 150 rpm. agitation speed. This observation suggests that the control of Figure 7. 170 mg.2 × 10-14 to 6. b/O. (1993) for the copper removal by alginate beads. 4.Ind. while for flakes the differences are greater (ranging from 7. external mass transfer obeys the criteria described by Hellferich (1995) and its contribution to the diffusion control is increased for small particles of low-porous materials. As expected. favoring the external mass transfer. No. Conclusion Sorption of anions molybdate and vanadate shows similar behavior which is likely due to the similarities in the chemistry of these ions. While for molybdate ions the equilibrium Ct/C0 sorption levels are equivalent for beads. the rate parameter varies with the reciprocal of some power of the diameter (Crank. while the model does not adequately represent flaked materials behavior. which is consistent with (i) the electrostatic attraction between the protonated amine sites and the strongly anionic metal species and (ii) the appearance of polynuclear hydrolyzed metal species in the 3-3. the variation in the intraparticule diffusion coefficient is not appreciable: the diffusivity varies between 10-11 and 8 × 10-11 m2 min-1. [/]. a comparison of specific surface area. The dissolution/ precipitation procedure favors the destruction of such bondings. Such values are lower than those presented by Chen et al.. Res. 1975). The resulting driving force between the solid and the solution is reduced. 1998 1461 on external sites of a nonporous adsorbent and when sorption was governed by external mass transfer on a porous adsorbent. The reduction in size of the flaked particles offers a greater surface for exchange between solution and solid. In contrast. and this is particularly so for the smallest particle sizes. The same orders in external mass-transfer coefficients kf are obtained for molybdate and vanadate solutions. as compared to those in water. Molar uptake capacity is similar for both molybdate and vanadate sorption in single-metal solution (7 mmol g-1 for both molybdate and vanadate removal onto chitosan gel beads). Effect of beads (open symbols) and flakes (filled symbols) size on molybdate (C0. Diffusivities in the gel beads are of the range 10-10-10-11 m2 min-1 as compared to values of 10-12-10-14 m2 min-1 for the native polymer. Figure 6 shows the effect of the initial concentration for varying types and sizes of sorbent particles on vanadate sorption. However. the uptake results from surface limitations for flaked particles. external resistance can be neglected for beads. For molybdate and beads. L-1). Analysis of diffusion mechanisms for flaked particles is problematic. While sorption capacity is independent of the size of the chitosan gel beads. at around 8 × 10-8 m2 min-1. intraparticle diffusivities are almost independent of particle size for beads but not for flaked particles. measured by BET analysis. the decrease in diffusivities. 37. for vanadium these values decrease with increasing concentration. 108 mg L-1) and vanadate (C0. This is confirmed by a comparison of Tables 4 and 5 wherein all of the kinetic parameters are greater for molybdate than for vanadate. 2/4. this simplified approach is sufficient to give an evaluation of the parameter effect and to select which parameters control sorption kinetics. G2/B2. proving that overall diffusion and sorption are mainly . and these differences are especially pronounced for beads. it appears that for both molybdate and vanadate solutions. Vol. The Biot number (Bi ) kfd/D) calculated from the ratio of the rate of external mass transfer to intraparticle mass transfer is significantly higher than 100. Intraparticle diffusivities for gold and zinc cyanides onto anion-exchange resins of the same order 9-30 × 10-11 m2 min-1 were reported by Glover et al. Ct/C0 values increase with increasing initial concentration for both vanadate and molybdate sorption to chitosan flakes. These results can also be explained by a change in the rigidity of the polymer due to hydrogen bonding between chitosan chains. Eng. Even if intraparticle diffusion is the controlling step. Chem. A pH of approximately 3 is favorable for the sorption of these metal anions. for flaked and gelled sorbents (freeze-dried) shows a large increase with the gel conditioning (from 1 to 2 to 80-250 m2 g-1) and indicates that the expansion may represent the most significant cause for the enhancement of sorption properties. in the flaked forms the particle size drastically influences sorption performance. The sorption of molybdate and vanadate appears to be controlled mainly by the conditioning of the polymer. Comparison of Figures 5 and 6 indicates that the sorption rate is more rapid for molybdate than that for vanadate. while G3’s size differs significantly. dry sorbent concentration. Flakes exhibit similar behavior for vanadate and molybdate in terms of size effect: G1 and G2 particle sizes yield similar sorption curves. However. (1990). is more evident. Conversely.3 × 10-12 m2 min-1). G3/B3. Here.

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