1/3 part of Pharmacy Calculations textbook.

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Pharmacy Calculations

1/3 part of Pharmacy Calculations textbook.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 102

Mary F.Powers

Sciences

University

of ToledoCollegeof Pharmacy

andPharmaceutical

JanetB.Wakelin

Cuyahoga

Community

College(Retired)

MORTON

925W.Kenybn

Avenue,

Unit 12

Englewood,

CO80110

www.morton-pub.com

BCOKTEAM

P u b l i s h e r :D o u g l a s M o r t o n

DonaMendoza

Editor/ProjectManager:

EditorialAssistant: RaynaBailey

Production

Manager: JoanneSaliger

C o m p o s i t i o n :W i l l K e l l e y

To the best of the Publisher's knowledge, the information presented in this book is

correct and compatible with standards generally accepted for administering drugs. The

reader is advised to consult the information material included with each drug or agent

before administration. However, please note that you are reponsible for following your

employer'sand your state'spolicies,procedures,and guidelines.

The job description for pharmacy technicians varies by institution and state. Your

employer and state can provide you with the most recent regulations, guidelines,

and practicesthat apply to your work.

The Publisher of this book disclaims any responsibility whatsoever for any injuries,

damages,or other conditions that result from your practice of the skills described in

this book for any reason whatsoever.

Library of CongressControl Number: 201,2951,976

ISBN: 978-1.-6L731-074-4

All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval.system,or transmitted,in any form or by any

means,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,or otherwise,

without the prior written permissionof the publisher.

Printed in the United Statesof America

1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 L

'/

onrcnts

e

Sestion1 BasicArithmetic

I ctraptert

I ffraper I

Numerators,Denominators,and Reciprocals

o fF r a c t i o n s . . . . . .

1

3

........9

lcnapter I

ReducingFractionstoLowestTerms.

* chapter*

Addingand Subtracting

Fractions.....

I chapterS

Multiplyingand DividingFractions

....... 31

I chaper o

'Writing

Fractionsin DecimalForm .

...... 39

I ChapterI

RoundingDecimalsand SignificantFigures

...... 43

I CtrapterA

Addingand Subtracting

DecimalNumbers

...... 49

I C*rapterO

I Chapterl0

Analysisto SolvePharmacyCalculations.......... 69

I chapterl1

Percents

......,. 79

lchapter tz

Exponents

and Scientific

Notation

........ 87

I Chapter'!s

InterpretingPrescriptionsand Converting

Householdand Metric Measurements...

..... 15

.... 21

.... 59

...9L

*cnapter tc

* ttcper tF

Scalesand Calculationswith Density

and SpecificGravity

. . .107

Section2

Pharmacy 115

for Community

Calculations

r17

t25

135

DifferencePricing.

d Chapter2CI Calculations

for BillingCompounds......

.. 153

d Chapten

?1 CashRegisterCalculations..

.. 16I

f Chapten

2? Usualand CustomaryPrices.

.. 173

C Chapter23 Discounts

C Chapter24 GrossandNet Profits.

t' Chapter2$ InventoryControl

d Chapter26 DailyCashReport.

Section3

vilt

. I45

. 179

.. 185

...... 19t

..... L99

Pharmacy 205

for Institutional

Calculations

* Chapter 27

s . . . . . 207

ParenteralDosesUsingRatio and ProportionCalculation

d Chapter 2S

PowderedDrug Preparations.

d Chapter 29

Percentages

....... 231

E Chapter 3fr

RatioSolutions

..

....... 24t

d Chapter 3'l

DosageCalculationsBasedon BodyWeight

. . . . .. . 25t

d Chapter 32

Area..

DosageCalculations

Basedon BodySurface

i Chapter 33

InfusionRatesandDrip Rates

d Chapten 34

Dilutions

d Chapter 35

Alligations

Pharmacg Calculations t

. 219

...... 263

....... 275

.. 287

....... 297

i Chapter 36

\,

ParenteralNutrition Calculations.. . . . .

lChapter37DosageCalcu1ationsfromMedicationLabels

313

325

AppendixA Practice

Exam

353

Appendix B Answers

Problems

to Practice

351

t' PhotoCredits

381

I tndex

383

tx

S E C T I O N

ln ThisSection

Usedin Pharmacy

1 NumeralSystems

Denominators,

and Reciprocals

2 Numerators,

of Fractions

to LowestTerms

3 ReducingFractions

4 Rddingand SubtractingFractions

5 vtultiplyingand DividingFractions

in DecimalForm

6 WritingFractions

Figures

and Significant

7 RoundingDecimals

DecimalNumbers

8 Rddingand Subtracting

9 wultiplyingand DividingDecimalNumbers

or Dimensional

10 UsingRatiosand Proportions

Analysis

to SolvePharmacy

Calculations

11 Percents

and ScientificNotations

12 Exponents

and Converting

13 InterpretingPrescriptions

Household

and MetricMeasurements

14 ConvertingApothecaryand Metric

Measurements

15 ConvertingBetweenthe Different

with

Temperature

Scales

and Calculations

Densityand SpecificGravity

NumeralSystems

Usedin Pharmacy

CHAPTER

LEARNING

OBJECTIVES

After completing this cbapter,the student will be able to:

1 Explainthe meaningof Romannumeralsand Arabicnumerals

2 ConvertRomannumeralsto Arabicnumerals

3 ConvertArabicnumeralsto Romannumerals

4

that

Determinethe numberof tabletsor capsules

hasthe quantitywritten in Romannumerals

There are many systemsin the world for writing numbers. The systemfor writing

numbersthat is widely usedthroughout the world today is basedon the number

10 and is known as the Arabic system.In the Arabic system,the position a symbol

occupieshelpsdeterminethe value of the symbol. For example,in 333, the 3

on the right meansthree, but the 3 in the middle meansthree tensand the 3 on the

left meansthreehundreds.

Arabicnumerals

arethe 10digitscommonly

usedin mathproblems.

KEYTERMS

Another systemfor writing numbersthat is sometimesusedin pharmacyis the

Roman numeral system.Roman numeralsare expressedby lettersof the alphabet

and are rarely usedtoday exceptfor formality or variety.

The principlesfor readingRoman numeralsare:

) A letter repeatedonce or twice repeatsits value that many times (XXX : 30,

CC : 200, etc.).

) One or more lettersthat is placedafter anotherletter of greatervalue increases

the greatervalue by the amount of the smaller(M : 6, LXX : 70, MCC :

1.,200,etc.).

) A letter placed before another letter of greater value decreasesthe greater value

by the amount of the smaller(IV : 4, XC : 90, CM : 900, etc.).

system

Arabicnumerals:numeral

in commonusetodaybasedon

the 10digits0, 1,2,3,4, 5,6,

7,8,9

system

Romannumerals:numeral

basedin ancientRomethat

useslettersandcombinations

of letters

The following common Roman numerals correspond to the following values in the Arabic system:

tl

vilt

XL

40

50

LX

60

ill

IV

XX

20

LXXX

VI

XXX

30

XC

LXX

c

D

M

100

500

1,000

70

I

80

90

Reading Roman numerals requires a different approach than reading Arabic numerals, and generallythe position

of the Roman numeral is not as important as it is in the Arabic system.Roman numerals are sometimesused on

the face of a clock or watch.

VItr

Arafuifrlurmerab

EXANIPLE

Convert the Roman numeral XXIX to the Arabic numeral.

XX:20

IX:9

XXIX:20+9:29

EXAMPLE

Convertthe Arabicnumeral67 to theRomannumeral.

LX:60

vlr:7

Combining the two Roman numerals yields LXMI

TXAMPLE

Convertthe RomannumeralXIV to the Arabicnumeral.

X:10

ItI:4

XfV:'10+4:1.4

fxAiltrlPtf

'L22to

ConverttheArabicnumeral

theRomannumeral.

C: 100

XX:20

TI: 2

Combiningthe RomannumeralsyieldsCXXII

il

Pharmacg Calculations t

m

tV

Rorymnilft,nmema[r

gxtitPtE

How many tablets are neededfor the following prescription?

William M. Fox, MD

tr234 Main Street

Anytown, Colorado 12345

Tel. (123) 456-7890 Fax. (123) 456-1234

,*n

tatto Doe

'fgtut |l

'roo

slttlno

Wt<

fox tlD

Ultllban4

NE

For this prescription,the quantityis expressed

neededto fill the prescription.

E'(AitPtf

in Romannumerals.

For the prescriptionshownabove,the numberof tabletsfor eachdoseis expressed

How manytabletsareneededfor eachdose?

i-ii meansthe patientshouldtake 1 or 2 tabletsper dose.

Usedin Pharmacy

I Orryter r

Numeral

Systems

Student Name

Course Number

Date

1. XIX

\-/

/

11. XXXII

2. XC

12. CIX

3. CCC

13. II

4. XXXII

14.Vr[

5. XLIV

15. XXIV

6. XXII

16. XXXTV

7. Vrl

17. XLIII

8. TV

18. XXVIII

9. III

19. XIII

10. XIX

20. XXX

Numeral

Systems

Usedin Pharmacy

i Ch"pt". r

21. 10

3L. 4

22. 20

?')

23. 30

33. 12

24. 40

34. 1,6

25.50

35. 22

26. 15

36. 36

27.100

37. 49

28. 200

38. 57

29. 300

39. 150

30. 1,000

40. 900

Numerators,

Denominators,

of Fractions

andReciprocals

CilAPTER

I-EARNNNG

OB"ISCTIVEs

After completing this chapter,the student uill be able to:

1 Definethe termsfraction,numerator,anddenominator

2 Explainthe relationshipbetweenthe numeratorand the

denominatorin a fraction

3

4

5

6

Explainwhy a denominatorcannotbe zero

Convertfractionsto decimals

Convertdecimals

to fractions

whole numbers.In other words, a fraction representspart of a whole. The division

of two whole numberscan also be representedby a fraction. The two parts of a

fraction are the numerator and denominator.The denominator(the number below

the bar) tells us how many parts the whole is divided into, and the numerator (the

number abovethe bar) tells us how many of thoseparts exist.

numerator

denominator

The parts of a fraction

Remember,

the numerator

isthe top numberof a fractionandthe denominator

isthe bottomnumber(youcanthink:the Denominator

isDown).

In a fraction, the numerator can be zero, but the denominator cannot be zero.

Division by zero is undefined, therefore, no denominator can be zero.

KEY.TERMS

Decirna8;

a special

typeof fraction

in whichthedenominator

isa

number

thatisa oowerof 10

$enorninator:

the bottomnumber

in a fraction

qr*ivalentfractions:fractionsthat

represent

the sameamount

Fraction:

in theArabic

expression

partof a

system

to represent

whole

$Jumerator:

in a

thetop number

fraction

R*,cipnpcals:

two fractionsthat

whenmultiplied

together

eoual1

nun*b*rx:expressions

KItr'rple

in the

Arabicsystem

for the numbers

1,2,3,4, 5,andsoon

EXAMPLE

314

You can read this fraction as three-fourths, three over four, or three divided by four.

A decimalis a specialtype of fraction in which the denominatoris a number that is

a power of 10. In other words, for decimals,the denominatorscould be 10, 100, or 1,000, etc.

The following decimalscorrespondto the following fractionsin the Arabic system

0.1

1t10

0.01

1t100

0.001

1/1,000

0.0001

1/10,000

0.00001

1/100,000

0.000001

1/1,000,000

in wholenumbers.

as

1 mg couldbe misread

10mg if a terminalzerowasaddedfollowingthe decimalpoint.

zero,0.5mg could

be misread

as5 mg.

Understanding decimalsis important in pharmacy. Often dosesof medicationsare expressedin terms of decimals.

EXAMPLE

Expressthe milligram strength of Lanoxin 0.25 mg as a fraction:

0.25 :

t0

2511.00

EXAMPLE

Expressthe milligram (mg) strength of each drug below in the form of a fraction:

mg

Synthroid0.025 mg : 2511,,000

Synthroid0.050 mg : 50/1,000mg

Synthroid0.075mg : 7511.,000

mg

:

Synthroid0.088mg 88/1,000mg

Synthroid0.10mg : 1/10mg

mg

Synthroid0.1'L2mg : 1121L,000

Synthroid

0.L25mg: 12511,000

mg

mg

Synthroid

0.L37mg : 13711,000

mg

Synthroid

0.150mg : 150/1,000

mg

Synthroid0.175mg : L7511',000

Synthroid0.20 mg : 211'0mE

Synthroid0.30mg : 3/10mg

Fractionscanbeconvertedto decimalsby performingthe divisionusinga calculator:

314 : 0.75

EXAMPLE

you canfind the decimalequivalentof any

Herearesomeotherfractionsand their decimalequivalents.

Remember,

fractionby dividingthe numeratorby the denominator.

215 : 0.4

3 1 5: 0 . 6

4/5 : 0.8

Therearemanywaysto write fractions.Fractionsthat representthe samenumberarecalledequivalentfractions.

For example,1.12,214,

and418areall equal.To determine

if two fractionsareequal,usea calculatoranddivide.

If the answeris the same,thenthe fractionsareequal.

Reciprocals

of Fractions

Reciprocalsare two different fractions that when multiplied together equals 1. Every fraction has a reciprocal

(exceptthose fractions with zero in the numerator). The easiestway to find the reciprocal of a fraction is to switch

the numerator and denominator, or just flip the fraction over.

To find the reciprocal of a whole number, just put 1 over the whole number.

To seeif two fractionsare reciprocals,

simplymultiplythem by eachother.lf the resultis 1,then the fractionsare

reciprocals.

8 : 8/t

Reciprocalis 1/8

Numerators,

Denominators,

and Reciprocals

of Fractions

iE Chapter Z

11

EXAIIIPLIS

The reciprocalof 2 is L12

The reciprocalof 3 is 1i3

The reciprocalof.4 is'I.,/4

The reciprocalof.2l3is 3/2

The reciprocalof L/5 is 5

EXAMPTE

is availablein severaldifferentstrengths.Clonazepam

Orally DisintegratingThblets0.5 mg is shown

Clonazepam

0.5 mg asa fraction.

above.Expressthe strengthof clonazepam

0.5 : 5/1.0

Pharmacg Calcu,lationsI

Student Name

,--,/

Date

Course Number

1. L/2

16. Ll7

2. 1,14

17. 511,1,

3. 2/4

18. 516

4. 215

19. 219

5. 1/L0

20. 5/L8

6. 1,/8

21. 3/7

7. 711.2

22. 3/11

8. 1,120

23" 3l2L

9. L1100

24. 3133

10. 1/1,000

25. 5/3s

11. 318

26. 7143

12. 3/4

27. 9155

13. 4ts

33. 1.3163

14. L/3

29. 15171.

15. 711.2

30. 23/83

Numerators,

Denominators,

andReciprocals

of Fractions

I C*rapterZ

t3

31. 1,/2

46. U7

32. 1,/4

47. 511,1

33. 214

48. 516

34. 2/5

49. 2t9

35. L/10

50. 5/18

36. t/8

51. 3t1.3

37. L11.2

52. 3123

38. U20

53. 517

39. UL00

54. 5tt2

40. 1/1'000 =

55. 5t37

41. 3/8

56. 7148

42. 3/4

57. 7/51

43. 4/5

58. 9/23

44. 1.13

59. LLl52

45. 7/'1,2

6A. 23t83

14

PharmacgCalculationsI

Reducing

Fractions

to LowestTerms

C HA P T E N

T

-^

LEARNING

OBJECTIVES

After completing this chapter,the student utill be able to:

1 Explainhow to reducea fractionto lowestterms

2 Definethe termsprimefactorand commonfactor

3 Determinethe greatestcommonfactorof a fraction

4 Reducefractionsto lowestterms

To reducea fraction to lowest terms, also known as simplifying a fraction, divide the

numeratorand denominatorby their greatestcommon factor.The greatestcommon

factor is a whole number and both the numeratorand denominatorcan be divided by

this number (factor).Somefractionsare aheadyin lowestterms if thereis no factor

common to the numerator and denominator.

The stepsto reducea fraction to its lowest terms are:

1. Identify the prime factors (a prime factor is a whole number that is divisibleby

only 1 and itself) of the numeratorand denominator.

2. Find the factorscommon to both the numeratorand denominator.

3. Divide the numeratorand denominatorby all common factors (this is called

canceling).

A factorisa wholenumberand boththe numerator

anddenominator

canbe

dividedby thisnumber(factor).

bv onlv 1 and itself.

KEYTERMS

Canceling;

dividingthe numerator

a denominator

of a fractionbv

allcommon

factors

Greatestcommonfactor: the

wholenumberthat both

numerator

anddenominator

canbedividedbyto reduce

the

fraction

Primefactor:a wholenumoer

divisible

byonly1 anditself

Simplifying

a fiaction:reducing

a

fractionsothe numerator

and

denominator

arethesmallest

wholenumbers

oossible

t5

You can visualize prime numbers by looking at arrangementsof objects. If the objectscan be placed in a

symmetrical arrangement,then, the number is not prime.

CE

eee

H!

ee

o@

@

CCE

Not Prime

cee

eoe

CECC

CCEE

Not Prime

ce@

CCE

oeo

aoo

0eeco

oocoo

Not Prime

Not Prime

2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 1 1 ,1 3 ,1 7 ,1 9 , 2 3 , 2 9 , 3 1 , 3 74 ,1 ,4 3 ,4 7 , 5 3 , 5 96, 1 , 6 7 , 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 9 , 8 3 ,

89,97,101,103,107,109,113,127,13'1,137,139,149,15'1,157,163,157,173,

1 7 9 ,1 8 1 ,1 9 1 ,1 9 3 ,1 9 7 ,1 9 9

EXAMPLE

Reducethe fraction to lowest terms.

15/35

1. List the prime factors of the numerator and denominator.

Numerator: 1, 3, 5

J.

1,3"Q,,l5

Divide by, or cancel,the factor of 5 that is common to both the numerator and denominator.

You're left with a 3 in the numerator and a 7 in the denominator.

Numerator: 15/5 : 3

Denominator:3515: 7

Reducing

a fractionwill not changeitsvalue.

f6

15 :

3s : t,$e r,s

Denominator:I" 5.7

't

Cemeron Faqtors

Orte: BasicArithrnetie

EXATT{FLE

Reducethe fraction 9/36 to lowest terms.

1. List the prime factors in the numerator and denominator.

\-'

Numerator: 1.r3

Denominator:L1213

o Note that 3 X 3 : 9, and 9 is also a factor of 36.

,

,

2. Divide by or cancelthe factor of 9 that is common to both the numerator and denominator.

Numerator: 9l'1,:'1,

Denominator: 3619 : 4

3. You're left with 1 in the numerator and 4 in the denominator.Therefore. g136reducedto lowest terms is 1/4.

EXAfiIIPLE

Reducethe fraction 30171.0to lowest terms.

1. List the prime factors in the numerator and denominator.

Numerator: tr21 3, 5

Denominator:L,2, 5,7L

* Note that both 2 and 5 are common factors of 30 and 110, you

so

can multiply 2 x 5 : 10.

2" Divide both the numerator and denominator by 10.

\-.

3. You're left with 3 in the numerator and 11 in the denominator.Therefore. 30/1,10reducedto lowest terms is

3/77.

Reducing

Fractions

to Lowest

Terms

E Chapter3

tf

Student Name

Date

Course Number

1. 3/9

16. 9t1.2

2. 6t24

17. 6/20

3. 2/4

18. 16/40

4. 2t1.6

19. 24t30

5. 6tL0

20. 1.4t36

21. 511"L

8. 10t220

23. 75h00

9. 2s1125

LA.

6. 12/36

7. 18ts4

1A

10. 65t75

rr. 21.t35

11t<<

LLIJJ

25.60175

26. 30136

12. 72t90

27. 7128

13. 36/27

28. 26t39

14. 1.5t75

29. 27ts6

15. 1.6t24

30. 34ts1,

Reducing

Fractions

to LowestTermsI Chapter 3

19

31" 36t48

&"

651585

3L

241100

4V- 73t292

3a

76132

4S-

u-

30/45

49- 79t237

/

,821164

35. 28142

5G 171702

36- 72/3s

5l- t9l28s

3V" 66/84

52- 1.8t87

3E- 14t63

53. 24136

39- 30t70

54. 1.t2t28Q

.fG 6157

55- s9t1.78

4t- LzSt500

56" 77tt54

42* 2st700

5V. 72Lt605

43- 25t750

58. 63t13s

&-

50/s00

59. 42/72

,45- 27012.700 :

6& 33t77

AddingandSubtracting

Fractions

CHAPTER

LEAR*diruG

&*irffi$vns

After completing tbis chapter,the stwdentwill be able to:

1

2

3

4

Findequivalentfractionswith commondenominators

for a pairof fractions

that do not havecommondenominators

Solveproblemsthat requireadditionof fractions

Solveproblemsthat requiresubtractions

of fractions

In order to add or subtract fractions, the fractions must have the same denominator

(called common denominators). To add or subtract fractions that have common

denominators, you simply add or subtract the numerators and write the sum or

difference over the common denominator.

In order to add or subtract fractions with different denominators, you must first

find equivalent fractions with common denominators:

1. Find the smallest multiple for the denominaror of both numbers.

2. Rewrite the fractions as equivalent fractions with the smallest multiple of both

n u m b e r sa s t h e d e n o m i n a t o r .

3. \When the denominators are the same, then just add or subtract the numerators

while keeping the denominators the same to solve the problem.

When working with fractions, the smallest multiple of both denominator numbers

is called the least common denominator.

EXAMP{-fi

114+ 114

KEYTERMS

(,urmnrnn

ciqinonrinator:

two

fractions

havethesame

denominator

ri-East

enltnroncienomin.*t$r:

the

common

denominator

for two

possible

fractions

isthesmallest

wholenumber

For this problem, the denominators are akeady the same (common), so you only

need to add the numerators to get the answer.

1,14+114:214:112

e z

EXAMPLE

1.12+ 1.13

The smallestmultiplefor the denominatorof both numbersis 6.

112: (1 x 3ll(2 x 3) : 316

'Ll3:(1 x2)/(3x2l:216

The problemcannow be rewrittenasfollows:

316+ 216

the denominatorsareequal,you only needto add the numeratorsto getthe answer.

Because

(3+2)t6:sl6

EXAMPLE

415- 713

The smallestmultiple for the denominator of both numbers is 15.

415:(4x3y(5x3):12115

7/3: (t x 5X3x 5)= 5715

The problem can now be rewritten as follows:

12/1.5- 5/1.5

Becausethe denominators are equal, you only need to subtract the numerators to get the answer.

(12-5\175:7/15

Remember,

22

EXAMPLE

+ 4/22

3/1.1.

\__/

3/1.1.: (3 x 2) I (1.1x 2) : 6t22

4/22: 4122

I

6122+ 4122

'

(6 + 4)122: L0/22

Reduceto lowesttermsby dividingthe numeratorand denominatorby2.

511.1'

EXAMPLE

1/4+1.13+1.15

The smallestmultiplefor the denominatorof all threenumbersis 60.

7/4 : (l x 15)/ (4 x 15) : 75/60

1/3 : (7 x 20) / (3 x 20) : 20/60

715: (7 x t2) /(5 x 12) : 1.2/60

The problemcanberewrittenasfollows:

1.5/60+20/60+12/60

Add the numeratorsto getthe answen

\-/

47t60

Fractions

AddingandSubtracting

E Ch"pt"t 4

23

Student Name

Course Number

Date

1. Ll3

t/3

2. 1.t8

3. 213

1,t3

4. 5/8

5. tls

3/5

6. 7t8

7. 1/3

tt5

8. 4l2s

Lt5

AddingandSubtracting

Fractions

k Chaptera

9. 1.18

311.6 :

114

10. 718

11. 318

315

12. 1.15

315

13. 217

317

14. 411.5

611.5

15. L18

2lB

16. 112

315

17. 318

111'1.2

26

117

718

18. 5/21

5ltz

19. 2t3

20. 5

7t1,0

21. 6lr0

4t10

3/1,000:

22. 516

23. 3125

t2t25

24. 3t1,4

2t1,4

25. 7t5

3/5

26. 1.120

Fractions

AddingandSubtracting

i Chaptera

27. 11t15

7t1.5

28. 5/8

4127

1148

29.6

1 , 1 1 , 0 0+

311,0 :

30. 1110

311.0 +

911,000:

31. 315

115

31L0

711,0

32. 314

1,14

1lB

5/B

33. 1.11,2 +

511.2 +

1.13

213

34. 1.19

419

113

1.11.8

35. 112

415

1.11.0 +

28

PharmacyCalculationsi

1.120 :

36. 219

419

1.12

5/18

37. 117

417

6135

1.135 =

38. 1,211,9 +

14/38 +

1,119 +

1138

39. 11112 +

1,13

213

1,124

40. 1,15

415

1.1L0 +

1.120

4t. 1,12

314

113

1.1L2

42. 1.13

1.14

1.112 +

1124

43. 1.12

1.13

1.14

1.124

419

11,133 +

1118

44. 11199 +

AddingandSubtracting

Fractions

k Chapter4

29

45. 1.0190

46. 1t8

1t4

1,/3

1t1,8

1,t2

318

47. 1,t3

1t1,8

u36

48. 1.12

49. 1t5

311.0

s0. 1.11.9

1,t38

1lL8

3t40

1,t76

1,1152

Multiplyinliand

DividingFractions

LEARNING

OBJICT'IVES

C HA P TE R

l-

1 Describe

the procedurefor multiplyingfractions

2 Solveproblemsthat requiremultiplyingfractions

the procedurefor dividingfractions

3 Describe

4 Solveproblemsthat requiredividingfractions

the procedurefor simplifyingfunctions

5 Describe

denominator.To multiply fractions:

1. Multiply the numeratorsof the fractionsto get the new numerator.

2. Multiply the denominatorsof the fractionsto get the new denominator.

3. Simplify the result if possible.

E XA M PL E

Determine1.13x 215.

1. Multiply the numerators(1 x 2) : 2.

KEYTERMS

Dividingfractions:mathematical

operation

to findthe reciprocal

of thefractionyouaredividing

the

byandthenmultiplying

fractions

Multiplyingfractions:mathematical

to obtainthe products

operation

of thenumbers

inthenumerators

in

andproducts

of the numbers

thedenominators

the

5implifyingfractions:reducing

to

numerator

anddenominator

lowestterms

Dividing by fractions is just like multiplying fractions, but there is one additional

stepto convert the fraction you are dividing by, to its reciprocal.To divide fractions:

1. Find the reciprocalof the fraction you are dividing by.

2. Multiply the first fraction times the reciprocaldeterminedin step 1.

3. Simplify the resultingfraction by reducingto lowest terms,if possible.

Irnportant: Becausedivision by zerois undefined,the number 0 has no reciprocal.

to solvefor a fractional amount of anotherfraction. For

Sometimes,it is necessary

example,what is 112of L14?You can think of this problem visually.

'S7hat

is 112of 114?

Answer

31

Mathematically, you can simply determine 112of 1,14by multiplying both fractions

1. Multiply both numerators(1 x 1) : 1.

2. Multiply both denominators(2 x 4) : 8.

3. The resultingfraction is 1/8.

I

EXAMPLE

Divide 24by 114

'

1. Find the reciprocal of the fraction you are dividing by. The reciprocal of 1.14is 411..

2. Multiply 2411,x 4/1 : 96.

3. Because96 is a whole number,the answeris alreadysimplified.

EXAMPLE

Divide113by 1.15

1. Find the reciprocalof the fraction you are dividing by. The reciprocalof 115is 5/1.

2. Multiply 113x 511:

513.

Divide 3 by t/2.

1. First find the reciprocal of the fraction you are dividing by (the reciprocal of 1,12is 211,)

2. Then multiply 3 x 2/1, : 6.

3. The answeris 6.

EXAMPLE

Simplify the f.raction214

Common Factors

by the common factor of 2.

2

4

2

2

2 - 1 , @

4 : L@q

L

2

Remember;

the denominatorof a fractioncannotbe zero,but the numeratorof a fractioncanbe zero.Whenthe

numeratorof a fractioniszero,the overallvalueof the fractioniszero.

Remember,

32

Student Name

CourseNumber

Date

1. 1,13

of

1,13

2. 1./8

3. 2/3

1,/3

4. 5/8

3ts

5. 1/5

6. 718

7. 014

of

8.

115

of

9.

516

of

5/6

10. 2/3

Fractions

Multiplying

andDividing

I ChapterS

11. 314

of

3/4

12. 1,19

of

a t1

LIJ

L3. 1.13

1,/5

1.4. 4t25

Lt5

15. 118

311.6

16. 7/8

1,t4

17. 3tB

3t5

18. 7t1,6

1,/4

19. lt9

4t9

20. 2lr

5/1

21. 7t1,0

1.t5

22. 4t1,3

zt5

6t7

23. 91L00 x

34

24. 3t1,1,

0/8

617

25. 1t3

1,t20 x

1,t8

26. 1t3

1,t4

1,t5

27. 4t7

3t5

U9

28. 1,t8

3t8

1t2

1t3

29. 317

1.12

Lt4

1t3

30. s/8

1.t3

2t3

317

3r. 3t7

zt7

1.12

1t3

32. 1,t5

1t3

U4

1.t8

33. 3t8

LIJ

U3

34. 5/8

U3

1.12

3/8

35. 1.19

112

1t3

317

Jt/

U4

I chapter 5

Fractions

Multiplying

andDividing

35

36.

1.13

divided by

1.13

37.

1.18

divided bv

3lB

38. 213

divided bv

113

39.

518

dividedbv

318

40. L15

dividedbv

315

41. 7lB

dividedbv

318

42.

dividedbv

Il5

43. 4125

dividedbv

1,15

44.

dividedbv

3116

45. 7lB

dividedbv

1,14

46.

318

dividedbv

315

47. 314

dividedby

8i5

36

113

1.18

divided by

u2

819

48" 2t3

divided by

911.0

7ls

divided by

517

315

dividedby

.51. 911,0

54. 0

divided by

7lB

.s.s. 5124

dividedby

3lB

.56. 7148

dividedbv

L411.6

57.

1,4120 divided by

714

stt. 25

dividedby

1.15

30

divided by

1110

k ehapter S

Fractions

Multiplying

andDividing

37

60. 50

dividedby

1,12

61. 4

divided bv

112

62. 5

dividedbv

L15

63.

dividedbv

1114

64.

1.2

divided bv

318

65. 14

dividedbv

217

66. 20

divided bv

1110

67.

35

divided by

311,0

68.

100

dividedbv

113

69. 300

divided bv

3lB

divided by

1,15

70.

38

1,000

WritingFractions

\--lin DecimalForm

I

Explainhowdecimalfractionsarewritten

2 Express

that aregivenin words

in numbers

the valuefor decimalfractions

3 Express

4 Convertfractions

to decimals

I

In the decimal number system,the value of a digit dependson its place or location

in the number. Each place has a value of L0 times the place to its right. Numbers to

the left of the decimal point are separatedinto groups of three digits using cofilmas.

As you move right from the decimal point, each place value is divided by 10.

Zerc and the counting numbers('1.,2,3,etc.)make up the set of whole numbers.

But not every number is a whole number. The decimal systemallows us to write

numbers that are fractions as well as whole numbers by using a symbol called the

decimal point.

\_-/

You read the decimal number 105.599 as "one hundred five and five hundred

ninety-nine thousandths." The "th" at the end of a word meansa fraction part (or

a part to the right of the decimal point). You can also read this number as "one

hundred five point five nine nine."

ntYrenms

a number

Dedmalnumbers,ystem:

a notation

so

thatuses

' svstem

isdxbtus5ea

in

erithih'i'rnb6f

base10 byusingoneof thefirst

0 in,#tnplace

. nineinteggrs-or

valu-d

ue

an-dtettirr!'cachpfae

a pow6rof 10

EXAMPLE

Eighthundred: 800

Eighthundredths: 0.08

EXAMPLE

'Write

the numberthreehundredtwentv-ttree and four tenthsin decimalform.

323.4

EXAMPLE

'Write

the numberfive hundredfifty-five thousandthsin decimalform.

0.555

EXAMPLE

'Write

13506/L,000

in decimal

form.

13.506

EXAMPLE

'Write

3s0.44

EXAMPLE

'VTrite

the numberfour point two six in decimalform.

4.26

EXAMPLE

I7rite the number fifty-six thousandthsin decimal form.

0.0s5

EXAMPLE

Expressthe number 5.02 in words.

Five and two hundredths

or

Five point zero two

EXAMPLE

Express7,400.02in words.

or

One thousand four hundred point zero two

Tenfold

medication

errorsaredefinedaserrorsin whichthedosewas10timesgreateror smaller

thanthecorrect

pointmedication

dose.Tenfold

or decimal

errorsareespecially

dangerous

for patients!

Useextreme

cautionwhen

working

withdecimals,

40

StudentName

CourseNumber

Date

1. Thirty-two hundredths

2. Thirty-threethousandths

3. Two hundredthirty-seventhousandths

4. Thirty-five and one hundred fifry-three thousandths

5. Five hundredthree and thirty-two hundredths

6. Eighty-sixhundredths

7. Ninety-ninethousandths

8. Three tenths

9. Fourteenthousandths

10. Seventeenhundredths

"17. Six and twenty-eighthundredths

72. Sixty and twenty-eightthousandths

73. Seventy-twoand threehundred ninety-two thousandths

14. Eight hundredfifty and thirty-six ten-thousandths

'Wite

15. 0.5

16. 0.93

17. 5.06

18. 32.58

79. 71,.06

20. 35.078

27. 7.003

22. 1,8.102

23. 50.008

24. 607,607

in Decimal

form I Chapter6

WritingFractions

41

Write the follouing decimals as fractions (do not reduce to lotuest terms):

2s. s93.86

36. 1.35

26. 0.63

J I .

27. 0,75

38. 4.53

28. 0.BB

39. 6.08

29. 0.73

40. 10.353

30. 0.2

41. 20.354

31,. 0.35

42. 31.451

32. 0.47

43. 49.326

33. 0.66

44.51.118

34. 0.41,

45. 101.101

3s.0.03

.t.-)

CHAPTER

Decimals

Rounding

Figures

andSignificant

LEARNING

OBJEf,TIVES

After completing this chapter,the student will be able to:

1 Describe

the procedurefor roundingdecimals

2 Demonstrate

roundingdecimals

to the nearesttenth and hundredth

3 Definesignificant

figures

4

significantfigures

decimalfraction, the number of decimalplacesis too largeto be manageable.Extra

numberscan be confusingand can also contributeto errors in calculations.Therefore,

it is often usefuland advisableto round off decimals.

To round off decimals:

) Find the digit for placevalue you want (the "rounding digit") and look at the

digit just to the right of it.

) If that digit is lessthan 5, do not changethe rounding digit, and drop all digits

to the right.

KEY TERMS

) If that digit is greaterthan or equal to five, add one to the rounding digit

- and

R*:filflj:'Jff:L:fiT:il:

dropallJigi,'io theright.

numoerS

4,5

Atways

rounddown

Atways

roundup

EXAMPLE

To round the number 15,732.7343to the nearestthousandth:

9, '''iff::lli#:::,ilff1i:f:'

-t

[';'#::fffi[:]."1lli"'"*

to the

number

correiponding

of themeasuring

sensitivity

device

2. Look one digit to the right, at the digit in the ten-thousandthsplacewhich is

aaa

1

))

3. Seethat 3 is lessthan 5, so leavethe number "4," then drop the digits to the

right of 4.

This gives15,732.734.

EXAMPLE

To round 622.1,352to the nearesthundredth:

1. Find the rounding digit, "3."

43

3 . Becausethe rule statesif the number to the right of the rounding digit is greater than or equal to 5, add one to

the rounding digit, and drop all digits to the right of it.

Therefore,this number needsto be rounded up. Add one to the rounding digit and removeall the rest of the digits

to the right of it. The result is 622J,4

,

EXAMPLE

1. Find the rounding digit. This is 5.

2. Look one digit to the right at the digit in the hundredthsplacewhich is 4.

3. Seethat 4 is lessthan 5, so leavethe number "5," then drop the digits to the right of 5.

Answer: 47.5

EXAMPLE

To round the number 49.504to the nearestwhole number:

1. Find the rounding digit. This is 9.

2. Look one placeto the right and find the number 5.

3. Becausethe rule statesif the number to the right of the rounding digit is greaterthan or equalto 5, add one to

the rounding digit and drop all digits to the right of it.

Answer: 50

Figures

Significant

A significantdigit is one that is actuallymeasured.The number of significantdigits in a measurementdependson

'When

the measuringdeviceusedand the sensitivityof that measuringdevice.

a calculationinvolvesmeasurements

with different numbersof significantfiguresin the entriesor terms that are added,subtracted,multiplied, etc.,the

answershould havethe samenumber of significantdigits as the entry or term with the leastnumber of significant

figuresin the measurement.

Rules for assigningsignificant figures:

) Digits other than zero are always significant.

) Final zeros after a decimal point are always significant.

) Zeros betweentwo other significant digits are always significant.

) Zeros used only to spacethe decimal are never significant.

EXAMPLE

Determinethe number of significantfiguresin 3.4502 grams.

3.4582

Firstsignificantfigure

Secondsignificantf igure

Jhird significantf igure

Fourth significantfigure

Fifth significantfigure

Becausezeros befweentwo other significant digits are always significant,the number of significant figures is 5.

M

EXAMPLE

Determine the number of significant figures in 3.40 grams.

Becausefinal zeros after a decimal point are always significant, the number of significant figures is 3.

EXAMPLE

Determinethe number of significantfiguresin 0.036 grams.

Becausezerosused only to spacethe decimal are never significant, the number of significant figures is 2.

EXAMPLE

Determine the number of significant figures in 2.5 ml (if the volume was measuredusing a devicethat measures

accuratelyto the nearesttenth of a milliliter).

Becausedigits other than zero are always significant, the number of significant figures is 2.

EXAMPLE

Determinethe number of significantfiguresin 20.0 ml (if the volume was measuredusing a devicethat measures

accuratelyto the nearesttenth of a milliliter).

Becausethe final zero after a decimal point is always significant, the number of significant figures is 3.

#,

-,il

lll

outweighed

figuresisgenerally

allsignificant

pharmaceutical

of showing

calculations,

theimportance

Whenperforming

point

trailingzeros

aftera decimal

showing

them,Forexample,

of including

disastrous

consequences

bytheoccasional

error.

in a tenfolddosing

thedosethatresults

to misreading

cancontribute

Figures

Decimals

andSignificant

I Chupt"t 7

Rounding

45

Student Name

Date

Course Number

1. 1.32.35789

6. 2.339

2. 6.993928394

7. 1.005

3. 2.357895733

8. 3.232323232

4. 235,L21..34764

9. 1.01..234

:

5. 1.32,424,324.35t

10. 136.s67

tr. 80.015

16. 0.037

12. 7.s55

17. 3.2323

13. 180.009

18. 44.444

14. 37.6666

19. 365.365

15. t4.3332

20. 0.24s

21. 32.1.34

27. 2.95

22. 55.555

28. 3.2s

23. 1.09.421

29. 1.4s.2

24. 0.76

30. 3.33

25. 100

31. 4.12

\ -/ 26. 1.00

32. s4.329

Rounding

Decimals

andSignificant

Figures

I ChapterZ

4t

33. 100.01

37. 51.2.8

34. 325.2

38. 1000.9

35. 467.r

39. 2001..09

I

40. 3,45.59

36. 479.9

41. 6.222g

4 2 . 0 . 1 2 3k g

4 3 . 1 2 . 0m l

44. 0.030g

45. 20.05grams

48

AddingandSubtracting

\-/DecimalNumbers

LEARNING

OBJECTIVIS

After completingthis chapter,the studentu.,illbe able to:

1 Performadditionof decimalnumbers

2 Performsubtraction

of decimalnurnbers

Adding and subtracting decimalsis just like adding and subtracting whole numbers.

'S7hen

adding and subtracting decimals,it is very important to line up the terms so

that all the decimal points arc in a vertical line.

To add deci.tnal numbers:

1. Put the numbers in a vertical column so the decimal points are aligned.

2. Add each column of digits, starting on the right and work left. If the sum of a

column is more than 10, "carry" the digits to the nefi column on the left.

3. Placethe decimal point in the answer directly below the decimal points in the

numbers.

EXAMPLE

Step1

Step2

324.5678

+ I.2345

3 (carrythe 1)

Step3

Step4

324.5678

+ 7.2345

023(carrythe 1)

Step5

Step6

324.5678

+ 1.2345

5J023

Step7

324.5678

+ 7.2345

--fi.nn

324.s678

7.2345

23 (carrythe 1)

324.s678

1..2345

.8023

324.5678

1.2345

25.8023

KEYTERMS

Addingdecimals:mathematical

operationsimil#to f,ddlnE

wholenumbers"

exceptterms

mustbe linedup sothat'ali

pointsarein a vertical

decimal

line

gibtratthg dtftnals: firathdrnaticaloperation

similartosubtractingwholenumbers,

excefi

termsmustbe linedup sgthat

pointsarein a

allthe decimal

verticalline

EXAMPLE

Step1

Step2

Step3

40.25

+ 1.035

5

40.25

+ 1.035

85

40.25

+ 1.035

Step4

Step5

40.25

1.035

t.285

.28s

40.25

1.035

4L285

1. Put the numbers in a vertical column so the decimal points are aligned.

2. Subtract each column, starting on the right and working left. If the digit being subtractedin a column is larger

than the digit above it, "borrow" a digit from the next column to the left.

3. Placethe decimal point in the answer directly below the decimal points in the terms.

Step 2

Step 1

32.225

7.203

2

Step4

Step 3

32.225

1.203

52

Step 5

32.225

1.203

L.052

32.225

7.203

3L052

EXAMPLE

24.0- 0.75

zerofollowing24.0to holdthe place.

Tosetthisup,it ishelpfulto addanadditional

Step2

Step1

24.00

- 0.75

5

24.00

- 0.75

25

Step4

Step3

24.00

- 0.75

3.2s

Pharmacg Calculations I

24.00

- 0.75

2t2s

32.225

t.203

.09

Student Name

Date

CourseNumber

l.

2 . 5 + 6 . 1+ 0 . 4

AddingandSubtracting

Decimal

NumbersE Chaptera

8 . 5 2 . 3+ 6 + 2 1 . . 0 1+. 4 . 0 0 5

+ 0.2006+ 5.4 + 37

9. 2.0051.

10. 5+2.37+463+10.88

71.2+3 +3.5+4.6+5,5

52

1 3 . 1 . 1+ 2 . 2 + 3 . 3 + 4 . 4 + 5 . 5

AddingandSubtracting

Decimal

Numbersh ChapterI

53

?.1.

+

21.

54

354.231.2

5.1092

22375.23

+

5.92

22.

+

25.

224.0021

6.4444

34.2312875

+22.1092

Arii:i..eili

PharmacyCalculationsd Seqti*r: **e: B.es:i

23.

+

5223.2312

65.3217

26. 5.2 - 3.76

- 8.9

27. 1,7.83

3 0 . 7 8 . 0 1 5- 1 3 . 0 6 8 :

Numbersk Ch"ptur S

AddingandSubtracting

Decimal

55

34. 4-

r.0566

- 6.532

35. 40.71.8

37. 5 - 0.002

- t2

38. 1,3.01,

- 1,25.2

42. 1,36.3

AddingandSubtracting

Decimal

Numbersh Chapter8

4 3 . 1 1 1- 0 . 0 1

4 4 . 1 1 0- 0 . 1

46.

49.

58

3s4.2312

5.1.092

22375.23

5.92

47.

224.001,2

6.4444

50.

34.23L2875

-22.L092

48.

s223.231.2

65.321,7

Multiplying

andDividing

DecimalNumbers

C HA P T E R

o

at,

LEARNIN6

OB.IECTIVES

After completing tbis chapter,the stwdentwill be able to:

1 Oefinethe terms product, dividend,divisor, and quotient

with decimalnumbers

2 Performmultiplication

3 Performdivisionwith decimalnumbers

way to indicatemultiplication is to separateadjacentnumbersby parentheses.

Multiplication can also be indicatedby n "'" or "'t" that is insertedbetweennumbers.

To multiply decimalnumbers:

1. Multiply the numbersas if they were whole numbers.

2. Line up the numberson the right in the sameway you would if therewere no

decimalpoints.

3. Start at the right side and multiply eachdigit in the top number by eachdigit in

the bottom number.

4. Add the product resultingfrom multiplying eachdigit of the bottom number.

5. Placethe decimalpoint in the answerso that the number of decimalplacesin

the answerequalsthe total number of decimalplacesin both numbersthat

were multiplied together.

EXAMPLE

47.2x 5.5:

x

5.5 (has1 decimalplace)

2360

+ 2360

KEYTERMS

thenumber

Dividend:in division,

thatisdivided

thenumber

Divisor:in division,

thatthe dividendisdividedby

Product:the numberthat results

whennumbers

aremultiplied

together

Quotient the numberthat results

bv

isdivided

whenonenumber

another

259.60 (2 decimalplaces)

youcanstartby multiplying

normallyand

Whenmultiplying

decimalnumbers,

count

the decimalpointin the answer,

ignoringthe decimalpoints.Todetermine

that aremultipliedandthe answerwill haveas

the decimalplaces

in the numbers

combined.

asthe two originalnumbers

manydecimalplaces

59

EXAMPLE

Find the product of 9.683 x 6.t.

9.583 (has3 decimalplaces)

6.1, (has1 decimalplace)

9683

+ 58098

5 9 . 0 6 6 3( 3 + 1 : 4 d e c i m a l p l a c e s )

Sometimesit is necessaryto perform division with decimal numbers. In division one number,called the dividend,

is divided by another number,called the divisor, to result in the quotient.

If the divisor is a whole number and the divided is a decimal,you can divide the numbers as if they were whole

numbers except you must mark the decimal place in the decimal.

quotient

divisorIai'laA;A

'When

1. Mark the place of the decimal in the dividend before you start dividing.

2. Divide eachstepas you would for whole numbers.

3. Repeatuntil the stepsof division are complete.

4. Check your answer by multiplying the quotient by the divisor.The answer should be the dividend.

EXAMPLE

Divide3.64by4.

Step1

Step2

4 f 3.64

0.9

4 f 3.64

36

4

Step3

0.9r

4 f 3.64

36

4

4

0

0 . 9 1x 4 : 3 . 6 4

youranswer,

Whendividingdecimals,

firstuselongdivision

withoutthe decimalpoint.Then,whendetermining

simplyreinsert

the decimalpointin the answerand put the decimalpointin the answerdirectlyabovethe decimal

pointin the dividend.

50

PharmacgCalculationsI

SectionOne: BasicArithmetic

Student Name

CourseNumber

1 . ( 0 . 6 X0 . 7 )

2. ( 0 . 3 X 0 . 8 )

3. (0.2)(0.2)

4. (0.3)(0.3)

s. 8(2.7)

6. 4(e.6)

Decimal

NumbersI Chapter9

Multiplying

andDividing

61

7. 1.4(0.3)

8. 1.5(0.6)

e. (0.2)(0.02)

1 0. (0 . 3 x 0 . 0 3 )

1r. s.4(0.02)

12. 7.3(0.01)

13. 0.23(0.1,2)

14. ( 0 . 1 s ) ( 0 . 1 s)

1s . ( 8 . 1 X 0 . 0 0 6)

16. 7.1(0.008)

77.0.06(0.01)

18. 0 . 2 s ( 0 . 0 1 )

le. (3.23)(2.32)

20. 14.s(1s.4)

Decimal

Numbersk Chapterg

Multiplying

andDividing

21. 122.1Q12.12\

2 4 . 3 . 7 4 1 "2 . 1 2 2

25. 1.5.41.

" 1.2.1.2

27. 51.3,31.2

" 0.5

3 3 . 1 3 5 . 1* 1 0

* 1.00

34. 1.46.63

g e c i m aNl u m b e rks e h a p t e r9

M u l t i p l y i nagn dD i v i d i nD

65

3 5 . 1 . 2 3 5* 1 0 0 0

* 1.3.1.

37. 31..31.

3 8 . L 0* 0 . 1

3 9 . 1 0 0" 0 . 0 1

40.

4t.

42.

66

35.23

x 22.12

253.424

x 4.2

2.5

x 3.27

43.

527.225

x

2.1.

44.

2.38795

X

1..L

45.

326.31,1,

x 2.113

46.

1..2L

x 3.333

47. 2.44 + 4

48. 32.12+ 2

+ 3

49. 1.83.12

50. 466.2- 3

5 1 . 6 6 6 . 6+ 6

Decimal

Numbersk Chuptute

andDividing

Multiplying

5 3 . 9 . 3 6+ 3 . 6

5 6 . 3 1 5 . 5+ 6 3 . 1

5 7 . 3 8 . 1 9+ 5 . 7

59. 8.1+ 9

UsingRatiosandProportions

to

Analysis

or Dimensional

Calculations

SolvePharmacy

CHAPTER

10

OBJECTIVES

LEARNING

After completing this chapter,the stwdentwill be able to:

1 Definethe termsratio, proportion, anddimensionalanalysis

2

analysis

3 Explainhow to solveproblemsusingdimensional

4

how to solvecommonpharmacyproblemsusingratio

Demonstrate

analysis

and proportionand dimensional

proportion or dimensionalanalysis.

Ratioand Proportion

you express

Ratios are usedto make comparisonsbetweentwo things.'S7hen

ratios in words, you usethe word /o. For example,you say,"The ratio of

somethingto somethingelse."

A ratio can be written in severaldifferentways: as a fraction, usingthe word ro, or

withacoron.

EXAM PLE

The following expressionsall representthe ratio "3 to 5":

315

KEY TERMS

Dim;::::Hil?,ll1i;Tlilli,",,

problems

mathematical

to solve

for

expressiontwo

Proportion:

thatareequal

ratios

two

to compare

Ratio:expression

numbers

3to5

3:5

Equal ratios are two differentratios that may includedifferent numberswhen

expressedas fractions,but can be reducedto the samefraction.To find an equal

ratio, multiply or divide eachterm in the ratio by the samenumber (but not zero).

TXAMPLE

Expressthe ratio L;4 as a fraction.

1,t4

69

EXAMPLE

If you divide both terms in the ratio 3:6 by the number 3, then you get the equal ratio,1,:2.

Examplesof other equal ratios include:

3 : 6 : 1 2 : 2 4: 6 : 1 2 : 1 5 : 3 0

Thesecan also be expressedas:

316 : 12124: 611.2: 15130

EXAMPLE

Identify two equalratios for 100:10.

100:10 : 50:5 : 1,0:1(Thereare others.)

Proportions

A proportion is a name given to a statementthat two ratios are equal. Proportions can be written in two ways:

) As two equal fractions, alb : cld

) Using a colon, a:b : c:d

'When

two ratios are equal, then the products of the means(or middle numbers) equalsthe products of

the extremes(or outsidenumbers).

problems

Whensolving

usingratios

andproportions,

remember

theproduct

of themeans

isequalto theproduct

of theextremes.

extreme

:

mean

mean

extreme

EXAMPLE

Fortheproportiona:b: c:d,b x c(means): a X d(extremes).

The proportion20/30 : 213is read as "tlvenry is to thirry as two is to three."

In problems involving proportions, you can test the products of the meansand extremesto test whether

fwo ratios are equal and form a proportion.

The ratios 20130 and 213 form a proportion becausethe product of the meansequalsthe product of the extremes.

30x2:60

20x3:60

EXAMPLE

Solvefor y:

4:y : g'32

Because

the productof the means.

equalsthe productof the extremes,

8y:4x32

8y : 128

Y:12818:L6

7A

EXAMPLE

Solvefor y:

3 : 2 7: 2 : y

54:3y

Y:18

EXAMPLE

Solvefor y:

3.36: y:12

36y : 36

y:1,

Analysis

Dimensional

Dimensional analysisis a useful method scientistsemploy to check the validity of scientific equations and

calculations.For somevery complicated problems in science,sometimesdimensional analysisis the only

way to find the right answer! Dimensional analysiscan also be usedfor most pharmacy calculations either

to check your work, or, once you've masteredthe technique,may be the best way to get the correct answer

ro your problem. Somepeople find dimensional analysisto be extremely helpful for complicated pharmaceutical

calculations.

In science,the dimension of an object tells you what sort of quantity it is. In science,there are four basic

dimensions:length, mass,time, and electricalcharge.Similarlg in pharmacy we can think of pharmaceutical

quantities in terms of the "dimensions" such as weight, volume, dose,dosageform, and time (day[s]).

To solve a problem using dimensional analysis,you need to first identify what information is provided by the

problem as well any conversion factors that you will need to solve the problem. Terms that are equal to each other

are written in the form of a fraction. For example,if 250 mg : 1 dose,you would write this as a fraction;

250 mg

L dose

or

1 dose

250 mg

Becauseboth fractions are equal to 1, you can write either term in the numerator. Once you have written all of

the information, you need to solve the problem in the form of fractions. To do this, you simply set up a seriesof

fractions (making sure to label each term!) in an equation so that when the fractions are multiplied, all units will

cancelout, except the units you need for your answer.

Calculations

k Chapter10

Analysis

to SolvePharmacy

or Dimensional

andProportions

UsingRatios

71

EXAMPLE

Xanax*lli,

alprazolam

lT

tablets.

USP

tablet

0.5 mg

Rronly

100Tabtets

neededto fill a prescriptionfor Xanax 0.5 mg,0.5 mg threetimes per

day for sevendays prior to surgery:

0.5 me

3 doses

" X x Tdavs:2Ltablets

dose

d^y

0.5mg

Plumacia & Upjoh ftr

0&idtutrhc.{1.

XY1<

1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso the units you want in the final answer(the tablet)

is in the numerator of the first fraction of the dimensionalanalysisequation.

2. Setup the next fraction in the dimensionalanalysisequationso the units of the numerator of the second

fraction are the sameas the units of the denominatorof the first fraction (that is. so the units cancelwhen

the fractionsare multiplied).

3. Setup the next fraction in the dimensionalanalysisequationso the units of the numerator of the third

fraction are the sameas the units of the denominatorof the secondfraction (again,so the units cancel

when the fractionsare multiplied).

4. Setup the next fraction in the dimensionalanalysisequationso the units of the numerator of the fourth

fraction are the sameas the units of the denominatorof the third fraction (again,so the units cancelwhen

the fractionsare multiplied).

5. Multiply the fractions!

Important: Always rememberto checkyour work!

For this example,when all fractionsare multiplied together,all units cancelexceptthe capsuleunits (which is in

the numerator).When using dimensionalanalysis,you needto be carefulto make surethat the numerator (not the

denominator)containsthe units you needto solvethe problem.

EXAMPLE

Donnatal elixir containsphenobarbitaIl,6.2 mg/5 ml along with other drugs,

hyoscyamine,atropine,and scopolamine.Usedimensionalanalysisto determine

how many milliliters of Donnatal elixir would deliver32.4 mg of phenobarbital.

Becauseyou are solvingfor milliliters, start by placing a term with ml in the

numerator.

:10mI

Eati 5 mL {1 leasFDntul)contains:

Ftndebital, USP

16.2mg

Ny6ctamine Sulhto,USP

0.1037mg

AtroplreSufate.USP

0.0194ng

Sc{pdamw

Hydrobromide,

USP

0.0065ng

Alcohol

notmors$4 23.8%

u,t0ERcAPt3tfioKEtt0Rmtsstltc

Rxonly

EXAMPLE

How many dosesare in a bottle of 1.20ml of Donnatal elixir if eachdoseis 10 ml?

= 12 doses

Placing

the unitsyouwant in the finalanswerin the numerator

of the firsttermof the dimensional

analysis

setup

helpsto ensureyouranswerwill be in the correctunits.Also,unitscanbe canceled

onlywhenidenticalunitsappear

in boththe numerator

anddenominator.

72

The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act (CMEA) setsdaily and monthly limits for the amount of

pseudoephedrine

that can be sold without a prescriptionto an individual.You cannot sell more than 3.6

per day without a prescriptionor 9 gramsin a 30-dayperiod to an individual.

pseudoephedrine

gramsof

The table below shows daily and monthly limits for pseudoephedrinesalesto an individual.

SulfateTablets

30 mg Pseudoephedrine

155 Tablets

389Tablets

SulfateTablets

50 mg Pseudoephedrine

77 Tablets

194Tablets

SulfateTablets

120mg Pseudoephedrine

38 Tablets

97 Tablets

SulfateTablets

240mg Pseudoephedrine

19Tablets

48 Tablets

HCITablets

30 mg Pseudoephedrine

146Tablets

366Tablets

HCITablets

60 mg Pseudoephedrine

73 Tablets

183Tablets

HClTablets

120mg Pseudoephedrine

36 Tablets

91 Tablets

C I/ 5 m l L i q u i d

ne

1 5 m g P s e u d o e p h e d r iH

1 , 4 6 4m l

3 , 6 6 1m l

EXAMPLE

'Sfhat

is

HCI and are availablein boxesof 24,48, and 96 tablets.

Sudafed30 mg tabletscontain pseudoephedrine

the maximum number of boxes containing 24 tabletsthat could be purchasedby an individual in one day?

HCI is 146 tablets.To solvefor the number of

The one-daylimit for over-the-countersaleof pseudoephedine

packages,you could set up a dimensionalanalysisequation.

Package

24 Tablets

146Tablets

D"y

= 6.083packages

EXAMPLE

HCV5 ml and is availablein bottlesof 118 ml. \7hat is

Children'sSudafedliquid containsL5 mg pseudoephedrine

the maximum number of bottlescontaining 118 ml that could be purchasedby an individual in one day?

HCI 15 mV5ml is 1.,464ml. To solvefor the number

The one-daylimit for over-the-countersaleof pseudoephedine

of bottles,you could set up a dimensionalanalysisequation.

: L2.407 bottles

Becauseyou can only sell whole bottles,you needto round down to 12 bottles.

EXAMPLE

HCI and are availablein boxesof 24,48, and 96 tablets.'Whatis

Sudafed30 mg tabletscontain pseudoephedrine

tablets

that could be purchasedby an individual in 30 days?

96

number

of

boxes

containing

the maximum

HCI is 355 tablets.To solvefor the number of

The 30-day limit for over-the-countersaleof pseudoephedine

packages,you could set up a dimensionalanalysisequation.

: 3.81 packages

Becauseyou can only sell whole packages,you needto round down to 3 packages.

Calculations

E ChaptertO

to SolvePharmacy

Analysis

or Dimensional

andProportions

UsingRatios

73

Notice, when setting up the problem to solve for the maximum number of packagesthat can be sold in 30 days,

it can be helpful to spell the word thirty inyour set up, so you don't accidentally usethe number 30 in your

calculations.

Pharmocy Calculations I

StudentName

Date

CourseNumber

l.

a.

25140:

and

b. The meansare

and -.

2. 2/3

and

4l

3. 5/7

and

1,51

4. 3t6

and

Il

s. 5t1.0

and

/l

6. 2t8

and

3l

7.

IJ

and

416

8.

t8

and

3124

9.

t1.2 and

516

and

618

11.

t5

and

1,0125

L2.

t6

and

1,0112

and

6142

and

2/5

and

411.0

1.3.

14.

"- lts

15.

/5

L6. 3t5

and

/r00

t7.

and

/8

125/1.,000

18. 3t8

and

19. 2/3

and

3751

t1,2

UsingRatios

andProportions

or Dimensional

Analysis

to SolvePharmacy

Calculations

k ChaptertO

75

20. How many tablets will be taken in sevendays if a prescription order reads

zafirlukast 20 mgltablet, one tablet twice a day?

21. How many capsuleswill be taken in three days if a prescription order reads

tetracycline 250 mglcapsule,one capsulefour times a day?

22. How many tablets will be taken in five days if a prescription order reads

sucralfate 1, gltablet,one tablet four times a day?

zaleplon5 mg/tablet, one tablet daily at bedtime?

24. How many tablets will be taken in 30 days if a prescription order reads

methylphenidate 10 mgltablet, one tablet three times a day?

zidovudine100 mg/capsules,

threecapsulestwice daily?

26. How many tablets are neededto fill a prescription for 34 days for

nabumetone500 mg/tablet,one tablet twice daily?

27. How many tablets will be taken in 10 days if a prescription order reads

metoclopramide 5 mg/tablet, one tablet three times a day?

28. How many tablets will be taken in 10 days if a prescription order reads

rabeprazole20 mgltablet, one tablet twice a day?

76

29. How many tablets will be taken in sevendays if a prescription order reads

albuterol 2 mgltablet, one tablet four times a day?

promethazine L2.5 mg/tablet, one tablet three times a day?

31. How many tablets will be taken in five days if a prescription order reads

fluphenazine1 mg/tablet, one tablet three times a day?

ampicillin 500 mg/capsule,one capsulefour times a day?

primadone 250 mgltablet, one tablet three times a day?

34. How many tablets are neededto filI a prescription for 34 days for

acarbose50 mg/tablet,one tablet threetimes a day?

prazosin 1 mg/capsules,fwo capsulesthree times a day?

36. How many tablets are neededto fill a prescription for 21' days for

repaglinide 0.5 mg/tablet, one tablet three times a day?

37. How many capsulesare neededto fill a prescription for 34 days for

potassium chloride 10 mEq/capsule,one capsulefour times a day?

Calculations

or Dimensional

Analysis

to SolvePharmacy

k ChaptertO

andProportions

UsingRatios

??

38. How many capsulesare neededto fill a prescription for three days for

mefenamic acid 250 mg/capsule,one capsulefour times a day?

39. How many tablets are neededto fill a prescription for 2l days fdr

dipyridamole 50 mg/tablet, one tablet four times a day?

40. How many tablets are neededto fill a prescription for sevendays for

cyproheptadine4 mgltablet, one tablet three times a day?

41. Sudafed30 mg tabletscontain pseudoephedrine

boxesof 24,48, and 96 tablets.The CMEA limit for saleis 146 tabletsper

day.'S7hatis the maximum number of boxes containing 48 tablets that could

be purchasedby an individual in one day?

HCys ml and

42. Children'sSudafedliquid contains15 mg pseudoephedrine

is availablein bottlesof 118 ml. The CMEA limit for saleis 3,66L m|per

thirty days.\7hat is the maximum number of bottlescontaining 118 ml

that could be purchasedby an individual in thirty days?

43. Sudafed30 mg tabletscontain pseudoephedrine

boxesof 24,48, and 96 tablets.The CMEA limit for saleis 366 tabletsper

thirty days.'Whatis the maximum number of boxescontaining48 tablets

that could be purchasedby an individual in 30 days?

7A

Percents

LEARNING

OBJECTIVES

After completingthis chapter,the studentwill be ableto:

1 Explain

the relationship

betweenpercents

anddecimals

2 Convertpercents

to decimals

3 Convertdecimals

to percents

The percent symbol (%o)can be used as a way to write a fraction with a common

denominatorof 100.

EXAMPLE

20 oatof every700equals20%o

EXAMPLE

5 outof every100equals

5%

EXAMPTE

15"/o:15/100:0.15

Fifteenpercent(1,5%)is the sameas the fraction 15/100 and the decimal0.15.

Toeonverta pereentto deeitrnals,

to the left

iust movethe dedmd,p.0irlt.2,p{ces

andremove

the "%" siEn.

.{il$}:rr

You can write percentsas decimalsby moving the decimal point two placesto

the left.

You can also write decimalsas percents,by moving the decimal point two places

to the right.

0.15

0.1.5,

15o/o

2 places

EXAMPLE

Express27"/o as a decimal.

Becauseyou can write a peicent as a decimal by movin$ the decimal point two

placedto the left:

27%i":0.27

KEYTERMS

Penerffperi00oroutoYltD'

Percent

symbol:awayto writea

fraction

withadenominator

of 100

EXAMPLE

Express0.85 as a percent.

Becauseyou can write decimalsas percentsby moving the decimal point two placesto the right:

.8 5: 8 s %

I

EXAMPLE

,

Calculate30% of 300.

2. Thenmultiply: 0.30 x 300 : 90

Therefore,30% of 300 is 90.

EXAMPLE

Write 5 out of 12 asa percent.

6 out of 12 : 0.5 : 50o/o

EXAMPLE

Findthevalueof n if n is 50%of 60.

n:0.5x60:30

EXAMPLE

Findthevalueof n if n is 750%ol24.

n:1.5x24=36

EXAMPLE

Findthevalueof n if n is 25% of.24.

n:0.25X24:6

EXAMPLE

Findthevalueof n if n is 1,10%of 40.

n:1.10X40:44

for medication

Percent

strength

means

thenumberof gramsdrugper100ml if in liquidor 100gramsif in solid.

EXAMPLE

Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution contains 0.083% albuterol sulfate.

Expressthe strength as a decimal fraction.

I|oc 0487+501.03

ffiffHmffir";T*".**

ffi-*"

80

PharmacgCalculationsI

Student Name

Date

Course Number

t. 33%

9. 7s%

2. 24%

10. 8332%

3. 33.3%

rr. 66.66667%

4. s0.s%

12. 18.s%

5. 20%

13. 1.3%

6. 47%

14. 0.25%

7. 93%

15. 0.L25%

8. 32.s%

Expressthe follouting decimalsd.spercents:

16. 0.2444

0.52

17.

0.3

27.

0.4

18.

0.5

28.

0.65

19.

0.L25

29.

0.025

20.

0.75

21.

0.02

22.

0.09

0.004

23.

0.1

1.10

24.

0.8

1..7

5

25.

0.36

0.035

31.

35.

0.055

Percents

I Chapter11

81

36. 25% of600

37. 20%of30

3 8 . L 5 %o f 2 0

39. 75'/"of 50

40. L2.5'/"of 24

41.80%of40

42.90%ofL00

43. 1.7%of L0

44. 110%of 5

4 5 . 3 3 %o f 9 0

46. 5"/. of 50

48. 40%of 50

5 0 . 7 0 %o f 4 0 0

51.

4outof5

k ch*pt*r lt

Percents

83

52.

2 outof 10

53.

ToutofS

54.

15 out of 20

56.

85 outof 100

5/.

)outorb

J6.

JOUIOT /

59.

6 outof2j

60.

12 out of20

84

61.

35 out of40

62.

40 out of 50

63.

55 out of 100

64.

80 out of 90

65.

32 out of 64

66. Ifnis20%of50

67. If n is 35"/. of 24

68. Ifnis60%of8

Percents

E Chupt"rtt

85

69. If n is 75o/oof l0

70. If n is 80% of 15

71. If n is 40% of 30

73. If n is 25% of 50

74. lf n is 30% of 90

75. If n is 100%of 50

Exponents

and

\--lScientificNotation

LEARNING

OBJECTIVES

After completingtbis cbapter,the studentutill be able to:

1 Definethetermexponent

2 Definetheterm scientific

notation

givenin exponential

3 Express

numbers

formaswholenumbers

4 Express

largenumbers

in scientific

notation

iI

',i

Exponents are a shorthand way to show how many times a number is multiplied times

itself. A number with an exponent is said to be "raised to the power" of that exponent.

A power is the number of times that a number occurs as a factor in a product

indicated by an exponent.

EXAMPLE

3a:3x3x3x3:81

,

Any number raised to the zero power (except0) equals L. In this example,3 is

raised to the power of 4.

You can begin to understandexponentsby looking at multiplication of the number 2.

2x2:22:4

2 x 2 x 2 :23 : 8

2x2x2x2:24:15

2x2x2x2x2:25:32

2x2x2x2x2x2:26:64

Anynumberndised

to theplilu.ennfz&iEreqtralstt.

i:-'

EXAMPLE

30:1

Any number raised to the powgr of one equalsitself.

EXAT'/IPLE

3 1: 3

KEYTERMS

Exponents;a shorthand

wayto

showhow manytiinesa number

isrnultiplied

timesitself

Power:the numberof timesthat

a numberoccursasa factorin

a productasindicatedby an

exponent

Scientific notation: expressi

ng

productof a

a number'as'a

numberbetween1 and10

anda powerof 10

EXAMPLE

42:4X4:76

EXAMPLE

103:10x10X10:1,000

EXAMPLE

53:5x5x5:125

As demonstratedin the previous example,the exponent tells us how many zeros follow.

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

For decimal fractions that are lessthan one, exponentsare expressedas negativenumbers.

The number in the negativeexponent tells us the number of decimal places.

EXAMPLE

10- I : 0.1

EXAMPLE

10--3: 0.001

EXAMPLE

10--2: 0.01

Notation

Scientific

Scientificnotation is a short way of writing very long numbers. On a calculator,scientific notation is also known as

E notation ("E" standsfor "Exponent").

A number written in scientificnotation is written as a product of a number between1 and 10 and a power of 10.

EXAMPLE

'Write

438,680,000in scientificnotation.

1. Changethe number to a number between 1 and 10 by moving the decimal point 8 placesto the left.

2. Multiply by 10 raisedto the power of the number of placesyou had to move the decimalpoint.

438,680,000: 4.3868 x 108

On a calculatorwindow, the baseof 10 is not shown; insteadE or EE is usedto indicatean exponent.E or EE on a

calculator means"10 raised to the following power."

EXAMPLE

\7rite the followingnumbersin scientificnotation.

434,000: 4.34 x 10s or 4.34 x 10 EE5

: 8.427x 105 or 8.421x 10 EE 5

8,421.,000

: 2.341,2x 1010 or 2.3472x 10 EE 10

23,472,000,000

in scientificnotation.

Decimalfractionsthat arelessthan onecanalsobe expressed

EXAMPLE

0 . 34: 3 . 4 x 1 0 { o r 3 .4x 1 0E E -1

EXAMPLE

: 4.5 x 10+ or 4.5 x 10EE4

0.00045

88

EXAMPLE

:2.1. x 104 or 2.1 x L0EE-2

0.021.

Student Name

CourseNumber

Date

1

2.

10

11. 32

12. 43

3. tl

13. 64

4.

103

14. 72

5.

310

15. 92

6.

66

16. 1.02

7. t23

17.34

8.

105

18. 47

g.

44

lg.

10. 5s

52

20. 63

NotationI Chapter 1Z

Exponents

and Scientific

21. 12

34. 15

22. 456

tt', w

23. 5,309

36. 6,100

24. 78,322

37. 772

25. 704,043 :

38. 503

26. 1.,567,334 :

39. 35

27. 0.72

40. 1,000,000:

28. 0.725

4!.

29. 0.0056

30. 23

43.0.0005:5x10-4

31. 100

45.1.:t x100

32. 1.000

33.5

90

PharmacgCalculationsI

InterpretinliPrescriptions

Household

andConverting

andMetricMeasuremeflts

CHAPTER

13

LTARNING

CIBJHCTIVES

After completing this chapter,the stwdentwill be able to:

1 Describe

the metricsystem

2 ldentifythe standardmetricunitsfor length,weight,and volume

3 Defineprefixesusedin the metricsystem

4

Performconversions

betweenthe metricsystemand householdmeasurements

5 Performconversions

6 Interpretcommonpharmacyabbreviations

Doctors order medicationsfor outpatientsas prescriptionsthat are filled in pharmacies.Informationis providedin prescriptionsin a standardway (seeFig. 13-1).

pharmacycalculationsassociated

with filling prescriptions,

To perform necessary

rwo parts of the prescription are especiallyimportant: the inscription and the signa.

The inscriptiongivesthe nameof the medicationand the amount to be dispensed.

The signaprovidesinstructionsfor use.Other elementsof the prescription

are requiredby law and are beyondthe scopeof this book. It is important for

pharmacytechniciansto know the common abbreviationsthat are usedin

prescriptions,and somecommon pharmacyabbreviationsare listedin Table 13-1.

provides

and

the nameof the medication

Theinscription

of a prescription

for use.

Thesignaprovides

the directions

amountto dispense.

KEYTERM S

measure

of

Gram(g): standard

weightin the metricsystem

partof the prescription

Inscription:

information

about

that provides

thedrugandamount

measure

of

Meter(m): standard

lengthin the metricsystem

of measure

Metricsystem:system

basedon the mete[litel and

gram

Milliliter(mlor mL):common

inthe

measure

of volume

metricsystem

Signa(Sig):partofthe prescription

thedirections

for

that orovides

u5e

91

William M. Fox, MD

1234 Main Street

Anytown, Colorado 12345

Tel. (123) 456-7890 Fax.(I23) 456-1234

oor,slttlzote

*o., da.t1aDoe

ADDRESS

ssna------------+

5t

- '(t

'?i?l,"'J;.

prescribed

andamount

leil7

T tlW

1^F7234567

Refill -

Figure13-1

to provideinformationthat is

Abbreviations.

Abbreviations

arecommonlyusedin prescriptions

TABLE13-1 CommonPharmacy

the medication.

necessary

to prepareand administer

a,c.

before food

p.c.

after food

ad

to, up to

p.o.

by mouth

ad lib.

freely

p.r.

by rectum

bib.

drink

p.r.n.

as needed

b.i.d.

twice a day

qAM

eachmorning

with

q.h.

eachhour

daily

eachday

q[2,3,a...]h

gt or gtt

drop

q.i.d.

h.s.

at bedtime

qs

quantitysufficient*

i.m.

Rx

take

i.v.

without

non rep.or nr

do not repeat

s.l.

underthe tongue

o.d.

right eye

stat.

immediately

o.s.

left eye

t.i.d.

both eyes.

prescription,

you should"add up"

ingredient.

to thetotalamountindicated

by qswith the appropriate

o.u.

92

The metric systemis widely used in medicine.The strength of a medication is almost always given in metric units,

most commonly the milligram (mg).For example,atenolol50 mg tabletshave 50 mg of the activeingredient

(atenolol)in eachtablet; however,if you weighedeachtablet on a scale,you would find eachtablet weighsmuch

more than 50 mg (dueto bindersand fillers that areneededfor the tablet to take form and hold together).

The metric systemwas developedin the late 1700s to replace a systemwith illogical units of measurewith a

rational systembasedon multiples of 10. The meter is the standard unit of length in the metric systemand the

length of the meter is basedon the arc of the meridian from Barcelond,Spain,to Dunkirk, France.All metric units

were derived from the meter.The gram is the standard measureof,weight in the metric system(which is the weight

of one cubic centimeter(cc)of water at its maximum density).

Greek prefixeswere establishedfor multiples of 10, ranging

from pico- (one-trillionth) to tera- (one trillion) and including

the more familiar micro- (one-millionth),milli- (one-thousandth),

and kilo- (onethousand).Thus,a

centi-(one-hundredth),

kilogram equals1,000grams,a millimeterL/1,000of a meter.

One cubic centimeter(cc)is equalto one milliliter (ml). A

milliliter is a measureof volume and there are 1.000 milliliters

in one liter.

EXAMPLE

How many centimeters(cm) are in one meter?

Becausethe prefix centi means10-2,there arc 1.02(or 100)

centimetersin one meter.

Factor

Name

Symbol

10s

gtga

106

me9a

103

kilo

102

.l01

hecto

deka

da

10-t

deci

l0-2

centi

10-3

milli

10-6

micro

10-s

nano

10-12

pico

EXAMPLE

How many milliliters (ml) are in one liter?

Becausethe prefix milli means10-3,there are 103(or 1,000) milliliters in one liter.

Measurements

Converting

usedin

Medicationsare preparedby drug manufacturersaccordingto the metric standardsand measurements

medication

for

the

dose

of

measurements

metric

to

accurately

convert

science.Pharmacieshave an important duty

to ensurethat patientsget the correctdoseof medication.The pharmacylabel should

to householdmeasurements

provide information so the patient can read the directionson the prescriptionbottle,measurethe correctdoseof

medication.and take the correct doseof medication.

Liquid medicationstaken by mouth are

commonly dispensedin community pharmacies.

Somebut not all measuringspoonsand

measuringcupsare labeledwith both household

and metric units.The directionsare usually

printed on the prescriptionlabel so the volume

can be measuredusing householdmeasuring

devicessuchas measuringspoons,cups,etc.

HouseholdMeasure

MetricEquivalent

(tsp.)

1 teaspoonful

5ml

(Tbl.)

1 tablespoonful

1 fluidounce(fl.oz.)

to 30 ml)

29.6ml (oftenrounded

1 pint(pt.)

to 480 ml)

473 ml (oftenrounded

1 g a l l o n( g a l . )

3 , 7 8 5m l

1 p o u n d( l b . )

454 g

1 5m l

dropperor medicine

usinga medicine

accurately

andshouldbe administered

Liquidmedications

mustbe measured

spoon.Householdeatlngutensilsdo not provideaccuratemeasurements.

h Chapter13

Household

andMetricMeasurements

Prescriptions

andConverting

Interpreting

93

can be done by carefullysettingup proportions as

fractions, then multiplying the fractions to get the correct answer.

lmportant Alwaysbe sureyou are usingthe correctconversion

factorswhen settingup ratioand proportionor

dimensional

analysis

equations.

EXAMPLE

Convert 2 tsp. to ml.

1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso the units you want in the final answer are in the

numeratorof the first fraction: 5 mV1 tsp.

2. Setup the next fraction so the units of the numerator in the secondfraction are the sameas the units of the

denominatorin the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractionsare multiplied): 2 tsp.

3. Multiply the fractions!Always be surethe numeratorcontainsthe units of the measuringdevicethat you are

using for your measurement:5 ml/l, tsp. X 2 tsp. : 10 ml.

bnportant: Always double checkyour work to be surethe units canceland the numeratorcontainsthe correct

units.Also, be suretherewas not an error usingthe calculator!

5 mV1 tsp. X 2 tsp. : 19 -1

EXAMPLE

Convert 5 pints to milliliters.

1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso the units you want in the final answerare in the

numeratorof the first fraction: 473 mUpint.

2. Setup the next fraction so the units of the numeratorin the secondfraction are the sameas the units of the

denominatorin the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractionsare multiplied); 5 pints.

3. Multiolv the fractions.

473 ml

: 2,365ml

Whencalculating

bodyweightfrom lbs.to kg,use2.2lbs./kg.

EXAMPLE

A 66-Ib. child weighshow many kilograms?

1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso the units you want in the final answerare in the

numerator of the first fraction: kg/2.2Lb.

2. Setup the next fraction so the units of the numeratorin the secondfraction are the sameas the units of the

denominatorin the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractionsare multiplied): 66 lb.

3. Multiply the fractions.

:30k9

94

EXAMPLE

If a prescriptionreads:7.5 ml t.i.d., what is the dosein householdunits?

1 tsp./Sml x 7.5 mVdose: 1.5 tsp./dose

1. Start by setting up a dimensional analysisequation so the units you want in the final answer are in the

numerator of the first fraction: 1 tsp./S ml

2. Set up the next fraction so the units of the numerator in the ,..orrd fraction are the sameas the units of the

denominator in the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied): 7.5 mVdose

3. Multiply the fractions! Always be sure the numerator contains the units of the measuringdevicethat you are

using for your measurement:1 tsp./Sml x 7.5 mVdose: 1.5 tsp./dose

Important: Again, rememberto check your work!

EXAMPLE

If a prescriptionreads:Amoxicillin 250 mglSml, dispense150 ml, 375 mgt.i.d. X 5d, what is the dosein

householdunits?

L tsp./Sml x 5 mU250mg x 375 mg/dose: 1.5 tsp./dose

EXAMPLE

If a medicationis ordered5 mg/kg/day and is administeredoncedaily,what is the dosefor a 150-poundpatient?

5 ms

kg'day |

t*

| rsotu'.

2.2lbs. I

34v j rrrgrciay

EXAMPLE

How many 50 ml bottlescan be preparedfrom 1 L of simplesyrup?

1. Start by setting up a dimensional analysisequation so that the units you want in the final answer are in the

numerator of the first fraction: Bottle/50 ml.

2. Set up the next fraction so that the units of the numerator in the secondfraction are the sameas the units

of the denominator in the first fraction (that is, so that the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied):

1,000 ml/L.

3. Set up the next fraction so that the units of the numerator in the third fraction are the sameas the units of the

denominator in the secondfraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied): 1 L.

4. Multiply the fractions.

1,000ml

: 20 bottles

il Chaptertl

Household

andMetricMeasurements

Prescriptions

andConverting

Interpreting

95

EXAMPLE

'b

n

equationso that the units you want in the

final answer are in the numerator of the

first fraction: 9/1,000mg.

-E

o

c

.o

z

o

o

.9

o

the numerator in the secondfraction are

the sameas the units of the denominator

in the first fraction (that is, so the units

cancelwhen the fractionsare multiplied):

105 mg/dl.

o

p

E

c

..

@

.9

o

!

A

u,

i-

: 0.105s/dl

t

th

-g

o

c

.9

z

of glucosein the blood.Convert105mg/dl to g/dl.

EXAMPLE

A patientneedsto take 10 ml of Maalox. How many teaspoonsis 10 ml?

1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso that the units

you want in the final answerare in the numeratorof the first fraction:

teaspoon/Sml.

2. Setup the next fraction so the units of the numerator in the second

fraction are the sameas the units of the denominator in the first fraction

(that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied):

10 mVdose.

3. Multiply the fractions:

: 2 teaspoons/dose

g5

Student Name

\r

CourseNumber

Date

Conuertthe follouti.ng:

1. 1/3tsp.

ml

2. 3 tsp.

ml

3. 2 pints

ml

4. 1./2Lb.

3 quarts

ml

6. 1./2tsp.

ml

7. L 1.12tsp.

ml

8. 3 gal.

ml

5.

9.

\_

3 tablespoonsful

ml

10. 2 fl.oz.

ml

ml

12. 3 pints

ml

I Chapter13

Household

andMetricMeasurements

andConverting

Prescriptions

Interpreting

97

13. 3 lbs.

1,4. ml

tsp.

15. 45 ml

fl,.oz.

16. 15 ml

rsp.

17. 2,365mI

pints

1 8 . 2 2 , 7 1 0m l

gal.

19. 2 ml

rsp.

20. 20 ml

rsp.

21. 908g

Ibs.

22. 45 ml

- tsp.

2 3 . 1 0 0g

lbs.

24. 3 Tbl.

ml

25. 5 fl.o2.

ml

26. 5lbs.

kg

Tbl.

2 7 . 1 , 1 3 5g

lbs.

28. 2pt.

ml

29. 473 ml

pt.

30. 0.9kg

Ibs.

31. 9,080g

lbs.

32. 1,000mg

33. 0.908kg

lbs.

34. 3.785liters

b*^'

3 5 . 1 . 8 1 6k g

lbs.

36. 1.75tsp.

ml

37. 7.5ml

Tbl.

38. 30 ml

tsp.

39. 60 ml

Tbl.

4A. 88.8ml

fl. oz.

ocl

k Chaptert:

Household

andMetricMeasurements

Prescriptions

andConverting

Interpreting

what is the dosein teaspoonsful?

what is the dosein teaspoonsful?

43. If the dose of a medication is 30 mg/kg/day in four divided doses,what is each dose

for a 205-poundpatient?(Hints: Use2.2lb./kg and note there are 4 dosesper day.)

44, If a prescription

reads:Amoxicillin50 mg/ml,dispense

30 ml, 62.5 mgt.i.d. X 5d,

what is the dosein teaspoonsful?

45. How many gallons of Coca Cola fountain syrup are neededto package 144 bottles

of 720 ml per bottle?

lOO

PharmacyCalculationsI

Apothecary

Converting

andMetricMeasurements

OBJECTIVES

LEARNING

CHAPTER

l4

measurein pharmacy

of apothecary

the significance

1 Describe

to metricunits

from apothecary

2 Performconversion

units

from metricto apothecary

3 Performconversion

The

Someprescribersorder medicationsusingthe apothecarysystemof measurement.

most commonly usedapothecarymeasuresare grains (to measureweight of solids)

and drams (to measurevolume of liquids).

Measures

Apothecary

ApothecaryMeasure

Metric Equivalent

l grain

to 65 mg)

64.8mg (oftenrounded

1 dram

5 ml(: 1teasPoon)

1 Il. oz.

1 oz.(apothecary)

to 30 ml)

29.6ml (oftenrounded

31g

KEYTERMS

ounceisdifferentthanthe weightof an

Theweightof an apothecary

measures'

ounceisusedin commercial

ounce.Theavoirdupois

avoirdupois

by carefullysettingup proportions as fractions,then multiplying

measurements

the fractionsto get the correctanswer.

Importa.nt: Always be sureyou are usingthe cofrect conversionfactor when

settingup ratio and proportion or dimensionalanalysisequations.Always double

checkyour calculations!

systemof

Apothecary

of

a system

measurement:

with

associated

measurement

pharmaceuticals

that uses

andgrains

ounces

Metricsysternof measurernent:

of measurement

a system

with pharmaceuticals

associated

that usesgrams,liters,and

meters

E XA M P L E

Convert 1,6.2mg to grains.

mg x L6.2 mg : 0.25 gr.

9r.164.8

EXAMPLE

If a prescriptionreadsDonnatal elixir,dispense150 ml,

1 dram t.i.d.,what is the dosein householdunits?

1 tsp./5 ml x 5 ml/1 dram x 1 dram/dose: 1 tsp./dose

corrtains:

Each5 nL (1leaspoontul)

16.2mg

Phenobaoltal,

USP

n4

IJSP

0.1037

Hyosclamine

Sultrte.

0 0194mg

Sullate,USP

Alr@iile

$0p0lamrne

mg

0.0065

Hydrobrooide.

USP

Alcoho{

mt norethan23.80/"

OO}.IOT

USEIFTAHPEN'WIDEIIT

0R

ul.tDEB

cAPls 8Rol{Efi

. t{ol For}lousshold

gull Conlainef

Usa

to'l

EXAMPLE

If a prescription reads:aspirin 5 gr., dispense100 tablets, 1 tablet q4-6hprn headache,

what is the dose in milligrams?

64.8 mglgrain X 5 grains/tablet x ltabletldose : 324 mg/dose

Important: Always be sure you are using the correct conversionf.actorwhen setting up

ratio and proportions or dimensional analysisequations,and always dopble check your

calculations!

l00lqatm-::smomch

The5 grainstrength

iscommonly

available

as325mg.

EXAMPLE

A prescription calls f.or 93 g of hydrocortisone 2.5o/ocream.Convert 93 g to apothecaryounces.

1. Start by setting up a dimensional analysisequation so that the units you want in the final answer are in the

numerator of the first fraction: oz./31 g.

2. Setup the next fraction so that the units of the numerator in the secondfraction are the sameas the units of the

denominator in the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied): 93 g.

3. Multiply the fractions.

:3oz

102

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