Summer Internship Report

(May 30, 2016 to July 13, 2016)

Submitted by
Nitish Bir
Final year undergraduate
NIT Jalandhar



Table of Contents

1. Acknowledgement
2. Organisation Profile
3. Vision Values Promise
4. Jubilant Bhartia Group
5. Sustainability Goals
6. Pyridine Production Plant
7. Products
8. Heat Exchangers
9. Steps for designing of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
10. Results of Summer Internship Project
11. Conclusion
12. References


The satiation and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of the project would be
incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible.
I would like to take the opportunity to thank and express my deep sense of gratitude to my
mentors Mr. Anurag Varshney and Mr Kamal Pal. I am greatly indebted to both of them for
providing their valuable guidance at all stages of study, their advice, constructive suggestions,
positive and supportive attitude and continuous encouragement, without which it would have
not been possible to complete the project.
I would like to thank Mr Anuj Vats (HR) who in spite of busy schedule has co-operated with
me continuously and indeed, his valuable contribution and guidance have been certainly
indispensable for my project work.
I owe my wholehearted thanks to entire members of plant include shift in charges, staff and
lab scientists for their cooperation and assistance during the course of internship.
I hope I can build upon the experience and knowledge that I have gained and make a valuable
contribution towards this industry in coming future.

Organisation Profile

Jubilant Life Sciences Limited is an integrated global pharmaceutical and life sciences
company engaged in manufacturing and supply of APIs, Solid Dosage Formulations,
Radiopharmaceuticals, Allergy Therapy Products, Advance Intermediates, Fine Ingredients,
Crop Science Ingredients, Life Science Chemicals and Nutritional Products. It also provides
services in Contract Manufacturing of Sterile Injectables and Drug Discovery Solutions. The
Company’s strength lies in its unique offerings of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences products
and services.
Their success is an outcome of strategic focus on the pharmaceuticals and life sciences
industry, moving up the pharmaceutical value chain for products and services across
geographies, constantly investing in various growth platforms and promoting a culture of
They are engaged in continuous improvement of products and processes to enhance the
quality of production and cost competitiveness in order to build value for our customers.
Jubilant Life Sciences serves its customers globally with sales in over 100 countries and
ground presence in India, North America, Europe and China. They are well recognised as a
‘Partner of Choice’ by leading life sciences companies worldwide. Jubilant has relationship
with 19 of Top 20 pharmaceutical companies and 6 amongst top 10 agrochemical companies
across the globe.
Over the years, Jubilant Life Sciences has extended its footprint beyond India in the USA,
Canada, Europe, and other countries across the globe. We have also expanded the business by
building capabilities internally, through strategic expansions and acquisitions This resulted in
a network of 7 world class manufacturing facilities in India and 4 in North America and a
team of around 6100 multicultural people across the globe with ~ 1200 in North America and
~900 in R&D.
The multi-location presence helps them in getting closer to customers and serving them better
with the best in class products developed most efficiently, economically with speed to market.

Jubilant Life Sciences' progress in diverse businesses has been made possible through the
contribution of R&D; for quality, non-infringing process for product development and cost
reduction through process innovation. Innovation at Jubilant is backed by strong chemistry,
bio science expertise and the knowledge bank created over the years. We have harnessed our
strengths – a strong R&D team, modern R&D facilities, command over cheap technologies
and economies of scale into a synergistic organic entity, continuously creating and nurturing
high quality products and technologies.
In line with Jubilant Life Sciences continued focus on sustainability of business, they aim at
improving stakeholder value through improved eco efficient use of capital and natural
resources. Jubilant’s approach to sustainable development focuses on the triple bottom line of
Economics, Environment and Social performance. We are committed and working on various
areas for energy conservation and climate change mitigation. Their sustainability efforts have
been reported through a Corporate Sustainability Report since 2003 and this report has been
receiving GRI G3.1 A+ level & GRI Check, since 2007 from Global Reporting Initiative
(GRI). This reflects Jubilant Life Sciences commitment towards sustainable development and
continued efforts directed towards protecting the environment wherever we operate.
Corporate Social Responsibility is an integral part of how Jubilant Life Sciences conducts
business and how the efforts are directed towards community development through focus on
primary education, basic healthcare service, and livelihood generation programs focused on
improving the employability of women and local youth.
We have been recognised with several awards and recognitions, which bear testimony to our
commitment towards operational excellence, innovation, corporate governance and social
Jubilant Life Sciences is committed to leverage innovation and scale of operations at every
step of the pharmaceutical value chain to deliver value to our stakeholders.

Vision Values Promise Our Values .

we will continue to surprise our stakeholders with innovative solutions. confidence and teamwork. By sharing our knowledge and learning from each other and from the markets we serve. so that they respond to all stakeholders with agility. We stretch ourselves to be cost effective and efficient in all aspects of our operations and focus on flawless delivery to create and provide the best value to our stakeholders. train and develop our people to be creative and empower them to take decisions.We will carefully select. .

Oil and Gas. we will always strive to excel in the quality of our processes. our products and our services. Jubilant Bhartia Group Jubilant Bhartia Group is a global conglomerate encompassing a spectrum of business areas and with a strong presence across the world. Agri & Performance Polymers and Consulting Services in Aerospace and Oilfield industries.With utmost care for the environment and safety. . Food Services (QSR). The group operates in various sectors like Pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences.

Their success is an outcome of strategic focus on the pharmaceuticals and life sciences industry. Solid Dosage Formulations. Jubilant Bhartia Foundation. The Company’s strength lies in its unique offerings of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences products and services across the value chain. and other countries across the globe. This Foundation is relentlessly involved in taking initiatives aimed at empowerment of communities through focus on primary education. The Group lays emphasis on the environmental. Jubilant Life Sciences has extended its footprint beyond India in the USA. The group's promise of Caring. They also provide services in Contract Manufacturing of Sterile Injectables and Drug Discovery and Development. the group has formed an entity. The core segments of Jubilant Bhartia Group are: Pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences Jubilant Life Sciences Limited is an integrated global pharmaceutical and Life Sciences Company engaged in manufacture and supply of APIs. For a large number of global companies. through strategic expansions and acquisitions. Sharing and Growing is reflected in all its endeavours. resulting in a network of 7 world class manufacturing facilities in India and 5 in North America and a team of around 6100 people across the globe with ~ 1200 in North America and ~900 in R&D. Allergy Therapy Products and Life Science Ingredients. in order to operate within a sustainable environment and build a robust self-sustained nation. providing basic healthcare and skill development facilities and enabling employability and self-sustenance. The Company has also expanded the business by building capabilities internally. social and economic concerns. Jubilant is a trusted name and a 'partner of choice' owing to its ability to operate in an ever changing environment that presents both opportunities and challenges. moving up the pharmaceutical value chain for products and services across . Canada. Radiopharmaceuticals. Europe.Over the years.

Canada.geographies. constantly investing in various growth platforms and promoting a culture of innovation. resulting in a network of 7 world class manufacturing facilities in India and 5 in North America and a team of around 6100 people across the globe with ~ 1200 in North America and ~900 in R&D. Crop Growth and Crop Protection. SBR and NBR latex. Agri Products & Performance Polymers Jubilant Bhartia Group's presence in Agri segment has gained it the reputation of a leading producer of products for Crop Nutrition. and other countries across the globe. food polymers and latex such as vinyl pyridine. economically with speed to market. The Company has also expanded the business by building capabilities internally. Their multi-location presence helps us in getting closer to customers and serving them better with the best in class products developed most efficiently. Europe. They are well recognised as a ‘Partner of Choice’ by leading life sciences companies worldwide. is a focussed Agri and Performance Polymer Company that offers a wide range of Performance Polymers products comprising application polymers like emulsion polymers. Europe and China. Jubilant Life Sciences has extended its footprint beyond India in the USA. They are engaged in continuous improvement of products and processes to enhance the quality of production and cost competitiveness in order to build value for our customers. Consumer products like adhesives. Jubilant has relationship with 19 of Top 20 pharmaceutical companies and 7 amongst top 10 agrochemical companies across the globe. Jubilant Life Sciences is committed to leverage innovation and scale of operations at every step of the pharmaceutical value chain to deliver value to our stakeholders. wood finishes are offered by its wholly owned subsidiary company Jubilant Agri and Consumer Products Ltd (JACPL). Jubilant Life Sciences serves its customers globally with sales in over 100 countries and ground presence in India. . Jubilant Industries Limited. through strategic expansions and acquisitions. North America. Over the years.

key ones being No. Food Services (QSR) Jubilant FoodWorks Limited (JFL) was incorporated in 1995 and initiated operations in 1996. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Jubilant Energy is one of the leading companies in private sector engaged in Oil & Gas exploration and production (E&P) in India. No.The Company enjoys leadership positions in many product categories. JFL & its subsidiary operate Domino's Pizza brand with the exclusive rights for India. 2016). for developing the Dunkin'Donuts brand and operating restaurants in India. 1 in India and globally No. Jivanjor is the 2nd largest consumer brand in India in consumer adhesives category and a significant player in the Indian wood finishes market. 2016) in India. Services . with a network of 1004 stores (as of February 11. The Company also strengthened its portfolio by entering into an alliance with Dunkin' Donuts. Sri Lanka. The Company is the market leader in the chained pizza market with a 72% market share in India (as per Euro monitor report 2015). 2 for Vinyl Pyridine Latex used for automobile tyres. JFL is India's largest and fastest growing Multinational food service Company. The Company has opened 70 stores (as of February 11. Bangladesh and Nepal. 1 in India and amongst Top 2 manufactures in the world for Food Polymers. It has collaborations with leading global companies. Amongst Top 3 brands in India for Single Super Phosphate fertilizer and a significant agro nutrient player.

Mangalore. JPCPL take pride in offering enhanced motoring experience to all luxury car enthusiasts. Chennai and Pune. Power & Infrastructure services. Also represent other international aerospace companies. and Aviation related services (sales/maintenance of aircrafts & helicopters). marketing and technical support related to Oil & Gas services. through its alliances with international companies. provides business. Jubilant Enpro is also the Consultant to Transocean-offshore drilling company and also Manning and Marketing services for Tidewater Marine International etc Auto Jubilant MotorWorks is one of the largest Luxury Auto Retail Company in India. Jubilant Enpro is the sole authorized Independent Representative of Bell Helicopter in India for sales. Porsche and Maserati Cars  Audi Cars : Jubilant Motorworks holds dealership for Audi Cars and the state of the art showrooms are located in Bangalore. it is one of the world's leading premium brands which is among the most admired car brands across the world.  Maserati Cars : . engaged in sales and servicing of Audi. Audi Cars have been well recognised globally as a manufacturer of high-quality and innovative luxury cars. the showroom is designed to keep the customer satisfaction right at the focus.Jubilant Enpro. marketing and customer support.  Porsche Cars : Jubilant MotorWorks through Jubilant Performance Cars (JPCPL) holds dealership for Porsche cars in Mumbai to cater to Maharashtra. With a wide range of Porsche cars to offer.

ready-to-cook vegetable combo packs. With prime focus on food safety and hygiene along with innovative packaging and a value-driven approach. . offering an extensive range of fresh produce. canned products and ready-to-eat fresh meals & snacks. The state-of-the-art showroom located in Bengaluru is in line with Maserati global standards. through Jubilant AutoWorks holds dealership for Maserati cars in Bengaluru to cater to south India. traceability. tradition and sporting success. it has grown to become one of the leading suppliers of fresh and high quality food products customised to the needs of customers. equipped with modern facilities Food Jubilant Consumer Private Limited (JCPL) has been set up to promote sales of ready-to-use fresh vegetables and gourmet salads under the brand name Jubilant Fresh. In a short span of three years. timely services and SOP-driven delivery practices have given Jubilant a competitive advantage. Stringent quality checks.Jubilant MotorWorks. Jubilant Fresh has become a preferred business partner for its clients. Maserati is one of the most fascinating car production companies with a long history of appeal. Jubilant Fresh has gained trust in the food industry. Since its inception in 2013.

Environment. Jubilant Life Sciences believes that addressing the challenges of the future rests on the Triple bottom line of Sustainability.Sustainability Goals “Sustainability is the investment for the future. To further augment our Promise. is the essence of all our activities that are directed towards sustainable growth. This Sustainability Committee . Growing along with our stakeholders. At Jubilant Life Sciences. This committee is responsible for monitoring the progress on triple bottom line parameters (Economic. and Social parameters). Sharing.” Sustainability is at the core of our business. Occupational Health & Safety Policy  Green Supply Chain Policy  Business Code of Conduct  Whistle-blower Policy  Quality Policy  Responsible Care Policy Jubilant Life Sciences has also constituted a Sustainability Committee at Board Level. We understand that long term sustainability can be achieved by reducing environmental footprint and increasing economic as well as community development footprint. we uncompromisingly adopt an approach which defines sustainability as ’Business as usual‘ Our promise of Caring. the following policies have been framed and implemented:  Sustainability Policy  Climate Change Mitigation Policy  Environment.

We have deployed dedicated sustainability teams. economic. We have dedicated our efforts to create greater environmental and social awareness amongst our suppliers. With this in mind. the supply chain division conducts regular vendors audit and requires the vendors to fill a self-declaration form including human rights aspects. we adopt policies that are formulated to meet their needs. monitoring and communication regarding Jubilant’s sustainability performance. we ensure workplace safety of our employees and it is of prime importance to us to continuously harness to adopt best available safety systems at our manufacturing facilities. adopt zero tolerance against child labour. develop long-term partnerships and reduce GHG emissions throughout the supply chain. The promise of Caring. At Jubilant Life Science. As a responsible and employee friendly organisation. This helps us to ensure resource optimisation across the value chain. ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. We practice strict compliance to statutory requirement related to employee safety concerns and there are policies and systems devised with an objective of protecting human rights at workplace for all our employees. our vision towards acquiring and maintaining global leadership can never be achieved. for continuous review. Sharing. Growing is an integral part of all that we do at Jubilant Life Sciences. We believe that without a sustainable supply chain base. and social indicators on half yearly basis. at our corporate office as well as our manufacturing facilities. we aim to manufacture products for our customers through optimized utilisation of resources to minimise effect on environment. Our Human Resource . as we are aware of the threats of changing climate. In order to make our green supply chain policy more effective. Majority of the units at Jubilant Life Sciences are ISO 9001. Jubilant Life Sciences formulated Green Supply Chain Policy in 2010. We also have state-ofthe-art environment protection equipment at all our manufacturing facilities. our people are our assets and their welfare is our responsibility.comprises of Independent and Executive Directors and it is focussed at ensuring and evaluating the Company’s sustainability performance covering environment. We strive to reduce our carbon footprint through several energy consumption reduction initiatives and by the use of different renewable energy sources. We respect & encourage talent and in our endeavour to bring out the best in our employees. At Jubilant Life Sciences.

We do not support any sort of discrimination based on gender. We practice to procure material from trustworthy vendors who do not violate human rights and standards as stipulated. we direct our efforts towards betterment of children by supporting the cause for eradication of child labour. and recognises United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights. and we have our operations in various locations across India & North America. We have adopted policies covering key aspects of human rights like Child Labour. We respect the dignity of labour and discourage all forms of forced & compulsory labour. Equal remuneration is offered to men or women for the same nature of work. Non Discrimination and others.department and Ombudsman’s office takes care of the employee/labour relationship issues while the EHS department ensures safe and healthy work environment. We have a welldefined grievance identification and redressal mechanism in place for human rights violation . The employees have a right to join associations of their own choice or to refrain from joining one. We make sure to add this clause in the contract agreement of our Company. On the other hand. religion or any other factor. unless otherwise prohibited/ necessitated by law. Forced & Compulsory Labour. based on which the suppliers are audited. Jubilant life Sciences is a diverse organisation. Child Labour is strictly against our company policy. are transparent and voluntary. We embrace the local culture and heritage at the respective regions. Jubilant Life Sciences aims at the protection of human rights through implementation of ethical policies and compliance to country regulation on human rights. the supply chain department also requires the vendors to fill a selfdeclaration form including human rights aspects. At Jubilant. Jubilant Life Sciences is a signatory to UN Global Compact (UNGC). Jubilant Life Sciences is a signatory to the CII Code of Conduct on Affirmative Action that reconfirms our commitment to equal employment opportunity for all sections of society. Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining is respected. We respect the right of our employees to form an association in accordance with the local laws applicable. We also encourage our Suppliers to work towards a no child-labour policy and require them to fill a self-evaluation form which delineates prohibition of Child Labour. The terms of employment at Jubilant. cast. creed. colour. The HR Department verifies the age of every new employee by demanding a proof of age.

Jubilant is an Organisational Stakeholder of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). executed by WWF and CII in India. environmental & social performance through our Sustainability Report. Jubilant Life Sciences also ensures to report community & social initiatives in line with United National Millennium Development Goals. In the year 2013. Sustainability Reports are released annually in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Guidelines and are externally assured by Ernst & Young. since 2007  Carbon Disclosure Project Reporting Greenhouse Gas emissions with world’s largest climate change database representing 722 Financial Institutions Investor Signatories Jubilant Life Science is one of the few companies in India disclosing GHG emissions and taking voluntary reduction initiatives. CDP today holds the largest database of primary corporate climate change information in the world.cases that affects our stakeholders.  Sustainability Reporting As per Global Reporting Initiative Guidelines At Jubilant Life Science. an international not for profit organisation which sets guidelines for sustainability reporting.1 A+ level & GRI Check. we ensure transparency and accountability of our practices. We have been able to do so by participating in the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). we also started voluntary reporting of sustainability performance in line with National Voluntary Guideline (NVG). Our Sustainability Reports are as per GRI G3. Jubilant held . Ombudsman office and whistle blower policy sets the basis of employee grievance redressal system. Since then. We present our values and disclose our economic. We published our first Corporate Sustainability Report in the year 2003.

Through our support to the UNGC. is a signatory to Responsible Care. Since 2010. owing to our integrated climate change initiatives and potential risks – opportunities related to climate change. Jubilant became a member of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) with the aim of internalising the ten Global Compact Principles in the areas of human rights.  Responsible care Signatory to Responsible Care initiative of Indian Chemical Council Jubilant Life Science. We achieved this position. 2010 with Carbon Disclosures Leadership Index (CDLI) Score 77. into our business. environment and anti-corruption within the Company’s strategies. we also aim to undertake projects to advance the broader development goals of the United Nations particularly the Millennium Development Goals.the 2nd position in Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). policies and operations. an initiative of global chemical industry that drives continuous improvement in health. we are submitting our communication on Progress (COP) every year and our communications are available at UNGC website. safety and environmental (HSE) . 'Jubilant has been reporting to Carbon Disclosure Project since. labour. 2010'  UN Global Compact Signatory to United Nations Global Compact In the year 2010.

 Millennium Development Goals Signatory to United Nations Millennium Development Goals Our community initiatives are aligned to focus on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The improvement initiatives are taken together with open and transparent communication with stakeholders. We submit annual report against Key Performance Indicators (KPI) to Indian Chemical Council (ICC) including our key sustainability performance data. malaria and other diseases  Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability  Goal 8: Global Partnership for Development .  Goal 1: Eradicate Poverty and Hunger  Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education  Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women  Goal 4 &5: Reduce Child Mortality & Improve Maternal Health  Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS.performance.


Process Block Diagram .


an active antimicrobial ingredient in anti-dandruff shampoos and used in variety of other industrial applications such as paints. with or without formaldehyde. sealants.choloropyridine. caulks. a basic organic chemical. Pyridine Pyridine. . is a major agriculture chemical derived from pyridine. grouts and patching compounds. ether and benzene. The most common synthetic processes for production of pyridines involve vapor-phase fluid bed reactions of acetaldehyde and ammonia. which goes into manufacturing of Zinc pyrithione. It is completely soluble in water. adhesives. is a versatile building block and excellent solvent in agrochemical. Producers can use the same equipment and catalysts to produce the mix of pyridine/beta-picoline or alphapicoline/gamma-picoline mixtures by selecting raw materials. a non-selective contact herbicide. alcohol. Changing catalysts and reaction conditions influences the ratio of products formed. Initially Pyridines were isolated from coal tars from coking operations. Synthetic processes account for the majority of world production of pyridines. 2-choloropyridine: Pyridine goes into manufacturing of 2.PRODUCTS 1. Piperidine: Piperidine is produced via hydrogenation of Pyridine. Currently. Applications Agricultural Chemicals: Paraquat. pharmaceutical and other industries. It acts as a scavenger and can catalyze reactions. Major application of Piperidine is for production of Dipentamethylene thiuram tetrasulfide(DPTT).

alcohol. It is completely soluble in water. also called 3-Picoline or 3-Methylpyridine. Alpha Picoline Alpha Picoline.Vinylpyridine monomer (2 VP). Alcohol and Ether. It acts as a scavenger and can catalyze reaction. 2. is a clear organic liquid. Applications • The largest application of Alpha Picoline is 2. . which is used in the manufacturing of VP Latex • Other application of Alpha Picoline is in the manufacturing of agrochemicals: Picloram and Nitrapyrin • Alpha Picoline is also the raw material for 2-Cyanopyridine • It is also used in the pharmaceuticals industry 3. also called 2-Picoline or 2-Methylpyridine. ether and benzene. is a clear organic liquid. Beta Picoline Beta Picoline. Alcohol and Ether.Solvent and other: Pyridine is used as a synthetic intermediate and a solvent in a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. It is completely soluble in Water. It is completely soluble in Water.

Gamma Picoline Gamma Picoline. Applications • Gamma Picoline finds application in the manufacturing of several catalysts such as DMAP and the drug INH & other pharmaceuticals • Gamma Picoline is used in the manufacturing of 4. agrochemicals & fine chemicals . Applications • 2-Cyanopyridine finds applications in pharmaceuticals.Applications • The largest application of Beta Picoline is in the manufacturing of Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide) • Beta Picoline is a significant intermediate for agrochemicals like Chlorpyrifos. Haloxyfop and Fluazifop Butyl • Also used in pharmaceutical intermediates REACH Status: Registered as Full Phase in and Transported Isolated Intermediate (TII) 4. It is completely soluble in Water. also called 4-Picoline or 4-Methylpyridine.Vinylpyridine (4 VP) • Gamma Picoline is also the raw material for 4-Cyanopyridine REACH Status: Preregistered 5. It is derived from Alpha Picoline. Alcohol and Ether. is a clear organic liquid. 2-Cyanopyridine 2-Cyanopyridine is a white to off-white solid at room temperature with almond like odour.

2 Chloro Nicotinic Acid. 3-Cyanopyridine 3-Cyanopyridine is a white crystalline solid and used to manufacture 3 substituted Pyridine derivatives and Industrial intermediates. pharmaceuticals & agrochemicals 7.• 2-Cyanopyridine is converted to Chromium and Zinc Picolinate for use in human and animal nutrition 6. Applications • 3-Cyanopyridine is used in the manufacturing of Niacinamide & Niacin (Vitamin B3) • Other major application areas of 3-Cyanopyridine are: Pymetrizone. and 3-Aminomethylpyridine. It is derived from Gamma Picoline. Applications • 4-Cyanopyridine finds applications in the manufacturing of the drug INH Isoniazid and other pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals . 4-Cyanopyridine 4-Cyanopyridine is a white to off-white solid at room temperature.

Applications • The major application of Piperidine is for the production of Dipiperidinyl Dithium Tetrasulfide. derived by the hydrogenation of Pyridine. Dipyridamoil and Minidoxil . which is used as a rubber vulcanisation accelerator • Piperidine is also used as a solvent and base in agrochemical and pharmaceutical industries for Mepiquat Chloride.8. Piperidine Piperidine is a colourless fuming liquid.


. in spite of the variety. There is a wide variety of heat exchangers for diverse kinds of uses. However. There are heat exchangers in our automobiles in the form of radiators and oil coolers. Boilers and condensers in thermal power plants are examples of large industrial heat exchangers. We will consider only the more common types here for discussing some analysis and design methodologies. The most common application of heat transfer is in designing of heat transfer equipment for exchanging heat from one fluid to another fluid. hence the construction also would differ widely. Heat exchangers are also abundant in chemical and process industries. Typical heat exchangers experienced by us in our daily lives include condensers and evaporators used in air conditioning units and refrigerators. Classification of heat exchangers Transfer of heat from one fluid to another is an important operation for most of the chemical industries. most heat exchangers can be classified into some common types based on some fundamental design concepts. Heat exchangers are normally classified depending on the transfer process occurring in them. Such devices for efficient transfer of heat are generally called Heat Exchanger.Heat Exchangers Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat energy from one fluid to another. General classification of heat exchangers is shown in the Figure 1.

The tubes can expand freely towards the “U” bend end. This type of exchanger is shown in Figure 3.1. the tubes may expand into a freely riding floating-head or floating tube sheet. TEMA 3-digit codes specify the types of front-end. TEMA (USA) and IS: 4503-1967 (India) standards provide the guidelines for the mechanical design of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers. shell. U-tube exchanger: This type of exchangers consists of tubes which are bent in the form of a “U” and rolled back into the tube sheet shown in the Figure 4. . In this type of exchangers the tube sheet is welded to the shell and no relative movement between the shell and tube bundle is possible (Figure 2). shell and tube exchangers are most commonly used heat exchange equipment.Figure 1 Amongst of all type of exchangers. Removable tube bundle exchangers further can be categorized in floating head and U-tube exchanger.1. and rear-end of shell and tube exchangers. This means that it will omit some tubes at the centre of the tube bundle depending on the tube arrangement. Removable tube bundle: Tube bundle may be removed for ease of cleaning and replacement. At the opposite end of the bundle. The different operational and constructional advantages and limitations depending on applications of shell and tube exchangers are summarized in Table 1. The common types of shell and tube exchangers are: Fixed tube-sheet exchanger (non-removable tube bundle): The simplest and cheapest type of shell and tube exchanger is with fixed tube sheet design.  Floating-head exchanger: It consists of a stationery tube sheet which is clamped with the shell flange. As shown in the Table 1. A floating head cover is bolted to the tube sheet and the entire bundle can be removed for cleaning and inspection of  the interior.

Removable U-tube heat exchanger [1].Fig ure 2. Fi gure 4. Fixed-tube heat exchanger ([1]). . Floating-head heat exchanger (non-pull through type) [1]. Fi gure 3.

Weir 30. Energy is transferred along the length from the hot to the cold fluid so the outlet temperatures asymptotically approach each other. Drain connection 25. Lifting lungs 29. Shell 2. Parallel and counter flow provide alternative arrangements for certain specialized applications. Floating head cover 8. Channel or stationary head 13. Channel nozzle or branch 15. Floating head backing ring 11. Tube(straight) 16. Temperatures within the two streams tend to approach one another in a nearly linearly fashion resulting in a much more uniform heating pattern. Pass partition 23. Tubes 17. Stationary tube sheet 12. 1.Typical parts and connections shown in Figures 2. consequently. lead toward relatively uniform heat rates throughout the length of the unit. Shown below the heat exchangers are representations of the axial temperature profiles for each. Floating tube sheet 7. In a counter flow arrangement. Floating head flange 9. Expansion bellows 27. Vent connection 24. Support saddles 28. The corresponding curves of parallel and counter current flow are shown in Figure 6.Shell flange(channel end) 4. Counter flow (Figure 5) provides for relatively uniform temperature differences and. Instrument connection 26. Longitudinal baffles 20. Shell nozzle or branch 6. This leads to higher energy loss during heat exchange. Channel cover 14. Impingement baffles 21. 3 and 4 (IS: 4503-1967) are summarized below. the two streams enter at opposite ends of the heat exchanger and flow in parallel but opposite directions. In parallel flow both the hot and cold streams enter the heat exchanger at the same end and travel to the opposite end in parallel streams. Tie rods or spacers 18. Floating head support 22. Floating head gland 10. Liquid level connection Basic Heat Exchanger Flow Arrangements Two basic flow arrangements are as shown in Figure 7. Shell flange(cover end) 5.2. but heat transfer rates rapidly decrease as the temperatures of the two streams approach one another. Parallel flow results in rapid initial rates of heat exchange near the entrance. Transverse baffles or support plates 19. Shell cover 3. .

tube layout. tube length and diameter. Plots of Parallel and Counter Flow Thermal design considerations Thermal design of a shell and tube heat exchanger typically includes the determination of heat transfer area. number of tubes. number of shell .Figure 5. Parallel and Counter flow Figure 6.

bronze and alloys of copper-nickel are the commonly used tube materials. .and tube passes. its type and size. Shell of heat exchanger 2. 8. Stainless steel. 16. The tube thickness is expressed in terms of BWG (Birmingham Wire Gauge) and true outside diameter (OD). removable tube bundle etc). 12. page 647). type of heat exchanger (fixed tube sheet. number of baffles. 20 and 24 ft are preferably used. Tube Tube OD of ¾ and 1‟‟ are very common to design a compact heat exchanger. Shell diameter should be selected in such a way to give a close fit of the tube bundle. The tube length of 6. copper. The clearance between the tube bundle and inner shell wall depends on the type of exchanger ([2]. Shell Shell is the container for the shell fluid and the tube bundle is placed inside the shell. The shell thickness of 3/8 inch for the shell ID of 12-24 inch can be satisfactorily used up to 300 psi of operating pressure. Longer tube reduces shell diameter at the expense of higher shell pressure drop. The most efficient condition for heat transfer is to have the maximum number of tubes in the shell to increase turbulence. Figure 7. tube pitch. admiralty brass. Shells are usually fabricated from standard steel pipe with satisfactory corrosion allowance. shell and tube side pressure drop etc. 1. The tube thickness should be enough to withstand the internal pressure along with the adequate corrosion allowance. Finned tubes are also used when fluid with low heat transfer coefficient flows in the shell side.

tube layout. OD of tube. The widely used tube layouts are illustrated in Table 1. Various types of tube pitch 4. Figure 9.2. type of heat exchanger and design pressure. The tube count depends on the factors like shell ID. Tube pitch. The number of tubes that can be accommodated in a given shell ID is called tube count. tube-layout and tube-count Tube pitch is the shortest centre to centre distance between the adjacent tubes. number of tube passes. The tubes are generally placed in square or triangular patterns (pitch) as shown in the Figure 9.Figure 8. Tubes inside heat exchanger 3. tube pitch. Tube passes .

The tubes can be fixed with the tube sheet using ferrule and a soft metal packing ring. Figure 10. Various shell and tube passes are shown in Figure 10.The number of passes is chosen to get the required tube side fluid velocity to obtain greater heat transfer co-efficient and also to reduce scale formation. The tube passes of 1. The tubes are attached to tube sheet with two or more grooves in the tube sheet wall by “tube rolling”. The tube sheet thickness should be greater than the tube outside diameter to make a good seal. The recommended standards (IS:4503 or TEMA) should be followed to select the minimum tube sheet thickness. This is the most common type of fixing arrangement in large industrial exchangers. The partition built into exchanger head known as partition plate (also called pass partition) is used to direct the tube side flow. Tube sheet The tubes are fixed with tube sheet (Figure 11) that forms the barrier between the tube and shell fluids. The tube metal is forced to move into the grooves forming an excellent tight seal. . 2 and 4 are common in application. Types of shell and tube passes 5. The tube passes vary from 1 to 16.

The baffle spacing of 0. Closer baffle spacing gives greater transfer co-efficient by inducing higher turbulence. The pressure drop is more with closer baffle spacing.2 to 1 times of the inside shell diameter is commonly used. The distance between adjacent baffles is called bafflespacing. Baffles Baffles are used to increase the fluid velocity by diverting the flow across the tube bundle to obtain higher transfer co-efficient.Figure 11. Tube Sheet 6. Schematic of baffles in a heat exchanger . The various types of baffles are shown in Figure 12. Figure 12. Baffles are held in positioned by means of baffle spacers.

a segment (called baffle cut) is removed to form the baffle expressed as a percentage of the baffle diameter. Fouling can be caused by a variety of reasons and may significantly affect heat exchanger performance. shows segmental baffles. and Li2CO3. Mg(OH)2. . Figure 13. MgSiO3. Fouling Material deposits on the surfaces of the heat exchanger tubes may add more thermal resistances to heat transfer. Baffle cuts from 15 to 45% are normally used. CaSO4. Such deposits. Ca(OH)2. A baffle cut of 20 to 25% provide a good heat-transfer with the reasonable pressure drop. CaSiO3.In case of cut-segmental baffle. The % cut for segmental baffle refers to the cut away height from its diameter. Fouling can be caused by the following sources: 1) Scaling is the most common form of fouling and is associated with inverse solubility salts. Figure 13. LiSO4. It is shown in Figure 14. which are detrimental to the heat exchange process. Segmental Baffles 7. are known as fouling. Examples of such salts are CaCO3. Na2SO4. Ca3(PO4)2.

obstructing both flow and heat transfer. 3) Chemical reaction fouling involves chemical reactions in the process stream which results in deposition of material on the heat exchanger tubes. 5) Biological fouling is common where untreated water from natural resources such as rivers and lakes is used as a coolant. When such particles accumulate on a heat exchanger surface they sometimes fuse and harden. . 4) Freezing fouling is occurs when a portion of the hot stream is cooled to near the freezing point for one of its components. This commonly occurs in refineries where paraffin frequently solidifies from petroleum products at various stages in the refining process.. This commonly occurs in food processing industries. Biological microorganisms such as algae or other microbes can grow inside the heat exchanger and hinder heat transfer. Fouling in Heat Exchangers 2) Corrosion fouling is caused by chemical reaction of some fluid constituents with the heat exchanger tube material.Figure 14. 6) Particulate fouling results from the presence of micro scale sized particles in solution. Like scale these deposits are difficult to remove.

as pressure drop is more affected  by leakage and bypassing than heat transfer The method does not take account of the bypass and leakage streams Steps involved in designing of heat exchanger are: Step 1. Density 3. Various thermo-physical properties of fluid Thermo-physical Properties 1. Obtain the required thermo-physical properties of hot and cold fluids at the caloric temperature or arithmetic mean temperature. These properties are shown in Table 1. Thermal conductivity . Viscosity 4. Heat capacity 2. Calculate these properties at the caloric temperature if the variation of viscosity with temperature is large. Table1.Steps for designing of Shell and Tube heat exchanger Introduction to Kern’s method Kern’s was based on experimental work on commercial exchanger Advantages  Giving reasonably satisfactory prediction of the heat-transfer coefficient for standard    design Simple to apply Accurate enough for preliminary design calculations Accurate enough for designs when uncertainty in other design parameter is such that the use of more elaborate method is not justified Disadvantage  The prediction of pressure drop is less satisfactory.

Step 2.assm). . Assume a reasonable value of overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo. Q = mh*cph* ΔT=mc*cpc* Δt mh= mass flow rate of hot fluid mc= mass flow rate of cold fluid cph= heat capacity of hot fluid cpc= heat capacity of cold fluid ΔT= temperature difference in hot fluid Δt= temperature difference in cold fluid T1 t2 T2 t1 LMTD= [(T1-t2)-(T2-t1)] / ln[(T1-t2)/(T2-t1)] Step 3. Perform energy balance and find out the heat duty (Q) of the exchanger.

Table 2. Values of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in Heat Exchangers .

Various Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients .Figure 15.

75 for the steady operation of the exchangers. Figure16.Step 4. Otherwise it is required to increase the number of passes to obtain higher F T values. FT normally should be greater than 0. Determine the LMTD and the correction factor FT. Decide tentative number of shell and tube passes (n p). Plot to find the value of correction factor (F T) .

However. Step 7. fix np so that. Tube pitch values for different number of passes .Step 5. decide the tube diameter (ID= di and OD = do). Select the tube pitch (PT). density and viscosity of tube side fluid. Re= [4m*(np/nt)]/(πdiµ) Where. determine inside shell diameter (Ds) that can accommodate the calculated number of tubes (nT) Use the standard tube counts table for this purpose. this is subject to allowable pressure drop in the tube side of the heat exchanger. Select tube material. Decide type of shell and tube exchanger (fixed tube sheet. its wall thickness (in terms of BWG or SWG) and tube length ( L ).). Table 3. U-tube etc. m. Calculate the number of tubes (n t) required to provide the heat transfer area (A) nt = A/( *do*L) Calculate tube side fluid velocity: u= [4m*(np /nt)]/ πρdi2 If u< 1m/s.  and  are mass flow rate. Calculate heat transfer area (A) required: A=Q/ (U* LMTD*FT) Step 6.

Table 4. Values of ID and OD of tubes for square pitch .

Table 5. Values of ID and OD of tubes for triangular pitch .

its size (i. The baffle spacing is usually chosen to be within 0. Assign fluid to shell side or tube side (a general guideline for placing the fluids is summarized in Table 5). 25% baffles are widely used). Determine the tube side film heat transfer coefficient (hi) using the suitable form of Sieder-Tate equation in laminar and turbulent flow regimes. percentage cut.8*Pr1/3 .027*Re0. doughnut etc. Guidelines for placing fluids in shell and tube side Step 10. For Laminar flow Nu= 1. spacing (B) and number. Select the type of baffle (segmental. Table 5.).2 Ds to Ds.86 (Re*Pr*ID/L)1/3 For Turbulent flow Nu= 0.Step 9.e.

14 You may consider: /w 1 .Estimate the shell-side film heat transfer coefficient (ho) from: Jh= (ho*De/k)(c*/k)-1/3 (/w)-0.

Figure 17. Heat transfer factor for tube side .

Figure 18. Friction factor for shell side . Heat transfer factor for shell side Figure 19.


Figure 20. Friction factor for shell side .

go the next Step 12.ass< 30%. If the calculated shell side heat transfer coefficient (h o) is too low. calculate heat transfer area (A) required using Uo.cal1=[(1/ho)+Rdo+(A0/Ai(do-di/2kw)) +(Ao/Ai(1/hi))+((Ao/Ai)*Rdi)]-1 Step . Overdesign represents extra surface area provided beyond that required to compensate for based on the outside tube area (you may neglect the tube-wall resistance) including dirt factors: Uo. – % Overdesign =(A-Areq )/Areq . and repeat the calculations starting from Step 5. Otherwise go to Step 5. Step 12.ass )/ – Uo.2 Ds and recalculate shell side heat transfer coefficient. However. this is subject to allowable pressure drop across the heat exchanger.Select the outside tube (shell side) dirt factor (Rdo) and inside tube (tube side) dirt factor (Rdi). If 0<( Uo. Typical value of 10% or less is acceptable. Calculate % overdesign. Values of dirt factor for various fluids Calculate overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo. assume closer baffle spacing (B) close to 0. Table 5.

Step 13. decrease the number of tube passes or increase number of tubes per pass. Total shell side pressure drop: PS = Ps+ Prs . Areq = required heat transfer area. If the tube-side pressure drop exceeds the allowable pressure drop for the process system. Calculate the tube-side pressure drop (PT): (i) pressure drop in the straight section of the tube (frictional loss) (Pt) and (ii) return loss (Prt) due to change of direction of fluid in a “multi-pass exchanger”.A = design area of heat transfer in the exchanger. Total tube side pressure drop: PT = Pt + Prt . Go back to step 6 and repeat the calculations steps. Step 14. If the shell-side pressure drop exceeds the allowable If the shell-side pressure drop exceeds the allowable pressure drop. go back to step 7 and repeat the calculations steps . Calculate shell side pressure drop (PS ): (i) pressure drop for flow across the tube bundle (frictional loss) (Ps) and (ii) return loss (Prs) due to change of direction of fluid.

3rd edn (Gulf). Vol. 7th edn (McGrawHill). On the coefficient of heat transfer fromthe internal surfaces of tube walls. PERRY. 5. E. A. and FERGUSON. 127. EAGLE. D. 2. LUDWIG. 540.. GREEN. R. 4. D. (1930) Proc. A. E. M. and MALONEY.References 1. (1988) Heat Exchangers . 3. D. Richardson and Coulson. (2001) Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petroleum Plants. SAUNDERS. (1950) Process Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill). Chemical Engineering Volume 6 6. Roy. 3. Q. R. E. Soc. (1997) Perry’s Chemical Engineers Handbook. KERN. O. H. J.W. A.

It was successfully designed and we get more area than the actual one and hence there is need to reduce the flow rates so as to get minimum pressure drop. Kern’s method was employed to design the shell and tube heat exchanger and numerous iterations were performed to obtain the correct and desired result. The purpose of understanding the production process of pyridine and beta-picoline. and main objective was to calculate area to process the liquid with given flow rates with pressure drop in given limits.Conclusion During the summer internship at Jubilant Life Sciences. The process of waste incineration. problems encountered of the various equipment used in the industry which enhanced my practical knowledge in the field of chemical engineering and will surely help me in my future endeavours. was also included in this part of the project. fundamental principles. reaction section. and that of recognizing the major section of raw material storage. distillation section. utilities section etc. The second part was designing of a heat exchanger (ammonia preheater). . Firstly all the concepts are thoroughly revised before designing of heat exchanger. was fulfilled and I assimilated the knowledge of plant layout and working. which is of great importance. which is used in ammonia recovery process. The heat exchanger used was of shell and tube type. the key objective of getting a firsthand experience of chemical plant was successfully accomplished. I understood the working.

Calculations of Ammonia Preheater .