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FOURTHEDITION

Mary F.Powers
Sciences
University
of ToledoCollegeof Pharmacy
andPharmaceutical

JanetB.Wakelin
Cuyahoga
Community
College(Retired)

MORTON
925W.Kenybn
Avenue,
Unit 12
Englewood,
CO80110
www.morton-pub.com

BCOKTEAM
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C o m p o s i t i o n :W i l l K e l l e y

To the best of the Publisher's knowledge, the information presented in this book is
correct and compatible with standards generally accepted for administering drugs. The
reader is advised to consult the information material included with each drug or agent
before administration. However, please note that you are reponsible for following your
employer'sand your state'spolicies,procedures,and guidelines.
The job description for pharmacy technicians varies by institution and state. Your
employer and state can provide you with the most recent regulations, guidelines,
and practicesthat apply to your work.
The Publisher of this book disclaims any responsibility whatsoever for any injuries,
damages,or other conditions that result from your practice of the skills described in
this book for any reason whatsoever.

Copyright @ 2073,201.0,2005, 200t by Morton PublishingCompany


Library of CongressControl Number: 201,2951,976
ISBN: 978-1.-6L731-074-4
All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval.system,or transmitted,in any form or by any
means,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,or otherwise,
without the prior written permissionof the publisher.
Printed in the United Statesof America
1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 L

'/
onrcnts
e

Sestion1 BasicArithmetic
I ctraptert

Numeral SystemsUsedin Pharmacy

I ffraper I

Numerators,Denominators,and Reciprocals
o fF r a c t i o n s . . . . . .

1
3

........9

lcnapter I

ReducingFractionstoLowestTerms.

* chapter*

Addingand Subtracting
Fractions.....

I chapterS

Multiplyingand DividingFractions

....... 31

I chaper o

'Writing
Fractionsin DecimalForm .

...... 39

I ChapterI

RoundingDecimalsand SignificantFigures

...... 43

I CtrapterA

Addingand Subtracting
DecimalNumbers

...... 49

I C*rapterO

Multiplying and Dividing DecimalNumbers

I Chapterl0

Using Ratios and Proportionsor Dimensional


Analysisto SolvePharmacyCalculations.......... 69

I chapterl1

Percents

......,. 79

lchapter tz

Exponents
and Scientific
Notation

........ 87

I Chapter'!s

InterpretingPrescriptionsand Converting
Householdand Metric Measurements...

..... 15
.... 21

.... 59

...9L

*cnapter tc

ConvertingApothecaryand Metric Measurements. . . . 101

* ttcper tF

Converting Betweenthe Different Temperature


Scalesand Calculationswith Density
and SpecificGravity

. . .107

Section2

Pharmacy 115
for Community
Calculations

H ChaptertS Calculationsfor Compounding

r17

t' Chapter17 Calculationsfor DaysSupply

t25

d Chapten'ls Adjusting Refillsfor Short-filledPrescriptions.

135

E Chapter1$ Calculationsfor DispensingFees,Co-pays,


DifferencePricing.

d Chapter2CI Calculations
for BillingCompounds......

.. 153

d Chapten
?1 CashRegisterCalculations..

.. 16I

f Chapten
2? Usualand CustomaryPrices.

.. 173

C Chapter23 Discounts
C Chapter24 GrossandNet Profits.
t' Chapter2$ InventoryControl
d Chapter26 DailyCashReport.

Section3

vilt

. I45

. 179
.. 185
...... 19t
..... L99

Pharmacy 205
for Institutional
Calculations

* Chapter 27

s . . . . . 207
ParenteralDosesUsingRatio and ProportionCalculation

d Chapter 2S

PowderedDrug Preparations.

d Chapter 29

Percentages

....... 231

E Chapter 3fr

RatioSolutions
..

....... 24t

d Chapter 3'l

DosageCalculationsBasedon BodyWeight

. . . . .. . 25t

d Chapter 32

Area..
DosageCalculations
Basedon BodySurface

i Chapter 33

InfusionRatesandDrip Rates

d Chapten 34

Dilutions

d Chapter 35

Alligations

Pharmacg Calculations t

. 219

...... 263
....... 275
.. 287
....... 297

i Chapter 36

\,

ParenteralNutrition Calculations.. . . . .

lChapter37DosageCalcu1ationsfromMedicationLabels

313
325

AppendixA Practice
Exam

353

Appendix B Answers
Problems
to Practice

351

t' PhotoCredits

381

I tndex

383

tx

S E C T I O N

ln ThisSection
Usedin Pharmacy
1 NumeralSystems
Denominators,
and Reciprocals
2 Numerators,
of Fractions
to LowestTerms
3 ReducingFractions
4 Rddingand SubtractingFractions
5 vtultiplyingand DividingFractions
in DecimalForm
6 WritingFractions
Figures
and Significant
7 RoundingDecimals
DecimalNumbers
8 Rddingand Subtracting
9 wultiplyingand DividingDecimalNumbers
or Dimensional
10 UsingRatiosand Proportions
Analysis
to SolvePharmacy
Calculations
11 Percents
and ScientificNotations
12 Exponents
and Converting
13 InterpretingPrescriptions
Household
and MetricMeasurements
14 ConvertingApothecaryand Metric
Measurements
15 ConvertingBetweenthe Different
with
Temperature
Scales
and Calculations
Densityand SpecificGravity

NumeralSystems
Usedin Pharmacy

CHAPTER

LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
After completing this cbapter,the student will be able to:
1 Explainthe meaningof Romannumeralsand Arabicnumerals
2 ConvertRomannumeralsto Arabicnumerals
3 ConvertArabicnumeralsto Romannumerals
4

neededto fill a prescription


that
Determinethe numberof tabletsor capsules
hasthe quantitywritten in Romannumerals

Arithmetic is the branch of mathematicsin which numbersare usedto solveproblems.


There are many systemsin the world for writing numbers. The systemfor writing
numbersthat is widely usedthroughout the world today is basedon the number
10 and is known as the Arabic system.In the Arabic system,the position a symbol
occupieshelpsdeterminethe value of the symbol. For example,in 333, the 3
on the right meansthree, but the 3 in the middle meansthree tensand the 3 on the
left meansthreehundreds.

Arabicnumerals
arethe 10digitscommonly
usedin mathproblems.

KEYTERMS
Another systemfor writing numbersthat is sometimesusedin pharmacyis the
Roman numeral system.Roman numeralsare expressedby lettersof the alphabet
and are rarely usedtoday exceptfor formality or variety.
The principlesfor readingRoman numeralsare:
) A letter repeatedonce or twice repeatsits value that many times (XXX : 30,
CC : 200, etc.).
) One or more lettersthat is placedafter anotherletter of greatervalue increases
the greatervalue by the amount of the smaller(M : 6, LXX : 70, MCC :
1.,200,etc.).
) A letter placed before another letter of greater value decreasesthe greater value
by the amount of the smaller(IV : 4, XC : 90, CM : 900, etc.).

system
Arabicnumerals:numeral
in commonusetodaybasedon
the 10digits0, 1,2,3,4, 5,6,
7,8,9
system
Romannumerals:numeral
basedin ancientRomethat
useslettersandcombinations
of letters

The following common Roman numerals correspond to the following values in the Arabic system:

tl

vilt

XL

40

50

LX

60

ill

IV

XX

20

LXXX

VI

XXX

30

XC

LXX

c
D
M

100
500
1,000

70
I

80
90

Reading Roman numerals requires a different approach than reading Arabic numerals, and generallythe position
of the Roman numeral is not as important as it is in the Arabic system.Roman numerals are sometimesused on
the face of a clock or watch.

VItr

Arafuifrlurmerab

EXANIPLE
Convert the Roman numeral XXIX to the Arabic numeral.

XX:20
IX:9
XXIX:20+9:29
EXAMPLE
Convertthe Arabicnumeral67 to theRomannumeral.
LX:60

vlr:7
Combining the two Roman numerals yields LXMI

TXAMPLE
Convertthe RomannumeralXIV to the Arabicnumeral.
X:10
ItI:4

XfV:'10+4:1.4

fxAiltrlPtf

'L22to
ConverttheArabicnumeral
theRomannumeral.
C: 100
XX:20
TI: 2
Combiningthe RomannumeralsyieldsCXXII
il

Pharmacg Calculations t

Se.tlon O,ng; EasicAr:hhmetrc

m
tV

Rorymnilft,nmema[r

gxtitPtE
How many tablets are neededfor the following prescription?

William M. Fox, MD
tr234 Main Street
Anytown, Colorado 12345
Tel. (123) 456-7890 Fax. (123) 456-1234

,*n

tatto Doe

'fgtut |l

'roo

slttlno

Wt<

dr,+if 1 t{-0h fn fain


fox tlD
Ultllban4

NE

in Romannumeralsand XXX : 30. Therefore,30 tabletsare


For this prescription,the quantityis expressed
neededto fill the prescription.

E'(AitPtf
in Romannumerals.
For the prescriptionshownabove,the numberof tabletsfor eachdoseis expressed
How manytabletsareneededfor eachdose?
i-ii meansthe patientshouldtake 1 or 2 tabletsper dose.

Usedin Pharmacy
I Orryter r
Numeral
Systems

Student Name
Course Number

Date

Conuertthe follouing Roman numeralsto Arabic numerak:


1. XIX

\-/

/
11. XXXII

2. XC

12. CIX

3. CCC

13. II

4. XXXII

14.Vr[

5. XLIV

15. XXIV

6. XXII

16. XXXTV

7. Vrl

17. XLIII

8. TV

18. XXVIII

9. III

19. XIII

10. XIX

20. XXX

Numeral
Systems
Usedin Pharmacy
i Ch"pt". r

Conuert the followingArabic numerals to Roman nutnerals:

21. 10

3L. 4

22. 20

?')

23. 30

33. 12

24. 40

34. 1,6

25.50

35. 22

26. 15

36. 36

27.100

37. 49

28. 200

38. 57

29. 300

39. 150

30. 1,000

40. 900

Numerators,
Denominators,
of Fractions
andReciprocals

CilAPTER

I-EARNNNG
OB"ISCTIVEs
After completing this chapter,the student uill be able to:

1 Definethe termsfraction,numerator,anddenominator
2 Explainthe relationshipbetweenthe numeratorand the
denominatorin a fraction

3
4
5
6

Definethe term reciprocal


Explainwhy a denominatorcannotbe zero
Convertfractionsto decimals
Convertdecimals
to fractions

In the Arabic System,fractionsare usedto indicateamountsthat fall in between


whole numbers.In other words, a fraction representspart of a whole. The division
of two whole numberscan also be representedby a fraction. The two parts of a
fraction are the numerator and denominator.The denominator(the number below
the bar) tells us how many parts the whole is divided into, and the numerator (the
number abovethe bar) tells us how many of thoseparts exist.

numerator
denominator
The parts of a fraction
Remember,
the numerator
isthe top numberof a fractionandthe denominator
isthe bottomnumber(youcanthink:the Denominator
isDown).

In a fraction, the numerator can be zero, but the denominator cannot be zero.
Division by zero is undefined, therefore, no denominator can be zero.

KEY.TERMS
Decirna8;
a special
typeof fraction
in whichthedenominator
isa
number
thatisa oowerof 10
$enorninator:
the bottomnumber
in a fraction
qr*ivalentfractions:fractionsthat
represent
the sameamount
Fraction:
in theArabic
expression
partof a
system
to represent
whole
$Jumerator:
in a
thetop number
fraction
R*,cipnpcals:
two fractionsthat
whenmultiplied
together
eoual1
nun*b*rx:expressions
KItr'rple
in the
Arabicsystem
for the numbers
1,2,3,4, 5,andsoon

One way to think of a fraction is as division that hasn't beencompletedyet.

Fractionsan be viewed as parts of a whole (1)

EXAMPLE
314

You can read this fraction as three-fourths, three over four, or three divided by four.
A decimalis a specialtype of fraction in which the denominatoris a number that is
a power of 10. In other words, for decimals,the denominatorscould be 10, 100, or 1,000, etc.
The following decimalscorrespondto the following fractionsin the Arabic system

0.1

1t10

0.01

1t100

0.001

1/1,000

0.0001

1/10,000

0.00001

1/100,000

0.000001

1/1,000,000

Neveruseterminalzerosfollowingthe decimalpointfor dosesexpressed


in wholenumbers.
as
1 mg couldbe misread
10mg if a terminalzerowasaddedfollowingthe decimalpoint.

Alwaysusezerobeforea decimalwhenthe doseis lessthana wholeunit.Withoutthe preceding


zero,0.5mg could
be misread
as5 mg.

Understanding decimalsis important in pharmacy. Often dosesof medicationsare expressedin terms of decimals.

EXAMPLE
Expressthe milligram strength of Lanoxin 0.25 mg as a fraction:
0.25 :

t0

2511.00

PharmacyCalculations* SeetionOne: BasicArithmetic

EXAMPLE
Expressthe milligram (mg) strength of each drug below in the form of a fraction:
mg
Synthroid0.025 mg : 2511,,000
Synthroid0.050 mg : 50/1,000mg

Synthroid0.075mg : 7511.,000
mg
:
Synthroid0.088mg 88/1,000mg
Synthroid0.10mg : 1/10mg
mg
Synthroid0.1'L2mg : 1121L,000
Synthroid
0.L25mg: 12511,000
mg
mg
Synthroid
0.L37mg : 13711,000
mg
Synthroid
0.150mg : 150/1,000
mg
Synthroid0.175mg : L7511',000
Synthroid0.20 mg : 211'0mE
Synthroid0.30mg : 3/10mg
Fractionscanbeconvertedto decimalsby performingthe divisionusinga calculator:
314 : 0.75
EXAMPLE
you canfind the decimalequivalentof any
Herearesomeotherfractionsand their decimalequivalents.
Remember,
fractionby dividingthe numeratorby the denominator.
215 : 0.4
3 1 5: 0 . 6
4/5 : 0.8
Therearemanywaysto write fractions.Fractionsthat representthe samenumberarecalledequivalentfractions.
For example,1.12,214,
and418areall equal.To determine
if two fractionsareequal,usea calculatoranddivide.
If the answeris the same,thenthe fractionsareequal.

Reciprocals
of Fractions
Reciprocalsare two different fractions that when multiplied together equals 1. Every fraction has a reciprocal
(exceptthose fractions with zero in the numerator). The easiestway to find the reciprocal of a fraction is to switch
the numerator and denominator, or just flip the fraction over.
To find the reciprocal of a whole number, just put 1 over the whole number.
To seeif two fractionsare reciprocals,
simplymultiplythem by eachother.lf the resultis 1,then the fractionsare
reciprocals.

8 : 8/t

Reciprocalis 1/8

The reciprocalof 8 is 1/8

Numerators,
Denominators,
and Reciprocals
of Fractions
iE Chapter Z

11

EXAIIIPLIS
The reciprocalof 2 is L12
The reciprocalof 3 is 1i3
The reciprocalof.4 is'I.,/4
The reciprocalof.2l3is 3/2
The reciprocalof L/5 is 5

EXAMPTE

is availablein severaldifferentstrengths.Clonazepam
Orally DisintegratingThblets0.5 mg is shown
Clonazepam
0.5 mg asa fraction.
above.Expressthe strengthof clonazepam
0.5 : 5/1.0

Pharmacg Calcu,lationsI

Se.tion One: BasicArjthmetic

Student Name

,--,/

Date

Course Number

Use a calculator to conuert the follouting fractions to decimak:

1. L/2

16. Ll7

2. 1,14

17. 511,1,

3. 2/4

18. 516

4. 215

19. 219

5. 1/L0

20. 5/L8

6. 1,/8

21. 3/7

7. 711.2

22. 3/11

8. 1,120

23" 3l2L

9. L1100

24. 3133

10. 1/1,000

25. 5/3s

11. 318

26. 7143

12. 3/4

27. 9155

13. 4ts

33. 1.3163

14. L/3

29. 15171.

15. 711.2

30. 23/83

Numerators,
Denominators,
andReciprocals
of Fractions
I C*rapterZ

t3

Use a calculator to conuert the follouing frac'tions to decimak:

31. 1,/2

46. U7

32. 1,/4

47. 511,1

33. 214

48. 516

34. 2/5

49. 2t9

35. L/10

50. 5/18

36. t/8

51. 3t1.3

37. L11.2

52. 3123

38. U20

53. 517

39. UL00

54. 5tt2

40. 1/1'000 =

55. 5t37

41. 3/8

56. 7148

42. 3/4

57. 7/51

43. 4/5

58. 9/23

44. 1.13

59. LLl52

45. 7/'1,2

6A. 23t83

14

PharmacgCalculationsI

Section One: BasicArithmetic

Reducing
Fractions
to LowestTerms

C HA P T E N
T

-^

LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
After completing this chapter,the student utill be able to:
1 Explainhow to reducea fractionto lowestterms
2 Definethe termsprimefactorand commonfactor
3 Determinethe greatestcommonfactorof a fraction
4 Reducefractionsto lowestterms

To reducea fraction to lowest terms, also known as simplifying a fraction, divide the
numeratorand denominatorby their greatestcommon factor.The greatestcommon
factor is a whole number and both the numeratorand denominatorcan be divided by
this number (factor).Somefractionsare aheadyin lowestterms if thereis no factor
common to the numerator and denominator.
The stepsto reducea fraction to its lowest terms are:
1. Identify the prime factors (a prime factor is a whole number that is divisibleby
only 1 and itself) of the numeratorand denominator.
2. Find the factorscommon to both the numeratorand denominator.
3. Divide the numeratorand denominatorby all common factors (this is called
canceling).
A factorisa wholenumberand boththe numerator
anddenominator
canbe
dividedby thisnumber(factor).

A primefactorisa wholenumberthat isdivisible


bv onlv 1 and itself.

KEYTERMS
Canceling;
dividingthe numerator
a denominator
of a fractionbv
allcommon
factors
Greatestcommonfactor: the
wholenumberthat both
numerator
anddenominator
canbedividedbyto reduce
the
fraction
Primefactor:a wholenumoer
divisible
byonly1 anditself
Simplifying
a fiaction:reducing
a
fractionsothe numerator
and
denominator
arethesmallest
wholenumbers
oossible

t5

You can visualize prime numbers by looking at arrangementsof objects. If the objectscan be placed in a
symmetrical arrangement,then, the number is not prime.

CE

eee

H!

ee
o@
@

CCE

Not Prime

cee
eoe

CECC
CCEE

Not Prime

ce@
CCE

oeo
aoo
0eeco
oocoo

Not Prime

Not Prime

2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 1 1 ,1 3 ,1 7 ,1 9 , 2 3 , 2 9 , 3 1 , 3 74 ,1 ,4 3 ,4 7 , 5 3 , 5 96, 1 , 6 7 , 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 9 , 8 3 ,
89,97,101,103,107,109,113,127,13'1,137,139,149,15'1,157,163,157,173,
1 7 9 ,1 8 1 ,1 9 1 ,1 9 3 ,1 9 7 ,1 9 9

EXAMPLE
Reducethe fraction to lowest terms.
15/35
1. List the prime factors of the numerator and denominator.
Numerator: 1, 3, 5

J.

1,3"Q,,l5

Divide by, or cancel,the factor of 5 that is common to both the numerator and denominator.
You're left with a 3 in the numerator and a 7 in the denominator.
Numerator: 15/5 : 3
Denominator:3515: 7

Therefore15/35 reducedto lowest terms is 3/7.

Reducing
a fractionwill not changeitsvalue.

f6

15 :

3s : t,$e r,s

Denominator:I" 5.7
't

Cemeron Faqtors

Pharmacy Calculations d S**i*l

Orte: BasicArithrnetie

EXATT{FLE
Reducethe fraction 9/36 to lowest terms.
1. List the prime factors in the numerator and denominator.
\-'

Numerator: 1.r3
Denominator:L1213
o Note that 3 X 3 : 9, and 9 is also a factor of 36.

,
,

2. Divide by or cancelthe factor of 9 that is common to both the numerator and denominator.
Numerator: 9l'1,:'1,
Denominator: 3619 : 4
3. You're left with 1 in the numerator and 4 in the denominator.Therefore. g136reducedto lowest terms is 1/4.

EXAfiIIPLE
Reducethe fraction 30171.0to lowest terms.
1. List the prime factors in the numerator and denominator.
Numerator: tr21 3, 5
Denominator:L,2, 5,7L
* Note that both 2 and 5 are common factors of 30 and 110, you
so
can multiply 2 x 5 : 10.
2" Divide both the numerator and denominator by 10.

\-.

3. You're left with 3 in the numerator and 11 in the denominator.Therefore. 30/1,10reducedto lowest terms is
3/77.

Reducing
Fractions
to Lowest
Terms
E Chapter3

tf

Student Name
Date

Course Number

Reduce the follouing fractions to louest terms:


1. 3/9

16. 9t1.2

2. 6t24

17. 6/20

3. 2/4

18. 16/40

4. 2t1.6

19. 24t30

5. 6tL0

20. 1.4t36

21. 511"L

8. 10t220

23. 75h00

9. 2s1125

LA.

6. 12/36

7. 18ts4

1A

10. 65t75

rr. 21.t35

11t<<

LLIJJ

25.60175

26. 30136

12. 72t90

27. 7128

13. 36/27

28. 26t39

14. 1.5t75

29. 27ts6

15. 1.6t24

30. 34ts1,
Reducing
Fractions
to LowestTermsI Chapter 3

19

31" 36t48

&"

651585

3L

241100

4V- 73t292

3a

76132

4S-

u-

30/45

49- 79t237

/
,821164

35. 28142

5G 171702

36- 72/3s

5l- t9l28s

3V" 66/84

52- 1.8t87

3E- 14t63

53. 24136

39- 30t70

54. 1.t2t28Q

.fG 6157

55- s9t1.78

4t- LzSt500

56" 77tt54

42* 2st700

5V. 72Lt605

43- 25t750

58. 63t13s

&-

50/s00

59. 42/72

,45- 27012.700 :

6& 33t77

Pharmacg Calculations * Smi.rnC*BmirAnitrlhl;rrre*ic

AddingandSubtracting
Fractions

CHAPTER

LEAR*diruG
&*irffi$vns
After completing tbis chapter,the stwdentwill be able to:

1
2
3
4

Definethe term leastcommondenominator


Findequivalentfractionswith commondenominators
for a pairof fractions
that do not havecommondenominators
Solveproblemsthat requireadditionof fractions
Solveproblemsthat requiresubtractions
of fractions

In order to add or subtract fractions, the fractions must have the same denominator
(called common denominators). To add or subtract fractions that have common
denominators, you simply add or subtract the numerators and write the sum or
difference over the common denominator.
In order to add or subtract fractions with different denominators, you must first
find equivalent fractions with common denominators:
1. Find the smallest multiple for the denominaror of both numbers.
2. Rewrite the fractions as equivalent fractions with the smallest multiple of both
n u m b e r sa s t h e d e n o m i n a t o r .
3. \When the denominators are the same, then just add or subtract the numerators
while keeping the denominators the same to solve the problem.
When working with fractions, the smallest multiple of both denominator numbers
is called the least common denominator.

EXAMP{-fi
114+ 114

KEYTERMS
(,urmnrnn
ciqinonrinator:
two
fractions
havethesame
denominator
ri-East
enltnroncienomin.*t$r:
the
common
denominator
for two
possible
fractions
isthesmallest
wholenumber

For this problem, the denominators are akeady the same (common), so you only
need to add the numerators to get the answer.

1,14+114:214:112
e z

EXAMPLE
1.12+ 1.13
The smallestmultiplefor the denominatorof both numbersis 6.
112: (1 x 3ll(2 x 3) : 316
'Ll3:(1 x2)/(3x2l:216
The problemcannow be rewrittenasfollows:
316+ 216
the denominatorsareequal,you only needto add the numeratorsto getthe answer.
Because
(3+2)t6:sl6

EXAMPLE
415- 713
The smallestmultiple for the denominator of both numbers is 15.

415:(4x3y(5x3):12115
7/3: (t x 5X3x 5)= 5715
The problem can now be rewritten as follows:
12/1.5- 5/1.5
Becausethe denominators are equal, you only need to subtract the numerators to get the answer.
(12-5\175:7/15

beforeyou canadd or subtractfractions,you mustfirst createcommondenominators'


Remember,

22

PharmacyCalculations* S"ttion One: BasicArithmetic

EXAMPLE
+ 4/22
3/1.1.
\__/

The smallestmultiplefor the denominatorof both numbersis 22.


3/1.1.: (3 x 2) I (1.1x 2) : 6t22
4/22: 4122
I

The problemcanbe rewrittenasfollows:


6122+ 4122

'

Add the numeratorsto getthe answer.


(6 + 4)122: L0/22
Reduceto lowesttermsby dividingthe numeratorand denominatorby2.
511.1'
EXAMPLE
1/4+1.13+1.15
The smallestmultiplefor the denominatorof all threenumbersis 60.
7/4 : (l x 15)/ (4 x 15) : 75/60
1/3 : (7 x 20) / (3 x 20) : 20/60
715: (7 x t2) /(5 x 12) : 1.2/60
The problemcanberewrittenasfollows:
1.5/60+20/60+12/60
Add the numeratorsto getthe answen
\-/

47t60

Fractions
AddingandSubtracting
E Ch"pt"t 4

23

Student Name

Course Number

Date

Calculate the follouing fractions :

1. Ll3

t/3

2. 1.t8

3. 213

1,t3

4. 5/8

5. tls

3/5

6. 7t8

7. 1/3

tt5

8. 4l2s

Lt5

AddingandSubtracting
Fractions
k Chaptera

9. 1.18

311.6 :

114

10. 718

11. 318

315

12. 1.15

315

13. 217

317

14. 411.5

611.5

15. L18

2lB

16. 112

315

17. 318

111'1.2

26

117

718

PharmacgCalculations{ Section One: BasicArithrnetic

18. 5/21

5ltz

19. 2t3

20. 5

7t1,0

21. 6lr0

4t10

3/1,000:

22. 516

23. 3125

t2t25

24. 3t1,4

2t1,4

25. 7t5

3/5

26. 1.120

Fractions
AddingandSubtracting
i Chaptera

27. 11t15

7t1.5

28. 5/8

4127

1148

29.6

1 , 1 1 , 0 0+

311,0 :

30. 1110

311.0 +

911,000:

31. 315

115

31L0

711,0

32. 314

1,14

1lB

5/B

33. 1.11,2 +

511.2 +

1.13

213

34. 1.19

419

113

1.11.8

35. 112

415

1.11.0 +

28

PharmacyCalculationsi

1.120 :

Saction One: BasicArithnrelir

36. 219

419

1.12

5/18

37. 117

417

6135

1.135 =

38. 1,211,9 +

14/38 +

1,119 +

1138

39. 11112 +

1,13

213

1,124

40. 1,15

415

1.1L0 +

1.120

4t. 1,12

314

113

1.1L2

42. 1.13

1.14

1.112 +

1124

43. 1.12

1.13

1.14

1.124

419

11,133 +

1118

44. 11199 +

AddingandSubtracting
Fractions
k Chapter4

29

45. 1.0190

46. 1t8

1t4

1,/3

1t1,8

1,t2

318

47. 1,t3

1t1,8

u36

48. 1.12

49. 1t5

311.0

s0. 1.11.9

1,t38

1lL8

3t40

1,t76

1,1152

PharmacgCalculationsI Section One: BasicAritrimetrc

Multiplyinliand
DividingFractions
LEARNING
OBJICT'IVES

C HA P TE R

l-

After completing this chapter,tbe student will be able to:


1 Describe
the procedurefor multiplyingfractions
2 Solveproblemsthat requiremultiplyingfractions
the procedurefor dividingfractions
3 Describe
4 Solveproblemsthat requiredividingfractions
the procedurefor simplifyingfunctions
5 Describe

Unlike adding and subtracting,when multiplying fractionsyou do not needa common


denominator.To multiply fractions:
1. Multiply the numeratorsof the fractionsto get the new numerator.
2. Multiply the denominatorsof the fractionsto get the new denominator.
3. Simplify the result if possible.

E XA M PL E
Determine1.13x 215.
1. Multiply the numerators(1 x 2) : 2.

KEYTERMS

2. Multiply the denominators(3 x 5) : 15.

Dividingfractions:mathematical
operation
to findthe reciprocal
of thefractionyouaredividing
the
byandthenmultiplying
fractions
Multiplyingfractions:mathematical
to obtainthe products
operation
of thenumbers
inthenumerators
in
andproducts
of the numbers
thedenominators
the
5implifyingfractions:reducing
to
numerator
anddenominator
lowestterms

3. The resultingfraction is 2115(aheadysimplified).


Dividing by fractions is just like multiplying fractions, but there is one additional
stepto convert the fraction you are dividing by, to its reciprocal.To divide fractions:
1. Find the reciprocalof the fraction you are dividing by.
2. Multiply the first fraction times the reciprocaldeterminedin step 1.
3. Simplify the resultingfraction by reducingto lowest terms,if possible.
Irnportant: Becausedivision by zerois undefined,the number 0 has no reciprocal.
to solvefor a fractional amount of anotherfraction. For
Sometimes,it is necessary
example,what is 112of L14?You can think of this problem visually.
'S7hat
is 112of 114?

Answer

31

Mathematically, you can simply determine 112of 1,14by multiplying both fractions
1. Multiply both numerators(1 x 1) : 1.
2. Multiply both denominators(2 x 4) : 8.
3. The resultingfraction is 1/8.
I
EXAMPLE
Divide 24by 114

'

1. Find the reciprocal of the fraction you are dividing by. The reciprocal of 1.14is 411..
2. Multiply 2411,x 4/1 : 96.
3. Because96 is a whole number,the answeris alreadysimplified.

EXAMPLE
Divide113by 1.15
1. Find the reciprocalof the fraction you are dividing by. The reciprocalof 115is 5/1.
2. Multiply 113x 511:

513.

3. Simplify 513to 1.213.


Divide 3 by t/2.
1. First find the reciprocal of the fraction you are dividing by (the reciprocal of 1,12is 211,)
2. Then multiply 3 x 2/1, : 6.
3. The answeris 6.

EXAMPLE
Simplify the f.raction214

Common Factors

Divide the numerator and denominator


by the common factor of 2.

2
4

2
2

2 - 1 , @
4 : L@q

L
2

Remember;
the denominatorof a fractioncannotbe zero,but the numeratorof a fractioncanbe zero.Whenthe
numeratorof a fractioniszero,the overallvalueof the fractioniszero.

you canonly divideby nonzerofractions.


Remember,

32

PharmacyCalculationsf Section One: BasicArithmetic

Student Name
CourseNumber

Date

Multiply the follouing fractions:


1. 1,13

of

1,13

2. 1./8

3. 2/3

1,/3

4. 5/8

3ts

5. 1/5

6. 718

7. 014

of

8.

115

of

9.

516

of

5/6

10. 2/3

Fractions
Multiplying
andDividing
I ChapterS

11. 314

of

3/4

12. 1,19

of

a t1
LIJ

L3. 1.13

1,/5

1.4. 4t25

Lt5

15. 118

311.6

16. 7/8

1,t4

17. 3tB

3t5

18. 7t1,6

1,/4

19. lt9

4t9

20. 2lr

5/1

21. 7t1,0

1.t5

22. 4t1,3

zt5

6t7

23. 91L00 x

34

PharmacuCalculationsd Section One: BasicArrthmeirc

24. 3t1,1,

0/8

617

25. 1t3

1,t20 x

1,t8

26. 1t3

1,t4

1,t5

27. 4t7

3t5

U9

28. 1,t8

3t8

1t2

1t3

29. 317

1.12

Lt4

1t3

30. s/8

1.t3

2t3

317

3r. 3t7

zt7

1.12

1t3

32. 1,t5

1t3

U4

1.t8

33. 3t8

LIJ

U3

34. 5/8

U3

1.12

3/8

35. 1.19

112

1t3

317

Jt/

U4

I chapter 5
Fractions
Multiplying
andDividing

35

Diuide the following fractions:

36.

1.13

divided by

1.13

37.

1.18

divided bv

3lB

38. 213

divided bv

113

39.

518

dividedbv

318

40. L15

dividedbv

315

41. 7lB

dividedbv

318

42.

dividedbv

Il5

43. 4125

dividedbv

1,15

44.

dividedbv

3116

45. 7lB

dividedbv

1,14

46.

318

dividedbv

315

47. 314

dividedby

8i5

36

113

1.18

PharmacuColculationsd Section One: BasicAlthmeiic

divided by

u2

49. 1,6127 divided bv

819

48" 2t3

.s0. 511.5 dividedby

divided by

911.0

7ls

divided by

517

315

dividedby

.51. 911,0

54. 0

divided by

7lB

.s.s. 5124

dividedby

3lB

.56. 7148

dividedbv

L411.6

57.

1,4120 divided by

714

stt. 25

dividedby

1.15

30

divided by

1110

k ehapter S
Fractions
Multiplying
andDividing

37

60. 50

dividedby

1,12

61. 4

divided bv

112

62. 5

dividedbv

L15

63.

dividedbv

1114

64.

1.2

divided bv

318

65. 14

dividedbv

217

66. 20

divided bv

1110

67.

35

divided by

311,0

68.

100

dividedbv

113

69. 300

divided bv

3lB

divided by

1,15

70.

38

1,000

PharmacgCalculationsd Section One: BasicArithmettc

WritingFractions

\--lin DecimalForm
I

Explainhowdecimalfractionsarewritten

in wordsthe valueof decimalfractions


2 Express
that aregivenin words
in numbers
the valuefor decimalfractions
3 Express
4 Convertfractions
to decimals
I

In the decimal number system,the value of a digit dependson its place or location
in the number. Each place has a value of L0 times the place to its right. Numbers to
the left of the decimal point are separatedinto groups of three digits using cofilmas.
As you move right from the decimal point, each place value is divided by 10.
Zerc and the counting numbers('1.,2,3,etc.)make up the set of whole numbers.
But not every number is a whole number. The decimal systemallows us to write
numbers that are fractions as well as whole numbers by using a symbol called the
decimal point.
\_-/

You read the decimal number 105.599 as "one hundred five and five hundred
ninety-nine thousandths." The "th" at the end of a word meansa fraction part (or
a part to the right of the decimal point). You can also read this number as "one
hundred five point five nine nine."

ntYrenms
a number
Dedmalnumbers,ystem:
a notation
so
thatuses
' svstem
isdxbtus5ea
in
erithih'i'rnb6f
base10 byusingoneof thefirst
0 in,#tnplace
. nineinteggrs-or
valu-d
ue
an-dtettirr!'cachpfae
a pow6rof 10

EXAMPLE
Eighthundred: 800
Eighthundredths: 0.08

EXAMPLE

'Write
the numberthreehundredtwentv-ttree and four tenthsin decimalform.
323.4
EXAMPLE
'Write
the numberfive hundredfifty-five thousandthsin decimalform.
0.555

EXAMPLE
'Write
13506/L,000
in decimal
form.
13.506
EXAMPLE

'Write

the number three hundred fifty and forty-four hundredths in decipralform.

3s0.44
EXAMPLE

'VTrite
the numberfour point two six in decimalform.
4.26

EXAMPLE
I7rite the number fifty-six thousandthsin decimal form.

0.0s5
EXAMPLE
Expressthe number 5.02 in words.
Five and two hundredths
or
Five point zero two
EXAMPLE
Express7,400.02in words.

One thousand four hundred and rwo hundredths


or
One thousand four hundred point zero two
Tenfold
medication
errorsaredefinedaserrorsin whichthedosewas10timesgreateror smaller
thanthecorrect
pointmedication
dose.Tenfold
or decimal
errorsareespecially
dangerous
for patients!
Useextreme
cautionwhen
working
withdecimals,

40

PharmacyCalculations* Section One: BasieArithmetic

StudentName
CourseNumber

Date

Write the follouing as decimal numbers:

1. Thirty-two hundredths
2. Thirty-threethousandths
3. Two hundredthirty-seventhousandths
4. Thirty-five and one hundred fifry-three thousandths
5. Five hundredthree and thirty-two hundredths
6. Eighty-sixhundredths
7. Ninety-ninethousandths
8. Three tenths
9. Fourteenthousandths
10. Seventeenhundredths
"17. Six and twenty-eighthundredths
72. Sixty and twenty-eightthousandths
73. Seventy-twoand threehundred ninety-two thousandths
14. Eight hundredfifty and thirty-six ten-thousandths
'Wite

the follouing d.ecimalnumbers in uords:

15. 0.5
16. 0.93
17. 5.06
18. 32.58
79. 71,.06
20. 35.078
27. 7.003
22. 1,8.102
23. 50.008
24. 607,607

in Decimal
form I Chapter6
WritingFractions

41

Write the follouing decimals as fractions (do not reduce to lotuest terms):

2s. s93.86

36. 1.35

26. 0.63

J I .

27. 0,75

38. 4.53

28. 0.BB

39. 6.08

29. 0.73

40. 10.353

30. 0.2

41. 20.354

31,. 0.35

42. 31.451

32. 0.47

43. 49.326

33. 0.66

44.51.118

34. 0.41,

45. 101.101

3s.0.03

PharmacuCalculationsE Section One: BasicArithmetic

.t.-)

CHAPTER

Decimals
Rounding
Figures
andSignificant
LEARNING
OBJEf,TIVES
After completing this chapter,the student will be able to:
1 Describe
the procedurefor roundingdecimals
2 Demonstrate
roundingdecimals
to the nearesttenth and hundredth
3 Definesignificant
figures
4

Explainthe importanceof usingsignificantfiguresin pharmacycalculations

5 Listthe four rulesfor assigning


significantfigures

Sometimes,after multiplying decimalfractionsor after convertinga fraction to a


decimalfraction, the number of decimalplacesis too largeto be manageable.Extra
numberscan be confusingand can also contributeto errors in calculations.Therefore,
it is often usefuland advisableto round off decimals.
To round off decimals:
) Find the digit for placevalue you want (the "rounding digit") and look at the
digit just to the right of it.
) If that digit is lessthan 5, do not changethe rounding digit, and drop all digits
to the right.
KEY TERMS

) If that digit is greaterthan or equal to five, add one to the rounding digit
- and

R*:filflj:'Jff:L:fiT:il:

dropallJigi,'io theright.

numoerS

4,5

Atways
rounddown

Atways
roundup

EXAMPLE
To round the number 15,732.7343to the nearestthousandth:

9, '''iff::lli#:::,ilff1i:f:'
-t

[';'#::fffi[:]."1lli"'"*
to the
number
correiponding
of themeasuring
sensitivity
device

1. Find the rounding digit. This is 4.


2. Look one digit to the right, at the digit in the ten-thousandthsplacewhich is
aaa
1

))

3. Seethat 3 is lessthan 5, so leavethe number "4," then drop the digits to the
right of 4.
This gives15,732.734.

EXAMPLE
To round 622.1,352to the nearesthundredth:
1. Find the rounding digit, "3."

43

2. Look at the digit one placeto right, "5." 5 : 5.


3 . Becausethe rule statesif the number to the right of the rounding digit is greater than or equal to 5, add one to
the rounding digit, and drop all digits to the right of it.
Therefore,this number needsto be rounded up. Add one to the rounding digit and removeall the rest of the digits
to the right of it. The result is 622J,4

,
EXAMPLE

To round the number 47.5464 to the nearesttenth:


1. Find the rounding digit. This is 5.
2. Look one digit to the right at the digit in the hundredthsplacewhich is 4.
3. Seethat 4 is lessthan 5, so leavethe number "5," then drop the digits to the right of 5.
Answer: 47.5

EXAMPLE
To round the number 49.504to the nearestwhole number:
1. Find the rounding digit. This is 9.
2. Look one placeto the right and find the number 5.
3. Becausethe rule statesif the number to the right of the rounding digit is greaterthan or equalto 5, add one to
the rounding digit and drop all digits to the right of it.
Answer: 50

Figures
Significant
A significantdigit is one that is actuallymeasured.The number of significantdigits in a measurementdependson
'When
the measuringdeviceusedand the sensitivityof that measuringdevice.
a calculationinvolvesmeasurements
with different numbersof significantfiguresin the entriesor terms that are added,subtracted,multiplied, etc.,the
answershould havethe samenumber of significantdigits as the entry or term with the leastnumber of significant
figuresin the measurement.
Rules for assigningsignificant figures:
) Digits other than zero are always significant.
) Final zeros after a decimal point are always significant.
) Zeros betweentwo other significant digits are always significant.
) Zeros used only to spacethe decimal are never significant.

EXAMPLE
Determinethe number of significantfiguresin 3.4502 grams.

3.4582
Firstsignificantfigure
Secondsignificantf igure
Jhird significantf igure
Fourth significantfigure
Fifth significantfigure
Becausezeros befweentwo other significant digits are always significant,the number of significant figures is 5.
M

PharmacyCalculationsd Sectisn One: EasicArithmetic

EXAMPLE
Determine the number of significant figures in 3.40 grams.
Becausefinal zeros after a decimal point are always significant, the number of significant figures is 3.

EXAMPLE
Determinethe number of significantfiguresin 0.036 grams.

Becausezerosused only to spacethe decimal are never significant, the number of significant figures is 2.

EXAMPLE
Determine the number of significant figures in 2.5 ml (if the volume was measuredusing a devicethat measures
accuratelyto the nearesttenth of a milliliter).
Becausedigits other than zero are always significant, the number of significant figures is 2.

EXAMPLE
Determinethe number of significantfiguresin 20.0 ml (if the volume was measuredusing a devicethat measures
accuratelyto the nearesttenth of a milliliter).
Becausethe final zero after a decimal point is always significant, the number of significant figures is 3.

#,
-,il

lll

outweighed
figuresisgenerally
allsignificant
pharmaceutical
of showing
calculations,
theimportance
Whenperforming
point
trailingzeros
aftera decimal
showing
them,Forexample,
of including
disastrous
consequences
bytheoccasional
error.
in a tenfolddosing
thedosethatresults
to misreading
cancontribute

Figures
Decimals
andSignificant
I Chupt"t 7
Rounding

45

Student Name
Date

Course Number

Round the follouing decimal nurnbersto the nearesthundredth:


1. 1.32.35789

6. 2.339

2. 6.993928394

7. 1.005

3. 2.357895733

8. 3.232323232

4. 235,L21..34764

9. 1.01..234

:
5. 1.32,424,324.35t

10. 136.s67

Roundoff eachdecimalnumberto the nearesttenth:

tr. 80.015

16. 0.037

12. 7.s55

17. 3.2323

13. 180.009

18. 44.444

14. 37.6666

19. 365.365

15. t4.3332

20. 0.24s

Round off each decimal nurnber to the nearestuhole nurnber:

21. 32.1.34

27. 2.95

22. 55.555

28. 3.2s

23. 1.09.421

29. 1.4s.2

24. 0.76

30. 3.33

25. 100

31. 4.12

\ -/ 26. 1.00

32. s4.329

Rounding
Decimals
andSignificant
Figures
I ChapterZ

4t

33. 100.01

37. 51.2.8

34. 325.2

38. 1000.9

35. 467.r

39. 2001..09
I

40. 3,45.59

36. 479.9

Determine tbe number of significant ft.gwresin each rnelsuretnent:

41. 6.222g
4 2 . 0 . 1 2 3k g
4 3 . 1 2 . 0m l
44. 0.030g
45. 20.05grams

48

PharmacyCalculationsd Section One: BasicArithmetie

AddingandSubtracting
\-/DecimalNumbers
LEARNING
OBJECTIVIS
After completingthis chapter,the studentu.,illbe able to:
1 Performadditionof decimalnumbers
2 Performsubtraction
of decimalnurnbers

Adding and subtracting decimalsis just like adding and subtracting whole numbers.
'S7hen
adding and subtracting decimals,it is very important to line up the terms so
that all the decimal points arc in a vertical line.
To add deci.tnal numbers:
1. Put the numbers in a vertical column so the decimal points are aligned.
2. Add each column of digits, starting on the right and work left. If the sum of a
column is more than 10, "carry" the digits to the nefi column on the left.
3. Placethe decimal point in the answer directly below the decimal points in the
numbers.

EXAMPLE
Step1

Step2

324.5678
+ I.2345
3 (carrythe 1)

Step3

Step4

324.5678
+ 7.2345
023(carrythe 1)

Step5

Step6

324.5678
+ 1.2345
5J023

Step7
324.5678
+ 7.2345
--fi.nn

324.s678
7.2345
23 (carrythe 1)

324.s678
1..2345
.8023

324.5678
1.2345
25.8023

KEYTERMS
Addingdecimals:mathematical
operationsimil#to f,ddlnE
wholenumbers"
exceptterms
mustbe linedup sothat'ali
pointsarein a vertical
decimal
line
gibtratthg dtftnals: firathdrnaticaloperation
similartosubtractingwholenumbers,
excefi
termsmustbe linedup sgthat
pointsarein a
allthe decimal
verticalline

EXAMPLE
Step1

Step2

Step3

40.25
+ 1.035
5

40.25
+ 1.035
85

40.25
+ 1.035

Step4

Step5

40.25
1.035

t.285

.28s

40.25
1.035
4L285

To subtract decimal nuntbers:


1. Put the numbers in a vertical column so the decimal points are aligned.
2. Subtract each column, starting on the right and working left. If the digit being subtractedin a column is larger
than the digit above it, "borrow" a digit from the next column to the left.
3. Placethe decimal point in the answer directly below the decimal points in the terms.
Step 2

Step 1

32.225
7.203
2

Step4

Step 3

32.225
1.203
52
Step 5

32.225
1.203

L.052

32.225
7.203
3L052

EXAMPLE
24.0- 0.75
zerofollowing24.0to holdthe place.
Tosetthisup,it ishelpfulto addanadditional

Step2

Step1
24.00
- 0.75
5

24.00
- 0.75
25
Step4

Step3
24.00
- 0.75

3.2s

Pharmacg Calculations I

24.00
- 0.75

2t2s

Section One: BasicArithmetic

32.225
t.203
.09

Student Name
Date

CourseNumber

Add the follouting decimal fractions:

l.

0.6 + 0.4 + 1.3

2 . 5 + 6 . 1+ 0 . 4

3. 0.59+ 6.91+ 0.05

4. 3.488+ 16.593+ 25.002

5. 37.02+ 25 + 6.4 + 3.89

AddingandSubtracting
Decimal
NumbersE Chaptera

6. 4.0086+ 0.034+ 0.6 + 0.05

7. 43.766+ 9.33+ 17 + 206

8 . 5 2 . 3+ 6 + 2 1 . . 0 1+. 4 . 0 0 5

+ 0.2006+ 5.4 + 37
9. 2.0051.

10. 5+2.37+463+10.88

71.2+3 +3.5+4.6+5,5

52

PharmacgCalculationst' SeetionOnel BasicArithmetrc

12. 2.4 + 1..3+ 1.5 + 4.3 + 15.9

1 3 . 1 . 1+ 2 . 2 + 3 . 3 + 4 . 4 + 5 . 5

1.+. 12 + 3,5 + 3.3 + 144 + 155

1,s. 20 + 30 + 4.55555+ 400.6+ 501.5

16. 2.2 + 3.3 + 5.5 + 6.6 + 7.5 + 7.7

t7. 122 + 301 + 55.5+ 6.5 + 701.5+ 7.007

AddingandSubtracting
Decimal
Numbersh ChapterI

53

18. 2 + 3 + 5 + 6.6663+ 7.501.+ 1.2.0007

19. 1.2.2+ 23.3+ 55.5+ 36.6+ 7.0005+ 7.7

20. 21.2+ 3.0003+ 5.005+ 6.06+ 7.12+ L2.8

?.1.
+

21.

54

354.231.2
5.1092

22375.23
+
5.92

22.
+

25.

224.0021
6.4444

34.2312875
+22.1092

Arii:i..eili
PharmacyCalculationsd Seqti*r: **e: B.es:i

23.
+

5223.2312
65.3217

Subtract the follouing decimal fractions:


26. 5.2 - 3.76

- 8.9
27. 1,7.83

28. 29.5 - 13.61,

29. 1.00s7- 0.03

3 0 . 7 8 . 0 1 5- 1 3 . 0 6 8 :

Numbersk Ch"ptur S
AddingandSubtracting
Decimal

55

31. 22.4L8- 1,7.524

32. 4.8 - 0.0026

33. 31.009- 0.534

34. 4-

r.0566

- 6.532
35. 40.71.8

36. 3.8- 2.1,2

PharmacuCalculations* SectionOne: BasicArirnrnertc

37. 5 - 0.002

- t2
38. 1,3.01,

39. 1,23- 0.001,

40. 117.2 - 117

41.. 1,4s.45- 0.44

- 1,25.2
42. 1,36.3

AddingandSubtracting
Decimal
Numbersh Chapter8

4 3 . 1 1 1- 0 . 0 1

4 4 . 1 1 0- 0 . 1

45. 345.34- L.32

46.

49.

58

3s4.2312
5.1.092

22375.23
5.92

47.

224.001,2
6.4444

50.

34.23L2875
-22.L092

PharmacyCalculationst' Section One: BasicArilhmetic

48.

s223.231.2
65.321,7

Multiplying
andDividing
DecimalNumbers

C HA P T E R

o
at,

LEARNIN6
OB.IECTIVES
After completing tbis chapter,the stwdentwill be able to:
1 Oefinethe terms product, dividend,divisor, and quotient
with decimalnumbers
2 Performmultiplication
3 Performdivisionwith decimalnumbers

Multiplication is often indicatedby an " x " insertedbetweennumbers.Another


way to indicatemultiplication is to separateadjacentnumbersby parentheses.
Multiplication can also be indicatedby n "'" or "'t" that is insertedbetweennumbers.
To multiply decimalnumbers:
1. Multiply the numbersas if they were whole numbers.
2. Line up the numberson the right in the sameway you would if therewere no
decimalpoints.
3. Start at the right side and multiply eachdigit in the top number by eachdigit in
the bottom number.
4. Add the product resultingfrom multiplying eachdigit of the bottom number.
5. Placethe decimalpoint in the answerso that the number of decimalplacesin
the answerequalsthe total number of decimalplacesin both numbersthat
were multiplied together.

EXAMPLE
47.2x 5.5:
x

47.2 (has1 decimalplace)


5.5 (has1 decimalplace)

2360
+ 2360

KEYTERMS
thenumber
Dividend:in division,
thatisdivided
thenumber
Divisor:in division,
thatthe dividendisdividedby
Product:the numberthat results
whennumbers
aremultiplied
together
Quotient the numberthat results
bv
isdivided
whenonenumber
another

259.60 (2 decimalplaces)
youcanstartby multiplying
normallyand
Whenmultiplying
decimalnumbers,
count
the decimalpointin the answer,
ignoringthe decimalpoints.Todetermine
that aremultipliedandthe answerwill haveas
the decimalplaces
in the numbers
combined.
asthe two originalnumbers
manydecimalplaces

59

EXAMPLE
Find the product of 9.683 x 6.t.
9.583 (has3 decimalplaces)
6.1, (has1 decimalplace)

9683
+ 58098

5 9 . 0 6 6 3( 3 + 1 : 4 d e c i m a l p l a c e s )
Sometimesit is necessaryto perform division with decimal numbers. In division one number,called the dividend,
is divided by another number,called the divisor, to result in the quotient.
If the divisor is a whole number and the divided is a decimal,you can divide the numbers as if they were whole
numbers except you must mark the decimal place in the decimal.
quotient

divisorIai'laA;A
'When

the dividend is a decimal and the divisor is a whole number:

1. Mark the place of the decimal in the dividend before you start dividing.
2. Divide eachstepas you would for whole numbers.
3. Repeatuntil the stepsof division are complete.
4. Check your answer by multiplying the quotient by the divisor.The answer should be the dividend.

EXAMPLE
Divide3.64by4.
Step1

Step2

4 f 3.64

0.9
4 f 3.64
36
4

Step3

0.9r
4 f 3.64
36
4
4
0

You cancheckyour answerto seewhetherthe productof the quotientand divisorequalsthe dividend:


0 . 9 1x 4 : 3 . 6 4

youranswer,
Whendividingdecimals,
firstuselongdivision
withoutthe decimalpoint.Then,whendetermining
simplyreinsert
the decimalpointin the answerand put the decimalpointin the answerdirectlyabovethe decimal
pointin the dividend.

50

PharmacgCalculationsI

SectionOne: BasicArithmetic

Student Name
CourseNumber

[Jsea calculator to conuert the follouing fractions to decimak:

1 . ( 0 . 6 X0 . 7 )

2. ( 0 . 3 X 0 . 8 )

3. (0.2)(0.2)

4. (0.3)(0.3)

s. 8(2.7)

6. 4(e.6)

Decimal
NumbersI Chapter9
Multiplying
andDividing

61

7. 1.4(0.3)

8. 1.5(0.6)

e. (0.2)(0.02)

1 0. (0 . 3 x 0 . 0 3 )

1r. s.4(0.02)

12. 7.3(0.01)

13. 0.23(0.1,2)

PharmacgCalculationsl* Section One: BasicArithmetic

14. ( 0 . 1 s ) ( 0 . 1 s)

1s . ( 8 . 1 X 0 . 0 0 6)

16. 7.1(0.008)

77.0.06(0.01)

18. 0 . 2 s ( 0 . 0 1 )

le. (3.23)(2.32)

20. 14.s(1s.4)

Decimal
Numbersk Chapterg
Multiplying
andDividing

21. 122.1Q12.12\

22. 3.3 " 4.4

23. 5.52" 4.1.

2 4 . 3 . 7 4 1 "2 . 1 2 2

25. 1.5.41.
" 1.2.1.2

26. 144.44* 2.3

27. 51.3,31.2
" 0.5

PharmacyCalculationsi Section One: BasicArithmetic

28. 25.12" 0.2

29. 1.2.2" 0.3

30. 36.63* 1..5

3t. 122" 4.2

32. 42.24" 42.24

3 3 . 1 3 5 . 1* 1 0

* 1.00
34. 1.46.63

g e c i m aNl u m b e rks e h a p t e r9
M u l t i p l y i nagn dD i v i d i nD

65

3 5 . 1 . 2 3 5* 1 0 0 0

36. 4.222" 0.0L

* 1.3.1.
37. 31..31.

3 8 . L 0* 0 . 1

3 9 . 1 0 0" 0 . 0 1

40.

4t.

42.

66

35.23
x 22.12

253.424
x 4.2

2.5
x 3.27

PharmacyCalculationsd SectionOne: BasicArithmeijc

43.

527.225
x
2.1.

44.

2.38795
X
1..L

45.

326.31,1,
x 2.113

46.

1..2L
x 3.333

47. 2.44 + 4

48. 32.12+ 2

+ 3
49. 1.83.12

50. 466.2- 3

5 1 . 6 6 6 . 6+ 6

Decimal
Numbersk Chuptute
andDividing
Multiplying

52. 30.25+ 5.5

5 3 . 9 . 3 6+ 3 . 6

54. 11.25+ 1.5

55. 40.3225+ 6.35

5 6 . 3 1 5 . 5+ 6 3 . 1

5 7 . 3 8 . 1 9+ 5 . 7

58. 365.75+ 5.5

59. 8.1+ 9

60. 24.2 + 4.4

PharmacgCalculationsd SectionOne: BasicArithmetic

UsingRatiosandProportions
to
Analysis
or Dimensional
Calculations
SolvePharmacy

CHAPTER

10

OBJECTIVES
LEARNING
After completing this chapter,the stwdentwill be able to:
1 Definethe termsratio, proportion, anddimensionalanalysis
2

Explainhow to solveproblemsusingratio and proportion

analysis
3 Explainhow to solveproblemsusingdimensional
4

how to solvecommonpharmacyproblemsusingratio
Demonstrate
analysis
and proportionand dimensional

Most calculationsin pharmacycan be solvedusing either of two techniques:ratio and


proportion or dimensionalanalysis.

Ratioand Proportion
you express
Ratios are usedto make comparisonsbetweentwo things.'S7hen
ratios in words, you usethe word /o. For example,you say,"The ratio of
somethingto somethingelse."
A ratio can be written in severaldifferentways: as a fraction, usingthe word ro, or

withacoron.

EXAM PLE
The following expressionsall representthe ratio "3 to 5":
315

KEY TERMS

Dim;::::Hil?,ll1i;Tlilli,",,
problems
mathematical
to solve
for
expressiontwo
Proportion:
thatareequal
ratios
two
to compare
Ratio:expression
numbers

3to5
3:5
Equal ratios are two differentratios that may includedifferent numberswhen
expressedas fractions,but can be reducedto the samefraction.To find an equal
ratio, multiply or divide eachterm in the ratio by the samenumber (but not zero).

TXAMPLE
Expressthe ratio L;4 as a fraction.
1,t4

69

EXAMPLE
If you divide both terms in the ratio 3:6 by the number 3, then you get the equal ratio,1,:2.
Examplesof other equal ratios include:
3 : 6 : 1 2 : 2 4: 6 : 1 2 : 1 5 : 3 0
Thesecan also be expressedas:
316 : 12124: 611.2: 15130

EXAMPLE
Identify two equalratios for 100:10.
100:10 : 50:5 : 1,0:1(Thereare others.)

Proportions
A proportion is a name given to a statementthat two ratios are equal. Proportions can be written in two ways:
) As two equal fractions, alb : cld
) Using a colon, a:b : c:d
'When
two ratios are equal, then the products of the means(or middle numbers) equalsthe products of
the extremes(or outsidenumbers).
problems
Whensolving
usingratios
andproportions,
remember
theproduct
of themeans
isequalto theproduct
of theextremes.

extreme
:
mean

mean
extreme

EXAMPLE
Fortheproportiona:b: c:d,b x c(means): a X d(extremes).
The proportion20/30 : 213is read as "tlvenry is to thirry as two is to three."
In problems involving proportions, you can test the products of the meansand extremesto test whether
fwo ratios are equal and form a proportion.
The ratios 20130 and 213 form a proportion becausethe product of the meansequalsthe product of the extremes.
30x2:60
20x3:60

EXAMPLE
Solvefor y:
4:y : g'32
Because
the productof the means.
equalsthe productof the extremes,
8y:4x32
8y : 128
Y:12818:L6
7A

PharmacgCalculationsd Section One: BasicArithmetic

EXAMPLE
Solvefor y:
3 : 2 7: 2 : y
54:3y
Y:18
EXAMPLE
Solvefor y:
3.36: y:12
36y : 36
y:1,

Analysis
Dimensional
Dimensional analysisis a useful method scientistsemploy to check the validity of scientific equations and
calculations.For somevery complicated problems in science,sometimesdimensional analysisis the only
way to find the right answer! Dimensional analysiscan also be usedfor most pharmacy calculations either
to check your work, or, once you've masteredthe technique,may be the best way to get the correct answer
ro your problem. Somepeople find dimensional analysisto be extremely helpful for complicated pharmaceutical
calculations.
In science,the dimension of an object tells you what sort of quantity it is. In science,there are four basic
dimensions:length, mass,time, and electricalcharge.Similarlg in pharmacy we can think of pharmaceutical
quantities in terms of the "dimensions" such as weight, volume, dose,dosageform, and time (day[s]).
To solve a problem using dimensional analysis,you need to first identify what information is provided by the
problem as well any conversion factors that you will need to solve the problem. Terms that are equal to each other
are written in the form of a fraction. For example,if 250 mg : 1 dose,you would write this as a fraction;
250 mg
L dose

or

1 dose
250 mg

Becauseboth fractions are equal to 1, you can write either term in the numerator. Once you have written all of
the information, you need to solve the problem in the form of fractions. To do this, you simply set up a seriesof
fractions (making sure to label each term!) in an equation so that when the fractions are multiplied, all units will
cancelout, except the units you need for your answer.

Calculations
k Chapter10
Analysis
to SolvePharmacy
or Dimensional
andProportions
UsingRatios

71

EXAMPLE

Xanax*lli,
alprazolam
lT

tablets.
USP

Use dimensionalanalysisto solvethis problem:


tablet
0.5 mg

Rronly

100Tabtets

You can usedimensionalanalysisto determinehow many tabletsare


neededto fill a prescriptionfor Xanax 0.5 mg,0.5 mg threetimes per
day for sevendays prior to surgery:

0.5 me
3 doses
" X x Tdavs:2Ltablets
dose
d^y

0.5mg
Plumacia & Upjoh ftr
0&idtutrhc.{1.

XY1&lt

1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso the units you want in the final answer(the tablet)
is in the numerator of the first fraction of the dimensionalanalysisequation.
2. Setup the next fraction in the dimensionalanalysisequationso the units of the numerator of the second
fraction are the sameas the units of the denominatorof the first fraction (that is. so the units cancelwhen
the fractionsare multiplied).
3. Setup the next fraction in the dimensionalanalysisequationso the units of the numerator of the third
fraction are the sameas the units of the denominatorof the secondfraction (again,so the units cancel
when the fractionsare multiplied).
4. Setup the next fraction in the dimensionalanalysisequationso the units of the numerator of the fourth
fraction are the sameas the units of the denominatorof the third fraction (again,so the units cancelwhen
the fractionsare multiplied).
5. Multiply the fractions!
Important: Always rememberto checkyour work!
For this example,when all fractionsare multiplied together,all units cancelexceptthe capsuleunits (which is in
the numerator).When using dimensionalanalysis,you needto be carefulto make surethat the numerator (not the
denominator)containsthe units you needto solvethe problem.

EXAMPLE
Donnatal elixir containsphenobarbitaIl,6.2 mg/5 ml along with other drugs,
hyoscyamine,atropine,and scopolamine.Usedimensionalanalysisto determine
how many milliliters of Donnatal elixir would deliver32.4 mg of phenobarbital.
Becauseyou are solvingfor milliliters, start by placing a term with ml in the
numerator.

:10mI

Eati 5 mL {1 leasFDntul)contains:
Ftndebital, USP
16.2mg
Ny6ctamine Sulhto,USP
0.1037mg
AtroplreSufate.USP
0.0194ng
Sc{pdamw
Hydrobromide,
USP
0.0065ng
Alcohol
notmors$4 23.8%

00 l0r usEF IAiiPER-wr0flir


u,t0ERcAPt3tfioKEtt0Rmtsstltc

Rxonly

EXAMPLE
How many dosesare in a bottle of 1.20ml of Donnatal elixir if eachdoseis 10 ml?

= 12 doses

Placing
the unitsyouwant in the finalanswerin the numerator
of the firsttermof the dimensional
analysis
setup
helpsto ensureyouranswerwill be in the correctunits.Also,unitscanbe canceled
onlywhenidenticalunitsappear
in boththe numerator
anddenominator.

72

PharmacyCalculations* Section One: BasicArithnneiic

The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act (CMEA) setsdaily and monthly limits for the amount of
pseudoephedrine
that can be sold without a prescriptionto an individual.You cannot sell more than 3.6
per day without a prescriptionor 9 gramsin a 30-dayperiod to an individual.
pseudoephedrine
gramsof
The table below shows daily and monthly limits for pseudoephedrinesalesto an individual.

SulfateTablets
30 mg Pseudoephedrine

155 Tablets

389Tablets

SulfateTablets
50 mg Pseudoephedrine

77 Tablets

194Tablets

SulfateTablets
120mg Pseudoephedrine

38 Tablets

97 Tablets

SulfateTablets
240mg Pseudoephedrine

19Tablets

48 Tablets

HCITablets
30 mg Pseudoephedrine

146Tablets

366Tablets

HCITablets
60 mg Pseudoephedrine

73 Tablets

183Tablets

HClTablets
120mg Pseudoephedrine

36 Tablets

91 Tablets

C I/ 5 m l L i q u i d
ne
1 5 m g P s e u d o e p h e d r iH

1 , 4 6 4m l

3 , 6 6 1m l

EXAMPLE
'Sfhat
is
HCI and are availablein boxesof 24,48, and 96 tablets.
Sudafed30 mg tabletscontain pseudoephedrine
the maximum number of boxes containing 24 tabletsthat could be purchasedby an individual in one day?
HCI is 146 tablets.To solvefor the number of
The one-daylimit for over-the-countersaleof pseudoephedine
packages,you could set up a dimensionalanalysisequation.
Package
24 Tablets

146Tablets
D"y

= 6.083packages

Becauseyou can only sellwhole packages,you needto round down to 6 packages.

EXAMPLE
HCV5 ml and is availablein bottlesof 118 ml. \7hat is
Children'sSudafedliquid containsL5 mg pseudoephedrine
the maximum number of bottlescontaining 118 ml that could be purchasedby an individual in one day?
HCI 15 mV5ml is 1.,464ml. To solvefor the number
The one-daylimit for over-the-countersaleof pseudoephedine
of bottles,you could set up a dimensionalanalysisequation.
: L2.407 bottles
Becauseyou can only sell whole bottles,you needto round down to 12 bottles.

EXAMPLE
HCI and are availablein boxesof 24,48, and 96 tablets.'Whatis
Sudafed30 mg tabletscontain pseudoephedrine
tablets
that could be purchasedby an individual in 30 days?
96
number
of
boxes
containing
the maximum
HCI is 355 tablets.To solvefor the number of
The 30-day limit for over-the-countersaleof pseudoephedine
packages,you could set up a dimensionalanalysisequation.
: 3.81 packages
Becauseyou can only sell whole packages,you needto round down to 3 packages.

Calculations
E ChaptertO
to SolvePharmacy
Analysis
or Dimensional
andProportions
UsingRatios

73

Notice, when setting up the problem to solve for the maximum number of packagesthat can be sold in 30 days,
it can be helpful to spell the word thirty inyour set up, so you don't accidentally usethe number 30 in your
calculations.

Pharmocy Calculations I

S"stion One: BasicArithmetic

StudentName
Date

CourseNumber

Useratio and proportion or dimensional analysis to solue the follo&ing problems:


l.

In the proportion 5/8 :


a.

25140:

The extremes are

and

b. The meansare

and -.

Fill in tbe blank for eachpair of ratios to form a proportion:


2. 2/3

and

4l

3. 5/7

and

1,51

4. 3t6

and

Il

s. 5t1.0

and

/l

6. 2t8

and

3l

7.

IJ

and

416

8.

t8

and

3124

9.

t1.2 and

516

10. --_- -_- 14

and

618

11.

t5

and

1,0125

L2.

t6

and

1,0112

and

6142

and

2/5

and

411.0

1.3.

14.

"- lts

15.

/5

L6. 3t5

and

/r00

t7.

and

/8

125/1.,000

18. 3t8

and

19. 2/3

and

3751
t1,2

UsingRatios
andProportions
or Dimensional
Analysis
to SolvePharmacy
Calculations
k ChaptertO

75

20. How many tablets will be taken in sevendays if a prescription order reads
zafirlukast 20 mgltablet, one tablet twice a day?

21. How many capsuleswill be taken in three days if a prescription order reads
tetracycline 250 mglcapsule,one capsulefour times a day?

22. How many tablets will be taken in five days if a prescription order reads
sucralfate 1, gltablet,one tablet four times a day?

23. How many tabletswill be taken in L0 daysif a prescriptionorder reads


zaleplon5 mg/tablet, one tablet daily at bedtime?

24. How many tablets will be taken in 30 days if a prescription order reads
methylphenidate 10 mgltablet, one tablet three times a day?

25. How many capsulesare neededto fill a prescriptionfor 30 daysfor


zidovudine100 mg/capsules,
threecapsulestwice daily?

26. How many tablets are neededto fill a prescription for 34 days for
nabumetone500 mg/tablet,one tablet twice daily?

27. How many tablets will be taken in 10 days if a prescription order reads
metoclopramide 5 mg/tablet, one tablet three times a day?

28. How many tablets will be taken in 10 days if a prescription order reads
rabeprazole20 mgltablet, one tablet twice a day?

76

PharmacgCalculationsC Section One: BasicArithmetic

29. How many tablets will be taken in sevendays if a prescription order reads
albuterol 2 mgltablet, one tablet four times a day?

30. How many tabletswill be taken in two daysif a prescriptionorddr reads


promethazine L2.5 mg/tablet, one tablet three times a day?

31. How many tablets will be taken in five days if a prescription order reads
fluphenazine1 mg/tablet, one tablet three times a day?

32. How many capsulesare neededto fill a prescriptionfor 14 daysfor


ampicillin 500 mg/capsule,one capsulefour times a day?

33. How many tabletsare neededto fill a prescriptionfor 30 daysfor


primadone 250 mgltablet, one tablet three times a day?

34. How many tablets are neededto filI a prescription for 34 days for
acarbose50 mg/tablet,one tablet threetimes a day?

35. How many capsulesare neededto fill a prescriptionfor 34 daysfor


prazosin 1 mg/capsules,fwo capsulesthree times a day?

36. How many tablets are neededto fill a prescription for 21' days for
repaglinide 0.5 mg/tablet, one tablet three times a day?

37. How many capsulesare neededto fill a prescription for 34 days for
potassium chloride 10 mEq/capsule,one capsulefour times a day?

Calculations
or Dimensional
Analysis
to SolvePharmacy
k ChaptertO
andProportions
UsingRatios

??

38. How many capsulesare neededto fill a prescription for three days for
mefenamic acid 250 mg/capsule,one capsulefour times a day?

39. How many tablets are neededto fill a prescription for 2l days fdr
dipyridamole 50 mg/tablet, one tablet four times a day?

40. How many tablets are neededto fill a prescription for sevendays for
cyproheptadine4 mgltablet, one tablet three times a day?

HCI and are availablein


41. Sudafed30 mg tabletscontain pseudoephedrine
boxesof 24,48, and 96 tablets.The CMEA limit for saleis 146 tabletsper
day.'S7hatis the maximum number of boxes containing 48 tablets that could
be purchasedby an individual in one day?

HCys ml and
42. Children'sSudafedliquid contains15 mg pseudoephedrine
is availablein bottlesof 118 ml. The CMEA limit for saleis 3,66L m|per
thirty days.\7hat is the maximum number of bottlescontaining 118 ml
that could be purchasedby an individual in thirty days?

HCI and are availablein


43. Sudafed30 mg tabletscontain pseudoephedrine
boxesof 24,48, and 96 tablets.The CMEA limit for saleis 366 tabletsper
thirty days.'Whatis the maximum number of boxescontaining48 tablets
that could be purchasedby an individual in 30 days?

7A

PharmacgCalculationst' Section One: BasicArithmetic

Percents
LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
After completingthis chapter,the studentwill be ableto:
1 Explain
the relationship
betweenpercents
anddecimals
2 Convertpercents
to decimals
3 Convertdecimals
to percents

The term percentmeans"per 100" or "out of L00."


The percent symbol (%o)can be used as a way to write a fraction with a common
denominatorof 100.

EXAMPLE
20 oatof every700equals20%o
EXAMPLE
5 outof every100equals
5%
EXAMPTE
15"/o:15/100:0.15
Fifteenpercent(1,5%)is the sameas the fraction 15/100 and the decimal0.15.
Toeonverta pereentto deeitrnals,
to the left
iust movethe dedmd,p.0irlt.2,p{ces
andremove
the "%" siEn.
.{il$}:rr

You can write percentsas decimalsby moving the decimal point two placesto
the left.
You can also write decimalsas percents,by moving the decimal point two places
to the right.

0.15

0.1.5,

15o/o

2 places

EXAMPLE
Express27"/o as a decimal.
Becauseyou can write a peicent as a decimal by movin$ the decimal point two
placedto the left:
27%i":0.27

KEYTERMS
Penerffperi00oroutoYltD'
Percent
symbol:awayto writea
fraction
withadenominator
of 100

EXAMPLE
Express0.85 as a percent.
Becauseyou can write decimalsas percentsby moving the decimal point two placesto the right:

.8 5: 8 s %
I

EXAMPLE
,

Calculate30% of 300.

1. Change30Y"to a decimalby movingthe decimalpoint two placesto the left:307o : 0.30


2. Thenmultiply: 0.30 x 300 : 90
Therefore,30% of 300 is 90.
EXAMPLE
Write 5 out of 12 asa percent.
6 out of 12 : 0.5 : 50o/o

EXAMPLE
Findthevalueof n if n is 50%of 60.
n:0.5x60:30

EXAMPLE
Findthevalueof n if n is 750%ol24.
n:1.5x24=36
EXAMPLE
Findthevalueof n if n is 25% of.24.
n:0.25X24:6
EXAMPLE
Findthevalueof n if n is 1,10%of 40.
n:1.10X40:44
for medication
Percent
strength
means
thenumberof gramsdrugper100ml if in liquidor 100gramsif in solid.

EXAMPLE
Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution contains 0.083% albuterol sulfate.
Expressthe strength as a decimal fraction.

I|oc 0487+501.03

0.083% = 83/100,000= 0.00083

ffiffHmffir";T*".**

ffi-*"
80

PharmacgCalculationsI

Section One: BasicArithmetic

Student Name
Date

Course Number

Express the follouting percents as decim.als:

t. 33%

9. 7s%

2. 24%

10. 8332%

3. 33.3%

rr. 66.66667%

4. s0.s%

12. 18.s%

5. 20%

13. 1.3%

6. 47%

14. 0.25%

7. 93%

15. 0.L25%

8. 32.s%
Expressthe follouting decimalsd.spercents:
16. 0.2444

0.52

17.

0.3

27.

0.4

18.

0.5

28.

0.65

19.

0.L25

29.

0.025

20.

0.75

21.

0.02

22.

0.09

0.004

23.

0.1

1.10

24.

0.8

1..7
5

25.

0.36

0.035
31.

35.

0.055

Percents
I Chapter11

81

Cakulate the folloui.ng:


36. 25% of600

37. 20%of30

3 8 . L 5 %o f 2 0

39. 75'/"of 50

40. L2.5'/"of 24

41.80%of40

42.90%ofL00

43. 1.7%of L0

PharmacgCalculationsd Section One: BasicArithmetic

44. 110%of 5

4 5 . 3 3 %o f 9 0

46. 5"/. of 50

47. 30"/' of 120

48. 40%of 50

49. 60'/"of 150

5 0 . 7 0 %o f 4 0 0

Wite the follouing expressionsas percents:


51.

4outof5

k ch*pt*r lt
Percents

83

52.

2 outof 10

53.

ToutofS

54.

15 out of 20

56.

85 outof 100

5/.

)outorb

J6.

JOUIOT /

59.

6 outof2j

60.

12 out of20

84

PharmacgCalculationsd Section Onel BasicArithmetic

61.

35 out of40

62.

40 out of 50

63.

55 out of 100

64.

80 out of 90

65.

32 out of 64

Find tbe ualue of n:


66. Ifnis20%of50

67. If n is 35"/. of 24

68. Ifnis60%of8

Percents
E Chupt"rtt

85

69. If n is 75o/oof l0

70. If n is 80% of 15

71. If n is 40% of 30

72. If n is 50% of 100

73. If n is 25% of 50

74. lf n is 30% of 90

75. If n is 100%of 50

PharmacgCalculationsi Section One; BasicArithmeiic

Exponents
and
\--lScientificNotation
LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
After completingtbis cbapter,the studentutill be able to:
1 Definethetermexponent
2 Definetheterm scientific
notation
givenin exponential
3 Express
numbers
formaswholenumbers
4 Express
largenumbers
in scientific
notation

iI

',i

Exponents are a shorthand way to show how many times a number is multiplied times
itself. A number with an exponent is said to be "raised to the power" of that exponent.
A power is the number of times that a number occurs as a factor in a product
indicated by an exponent.

EXAMPLE
3a:3x3x3x3:81
,

Any number raised to the zero power (except0) equals L. In this example,3 is
raised to the power of 4.
You can begin to understandexponentsby looking at multiplication of the number 2.

2x2:22:4
2 x 2 x 2 :23 : 8
2x2x2x2:24:15
2x2x2x2x2:25:32
2x2x2x2x2x2:26:64
Anynumberndised
to theplilu.ennfz&iEreqtralstt.
i:-'

EXAMPLE
30:1
Any number raised to the powgr of one equalsitself.

EXAT'/IPLE
3 1: 3

KEYTERMS
Exponents;a shorthand
wayto
showhow manytiinesa number
isrnultiplied
timesitself
Power:the numberof timesthat
a numberoccursasa factorin
a productasindicatedby an
exponent
Scientific notation: expressi
ng
productof a
a number'as'a
numberbetween1 and10
anda powerof 10

EXAMPLE
42:4X4:76

EXAMPLE
103:10x10X10:1,000

EXAMPLE
53:5x5x5:125

Exponents of 10 are the most common form of exponentsused in pharrpacy calculations.


As demonstratedin the previous example,the exponent tells us how many zeros follow.

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

!04 : 10,000 and has four zeros

102 : 100 and has fwo zeros

For decimal fractions that are lessthan one, exponentsare expressedas negativenumbers.
The number in the negativeexponent tells us the number of decimal places.

EXAMPLE
10- I : 0.1

EXAMPLE
10--3: 0.001

EXAMPLE
10--2: 0.01

Notation
Scientific
Scientificnotation is a short way of writing very long numbers. On a calculator,scientific notation is also known as
E notation ("E" standsfor "Exponent").
A number written in scientificnotation is written as a product of a number between1 and 10 and a power of 10.

EXAMPLE

'Write

438,680,000in scientificnotation.

1. Changethe number to a number between 1 and 10 by moving the decimal point 8 placesto the left.
2. Multiply by 10 raisedto the power of the number of placesyou had to move the decimalpoint.
438,680,000: 4.3868 x 108
On a calculatorwindow, the baseof 10 is not shown; insteadE or EE is usedto indicatean exponent.E or EE on a
calculator means"10 raised to the following power."

EXAMPLE
\7rite the followingnumbersin scientificnotation.
434,000: 4.34 x 10s or 4.34 x 10 EE5
: 8.427x 105 or 8.421x 10 EE 5
8,421.,000
: 2.341,2x 1010 or 2.3472x 10 EE 10
23,472,000,000
in scientificnotation.
Decimalfractionsthat arelessthan onecanalsobe expressed

EXAMPLE
0 . 34: 3 . 4 x 1 0 { o r 3 .4x 1 0E E -1
EXAMPLE
: 4.5 x 10+ or 4.5 x 10EE4
0.00045

88

PharmacgCalculationsI Section One: BasicArithmetic

EXAMPLE
:2.1. x 104 or 2.1 x L0EE-2
0.021.

Student Name

CourseNumber

Date

Expressthe follouing as numbers:


1

2.

10

11. 32

12. 43

3. tl

13. 64

4.

103

14. 72

5.

310

15. 92

6.

66

16. 1.02

7. t23

17.34

8.

105

18. 47

g.

44

lg.

10. 5s

52

20. 63

NotationI Chapter 1Z
Exponents
and Scientific

Write the follouting numbersin scientffic notation:


21. 12

34. 15

22. 456

tt', w

23. 5,309

36. 6,100

24. 78,322

37. 772

25. 704,043 :

38. 503

26. 1.,567,334 :

39. 35

27. 0.72

40. 1,000,000:

28. 0.725

4!.

29. 0.0056

42. 0.757: I.57 x'1.0-1 :

30. 23

43.0.0005:5x10-4

31. 100

44. 0.0257:2.57 x 1.0r :

45.1.:t x100

32. 1.000

33.5

90

0.032: 3.2 x']-.04

PharmacgCalculationsI

Seaion One: BasicArithmetic

InterpretinliPrescriptions
Household
andConverting
andMetricMeasuremeflts

CHAPTER

13

LTARNING
CIBJHCTIVES
After completing this chapter,the stwdentwill be able to:
1 Describe
the metricsystem
2 ldentifythe standardmetricunitsfor length,weight,and volume
3 Defineprefixesusedin the metricsystem
4

Performconversions
betweenthe metricsystemand householdmeasurements

within the metricsystem


5 Performconversions
6 Interpretcommonpharmacyabbreviations

Doctors order medicationsfor outpatientsas prescriptionsthat are filled in pharmacies.Informationis providedin prescriptionsin a standardway (seeFig. 13-1).
pharmacycalculationsassociated
with filling prescriptions,
To perform necessary
rwo parts of the prescription are especiallyimportant: the inscription and the signa.
The inscriptiongivesthe nameof the medicationand the amount to be dispensed.
The signaprovidesinstructionsfor use.Other elementsof the prescription
are requiredby law and are beyondthe scopeof this book. It is important for
pharmacytechniciansto know the common abbreviationsthat are usedin
prescriptions,and somecommon pharmacyabbreviationsare listedin Table 13-1.
provides
and
the nameof the medication
Theinscription
of a prescription
for use.
Thesignaprovides
the directions
amountto dispense.

KEYTERM S
measure
of
Gram(g): standard
weightin the metricsystem
partof the prescription
Inscription:
information
about
that provides
thedrugandamount
measure
of
Meter(m): standard
lengthin the metricsystem
of measure
Metricsystem:system
basedon the mete[litel and
gram
Milliliter(mlor mL):common
inthe
measure
of volume
metricsystem
Signa(Sig):partofthe prescription
thedirections
for
that orovides
u5e

91

William M. Fox, MD
1234 Main Street
Anytown, Colorado 12345
Tel. (123) 456-7890 Fax.(I23) 456-1234

oor,slttlzote

*o., da.t1aDoe
ADDRESS

Dr:twt'"lt 4 7u*ni *il::1gli:l


ssna------------+
5t
- '(t

'?i?l,"'J;.

prescribed
andamount

leil7

T tlW

ultlliaw for tYlD


1^F7234567
Refill -

Figure13-1
to provideinformationthat is
Abbreviations.
Abbreviations
arecommonlyusedin prescriptions
TABLE13-1 CommonPharmacy
the medication.
necessary
to prepareand administer

a,c.

before food

p.c.

after food

ad

to, up to

p.o.

by mouth

ad lib.

freely

p.r.

by rectum

bib.

drink

p.r.n.

as needed

b.i.d.

twice a day

qAM

eachmorning

with

q.h.

eachhour

daily

eachday

q[2,3,a...]h

every[two, three, four; etc.]

gt or gtt

drop

q.i.d.

four timesa day

h.s.

at bedtime

qs

quantitysufficient*

i.m.

into the muscle

Rx

take

i.v.

into the vein

without

non rep.or nr

do not repeat

s.l.

underthe tongue

o.d.

right eye

stat.

immediately

o.s.

left eye

t.i.d.

three timesa day

both eyes.

* Whenqs is usedin a compounded


prescription,
you should"add up"
ingredient.
to thetotalamountindicated
by qswith the appropriate

o.u.

92

PharmacuCalculationst' Section One: BasicArithmetic

The metric systemis widely used in medicine.The strength of a medication is almost always given in metric units,
most commonly the milligram (mg).For example,atenolol50 mg tabletshave 50 mg of the activeingredient
(atenolol)in eachtablet; however,if you weighedeachtablet on a scale,you would find eachtablet weighsmuch
more than 50 mg (dueto bindersand fillers that areneededfor the tablet to take form and hold together).
The metric systemwas developedin the late 1700s to replace a systemwith illogical units of measurewith a
rational systembasedon multiples of 10. The meter is the standard unit of length in the metric systemand the
length of the meter is basedon the arc of the meridian from Barcelond,Spain,to Dunkirk, France.All metric units
were derived from the meter.The gram is the standard measureof,weight in the metric system(which is the weight
of one cubic centimeter(cc)of water at its maximum density).
Greek prefixeswere establishedfor multiples of 10, ranging
from pico- (one-trillionth) to tera- (one trillion) and including
the more familiar micro- (one-millionth),milli- (one-thousandth),
and kilo- (onethousand).Thus,a
centi-(one-hundredth),
kilogram equals1,000grams,a millimeterL/1,000of a meter.
One cubic centimeter(cc)is equalto one milliliter (ml). A
milliliter is a measureof volume and there are 1.000 milliliters
in one liter.

EXAMPLE
How many centimeters(cm) are in one meter?
Becausethe prefix centi means10-2,there arc 1.02(or 100)
centimetersin one meter.

Factor

Name

Symbol

10s

gtga

106

me9a

103

kilo

102
.l01

hecto

deka

da

10-t

deci

l0-2

centi

10-3

milli

10-6

micro

10-s

nano

10-12

pico

EXAMPLE
How many milliliters (ml) are in one liter?
Becausethe prefix milli means10-3,there are 103(or 1,000) milliliters in one liter.

Measurements
Converting
usedin
Medicationsare preparedby drug manufacturersaccordingto the metric standardsand measurements
medication
for
the
dose
of
measurements
metric
to
accurately
convert
science.Pharmacieshave an important duty
to ensurethat patientsget the correctdoseof medication.The pharmacylabel should
to householdmeasurements
provide information so the patient can read the directionson the prescriptionbottle,measurethe correctdoseof
medication.and take the correct doseof medication.
Liquid medicationstaken by mouth are
commonly dispensedin community pharmacies.
Somebut not all measuringspoonsand
measuringcupsare labeledwith both household
and metric units.The directionsare usually
printed on the prescriptionlabel so the volume
can be measuredusing householdmeasuring
devicessuchas measuringspoons,cups,etc.

HouseholdMeasure

MetricEquivalent

(tsp.)
1 teaspoonful

5ml

(Tbl.)
1 tablespoonful
1 fluidounce(fl.oz.)

to 30 ml)
29.6ml (oftenrounded

1 pint(pt.)

to 480 ml)
473 ml (oftenrounded

1 g a l l o n( g a l . )

3 , 7 8 5m l

1 p o u n d( l b . )

454 g

1 5m l

dropperor medicine
usinga medicine
accurately
andshouldbe administered
Liquidmedications
mustbe measured
spoon.Householdeatlngutensilsdo not provideaccuratemeasurements.

h Chapter13
Household
andMetricMeasurements
Prescriptions
andConverting
Interpreting

93

The conversionsbetweenhouseholdand metric measurements


can be done by carefullysettingup proportions as
fractions, then multiplying the fractions to get the correct answer.
lmportant Alwaysbe sureyou are usingthe correctconversion
factorswhen settingup ratioand proportionor
dimensional
analysis
equations.

EXAMPLE
Convert 2 tsp. to ml.
1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso the units you want in the final answer are in the
numeratorof the first fraction: 5 mV1 tsp.
2. Setup the next fraction so the units of the numerator in the secondfraction are the sameas the units of the
denominatorin the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractionsare multiplied): 2 tsp.
3. Multiply the fractions!Always be surethe numeratorcontainsthe units of the measuringdevicethat you are
using for your measurement:5 ml/l, tsp. X 2 tsp. : 10 ml.
bnportant: Always double checkyour work to be surethe units canceland the numeratorcontainsthe correct
units.Also, be suretherewas not an error usingthe calculator!
5 mV1 tsp. X 2 tsp. : 19 -1

EXAMPLE
Convert 5 pints to milliliters.
1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso the units you want in the final answerare in the
numeratorof the first fraction: 473 mUpint.
2. Setup the next fraction so the units of the numeratorin the secondfraction are the sameas the units of the
denominatorin the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractionsare multiplied); 5 pints.
3. Multiolv the fractions.

473 ml

: 2,365ml

Whencalculating
bodyweightfrom lbs.to kg,use2.2lbs./kg.

EXAMPLE
A 66-Ib. child weighshow many kilograms?
1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso the units you want in the final answerare in the
numerator of the first fraction: kg/2.2Lb.
2. Setup the next fraction so the units of the numeratorin the secondfraction are the sameas the units of the
denominatorin the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractionsare multiplied): 66 lb.
3. Multiply the fractions.

:30k9

94

PharmacyCalculationsH Section One: BasicArithmetic

EXAMPLE
If a prescriptionreads:7.5 ml t.i.d., what is the dosein householdunits?
1 tsp./Sml x 7.5 mVdose: 1.5 tsp./dose
1. Start by setting up a dimensional analysisequation so the units you want in the final answer are in the
numerator of the first fraction: 1 tsp./S ml
2. Set up the next fraction so the units of the numerator in the ,..orrd fraction are the sameas the units of the
denominator in the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied): 7.5 mVdose
3. Multiply the fractions! Always be sure the numerator contains the units of the measuringdevicethat you are
using for your measurement:1 tsp./Sml x 7.5 mVdose: 1.5 tsp./dose
Important: Again, rememberto check your work!

EXAMPLE
If a prescriptionreads:Amoxicillin 250 mglSml, dispense150 ml, 375 mgt.i.d. X 5d, what is the dosein
householdunits?
L tsp./Sml x 5 mU250mg x 375 mg/dose: 1.5 tsp./dose

EXAMPLE
If a medicationis ordered5 mg/kg/day and is administeredoncedaily,what is the dosefor a 150-poundpatient?

5 ms

kg'day |

t*

| rsotu'.

2.2lbs. I

34v j rrrgrciay

EXAMPLE
How many 50 ml bottlescan be preparedfrom 1 L of simplesyrup?
1. Start by setting up a dimensional analysisequation so that the units you want in the final answer are in the
numerator of the first fraction: Bottle/50 ml.
2. Set up the next fraction so that the units of the numerator in the secondfraction are the sameas the units
of the denominator in the first fraction (that is, so that the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied):
1,000 ml/L.
3. Set up the next fraction so that the units of the numerator in the third fraction are the sameas the units of the
denominator in the secondfraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied): 1 L.
4. Multiply the fractions.

1,000ml

: 20 bottles

il Chaptertl
Household
andMetricMeasurements
Prescriptions
andConverting
Interpreting

95

EXAMPLE

Convert 105 mg/dl to g/dl.

'b
n

1 . Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysis


equationso that the units you want in the
final answer are in the numerator of the
first fraction: 9/1,000mg.

-E
o
c

.o
z
o

o
.9
o

2 . Setup the next fraction so the units of


the numerator in the secondfraction are
the sameas the units of the denominator
in the first fraction (that is, so the units
cancelwhen the fractionsare multiplied):
105 mg/dl.

o
p
E
c

..
@

.9
o
!

A
u,

3 . Multiolv the fractions:

i-

: 0.105s/dl

t
th
-g
o
c

.9
z

Glucosemetersprovidereadingsfor the concentration


of glucosein the blood.Convert105mg/dl to g/dl.

EXAMPLE
A patientneedsto take 10 ml of Maalox. How many teaspoonsis 10 ml?
1. Start by settingup a dimensionalanalysisequationso that the units
you want in the final answerare in the numeratorof the first fraction:
teaspoon/Sml.
2. Setup the next fraction so the units of the numerator in the second
fraction are the sameas the units of the denominator in the first fraction
(that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied):
10 mVdose.
3. Multiply the fractions:

: 2 teaspoons/dose

g5

PharmacgCalculationst' Section One: BasicAritnmetrc

Student Name

\r

CourseNumber

Date

Conuertthe follouti.ng:
1. 1/3tsp.

ml

2. 3 tsp.

ml

3. 2 pints

ml

4. 1./2Lb.

3 quarts

ml

6. 1./2tsp.

ml

7. L 1.12tsp.

ml

8. 3 gal.

ml

5.

9.

\_

3 tablespoonsful

(Hint: 1 quart : 2 pints)

ml

10. 2 fl.oz.

ml

11. 3 fl. oz.

ml

12. 3 pints

ml

I Chapter13
Household
andMetricMeasurements
andConverting
Prescriptions
Interpreting

97

13. 3 lbs.

1,4. ml

tsp.

15. 45 ml

fl,.oz.

16. 15 ml

rsp.

17. 2,365mI

pints

1 8 . 2 2 , 7 1 0m l

gal.

19. 2 ml

rsp.

20. 20 ml

rsp.

21. 908g

Ibs.

22. 45 ml

- tsp.

2 3 . 1 0 0g

lbs.

24. 3 Tbl.

ml

25. 5 fl.o2.

ml

26. 5lbs.

kg

PharmacgCalculationsli Section One: BasicArithmetic

Tbl.

2 7 . 1 , 1 3 5g

lbs.

28. 2pt.

ml

29. 473 ml

pt.

30. 0.9kg

Ibs.

31. 9,080g

lbs.

32. 1,000mg

33. 0.908kg

lbs.

34. 3.785liters

b*^'

3 5 . 1 . 8 1 6k g

lbs.

36. 1.75tsp.

ml

37. 7.5ml

Tbl.

38. 30 ml

tsp.

39. 60 ml

Tbl.

4A. 88.8ml

fl. oz.

ocl

k Chaptert:
Household
andMetricMeasurements
Prescriptions
andConverting
Interpreting

41. If a prescriptionreads:Cefaclor250 mglSml, dispense150 ml, 375 mgb.i.d. x 10d,


what is the dosein teaspoonsful?

42. If a prescriptionreads:Erythromycin200 mg/5 mI,200 mg t.i.d. X 5d,


what is the dosein teaspoonsful?

43. If the dose of a medication is 30 mg/kg/day in four divided doses,what is each dose
for a 205-poundpatient?(Hints: Use2.2lb./kg and note there are 4 dosesper day.)

44, If a prescription
reads:Amoxicillin50 mg/ml,dispense
30 ml, 62.5 mgt.i.d. X 5d,
what is the dosein teaspoonsful?

45. How many gallons of Coca Cola fountain syrup are neededto package 144 bottles
of 720 ml per bottle?

lOO

PharmacyCalculationsI

Section One: BasicArithmetic

Apothecary
Converting
andMetricMeasurements
OBJECTIVES
LEARNING

CHAPTER

l4

After completing this chapter,the student will be able to:


measurein pharmacy
of apothecary
the significance
1 Describe
to metricunits
from apothecary
2 Performconversion
units
from metricto apothecary
3 Performconversion

The
Someprescribersorder medicationsusingthe apothecarysystemof measurement.
most commonly usedapothecarymeasuresare grains (to measureweight of solids)
and drams (to measurevolume of liquids).

Measures
Apothecary
ApothecaryMeasure

Metric Equivalent

l grain

to 65 mg)
64.8mg (oftenrounded

1 dram

5 ml(: 1teasPoon)

1 Il. oz.
1 oz.(apothecary)

to 30 ml)
29.6ml (oftenrounded
31g

KEYTERMS
ounceisdifferentthanthe weightof an
Theweightof an apothecary
measures'
ounceisusedin commercial
ounce.Theavoirdupois
avoirdupois

You can also perform the conversionsbetweenapothecaryand household


by carefullysettingup proportions as fractions,then multiplying
measurements
the fractionsto get the correctanswer.
Importa.nt: Always be sureyou are usingthe cofrect conversionfactor when
settingup ratio and proportion or dimensionalanalysisequations.Always double
checkyour calculations!

systemof
Apothecary
of
a system
measurement:
with
associated
measurement
pharmaceuticals
that uses
andgrains
ounces
Metricsysternof measurernent:
of measurement
a system
with pharmaceuticals
associated
that usesgrams,liters,and
meters

E XA M P L E
Convert 1,6.2mg to grains.
mg x L6.2 mg : 0.25 gr.
9r.164.8

EXAMPLE
If a prescriptionreadsDonnatal elixir,dispense150 ml,
1 dram t.i.d.,what is the dosein householdunits?
1 tsp./5 ml x 5 ml/1 dram x 1 dram/dose: 1 tsp./dose

corrtains:
Each5 nL (1leaspoontul)
16.2mg
Phenobaoltal,
USP
n4
IJSP
0.1037
Hyosclamine
Sultrte.
0 0194mg
Sullate,USP
Alr@iile
$0p0lamrne
mg
0.0065
Hydrobrooide.
USP
Alcoho{
mt norethan23.80/"
OO}.IOT
USEIFTAHPEN'WIDEIIT
0R
ul.tDEB
cAPls 8Rol{Efi
. t{ol For}lousshold
gull Conlainef
Usa

to'l

EXAMPLE
If a prescription reads:aspirin 5 gr., dispense100 tablets, 1 tablet q4-6hprn headache,
what is the dose in milligrams?
64.8 mglgrain X 5 grains/tablet x ltabletldose : 324 mg/dose
Important: Always be sure you are using the correct conversionf.actorwhen setting up
ratio and proportions or dimensional analysisequations,and always dopble check your
calculations!

l00lqatm-::smomch

The5 grainstrength
iscommonly
available
as325mg.

EXAMPLE
A prescription calls f.or 93 g of hydrocortisone 2.5o/ocream.Convert 93 g to apothecaryounces.
1. Start by setting up a dimensional analysisequation so that the units you want in the final answer are in the
numerator of the first fraction: oz./31 g.
2. Setup the next fraction so that the units of the numerator in the secondfraction are the sameas the units of the
denominator in the first fraction (that is, so the units cancelwhen the fractions are multiplied): 93 g.
3. Multiply the fractions.

:3oz

102

PharmacgCalculationst' Section One: BasicArithmetic