HALOGRAPHY

Holography is the science and practice of
making holograms. Typically, a hologram is
a photographic recording of a light field,
rather than of an image formed by a lens,
and it is used to display a fully threedimensional image of the holographed
subject, which is seen without the aid of
special glasses or other intermediate optics.
The hologram itself is not an image and it is
usually unintelligible when viewed under
diffuse ambient light. It is an encoding of the
light field as an interference pattern of
seemingly random variations in the opacity,
density, or surface profile of the
photographic medium. When suitably lit, the
interference pattern diffracts the light into a
reproduction of the original light field and
the objects that were in it appear to still be
there, exhibiting visual depth cues such as
parallax and perspective that change
realistically with any change in the relative
position of the observer.

. Holograms can now also be entirely computer-generated and show objects or scenes that never existed. A microscopic level of detail throughout the recorded volume of space can be reproduced. a holographic image is visually indistinguishable from the actual subject. major image quality compromises are made to eliminate the need for laser illumination when viewing the hologram. to avoid the hazardous high-powered pulsed lasers otherwise needed to optically "freeze" living subjects as perfectly as the extremely motion-intolerant holographic recording process requires. Holographic portraiture often resorts to a non-holographic intermediate imaging procedure. and sometimes. holography requires the use of laser light for illuminating the subject and for viewing the finished hologram. also when making it. to the extent possible. however. In a sideby-side comparison under optimal conditions.In its pure form. In common practice. if the hologram and the subject are lit just as they were at the time of recording.

and the company filed a patent in December 1947 (patent GB685286).His work. The technique as . or seemingly magical images are also often incorrectly called holograms. was built on pioneering work in the field of X-ray microscopy by other scientists including Mieczysław Wolfke in 1920 and William Lawrence Bragg in 1939. which can produce superficially similar results but are based on conventional lens imaging.Holography should not be confused with lenticular and other earlier autostereoscopic 3D display technologies. baffling. OVERVIEW AND HISTORY The Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor (in Hungarian: Gábor Dénes). England. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971 "for his invention and development of the holographic method". done in the late 1940s. Stage illusions such as Pepper's Ghost and other unusual.The discovery was an unexpected result of research into improving electron microscopes at the British Thomson-Houston (BTH) Company in Rugby.

where it is known as electron holography. by Dieter Jung The development of the laser enabled the first practical optical holograms that recorded 3D objects to be made in 1962 by Yuri Denisyuk in the Soviet Union and by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks at the University of Michigan. but optical holography did not really advance until the development of the laser in 1960. The word holography comes from the Greek words ὅλος (holos.originally invented is still used in electron microscopy.Early holograms used silver halide photographic emulsions as the recording medium. "writing" or "drawing"). USA. Horizontal symmetric text. "whole") and γραφή (graphē. They were not very efficient as the produced grating absorbed much of the incident light. Various methods of converting the variation in transmission to a variation in refractive index (known as "bleaching") were .

for example. are viewed by shining laser light through them and looking at the reconstructed image from the side of the hologram opposite the source. Another kind of common hologram. Transmission holograms.A later refinement. on credit cards and product packaging. the "rainbow transmission" hologram. Several types of holograms can be made. such as those produced by Leith and Upatnieks. the reflection or Denisyuk hologram.developed which enabled much more efficient holograms to be produced. They .Rainbow holograms are commonly used for security and authentication. allows more convenient illumination by white light rather than by lasers. can also be viewed using a white-light illumination source on the same side of the hologram as the viewer and is the type of hologram normally seen in holographic displays.

holography required highpower expensive lasers. In its early days.are also capable of multicolour-image reproduction. whereas Gabor-style holography works by diffractively reconstructing wavefronts. Specular holography is a related technique for making three-dimensional images by controlling the motion of specularities on a two-dimensional surface. Holograms can also be used to store. mass-produced low-cost semi-conductor or . Most holograms produced are of static objects but systems for displaying changing scenes on a holographic volumetric display are now being developed. but nowadays. and process information optically. retrieve.It works by reflectively or refractively manipulating bundles of light rays.

[citation needed] Today. holograms with xrays are generated by using synchrotrons or x-ray free-electron lasers as radiation sources and pixelated detectors such as CCDs as recording medium. artists and dedicated hobbyists. It was thought that it would be possible to use X-rays to make holograms of very small objects and view them using visible light.diode lasers. such as those found in millions of DVD recorders and used in other common applications. Due to the shorter wavelength of x-rays compared to visible light. x-ray holography has been used to capture ultrafast dynamic processes. can be used to make holograms and have made holography much more accessible to low-budget researchers.The reconstruction is then retrieved via computation.As free-electron lasers can provide ultrashort and x-ray pulses in the range of femtoseconds which are intense and coherent. . this approach allows to image objects with higher spatial resolution.

without the presence of the original vibrating matter RECORDING HOLOGRAM . is encoded in such a way that it can be reproduced later.[24] Holography can be thought of as somewhat similar to sound recording. which is generally the product of a light source scattered off objects. to be recorded and later reconstructed when the original light field is no longer present. whereby a sound field created by vibrating matter like musical instruments or vocal cords. due to the absence of the original objects.HOW IT WORKS Holography is a technique that enables a light field.

The edges of the medium will ultimately serve as a window through which the subject is seen. In one common arrangement. The recording medium is located where this light. so its location is chosen with that in mind. the hologram is recorded using a source of laser light. will strike it. which is very pure in its color and orderly in its composition. The object beam is expanded by passing it through a lens and used to illuminate the subject. the laser beam is split into two. but all involve the interaction of light coming from different directions and producing a microscopically fine interference pattern which a plate. Various setups may be used. or other medium photographically records. film. one known as the object beam and the other as the reference beam. The reference beam is expanded and made to shine directly on the . after being reflected or scattered by the subject. and several types of holograms can be made.LASER In laser holography.

where it interacts with the light coming from the subject to create the desired interference pattern. are typical. Like conventional photography. during the exposure the light source. Unlike conventional photography. Exposures lasting several seconds to several minutes. and the subject must all remain perfectly motionless relative to each other. RECONSTRUCTING A . that is only possible if a very intense and extremely brief pulse of laser light is used. to within about a quarter of the wavelength of the light. the recording medium. using a much lower-powered continuously operating laser. the optical elements. With living subjects and some unstable materials. holography requires an appropriate exposure time to correctly affect the recording medium. a hazardous procedure which is rare and rarely done outside of scientific and industrial laboratory settings. or the interference pattern will be blurred and the hologram spoiled.medium.

and the other part onto the object in such a way that some of the scattered light falls onto the recording medium. each aimed in different directions: . A more flexible arrangement for recording a hologram requires the laser beam to be aimed through a series of elements that change it in different ways.HALOGRAM APPARATUS A hologram can be made by shining part of the light beam directly into the recording medium. The first element is a beam splitter that divides the beam into two identical beams.

One beam (known as the illumination or object beam) is spread using lenses and directed onto the scene using mirrors. Several different materials can be used as the recording medium. The second beam (known as the reference beam) is also spread through the use of lenses. but may also be plastic. but with a much higher concentration of light-reactive grains. APPARATUS . Some of the light scattered (reflected) from the scene then falls onto the recording medium.g. and instead travels directly onto the recording medium. A layer of this recording medium (e. which is commonly glass.. One of the most common is a film very similar to photographic film (silver halide photographic emulsion). but is directed so that it doesn't come in contact with the scene. making it capable of the much higher resolution that holograms require. silver halide) is attached to a transparent substrate.

Some of the light scattered (reflected) from the scene then falls onto the recording medium.A hologram can be made by shining part of the light beam directly into the recording medium. and the other part onto the object in such a way that some of the scattered light falls onto the recording medium. and . each aimed in different directions: One beam (known as the illumination or object beam) is spread using lenses and directed onto the scene using mirrors. but is directed so that it doesn't come in contact with the scene. The second beam (known as the reference beam) is also spread through the use of lenses. The first element is a beam splitter that divides the beam into two identical beams. A more flexible arrangement for recording a hologram requires the laser beam to be aimed through a series of elements that change it in different ways.

The pattern itself is seemingly random.g.instead travels directly onto the recording medium. The interference pattern . their light waves intersect and interfere with each other. making it capable of the much higher resolution that holograms require. One of the most common is a film very similar to photographic film (silver halide photographic emulsion). It is this interference pattern that is imprinted on the recording medium. Several different materials can be used as the recording medium. as it represents the way in which the scene's light interfered with the original light source — but not the original light source itself. but with a much higher concentration of light-reactive grains. which is commonly glass. but may also be plastic. PROCESS When the two laser beams reach the recording medium.. A layer of this recording medium (e. silver halide) is attached to a transparent substrate.

PHOTOGRAPHY Holography may be better understood via an examination of its differences from ordinary photography: .can be considered an encoded version of the scene. When this beam illuminates the hologram. This missing key is provided later by shining a laser. VS. identical to the one used to record the hologram. This produces a light field identical to the one originally produced by the scene and scattered onto the hologram. it is diffracted by the hologram's surface pattern. onto the developed film. requiring a particular key — the original light source — in order to view its contents.

A holographic recording requires a second light beam (the reference beam) to be directed onto the recording medium. A photograph can be recorded using normal light sources (sunlight or electric lighting) whereas a laser is required to record a hologram. When a . A lens is required in photography to record the image. the light from the object is scattered directly onto the recording medium. This allows the scene to be viewed from a range of different angles. whereas holograms can only be viewed with very specific forms of illumination. as if it were still present.A hologram represents a recording of information regarding the light that came from the original scene as scattered in a range of directions rather than from only one direction. When a photograph is cut in half. as in a photograph. whereas in holography. each piece shows half of the scene. A photograph can be viewed in a wide range of lighting conditions.

whereas the reproduced viewing range of a hologram adds many more depth perception cues that were present in the original scene. It can be thought of as viewing a street outside a house through a 120 cm × 120 cm (4 ft × 4 ft) window. A photograph is a two-dimensional representation that can only reproduce a rudimentary three-dimensional effect. each point on a holographic recording includes information about light scattered from every point in the scene. but the viewer can see more at once through the 120 cm (4 ft) window. then through a 60 cm × 60 cm (2 ft × 2 ft) window. One can see all of the same things through the smaller window (by moving the head to change the viewing angle). This is because.hologram is cut in half. These cues are recognized by the human brain and translated into the same perception of a three-dimensional image as . the whole scene can still be seen in each piece. whereas each point in a photograph only represents light scattered from a single point in the scene.

A photograph clearly maps out the light field of the original scene. which appears to bear no relationship to the scene it recorded.when the original scene might have been viewed. seemingly random pattern. . The developed hologram's surface consists of a very fine.