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LTE Basic Principle

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Target

Participant
Participant
Participant
Participant

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know about LTE background Technology


know about LTE Networks Architecture
know about LTE Basic of Physical and Layer 2
know about LTE Air Interface

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Content

Chapter 1 : LTE Protocol and Network Architecture Introduction


Chapter 2 : OFDM Introduction
Chapter 3 : LTE Pyhsical Layer and Structure Introduction
Chapter 4 : LTE Layer 2 Structure
Chapter 5 : LTE Key Technology Introduction

Page 3

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Cellular Evolution

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What is new in LTE?


- New radio transmission schemes: New network architecture: flat
architecture
- OFDMA in downlink
More functionality in the base
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access
- SC-FDMA in uplink
Single Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Access
- MIMO Multiple Antenna Technology

- New radio protocol architecture:


- Complexity reduction
- Focus on shared channel operation, no
dedicated channels anymore

station (eNodeB)
Focus on packet switched domain

Important for Radio Planning


Frequency Reuse 1

No need for Frequency Planning


Importance of interference control
No need to define neighbour lists
in LTE
LTE requires Physical Layer Cell
Identity planning (504 physical
layer cell IDs organised into 168
groups of 3)

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3GPP UMTS Evolution

LTE is the next step in mobile radio communications after HSPA


Evolution driven by data rate and latency requirements

WCDMA

HSDPA/HSUPA

HSPA +

384 kbps DL

14.4 Mbps peak DL 28 Mbps peak DL

100 Mbps peak DL

384 kbps UL

5.7 Mbps peak UL

50 Mbps peak UL

11 Mbps peak UL

EUTRA

RTT ~150 ms RTT <100/50 ms

RTT < 30 ms (2ms TTI) RTT ~10 ms

CS/PS

PS

PS

UTRA evolution: WCDMA 5MHz

PS
UTRA Long Term Evolution:
up to 20 MHz BW

E-UTRA: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access


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Main LTE Requirements [3GPP TS25.913]

Peak data rates of uplink/downlink 50/100 Mbps


Reduced Latency:
- Enables round trip time <10 ms
Ensure good level of mobility and security
- Optimized for low mobile speed but also support high mobile speed
Frequency flexibility and bandwidth scalability:
with 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz allocations
Improved Spectrum Efficiency:
- Capacity 2-4 times higher than with Release 6 HSPA
Efficient support of the various types of services, especially from the PS
domain
- Packet switched optimized
Operation in FDD and TDD modes
Improved terminal power efficiency
Support for inter-working with existing 3G system and non-3GPP specified
systems

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LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) in 3GPP Release 10

LTE- Advanced will be the main feature or 3GPP Release 10


Formally submitted on the 7th October 2009 to the ITU for admission as a
candidate for IMT-Advanced (IMT-A)
DL Spectral efficiency 2.4 bps/Hz/cell (1.7 bps/Hz/cell in LTE)
Downlink data rates up to 1 Gbps (low mobility) and 100 Mbps (high
mobility)
Uplink data rates up to 500Mbps
Reduced Latency
Uplink MIMO (2Tx antennas in UE) and further DL MIMO (up to 8x8) is
under study
Backwards compatibility and interworking with LTE and other 3GPP
legacy systems
First LTE-A networks expected +2014
Support for wider bandwidth (up to
100MHz) by carrier aggregation
More info 3GPP TS36.814

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4G LTE Network

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Network Architecture Evolution


HSPA

Direct tunnel

I-HSPA

LTE

HSPA R6

HSPA R7

HSPA R7

LTE R8

GGSN

GGSN

GGSN

SGSN
RNC
Node B
(NB)

SGSN

SGSN

S- GW + P-GW

MME

RNC
Node B
(NB)

Node B +
RNC
Functionality

- Flat architecture: single network element in user


plane in radio network and core network
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Evolved
Node B
(eNB)

User plane
Control Plane

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LTE Network Architecture


Main Network Element of LTE

Compare with traditional 3G network, LTE


architecture becomes much more simple
- The E-UTRAN consists of e-NodeBs, providing the user
and flat, which can lead to lower
plane and control plane.
networking cost, higher networking
- The EPC consists of MME, S-GW and P-GW.
flexibility and shorter time delay of user

Network Interface of LTE


data and control signaling.

The e-NodeBs are interconnected with each other by means of the X2 interface, which enabling
direct transmission of data and signaling.

S1 is the interface between e-NodeBs and the EPC, more specifically to the MME via the S1-MME
and to the S-GW via the S1-U

RRC: Radio Resource Control


PDCP: Packet Data Convergence
Protocol
RLC: Radio Link Control
MAC: Medium Access Control
PHY: Physical layer
EPC: Evolved Packet Core
MME: Mobility Management Entity
S-GW: Serving Gateway
P-GW: PDN Gateway

eNB
Inter Cell RRM
RB Control
Connection Mobility Cont.
MME

MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

Radio Admission Control


NAS Security
eNB Measurement
Configuration & Provision
Idle State Mobility
Handling

S1

S1

Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)

EPS Bearer Control

S1

S1

RRC
PDCP

X2

S-GW

E-UTRAN
eNB

eNB

X2

X2

P-GW

RLC
Mobility
Anchoring

MAC

UE IP address
allocation

S1
PHY

Packet Filtering
internet

eNB

Page 11

E-UTRAN

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LTE Network Element Function

e-Node hosts the following functions:

Functions for Radio Resource Management: Radio


Bearer Control, Radio Admission Control, Connection
Mobility Control, Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs
in both uplink and downlink (scheduling);
IP header compression and encryption of user data
stream;
Selection of an MME at UE attachment;
Routing of User Plane data towards Serving Gateway;
Scheduling and transmission of paging and broadcast
messages (originated from the MME);
Measurement and measurement reporting configuration
for mobility and scheduling;

Inter Cell RRM


RB Control
Connection Mobility Cont.
MME
Radio Admission Control
NAS Security
eNB Measurement
Configuration & Provision

NAS signaling and security;


AS Security control;
Idle state mobility handling;
EPS (Evolved Packet System) bearer control;
Support paging, handover, roaming and authentication.

EPS Bearer Control


RRC
PDCP
S-GW

P-GW

RLC
Mobility
Anchoring

MAC

UE IP address
allocation

S1
PHY

Packet Filtering
internet

E-UTRAN

P-GW (PDN Gateway) hosts the following functions:

Idle State Mobility


Handling

Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)

MME (Mobility Management Entity) hosts the


following functions:

eNB

EPC

S-GW (Serving Gateway) hosts the following


functions:

Packet routing and forwarding; Local mobility anchor point

Per-user based packet filtering; UE IP address allocation; UL

for handover; Lawful interception; UL and DL charging per

and DL service level charging, gating and rate enforcement;

UE, PDN, and QCI; Accounting on user and QCI granularity

for inter-operator charging.

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Introduction of LTE Radio Protocol


Stack
Two Planes in LTE Radio Protocol:

- User-plane: For user data transfer

Main Functions of Control-plane:

- Control-plane: For system signaling

transfer

Main Functions of User-plane:


- Header Compression

- Ciphering

- Scheduling
- ARQ/HARQ
User-plane protocol stack
UE

Page 13

eNB

RLC and MAC layers perform the same functions


as for the user plane
PDCP layer performs ciphering and integrity
protection
RRC layer performs broadcast, paging, connection
management, RB control, mobility functions, UE
measurement reporting and control
NAS layer performs EPS bearer management,
authentication, security control
Control-plane protocol stack

UE

eNB

MME

NAS

NAS

RRC

RRC

PDCP

PDCP

PDCP

PDCP

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

MAC

MAC

PHY

PHY

PHY

PHY

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Radio Frame Structure (1)

Radio Frame Structures Supported by LTE:

Type 1, applicable to FDD

Type 2, applicable to TDD

FDD Radio Frame Structure:

LTE applies OFDM technology, with subcarrier spacing f=15kHz and 2048order IFFT. The time unit in frame structure is Ts=1/(2048* 15000) second
FDD radio frame is 10ms shown as below, divided into 20 slots which are
0.5ms. One slot consists of 7 consecutive OFDM Symbols under Normal CP
configuration
One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms
One slot, Tslot = 15360Ts = 0.5 ms

#0

#1

One subframe

#2

#3

#18

#19

FDD Radio Frame Structure

Concept of Resource Block:

Page 14

LTE consists of time domain and frequency domain resources. The minimum unit for
schedule is RB (Resource Block), which compose of RE (Resource Element)
RE has 2-dimension structure: symbol of time domain and subcarrier of frequency domain
One RB consists of 1 slot and 12 consecutive subcarriers under Normal CP configuration

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Radio Frame Structure (2)


TDD Radio Frame Structure:
-

Uplink-downlink Configurations

Applies OFDM, same subcarriers spacing and time


unit with FDD.
Similar frame structure with FDD. radio frame is 10ms
shown as below, divided into 20 slots which are 0.5ms.

Uplinkdownlink
configuration

Downlink-to-Uplink
Switch-point
periodicity

5 ms

5 ms

5 ms

10 ms

10 ms

10 ms

5 ms

The uplink-downlink configuration of 10ms frame are


shown in the right table.

One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms

Subframe number

One half-frame, 153600Ts = 5 ms

D: Downlink subframe
U: Uplink subframe
S: Special subframe
One slot,
Tslot=15360Ts

30720Ts

Subframe #0

Subframe #2

One subframe,
30720Ts

Subframe #4

Subframe #5

Subframe #7

TDD Radio Frame Structure


DwPTS

Page 15

Subframe #3

GP

DwPTS

UpPTS

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GP

UpPTS

Subframe #8

Subframe #9

DwPTS: Downlink Pilot Time Slot


GP: Guard Period
UpPTS: Uplink Pilot Time Slot

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Radio Frame Structure (3)


CP Length Configuration:
-

Cyclic Prefix is applied to eliminate ISI of OFDM.

CP length is related with coverage radius.


Normal CP can fulfill the requirement of
common scenarios. Extended CP is for wide
coverage scenario.

Longer CP, higher overheading.

CP Configuration
DL OFDM CP
Length

Configuration
Normal
CP
Extended
CP

UL SC-FDMA CP
Length

160 for slot #0

160 for slot #0

144 for slot #1~#6

144 for slot #1~#6

f=15kHz

512 for slot #0~#5

512 for slot #0~#5

f=7.5kHz

1024 for slot #0~#2

NULL

f=15kHz

Sub-carrier
of each RB

Symbol of
each slot
7

12
6

24 (DL only)

3 (DL only)

Slot structure under


Normal CP configuration
(f=15kHz)

Slot structure under


Extended CP configuration
(f=15kHz)

Slot structure under


Extended CP configuration
(f=7.5kHz)

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Brief Introduction of Physical Channels

Downlink Channels

Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH): Carries system information for


cell search, such as cell ID.
Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) : Carries the resource
allocation of PCH and DL-SCH, and Hybrid ARQ information.
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) : Carries the downlink
user data.
Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) : Carriers
information of the OFDM symbols number used for the PDCCH.
Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) : Carries Hybrid
ARQ ACK/NACK in response to uplink transmissions.
Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) : Carries the multicast
information.

MCH

BCH

PCH

DL-SCH

Downlink
Transport channels

MAC Layer
Physical Layer

PBCH

PMCH

PDSCH

PDCCH

Downlink
Physical channels

Mapping between downlink transport


channels and downlink physical channels

Uplink Channels

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) : Carries the random


access preamble.
Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) : Carries the uplink user
data.
Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) : Carries the HARQ
ACK/NACK, Scheduling Request (SR) and Channel Quality
Indicator (CQI), etc.

UL-SCH

RACH

Uplink
Transport channels

MAC Layer
Physical Layer

PUSCH

PRACH

Uplink
Physical channels

PUCCH

Mapping between uplink transport


channels and downlink physical
channels

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Downlink Physical Channel

Downlink Physical Channel Processing

scrambling of coded bits in each of the code words to be transmitted on a physical channel

modulation of scrambled bits to generate complex-valued modulation symbols

mapping of the complex-valued modulation symbols onto one or several transmission layers

precoding of the complex-valued modulation symbols on each layer for transmission on the antenna
ports

mapping of complex-valued modulation symbols for each antenna port to resource elements

generation of complex-valued time-domain OFDM signal for each antenna port


layers

code words

Scrambling

Modulation
mapper
Layer
mapper

Scrambling

Page 18

Shown at the right table

Phy Ch

Resource element
mapper

OFDM signal
generation

Resource element
mapper

OFDM signal
generation

Precoding

Modulation
mapper

Modulation Scheme of
Downlink Channel

antenna ports

Modulation
Scheme

Phy Ch

Modulation
Scheme

PBCH

QPSK

PCFICH

QPSK

PDCCH

QPSK

PHICH

BPSK

PDSCH

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

PMCH

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

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Uplink Physical Channel

Uplink Physical Channel Processing

scrambling

modulation of scrambled bits to generate complex-valued symbols

transform precoding to generate complex-valued symbols

mapping of complex-valued symbols to resource elements

generation of complex-valued time-domain SC-FDMA signal for each antenna port

Scrambling

Modulation
mapper

Transform
precoder

Resource
element mapper

SC-FDMA
signal gen.

Modulation Scheme of Downlink Channel

Page 19

Shown at the right table

Phy Ch

Modulation Scheme

PUCCH

BPSK, QPSK

PUSCH

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

PRACH

Zadoff-Chu

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Downlink Physical Signals (1)


Downlink RS (Reference Signal):

One antenna port


Port
One Antenna

Similar with Pilot signal of CDMA. Used for downlink physical channel
demodulation and channel quality measurement (CQI)
Three types of RS in protocol. Cell-Specific Reference Signal is essential
and the other two types RS (MBSFN Specific RS & UE-Specific RS) are
optional.

R0

R0

R0

Cell-Specific RS
Mapping in TimeFrequency
Domain

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

l0

l6 l0

Characteristics:

l6

Four antenna ports


Ports
Four Antenna

Two antenna ports


Ports
Two Antenna

RE
Resource element (k,l)

R0

R0

R0

R0

R1

R0

R0

R0

R1

R1

R0

l0

l6

l0

Not used for transmission on this antenna port

RS symbols on
this antenna port
Reference symbols on this antenna port

R1

R1

l6 l0

Not used for RS


transmission on
this antenna port

R1

R1

R1
l6 l0

l6

Cell-Specific Reference Signals are generated from cellspecific RS sequence and frequency shift mapping. RS is
the pseudo-random sequence transmits in the timefrequency domain.
The frequency interval of RS is 6 subcarriers.
RS distributes discretely in the time-frequency domain,
sampling the channel situation which is the reference of DL
demodulation.
Serried RS distribution leads to accurate channel estimation,
also high overhead that impacting the system capacity.
R1: RS transmitted in 1st ant port

R0

R0

R0

R1

R0

R1

R1

R2

R1

R3

R2: RS transmitted in 2nd ant port


R3: RS transmitted in 3rd ant port

R3

R2

R4: RS transmitted in 4th ant port


R0

R0

R1

R1

R2

R3

MBSFN: Multicast/Broadcast over


R0

R0

l0

R1

l6 l0

even-numbered slots

odd-numbered slots

Antenna
Port 0
Antenna port 0

Page 20

l6

l0

R1
l6 l0

even-numbered slots

R2
l6

odd-numbered slots

Antenna
Port 1
Antenna port 1

l0

R3
l6 l0

even-numbered slots

l6

odd-numbered slots

Antenna
Port 2
Antenna port 2

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l0

l6 l0

even-numbered slots

l6

a Single Frequency Network

odd-numbered slots

Antenna
Port 3
Antenna port 3

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Downlink Physical Signals (2)

Synchronization Signal:
synchronization signals are used for time-frequency synchronization between UE and E-UTRAN during cell
search.

synchronization signal comprise two parts:

Primary Synchronization Signal, used for symbol timing, frequency synchronization and part of the
cell ID detection.

Secondary Synchronization Signal, used for detection of radio frame timing, CP length and cell group
Characteristics:
ID.

The bandwidth of the synchronization


signal is 62 subcarrier, locating in the
central part of system bandwidth,
regardless of system bandwidth size.

Synchronization signals are transmitted


only in the 1st and 11rd slots of every
10ms frame.

The primary synchronization signal is


located in the last symbol of the
transmit slot. The secondary
synchronization signal is located in the
Synchronization Signals Structure
2nd last symbol of the transmit slot.

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Uplink Physical Signals

Uplink RS (Reference Signal):

Allocated UL bandwidth of one UE

The uplink pilot signal, used for synchronization


between E-UTRAN and UE, as well as uplink
channel estimation.
Two types of UL reference signals:

Freq

DM RS (Demodulation Reference Signal),


associated with PUSCH and PUCCH transmission.
SRS (Sounding Reference Signal), without
associated with PUSCH and PUCCH transmission.

DM RS associated with PUSCH is


mapped to the 4th symbol each slot
Time
Freq

DM RS associated with PUCCH


(transmits UL ACK signaling) is mapped
to the central 3 symbols each slot

Characteristics:

Page 22

Each UE occupies parts of the system bandwidth since


SC-FDMA is applied in uplink. DM RS only transmits in
the bandwidth allocated to PUSCH and PUCCH.
The slot location of DM RS differs with associated
PUSCH and PUCCH format.
Sounding RSs bandwidth is larger than that allocated to
UE, in order to provide the reference to e-NodeB for
channel estimation in the whole bandwidth.
Sounding RS is mapped to the last symbol of sub-frame.
The transmitted bandwidth and period can be
configured. SRS transmission scheduling of multi UE
can achieve time/frequency/code diversity.

Time
Freq

DM RS associated with PUCCH


(transmits UL CQI signaling) is mapped
to the 2 symbols each slot

Time

System bandwidth

PUCCH is mapped to up &


down ends of the system
bandwidth, hopping between
two slots.

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Physical Layer Procedure Cell


Search

Basic Principle of Cell Search:

Cell search is the procedure of UE synchronizes with EUTRAN in time-freq domain, and acquires the serving cell
ID.
Two steps in cell search:

Step 1: Symbol synchronization and acquirement of


ID within Cell Group by demodulating the Primary
Synchronization Signal;

Step 2: Frame synchronization, acquirement of CP


length and Cell Group ID by demodulating the
Secondary Synchronization Signal.

Initial Cell Search:

About Cell ID

In LTE protocol, the physical layer Cell ID comprises


two parts: Cell Group ID and ID within Cell Group. The
latest version defines that there are 168 Cell Group IDs,
3 IDs within each group. So totally 168*3=504 Cell IDs
exist.

The initial cell search is carried on after the UE power on. Usually,
UE doesnt know the network bandwidth and carrier frequency at the
first time switch on.
UE repeats the basic cell search, tries all the carrier frequency in the
spectrum to demodulate the synchronization signals. This procedure
takes time, but the time requirement are typically relatively relaxed.
Some methods can reduce time, such as recording the former
available network information as the prior search target.
Once finish the cell search, which achieve synchronization of timefreq domain and acquirement of Cell ID, UE demodulates the PBCH
and acquires for system information, such as bandwidth and Tx
antenna number.
After the procedure above, UE demodulates the PDCCH for its
paging period that allocated by system. UE wakes up from the IDLE
state in the specified paging period, demodulates PDCCH for
monitoring paging. If paging is detected, PDSCH resources will be
demodulated to receive paging message.

(1)
(2)
cell
N ID
3N ID
N ID
(1)
N ID

(2)
N ID

represents Cell Group ID, value from 0 to 167;


represents ID within Cell Group, value from 0 to

2.

Page 23

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Physical Layer Procedure Random


Access

Basic Principle of Random Access :

Random access is the procedure of uplink


synchronization between UE and E-UTRAN.
Prior to random access, physical layer shall receive
the following information from the higher layers:

Random access channel parameters: PRACH


configuration, frequency position and preamble format,
etc.

Detail Procedure of Random Access:

Parameters for determining the preamble root sequences


and their cyclic shifts in the sequence set for the cell, in
order to demodulate the random access preamble.

Two steps in physical layer random access:

UE transmission of random access preamble

Random access response from E-UTRAN

Physical Layer procedure is triggered upon request of a


preamble transmission by higher layers.
The higher layers request indicates a preamble index, a
target preamble received power, a corresponding RA-RNTI
and a PRACH resource .
UE determines the preamble transmission power is
preamble target received power + Path Loss. The
transmission shall not higher than the maximum
transmission power of UE. Path Loss is the downlink path
loss estimate calculated in the UE.
A preamble sequence is selected from the preamble
sequence set using the preamble index.
A single preamble is transmitted using the selected preamble
sequence with calculated transmission power on the
indicated PRACH resource.
UE Detection of a PDCCH with the indicated RA-RNTI is
attempted during a window controlled by higher layers. If
detected, the corresponding PDSCH transport block is
passed to higher layers. The higher layers parse the
transport block and indicate the 20-bit grant.
RA-RNTI: Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identifier

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Physical Layer Procedure Power


Control
Basic Principle of Power Control:

Downlink power control determines the EPRE


(Energy per Resource Element);

Uplink power control determines the energy per


DFT-SOFDM (also called SC-FDMA) symbol.

Downlink Power Control:

The transmission power of downlink RS is usually constant.


The transmission power of PDSCH is proportional with RS
transmission power.
Downlink transmission power will be adjusted by the
comparison of UE report CQI and target CQI during the power
control.

Uplink Power Control:

Uplink power control consists of opened loop power and closed loop
power control.
A cell wide overload indicator (OI) is exchanged over X2 interface for
integrated inter-cell power control, possible to enhance the system
performance through power control.

UE report CQI
DL Tx Power

PUSCH, PUCCH, PRACH and Sounding RS can be controlled


respectively by uplink power control. Take PUSCH power control for
example:

X2

PPUSCH (i) min {PMAX ,10 log10 (M PUSCH (i)) PO_PUSCH(j) (j) PL TF (i) f(i)}

Page 25

PUSCH power control is the slow power control, to compensate the path
loss and shadow fading and control inter-cell interference. The control
principle is shown in above equation. The following factors impact
PUSCH transmission power PPUSCH: UE maximum transmission power
PMAX, UE allocated resource MPUSCH, initial transmission power PO_PUSCH,
estimated path loss PL, modulation coding factor TF and system
adjustment factor f (not working during opened loop PC)

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UL Tx Power
System adjust
parameters

EPRE: Energy per Resource Element


DFT-SOFDM: Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM

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Overview of LTE Layer 2

Layer 2 is split into the following layers:

Main Functions of Layer 2:

MAC (Medium Access Control) Layer

Header compression, Ciphering

RLC (Radio Link Control ) Layer

Segmentation and concatenation, ARQ

PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol )


Layer

Scheduling, priority handling, multiplexing


and demultiplexing, HARQ

Layer 2 Structure for DL

Layer 2 Structure for UL

Radio Bearers
ROHC

ROHC

Radio Bearers
ROHC

ROHC

PDCP
Security

RLC

ROHC

ROHC

Security

Security

PDCP

Segm.
ARQ etc

...

Security

Security

Segm.
ARQ etc

Segm.
ARQ etc

Security

...

Segm.
ARQ etc

BCCH

PCCH

RLC

Segm.
ARQ etc

...

Segm.
ARQ etc

Logical Channels

Logical Channels

Scheduling / Priority Handling

MAC

Scheduling / Priority Handling

Multiplexing UE1

Multiplexing UEn

HARQ

HARQ

Multiplexing

HARQ

Transport Channels

Page 26

MAC

Transport Channels

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Introduction of MAC Layer

Main functions of MAC Layer:

Mapping between logical channels and transport


channels

Traffic volume measurement reporting

Error correction through HARQ

Multiplexing/demultiplexing of RLC PDUs (Protocol


Data Unit) belonging to one or different radio
bearers into/from TB (transport blocks ) delivered
to/from the physical layer on transport channels

Logical Channels of MAC Layer:

Control Channel: For the transfer of control


plane information
Traffic Channel: for the transfer of user plane
information
CCCH

ARQ etc

Uplink
Logical channels

UL Channel
Mapping of
MAC Layer

Control Channel
Traffic Channel

Priority handling between UEs (dynamic


scheduling) Segm.
Segm.
...

DTCH

Radio Bearers

ROHC
ROHC
Priority handling
between
logical channels of one
PDCP
UE
Security
Security

RLC

DCCH

RACH

UL-SCH

Uplink
Transport channels

ARQ etc

Transport format selection

Padding

Logical Channels

PCCH

BCCH

CCCH

DCCH

DTCH

MCCH

MTCH

Downlink
Logical channels

Scheduling / Priority Handling

MAC

Multiplexing

DL Channel
Mapping of
MAC Layer

MAC Layer
Structure

HARQ
Transport Channels

Page 27

PCH

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BCH

DL-SCH

MCH

Downlink
Transport channels

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Introduction of RLC Layer

Main functions of RLC Layer:

Page 28

Transfer of upper layer PDUs supports AM or


UM
TM data transfer
Error Correction through ARQ (no need RLC
CRC check, CRC provided by the physical)
Segmentation according to the size of the TB:
only if an RLC SDU does not fit entirely into
the TB then the RLC SDU is segmented into
variable sized RLC PDUs, no need padding
Re-segmentation of PDUs that need to be
retransmitted: if a retransmitted PDU does not
fit entirely into the new TB used for
retransmission then the RLC PDU is resegmented
Concatenation of SDUs for the same radio
bearer
In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs
ROHC
ROHC
PDCP
except at HO
Security
Security
Protocol error detection and recovery
Duplicate Detection
Segm.
Segm.
RLC
...
SDU discard
ARQ etc
ARQ etc
Reset
Scheduling / Priority Handling

RLC PDU Structure:

The PDU sequence number carried by the RLC


header is independent of the SDU sequence
number
The size of RLC PDU is variable according to the
scheduling scheme. SDUs are segmented
/concatenated based on PDU size. The data of
one PDU may source from multi SDUs
Segmentation

RLC SDU

Concatenation
n+1

n+2

...

n+3
...

RLC header

Radio Bearers

RLC header

RLC PDU

RLC PDU Structure

RLC Layer
Structure
Logical Channels

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AM: Acknowledge Mode


UM: Un-acknowledge
Mode
TM: Transparent Mode
TB: Transport Block
SDU: Service Data Unit
PDU: Protocol Data Unit

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Introduction of PDCP Layer

Main functions of PDCP Layer:

PDCP PDU Structure:

Functions for User Plane:

Header compression and decompression:


ROHC

Transfer of user data: PDCP receives PDCP


SDU from the NAS and forwards it to the RLC
layer and vice versa

In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs at


handover for RLC AM

Duplicate detection of lower layer SDUs at


handover for RLC AM

Retransmission of PDCP SDUs at handover for


RLC AM

Ciphering

Timer-based SDU discard in uplink


Functions for Control Plane:

Ciphering and Integrity Protection

Transfer of control plane data: PDCP receives


PDCP SDUs from RRC and forwards it to the
RLC layer and vice versa

PDCP PDU and PDCP header are octetaligned


PDCP header can be either 1 or 2 bytes long

PDCP header

PDCP SDU
PDCP PDU

PDCP PDU Structure

Radio Bearers
ROHC

ROHC

Security

Security

PDCP

RLC

Segm.
ARQ etc

...

PDCP Layer
Structure

Segm.
ARQ etc

ROHC: Robust Header Compression


Logical Channels
Scheduling / Priority Handling

Page 29

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MAC

Multiplexing

Company Confidential

Summary of Data Flow in Layer 1 & 2

Data Transfer in Layer 1 and Layer 2

Page 30

Data from the upper layer are headed and packaged, sent to the lower layer, vice
versa.
Scheduler effect in the RLC, MAC and Physical Layers. User data packages are
multiplexed in the MAC Layer.
CRC in Physical Layer.

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MIMO

Downlink MIMO

MIMO is supported in LTE downlink to achieve spatial


multiplexing, including single user mode SU-MIMO
and multi user mode MU-MIMO.
In order to improve MIMO performance, pre-coding is
used in both SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO to
control/reduce the interference among spatial
multiplexing data flows.
The spatial multiplexing data flows are scheduled to
one single user In SU-MIMO, to enhance the
transmission rate and spectrum efficiency. In MUMIMO, the data flows are scheduled to multi users and
the resources are shared within users. Multi user gain
can be achieved by user scheduling in the spatial
domain.

Uplink MIMO

Due to UE cost and power consumption, it is difficult to


implement the UL multi transmission and relative power
supply. Virtual-MIMO, in which multi single antenna UEs
are associated to transmit in the MIMO mode. VirtualMIMO is still under study.

Scheduler assigns the same resource to multi users.


Each user transmits data by single antenna. System
separates the data by the specific MIMO demodulation
scheme.
MIMO gain and power gain (higher Tx power in the
same time-freq resource) can be achieved by VirtualMIMO. Interference of the multi user data can be
controlled by the scheduler, which also bring multi user
gain.
User1

Pre-coding vectors
User1
User 1 data

User 1 data
User 2 data

Scheduler
User k data

User 1 data

S1

User k data

Pre-coder

User2

User2

S2

User k

User k

Scheduler
Channel Information

Channel Information

MU-MIMO

Page 31

MIMO
Decoder

Virtual-MIMO

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Schedule and Link Auto-adaptation

User Multiplexing and Scheduling

Large system bandwidth (10/15/20MHz) of LTE will


facing the problem of frequency selected fading. The
fading characteristic on subcarriers of one user can be
regarded as same, but different in further subcarriers.

Select better subcarriers for specific user according to


the fading characteristic. User diversity can be
achieved to increase spectrum efficiency.

Link Auto-adaptation
LTE support link auto-adaptation in time-domain
and frequency-domain. Modulation scheme is
selected based on the channel quality in
time/frequency-domain.

In CDMA system, power control is one important link


auto-adaptation technology, which can avoid
interference by far-near effect. In LTE system, user
multiplexed by OFDM technology. Power control is
used to reduce the uplink interference from adjacent
cell, to compensate path loss. It is one type of slow
link auto-adaptation scheme.

The LTE schedule period is one or more TTI.


The channel propagation information is feed back to eNodeB through the uplink. Channel quality identity is
the overheading of system. The less, the better.

Channel Propagation Fading


Page 32

User Multiplexing and Scheduling


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2. OFDM SC FDMA Introduction

Page 33

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LTE Key Technology OFDMA &


SC-FDMA
OFDM & OFDMA

DFT-S-OFDM & SC-FDMA

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)


is a modulation multiplexing technology, divides the
system bandwidth into orthogonal subcarriers. CP is
inserted between the OFDM symbols to avoid the ISI.
OFDMA is the multi-access technology related with
OFDM, is used in the LTE downlink. OFDMA is the
combination of TDMA and FDMA essentially.

Advantage: High spectrum utilization efficiency due to


orthogonal subcarriers need no protect bandwidth.
Support frequency link auto adaptation and
scheduling. Easy to combine with MIMO.

Disadvantage: Strict requirement of time-frequency


domain synchronization. High PAPR.

DFT-S-OFDM (Discrete Fourier Transform


Spread OFDM) is the modulation multiplexing
technology used in the LTE uplink, which is
similar with OFDM but can release the UE PA
limitation caused by high PAPR. Each user is
assigned part of the system bandwidth.
SC-FDMASingle Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Accessingis the multi-access
technology related with DFT-S-OFDM.

Advantage: High spectrum utilization efficiency


due to orthogonal user bandwidth need no
protect bandwidth. Low PAPR.
The subcarrier assignment scheme includes
Localized mode and Distributed mode.

System Bandwidth
Sub-carriers

System Bandwidth

Sub-carriers

TTI: 1ms
Frequency

TTI: 1ms
Frequency

User 1
User 2
User 1

Time

Page 34

Sub-band12Sub-carriers

User 3

Time

User 2

Sub-band12Sub-carriers

User 3

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OFDM Basics
- Transmits hundreds or even thousands of separately modulated
radio signals using orthogonal subcarriers spread across a
wideband channel
Total transmission bandwidth
15 kHz in LTE:

fixed

Orthogonality:
The peak (centre
frequency) of one
subcarrier
intercepts the
nulls of the
neighbouring
subcarriers
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Contd..
- Data is sent in parallel across the set of subcarriers, each subcarrier only
transports a part of the whole transmission
- The throughput is the sum of the data rates of each individual (or used)
subcarriers while the power is distributed to all subcarriers
- FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) is used to create the orthogonal subcarriers. The
number of subcarriers is determined by the FFT size (by the bandwidth)
- In LTE, these subcarriers are separated 15kHZ
Power

bandwidth

frequency

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Cyclic Prefix (CP) and Guard Time


Consists in copying the last part of a symbol shape for a duration of guard-time
and attaching it in front of the symbol
CP needs to be longer than the channel multipath delay spread.
A receiver typically uses the high correlation between the Cyclic Prefix (CP) and
the last part of the following symbol to locate the start of the symbol and begin
then with decoding
2 CP options in LTE:
Normal CP: for small cells or with short multipath delay spread
Extended CP: designed for use with large cells or those with long delay profiles
total symbol time T(s)

Guard Time
T(g)

Note: CP represents an
overhead resulting in symbol
rate reduction.
Having a CP reduces the
bandwidth efficiency but the
benefits in terms of minimising
the ISI compensate for it

t
CP
T(g)

Useful symbol
time T(b)
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OFDMA Symbol
- OFDMA is an extension of OFDM technique to allow multiple user transmissions
and it is used in other systems like Wi-Fi, DVB and WiMAX
- OFDMA Symbol is the Time period occupied by the modulation symbols on all
subcarriers. Represents all the data being transferred in parallel at a point in
time
OFDM symbol duration including CP
is aprox. 71.4 s (*)
Long duration when compared with
3.69s for GSM and 0.26s for
WCDMA allowing a good CP duration
Robust for mobile radio channel with
the use of guard internal/cyclic prefix

Symbol length without considering


CP: 66.67s (1/15kHz)

(*) normal CP
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Subcarrier types
Data subcarriers: used for data transmission
- Reference Signals:
- used for channel quality and signal strength estimates.
- They dont occupy a whole subcarrier but they are periodically embedded in the stream
of data being carried on a data subcarrier.

Null subcarriers (no transmission/power):


- DC (centre) subcarrier: 0Hz offset from the channels centre frequency
- Guard subcarriers: Separate top and bottom subcarriers from any adjacent channel
interference and also limit the amount of interference caused by the channel. Guard
band size has an impact on the data throughput of the channel.

Guard (no power)

Guard (no power)

DC (no
power)
data

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OFDMA Parameters
- Channel bandwidth: Bandwidths ranging from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz
- Data subcarriers: They vary with the bandwidth
- 72 for 1.4MHz to 1200 for 20MHz

Presentation
/ Author /

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OFDMA Parameters
-

Frame duration:
Subframe duration (TTI):
Subcarrier spacing:
Sampling Rate:
with
1.4MHz

10ms created from slots and subframes


1 ms (composed of 2x0.5ms slots)
Fixed to 15kHz (7.5 kHz defined for MBMS)
Varies with the bandwidth but always factor or
multiple of 3.84 to ensure compatibility
WCDMA by using common clocking
3 MHz

5 MHz

Frame Duration

1010ms
ms

Subcarrier Spacing

15 kHz

Sampling Rate (MHz)


Data Subcarriers

Symbols/slot
CP length

10 MHz

15 MHz

20 MHz

1.92

3.84

7.68

15.36

23.04

30.72

72

180

300

600

900

1200

Normal CP=7, extended CP=6


Normal CP=4.69/5.12 sec, extended CP= 16.67sec
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Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDMA


The transmitted power is the sum of the
powers of all the subcarriers

- Due to large number of subcarriers, the


peak to average power ratio (PAPR)
tends to have a large range
- The higher the peaks, the greater the
range of power levels over which the
power amplifier is required to work
- Having a UE with such a PA that works
over a big range of powers would be
expensive
- Not best suited for use with mobile
(battery-powered) devices
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Uplink Air Interface

Page 43

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SC-FDMA in UL

OFDMA

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SC-FDMA

- Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access:


Transmission technique used for Uplink
Variant of OFDM that reduces the PAPR:
- Combines the PAR of single-carrier system with the
multipath resistance and flexible subcarrier
frequency allocation offered by OFDM
- It can reduce the PAPR between 69dB compared
to OFDMA
- TS36.201 and TS36.211 provide the mathematical
description of the time domain representation of an
SC-FDMA symbol.
- Reduced PAPR means lower RF hardware
requirements (power amplifier)

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SC-FDMA and OFDMA Comparison


(1/2)
- OFDMA transmits data in parallel across multiple subcarriers
- SC-FDMA transmits data in series employing multiple subcarriers
- In the example:
- OFDMA: 6 modulation symbols (01,10,11,01,10 and 10) are transmitted per OFDMA
symbol, one on each subcarrier
- SC-FDMA: 6 modulation symbols are transmitted per SC-FDMA symbol using all
subcarriers per modulation symbol. The duration of each modulation symbol is 1/6 th of
the modulation symbol in OFDMA

SC-FDMA

OFDMA
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SC-FDMA and OFDMA Comparison (2/2)

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DL Physical Channels
There are no dedicated channels in LTE, neither in UL nor DL
PBCH:
- To broadcast the MIB (Master Information
Block), RACH parameters

PDSCH:
- Carries user data, paging data, SIBs (cell
status, cell IDs, allowed services)

PMCH:
- For multicast traffic as MBMS services
PHICH:
- Carries H-ARQ Ack/Nack messages from eNB
to UE in response to UL transmission

PCFICH:
Carries details of PDCCHs format (e.g.# of symbols)
PDCCH:
Carries the DCI (DL control information): resource assignment messages for downlink
capacity allocations on PDSCH and scheduling grants for uplink allocations on PUSCH and
TCP commands for UL
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Reference Signals: OFDMA Channel


Estimation
- Channel estimation in LTE is based on reference signals (like CPICH
functionality in WCDMA)
- Reference signals position in time domain is fixed (0 and 4 for Type 1 Frame)
whereas in frequency domain it depends on the Cell ID
- In case more than one antenna is used (e.g. MIMO) the Resource elements
allocated to reference signals on one antenna are DTX on the other antennas
- Reference signals are modulated to identify the cell to which they belong.
symbols

symbols

subcarriers

subcarriers

Antenna 2

Antenna 1
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Synchronization Signals allocation (DL)


Synchronization signals:
Transmitted during the 1st and 11th slots
within a radio frame

Occupy the central 62 Subcarriers (around


the DC subcarrier) to facilitate the cell
search

5 Subcarriers above and 5 Subcarriers


below the synch. Signals are reserved and
transmitted as DTx

Synchronisation Signal can indicate 504


(168 x 3) CellID different values and from
those one can determine the location of cell
specific reference symbols

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DL Physical Channels Allocation

PBCH:
- Occupies the central 72 subcarriers across 4 symbols
- Transmitted during second slot of each 10 ms radio frame on
all antennas
- PCFICH:
- Can be transmitted during the first 3 symbols of
each TTI
- Occupies up to 16 RE per TTI
- PHICH:
- Normal CP: Tx during 1st symbol of each TTI
- Extended CP: Tx during first 3 symbols of each TTI
- Each PHCIH group occupies 12 RE

RB

- PDCCH:
- Occupies the RE left from PCFICH and PHICH within the
first 3 symbols of each TTI
- Minimum number of symbols are occupied. If PDCCH data is
small then it only occupies the 1st symbol
- PDSCH:
- Is allocated the RE not used by signals or other physical
channels

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Uplink Physical Signals and


Channels
- Uplink Physical Signals
- Demodulation Signals:
- Used for channel estimation in the eNodeB receiver to demodulate control and data
channels
- Located in the 4th symbol (normal CP) of each slot and spans the same bandwidth
as the allocated uplink data

- Sounding Reference Signals:


- Provides uplink channel quality estimation as basis for the UL scheduling decisions > similar in use as the CQI in DL
- Sent in different parts of the bandwidth where no uplink data transmission is
available.
- Not part of first NSNs implementations (UL channel aware scheduler in RL30)

- Uplink Physical Channels


- Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
- Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
- Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
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UL Physical Channels
PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel
- Intended for the user data (carries traffic for
multiple UEs)
PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel
- Carries H-ARQ Ack/Nack indications, uplink
scheduling request, CQIs and MIMO feedback
RACH
- If control data is sent when traffic data is being
transmitted, UE multiplexes both streams together
- If there is only control data to be sent the UE uses
Resources Elements at the edges of the channel
with higher power
PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel
PRACH
- For Random Access attempts. PDCCH indicates
the Resource elements for PRACH use
- PBCH contains a list of allowed preambles (max.
64 per cell in Type 1 frame) and the required length
of the preamble
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CCCH

DCCH

DTCH

Logical
RLC

Transport
UL-SCH

MAC

PHYS.
PUSCH

PUCCH

Company Confidential

Uplink Subframe Structure


(PUSCH)
- Frame Structure Similar to DL: 10 ms frame consisting in 20 slots of 0.5ms
- 1 slot carries 7 SC-FDMA symbols in case of Normal CP and 6 SC-FDMA
symbols if Extended CP.
- Symbol 3 in each slot carries the uplink Reference Signal (normal CP) for
channel Demodulation, remaining 6 symbols are available for traffic and
control data
- Momentary data rate (controlled by the eNodeB scheduler) depends on the
allocated transmission bandwidth (and CP length)
- E.g. Double data rate implies the transmission bandwidth duplicates
Demodulation Reference Signal

UL TTI =1ms (as in downlink)


Normal CP slot

10 ms frame
s0

s1

s2 s3

s4

s5

s6 s7

..

s18 s19

0.5 ms slot

SF0

SF1

SF2

SF3

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..

SF9
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Uplink Resource Block


Reference Symbols

N x 12 Subcarriers

Modulation
symbols
after FFT

RESOURCE BLOCK

Resource Elements
for Control and
Data symbols

Reference Symbols
Time Domain
Signal
Generation
(IFFT)

Normal CP (7 symbols)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

SC-FDMA symbols
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0.5 ms slot

Resource Block: 12
subcarriers in frequency
domain, 1 slot in time
domain
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Uplink Resource Mapping


- Demodulation Reference
Signal:
Always on symbol 3 of each slot
(normal CP)
- PUSCH mapping:
Data is allocated in multiples
of 1 RB (12 subcarriers in
frequency domain). Only factors
of 2, 3 and 5 resource blocks are
allowed

- PUCCH mapping:
If PUCCH not multiplexed with
PUSCH then it is transmitted on
a reserved frequency region.
PUCCH occupies RBs at both
edges of the uplink bandwidth (in
green in the picture on the right)

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Random Access Channel (PRACH)


- RACH operation uses around 1.08 MHz bandwidth
- This is equal to 6 resource blocks of 180 kHz
- The location of those resource blocks is dynamically defined by 2 RRC
Layer Parameters (PRACH Configuration Index and PRACH Frequency
offset)
- 4 possible PRACH durations (PRACH configuration index parameter selects one of the
4)

- PRACH only carries the preambles and it is used during the RACH process
307200Ts

CP

Preamble

TCP

TPRE

0.1 ms

0.8 ms

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Modulation Schemes
3GPP standard defines the following options: QPSK,
16QAM, 64QAM in both directions (UL and DL)
UL 64QAM not supported in RL10
Not every physical channel is allowed to use any
modulation scheme:
Scheduler decides which form to use depending on carrier
quality feedback information from the UE

Physical
channel

Modulation

PDSCH

QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM

PMCH

QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM

PBCH

QPSK

PDCCH
(PCFICH,
PHICH)

QPSK

PUSCH

QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM

PUCCH

BPSK
and/or
QPSK

64QAM:
6 bits/symbol

QPSK:

16QAM:

2 bits/symbol

4 bits/symbol

QPSK

16QAM

b0 b1

b0 b1b2b3

01

Im

Im

11

64QAM
b0 b1b2b3 b4 b5
Im
1111

Re
00

10Re

Re

0000
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LTE Layer 2/3

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LTE Protocol Layers


- LTE processing is structured in different protocol layers
- Differently to WCDMA all the protocols end in the eNB

- Layer 3: RRC
PDCP, RLC, MAC and PHY Layer are configured by the RRC protocol. Some
functions:
- RRC Connection Management (creating, modifying and deleting Radio Bearers)
- Mobility Management (measurement control and reporting)
- System Information Broadcasting (SIBs), Paging

eNodeB

UE
PDC
P
RLC

MAC
PHY Layer

PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY Layer

UE

eNodeB

RRC
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY Layer

User Plane

RRC
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY Layer

Control Plane
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LTE Layer 2 Structure (DL)


Note: In WCDMA PDCP was
only for user plane, now it is also
for control plane due ciphering

Ciphering for
data and
signalling

Header
Compressions
for data (not
signalling)

Radio Bearers
ROHC

ROHC

ROHC

ROHC

Security

Security

Security

Security

Segm.
ARQ etc

Segm.
ARQ etc

PDCP

RLC

Segm.
ARQ etc

...

...

Segm.
ARQ etc

BCCH

PCCH

Logical Channels
Scheduling / Priority Handling

MAC

Multiplexing UE1

Multiplexing UEn

HARQ

HARQ
Transport Channels

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RLC Layer: Transmission Modes


RLC uses different connection modes to deal with different types of bearers:
RLC TM (Transparent mode):
- RLC doesnt do anything to Transparent mode Bearers
- Only to common channels (BCCH, CCCH and PCCH) which do not have HARQ

RLC UM (Unacknowledged Mode):


- Segmentation or concatenation of transport blocks to fit into MAC PDUs
- Sequential transfer and reordering is performed: Header has sequence number and info of
the last received packet
- Duplicated and PDUs with errors are discarded
- No retransmission supported

RLC AM (Acknowledged Mode):


- Sequential transfer and reordering
- Retransmission of missing PDUs or PDUs with errors
- Biggest difference to WCDMA: Lack of ciphering, data comes ciphered from PDCP layer
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L2: Logical and Transport


Channels DL
- Logical channels characterize the data to be transmitted: control or traffic
- Transport channels describe how and with what characteristics the data is
transmitted
- Multiplexed flows in a transport channel can contain data from a single user or
from multiple users
- The transport channels from the MAC layer are mapped to the physical channels

Note: No multicast in NSN implementation


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L2: Logical and Transport


Channels UL
- MAC layer provides the logical channels to RLC layer
- Transport channels in LTE have been reduced (also for DL direction) by using
in shared channel operation (no dedicated channels like in WCDMA)

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End of Section

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