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Chapter 10

The pathway for O2 from lung to skeletal


muscle mitochondria

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Chapter 10

Respiration During Exercise

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Chapter 10

Outline
Function of the Lung
Structure of the
Respiratory System
Conducting Zone
Respiratory Zone

Mechanics of
Breathing
Inspiration
Expiration
Airway Resistance

Ventilation-Perfusion
Relationships
O2 and CO2 Transport
in Blood
Hemoglobin and O2
Transport
Oxyhemoglobin
Dissociation Curve
O2 Transport in Muscle
O2 Transport in Blood

Ventilation and AcidBase Balance


Pulmonary Ventilation
Ventilation and BloodPulmonary Volumes
Gas Responses to
and Capacities
Exercise
Rest-to-Work Transition
Diffusion of Gases
Prolonged Exercise in a
Blood Flow to the
Hot Environment
Lung
Incremental Exercise

Control of Ventilation
Ventilatory Regulation at
Rest
Respiratory Control
Center
Effect of Blood PCO2,
PO2, and Potassium on
Ventilation
Neural Input to the
Respiratory Control
Center
Ventilatory Control During
Submaximal Exercise
Ventilatory Control During
Heavy Exercise

Do the Lungs Adapt to


Exercise Training?
Does the Pulmonary
System Limit Maximal
Exercise
Performance?

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Chapter 10

Introduction
Pulmonary respiration
Ventilation
Exchange of O2 and CO2 in the lungs

Cellular respiration
O2 utilization and CO2 production by the tissues

Purposes of the respiratory system during exercise


Gas exchange between the environment and the body
Regulation of acid-base balance during exercise

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CO
Structure of the Respiratory System

Chapter 10

Major Organs of the Respiratory System

Name of branches

Frontal
sinus

Trachea

Nasal
cavity

Soft palate
Pharynx

Nostril

Epiglottis

Oral
cavity

Esophagus

Larynx

Conducting zone

Bronchi

Hard
palate

Bronchioles

Trachea

Terminal bronchioles
Bronchus

Respiratory zone

Respiratory bronchioles

Alveolar ducts

Alveolar sacs
Right lung

Left lung

Figure 10.3 The conducting zones

of the pulmonary system.


Figure
10.1All Major
organs
of the respiratory
system.
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Education.
rights reserved.
No reproduction
or distribution without
the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Structure of the Respiratory System

Chapter 10

Conducting and Respiratory Zones


Conducting zone
Conducts air to respiratory
zone
Humidifies, warms, and
filters air
Components:
Trachea
Bronchial tree
Bronchioles

Respiratory zone
Exchange of gases between
air and blood
Components:
Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar sacs
Surfactant prevents alveolar
collapse

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Structure of the Respiratory System

Chapter 10

Conducting
and
Respiratory
Zones

Name of branches

Number
of tubes
in branch

Trachea

Bronchi

Pharynx

Epiglottis
Esophagus

Conducting zone

Soft palate

4
8
Bronchioles

16
32

Trachea

Terminal bronchioles

6 x 104

Respiratory zone

Respiratory bronchioles
5 x 105
Alveolar ducts

Alveolar sacs
Left lung

8 x 106

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Figure 10.3 The conducting zones and respiratory zones

Structure of the Respiratory System


CONFIRMING PAG

Chapter 10

The Bronchial Tree


Respiratory zone

Conducting zone
Number of
branches

Terminal bronchiole

(1) Trachea

(2) Primary
bronchus

Respiratory
bronchioles
(500,000)

Bronchial
tree

Alveolar sacs
(8 million)
(60,000)

Figure 10.4

Alveolus

Terminal
bronchioles

The bronchial tree consists of the passageways that connect the trachea and the alveoli.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
functions to filter
and humidify the air as it moves

e Chapter
lung tissue
10 from
rcise when breath-

within tiny air sacs called alveoli.


The air passages of the respiratory Structure
system areof the Respiratory System
divided into two functional zones: (1) conducting zone; and (2) respiratory zone.

Type II Alveolar Cells

curs across about


rmous number of
g with a large suris estimated that
r diffusion in the
meters (i.e., size of
iffusion is further
veolus is only one
-gas barrier is only
and capillary cell)

Fluid with surfactant


Type I alveolar cell

Type II alveolar cell

Alveolus

White blood cell


Red blood cell

Macrophage

the ideal structure


ese tiny bubbles
ung. For example,
essure exerted due
e liquid lining the
velop, which tend
me of the alveolar
synthesize and reCapillary
which lowers the
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hus prevents their
Figure 10.5 Relationship between type II alveolar cells

Structure of the Respiratory System

Chapter 10

Structure of the Respiratory System


Lungs are enclosed by membranes called pleura
Visceral pleura
On outer surface of lung

Parietal pleura
Lines the thoracic wall

Intrapleural space
Intrapleural pressure is lower than atmospheric
Prevents collapse of alveoli

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Structure of the Respiratory System

Chapter 10
Right lung

Left lung

Figure 10.3

The conduct
of the pulmonary system

Position of the Lungs, Diaphragm, and


Pleura
structures (e.g., trache
Figure 10.1

Major organs of the respiratory system.

Parietal pleura

Mediastinum

that air passes through


The region of the lung
labeled the respiratory
ratory bronchioles, alv
Respiratory bronchiole
because they contain

Conducting Zone

Air enters the trache


which receives air from
ties. At rest, healthy
nose. However, during
the mouth becomes t
Diaphragm
(33). For gas to enter
pass through a valve-lik
which is located betwe
Visceral pleura
The trachea branch
(right and left) that en
tree then branches sev
ing bronchioles. Brochi
Figure 10.2 Position of the lungs, diaphragm, and pleura.
bronchial tree. The bro
times
before they beco
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Education.

Mechanics of Breathing

Chapter 10

Mechanics of Breathing
Movement of air occurs via bulk flow
Movement of molecules due to pressure difference

Inspiration
Diaphragm pushes downward, ribs lift outward
Volume of lungs increases
Intrapulmonary pressure lowered

Expiration
Diaphragm relaxes, ribs pulled downward
Volume of lungs decreases
Intrapulmonary pressure raised
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Mechanics of Breathing

Chapter 10

The Mechanics of Inspiration


and Expiration

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Chapter 10

The Mechanics of Inspiration


and Expiration

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CONFIRMING
PAGES
Mechanics
of Breathing

Chapter 10

The Muscles of Respiration


Muscles of inspiration

Muscles of expiration

Sternocleidomastoid
Scalenes

External intercostals
Internal intercostals

Diaphragm

Internal intercostals

External abdominal oblique

Internal abdominal oblique


Transversus abdominis
Rectus abdominis
Figure 10.7

The
muscles of respiration. The principal muscles of inspiration are shown on the left side of the trunk;
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Mechanics of Breathing

Chapter 10

Airway Resistance
Airflow depends on:
Pressure difference between two ends of airway
Resistance of airways
P1 P2
Airflow =
Resistance

Airway resistance depends on diameter


Chronic obstructive lung disease
Asthma and exercise-induced asthma

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Pulmonary Ventilation

Chapter 10

Pulmonary Ventilation
The amount of air moved in or out of the lungs per
minute (V)
Tidal volume (VT)

Amount of air moved per breath

Breathing frequency (f)


Number of breaths per minute

V = VT x f
Alveolar ventilation (VA)

Volume of air that reaches the respiratory zone

Dead-space ventilation (VD)

Volume of air remaining in conducting airways

V = VA + VD
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Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities

Chapter 10

Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities


Vital capacity (VC)
Maximum amount of gas that can be expired after a maximum
inspiration

Residual volume (RV)


Volume of gas remaining in lungs after maximum expiration

Total lung capacity (TLC)


Amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Pulmonary VolumesCONFIRMING
and CapacitiesP

Chapter 10

Lung Volumes and Capacities


6,000

Maximum possible inspiration

Lung volume (mL)

5,000

4,000

Inspiratory
Vital capacity capacity

Inspiratory
reserve volume

Tidal
volume

3,000
Total lung capacity
2,000

1,000

Expiratory
reserve volume
Maximum voluntary
expiration

Residual
volume

Functional residual
capacity

re 10.9 A spirogram showing lung volumes and capacities at rest.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
al capacity (VC)
is defined as the maximum
does not affect any of these lung volumes or ca

volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a maximum

Chapter
10 Finally, total lung capacity (TLC) is deexpiration.
fined as the volume of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration; it is the sum of the two lung volumes
(VC 1 RV) just mentioned. Note that exercise training

diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disPulmonary Volumes and Capacities


ease (COPD). For example, because of increased airway resistance, COPD patients will have a diminished
vital capacity and a reduced rate of expired airflow
during a maximal expiratory effort. An illustration

Definitions of Pulmonary Volumes


and Capacities
TABLE 10.1 Respiratory Volumes and Capacities for a 70-Kg Young Adult Male
Measurement
Respiratory Volumes
Tidal volume ( TV)

Typical Value
500 mL

Inspiratory reserve volume ( IRV)

3,000 mL

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

1,200 mL

Residual volume (RV)

1,300 mL

Respiratory Capacities
Vital capacity ( VC)

4,700 mL

Inspiratory capacity ( IC )

3,500 mL

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

2,500 mL

Total lung capacity ( TLC)

6,000 mL

Definition
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled in one breath
during quiet breathing
Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can
be inhaled with maximum effort
Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can
be exhaled with maximum effort
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after
maximum expiration; that is, the amount of
air that can never be voluntarily exhaled
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled
following a maximum inspiration VC 5
(ERV 1 TV 1 IRV)
Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled
following a normal expiration (IC 5 T V 1 IRV)
Amount of air remaining in the lungs following
a normal expiration (FRC 5 RV 1 ERV)
Maximum amount of air in the lungs at the
end of a maximum inspiration (TLC 5 RV 1 VC)

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Chapter 10

Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities

Lung Volumes and Capacities

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Diffusion of Gases

Chapter 10

Partial Pressure of Gases


Daltons law
The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the
pressure that each gas would exert independently

Calculation of partial pressure


Pair = PO2 + PCO2 + PN2
Gas

% in air

Fraction

Barometric P

Partial P

O2

20.93

0.2093

760 mmHg

159 mmHg

CO2

0.03

0.0003

760 mmHg

0.3 mmHg

N2

79.04

0.7904

760 mmHg

600.7 mmHg

Total

100

760 mmHg

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Chapter 10

Partial Pressure of Gases

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Chapter 10

Partial Pressure of Gases


Alveolar air does not have the same concentrations of
gases as atmospheric air
1) the alveolar air is only partially replaced by atmospheric air with each breath
2) oxygen is constantly being absorbed into the pulmonary blood from the
alveolar air
3) Third, carbon dioxide is constantly diffusing from the pulmonary blood into the
alveoli
4) atmospheric air that enters the respiratory passages is humidified even before
it reaches the alveoli

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Diffusion of Gases

Chapter 10

Diffusion of Gases
Ficks law of diffusion
The rate of gas transfer (V gas) is proportional to the tissue
area, the diffusion coefficient of the gas, and the difference in
the partial pressure of the gas on the two sides of the tissue,
and inversely proportional to the thickness.
V gas =

A
x D x (P1 P2)
T

V gas = rate of diffusion


A = tissue area
T = tissue thickness
D = diffusion coefficient of gas
P1 P2 = difference in partial pressure
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Diffusion of Gases

Chapter 10

CONFIRMING PAGES

Partial Pressures of O2 and CO2 and


Gas Exchange
Expired air
PO2 116 mm Hg
PCO2 32 mm Hg

Alveolar
gas exchange

Alveolar air
PO2 104 mm Hg
PCO2 40 mm Hg

O2 loading
CO2 unloading
CO2

Gas transport
O2 carried
from alveoli
to systemic
tissues
CO2 carried
from systemic
tissues to
alveoli

Inspired air
PO2 159 mm Hg
PCO2 0.3 mm Hg

O2

Pulmonary circuit

Deoxygenated
blood
PO2 40 mm Hg
PCO2 46 mm Hg

Oxygenated blood
PO2 95 mm Hg
PCO2 40 mm Hg

Systemic circuit

Systemic
gas exchange

CO2

O2

O2 unloading
CO2 loading

Tissue fluid
PO2 40 mm Hg
PCO2 46 mm Hg

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Figure 10.11 Partial pressures of oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2) in blood as a result of gas exchange in the

Chapter 10

Diffusion of Gases

Partial Pressures of O2 and CO2 and


Gas Exchange
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Diffusion of Gases

Chapter 10

In Summary
Gas moves across the blood-gas interface in the lung due to simple
diffusion.
The rate of diffusion is described by Ficks law and diffusion is greater
when the surface area is large, the tissue thickness is small, and the
driving pressure is high.

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Blood Flow to the Lung

Chapter 10

Blood Flow to the Lung


Pulmonary circuit
Same rate of flow as systemic circuit
Lower pressure

When standing, most of the blood flow is to the base


of the lung
Due to gravitational force

During exercise, more blood flow to apex

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Blood Flow to the Lung

Chapter 10

The Pulmonary
and Systemic
Circulation

CO2

O2

Pulmonary
circulation Pulmonary
artery

Lungs

R.A.
R.V.

Ventilation
(L/min)
Apex

0.24

Base

0.82

Pulmonary
vein

L.A.
L.V.

Heart

Liver
Hepatic
portal vein

Aorta

Systemic
circulation

Vena cava

Hepatic
artery

Intestines

Kidneys
Tissue capillaries

CO2
Fluid

Figure 10.14

The relationsh
blood flow (ventilation/pe
(apex) and the base of the
that the base of the lung i
ventilation and that the a
to ventilation. This uneve
ventilation results in less-

O2

generally not equal to 1


varies depending on the
Tissue cells
sidered (32, 40, 57, 67, 11
Fig. 10.14, where the
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Education.
Figure 10.12 The pulmonary circulation is a lowFluid

0.07
Blood Flow to the
Lungli

Chapter 10

Blood flow

Regional Blood Flow within the Lung

5
Bottom
Figure 10.13

Rib number

2
Top

Regional blood flow within the lung. Note


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that
there is a linear decrease in blood flow from the

0.24/0
propor
flow, w
the ven
0.82 li
minute
less th
ventila
ratios
ditions
greater
change
W
ratio? L
relation
small V
in gas
inequa
sion is
misma

Blood Flow to the Lung

Chapter 10

In Summary
The pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure system with a rate of
blood flow equal to that in the systemic circuit.
In a standing position, most of the blood flow to the lung is distributed
to the base of the lung due to gravitational force.

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Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships

Chapter 10

Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships
Ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q)
Indicates matching of blood flow to ventilation
Ideal: ~1.0

Apex of lung
Underperfused (ratio <1.0)

Base of lung
Overperfused (ratio >1.0)

During exercise
Light exercise improves V/Q ratio
Heavy exercise results in V/Q inequality
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Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships

Chapter 10

Ventilation/Perfusion Ratios
Ventilation
(L/min)

Blood flow
(L/min)

Ratio

Apex

0.24

0.07

3.43

Base

0.82

1.29

0.64

Pulmonary
vein

Aorta

Figure 10.14 The relationship between ventilation and

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Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships

Chapter 10

In Summary
Efficient gas exchange between the blood and the lung requires
proper matching of blood flow to ventilation (called ventilationperfusion relationships).
The ideal ratio of ventilation to perfusion is 1.0 or slightly greater,
since this ratio implies a perfect matching on blood flow to ventilation.

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O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

Chapter 10

O2 Transport in the Blood


99% of O2 is transported bound to hemoglobin (Hb)
Oxyhemoglobin: Hb bound to O2
Deoxyhemoglobin: Hb not bound to O2

Amount of O2 that can be transported per unit volume


of blood is dependent on the Hb concentration
Each gram of Hb can transport 1.34 ml O2

Oxygen content of blood (100% Hb saturation)


Males:
150 g Hb/L blood x 1.34 ml O2/g Hb = 200 ml O2/L blood

Females:
130 g Hb/L blood x 1.34 ml O2/g Hb = 174 ml O2/L blood
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O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

Chapter 10

Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve


Deoxyhemoglobin + O2 Oxyhemoglobin
Direction of reaction depends on:
PO2 of the blood
Affinity between Hb and O2

At the lung
High PO2 = formation of oxyhemoglobin

At the tissues
Low PO2 = release of O2 to tissues

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with O2, the healthy


Chapter 10
approximately
200 ml
, per liter of blood at

curve is well designed to meet human O2 transport


O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood
needs. The relatively flat portion
of the curve (above a
PO2 of approximately 90 mm Hg) allows arterial PO2 to
oscillate from 90 to 100 mm Hg without a large drop

Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve


20

Amount of O2 unloaded to tissues


80

15

60
10
40
Veins
(at rest)

20

20

40

60

5
Arteries

80

100

Oxygen content
(ml O2/100 ml blood)

Percent oxyhemoglobin saturation

100

PO2 (mm Hg)

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Chapter 10

O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve


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O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

Chapter 10

Effect of pH, Temperature, and 23 DPG


on the O2-Hb Dissociation Curve
pH
Decreased pH lowers Hb-O2 affinity
Results in a rightward shift of the curve
Favors offloading of O2 to the tissues

Temperature
Increased blood temperature lowers Hb-O2 affinity
Results in a rightward shift of the curve

23 DPG
Byproduct of RBC glycolysis
May result in a rightward shift of the curve
During altitude exposure
Not a major cause of rightward shift during exercise
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Chapter 10

is the fact that hydrogen ions bind to hemoglobin,


moglobin dissociat
O2 and CO2 Transport
in Blood
which reduces its O2 transport capacity. Therefore,
of 23 DPG
in re
when there is a higher-than-normal concentration of
cells are unique in
hydrogen ions in the blood (i.e., acidosis), there is a
cleus or mitochond

Effect of pH on the Oxygen-Hemoglobin


Dissociation Curve
100
90

90

80
Percent oxyhemoglobin saturation

Percent oxyhemoglobin saturation

100

pH
7.60

7.40

70
60

7.20
50
40
30
20
10
0

80

32

70
60
50
40
30
20
10

10

20

30

40 50 60
PO2 (mm Hg)

70

80

90

100

Figure 10.16 The effect of changing blood pH on the shape

10

20

Figure 10.17 The effe

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ity. Therefore,
Chapter 10
ncentration of
sis), there is a

of 23 DPG in red blood cells (RBCs). RedOblood


2 and CO2 Transport in Blood
cells are unique in that they do not contain a nucleus or mitochondria. Therefore, they must rely on

Effect of Temperature on the OxygenHemoglobin Dissociation Curve


100

Percent oxyhemoglobin saturation

90
80

32

42

70

37

60
50
40
30
20
10

80

90

100

H on the shape

10

20

30

40 50 60
PO2 (mm Hg)

70

80

90 100

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O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

Chapter 10

O2 Transport in Muscle
Myoglobin (Mb)
Shuttles O2 from the cell membrane to the mitochondria

Mb has a higher affinity for O2 than hemoglobin


Even at low PO2
Allows Mb to store O2
O2 reserve for muscle

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Chapter 10 2 dissociation
myoglobin-O
scharges its O2 at very low
ant because the PO2 in the

O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

A high PCO2 causes CO2 to combine with water


to form carbonic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by

Dissociation Curves for Myoglobin and


Hemoglobin
Saturation with oxygen (percent)

100

80
Myoglobin
Hemoglobin

60

40

20
Arterial blood

Venous blood
0

20

40

60

80

100

PO2 mm Hg
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120

O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

Chapter 10

CO2 Transport in Blood


Dissolved in plasma (10%)
Bound to Hb (20%)
Bicarbonate (70%)
CO2 + H2O Carbonic anhydrase H2CO3

H+ + HCO3

At the tissue:
H+ binds to Hb
HCO3 diffuses out of RBC into plasma
Cl diffuses into RBC (chloride shift)

At the lung:
O2 binds to Hb (drives off H+)
Reaction reverses to release CO2
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O2 and CO2CONFIRMING
Transport in Blood
PAGES

Chapter 10

CO2 Transport in the Blood


(a)

(b)
Erythrocyte

Begin

CO2 produced

Plasma

Erythrocyte

CO2

Dissolved CO2
Dissolved CO2

Capillary
wall

Atmosphere
(expired CO2)

HbCO2

Cells

Dissolved CO2
+ Hb
HbCO2
CO2 + H2O
CA
H2CO3

CO2

Hb
H2O

Dissolved
CO2
CA
H2CO3

Cl HCO
Cl

HCO3

+ H+

Alveolus
CO2

Dissolved
CO2

Cl
HCO3 + H+

Interstitial fluid
Cl
Tissue

Plasma
Capillary
wall

HCO3
Tissue capillary

Lung capillary

Lung

Figure 10.19 Summary of carbon dioxide (CO2) movement from tissues into the blood (a) and from the blood into the

alveolus of the lung (b). Note in Fig. 10.19(a) that CO2 is released from the cells and moves into the blood. Carbon
dioxide is transported in the blood in three forms: (1) dissolved CO2, (2) CO2 combined with hemoglobin (HbCO2),
2
2
Copyright
2015
rights reserved.
No reproduction
distribution
without
the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill
Education.
and (3) bicarbonate
(HCO
Notice Education.
that asAllHCO
out ofor red
blood
cells
(erythrocytes),
chloride
(Cl2) moves
3).McGraw-Hill
3 moves

O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

Chapter 10

In Summary
More than 99% of the O2 transported in blood is chemically bonded
with hemoglobin. The effect of the partial pressure of O2 on the
combination of O2 with hemoglobin is illustrated by the S-shaped O2hemoglobin dissociation curve.
An increase in body temperature and a reduction in blood pH results
in a right shift in the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve and a reduced
affinity of hemoglobin for O2.

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O2 and CO2 Transport in Blood

Chapter 10

In Summary
Carbon dioxide is transported in blood three forms: (1) dissolved CO2
(10% of CO2 is transported in this way), (2) CO2 bound to hemoglobin
(called carbaminohemoglobin; about 20% of blood CO2 is transported
via this form), and (3) bicarbonate (70% of CO2 found in the blood is
transported as bicarbonate [HCO3]).

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Chapter 10

Ventilatory and Blood-Gas Responses to Exercise

Rest-to-Work Transitions
At the onset of constant-load submaximal exercise:
Initially, ventilation increases rapidly
Then, a slower rise toward steady state

PO2 and PCO2 are relatively unchanged


Slight decrease in PO2 and increase in PCO2
Suggests that increase in alveolar ventilation is slower than increased
metabolism

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Chapter 10

Ventilatory and Blood-Gas Responses to Exercise

The Transition From Rest to Exercise

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Ventilatory and Blood-Gas Responses to Exercise

Chapter 10

Incremental Exercise in an Untrained


Subject
Ventilation
Linear increase up to ~5075% VO2 max
Exponential increase beyond this point
Ventilatory threshold (Tvent)
Inflection point where VE increases exponentially

PO2
Maintained within 1012 mmHg of resting value

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Ventilatory and Blood-Gas Responses to Exercise

Chapter 10

Incremental Exercise in an Elite Athlete


Ventilation
Tvent occurs at higher % VO2 max

PO2
Decrease of 3040 mmHg at near-maximal work
Hypoxemia

Due to:
Ventilation/perfusion mismatch
Short RBC transit time in pulmonary capillary due to high cardiac output

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 10

Ventilatory and Blood-Gas Responses to Exercise

Ventilatory Response to Incremental


Exercise

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Ventilatory and Blood-Gas Responses to Exercise

Chapter 10

Prolonged Exercise in a Hot


Environment
During prolonged submaximal exercise in a hot/
humid environment:
Ventilation tends to drift upward
Increased blood temperature affects respiratory control center

Little change in PCO2


Higher ventilation not due to increased PCO2

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 10

Another interesting point illustrated in Fig.10.21


Ventilatory and Blood-Gas Responses to Exercise
is that although ventilation is greater during exercise
in a hot/humid environment when compared to work

Exercise in a Hot/Humid Environment

n the
ercise
10.20.
tly at
se to120).
sions
g this
arterease
e exrease
ise is

41
40

PCO2
(mm Hg) 39
38

Hot/humid environment
Cool environment

60

V E
40
(,/min)
20
0

10

20
30
40
Exercise time (min)

50

Figure
10.21 Changes in ventilation and blood gas tensions
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A Closer Look 10.1

Chapter 10

Respiratory Muscles and Exercise


Do respiratory muscles fatigue during exercise?
Historically believed that respiratory muscles do not fatigue
during exercise
Current evidence suggests that respiratory muscles do fatigue
during exercise
Prolonged (>120 minutes)
High-intensity (90100% VO2 max)

Do respiratory muscle adapt to training?


Yes!
Increased oxidative capacity improves respiratory muscle
endurance
Reduced work of breathing
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Control of Ventilation

Chapter 10

Control of Ventilation at Rest


Inspiration and expiration
Produced by contraction and relaxation of diaphragm

Controlled by somatic motor neurons in the spinal


cord
Controlled by respiratory control center
In medulla oblongata

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Control of Ventilation

Chapter 10

Respiratory Control Center


Stimulus for inspiration comes from four
respiratory rhythm centers
In Medulla
preBtzinger Complex and retrotrapezoidal nucleus

In Pons
Pneumotaxic center and caudal pons

Group pacemaker hypothesis


Suggests that regulation of breathing is under redundant
control

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CONFIRMING
PAGES
Control of Ventilation

Chapter 10

The Brain Stem Respiratory Control


Centers

Midbrain

Pons
Brain stem
respiratory
centers

Pneumotaxic center
Caudal pons
Retrotrapezoid nucleus
PreBtzinger complex
Medulla oblongata

Figure 10.23

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Locations
of the brain stem respiratory control centers.

Control of Ventilation

Chapter 10

Input to the Respiratory Control Center


Humoral chemoreceptors
Central chemoreceptors
Located in the medulla
PCO2 and H+ concentration in cerebrospinal fluid

Peripheral chemoreceptors
Aortic and carotid bodies
PO2, PCO2, H+, and K+ in blood

Neural input
From motor cortex and skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors
Muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, joint pressure receptors

Important for regulating breathing during submaximal, steadystate exercise


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Control of Ventilation

Chapter 10

20

The Location
of the
Peripheral
Chemoreceptors

V E ( /min)

15
10
5
40

41

42

43

Arterial PCO2 (mm H

Figure 10.25 Changes in ventilation as a


Sensory nerve fibers
(in glossopharyngeal nerve)

of increasing arterial PCO2. Notice that


increases as a linear function of increasi

Carotid body
Carotid sinus

Common carotid
artery

Sensory nerve fibers


(in vagus nerve)

V E ( /min)

30

20

Hypoxic

10

|
20

|
40

|
60

Arterial PO2 (mm Hg


Aortic bodies
Aorta

Figure 10.26 Changes in ventilation as a

decreasing arterial PO2. Note the existen


threshold for ventilation as arterial PO2

to as the hypoxic threshold (hypoxic


(2). This hypoxic threshold usually o
arterial PO2 of 60 to 75 mm Hg. The
responsible for the increase in VE foll
Heart
to low PO2 are the carotid bodies b
tic and central chemoreceptors in hu
spond to changes in PO2 (35, 67).
Increases in blood levels of pot
stimulate the carotid bodies and prom
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 10.24 Illustration of the anatomical location of
in ventilation (17, 75). Because blood

Control of Ventilation

Chapter 10

Effect of Arterial PCO2 on Ventilation


20

V E ( /min)

15
10
5
40

41

42

43

44

45

Arterial PCO2 (mm Hg)


Figure 10.25

Changes in ventilation as a function


of increasing arterial PCO2. Notice that ventilation

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Chapter
of 10
increasing

30

V E ( /min)

e)

Control of Ventilation
arterial PCO2. Notice that ventilation
increases as a linear function of increasing PCO2.
Effect of Arterial PO2 on Ventilation

20

Hypoxic threshold

10

|
20

|
40

|
60

|
80

|
100

Arterial PO2 (mm Hg)


Figure 10.26

Changes in ventilation as a function of


decreasing arterial PO2. Note the existence of a hypoxic
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Chapter 10

Control of Ventilation
http://videos.humankinetics.com/services/player/
bcpid1958213916001?bckey=AQ~~,AAAA0gHQGE~,UzAFL1pLzn5HKOtT4KHrsPjpUv67WEPE&bctid=4
142832564001

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Control of Ventilation

Chapter 10

Ventilatory Control During Exercise


Submaximal exercise
Primary drive:
Higher brain centers (central command)

Fine tuned by:


Humoral chemoreceptors
Neural feedback from muscle

Heavy exercise
Alinear rise in VE
Increasing blood H+ (from lactic acid) stimulates carotid bodies
Also K+, body temperature, and blood catecholamines may contribute

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

CONFIRMING PAGES
Control of Ventilation

Chapter 10

A Summary of Respiratory Control


During Submaximal Exercise

ting in the
la and spill
ts the num.
center durl peripheral
olgi tendon
7, 65, 104).
of afferent
es is impormal, steadymoreceptors
n potassium
ormation to
nput to the
rmation beted. Finally,
of the heart

Higher
brain
centers

*Peripheral

chemoreceptors

Respiratory
control
center
(Medulla
oblongata)

Primary drive
to increase
ventilation
during exercise

Skeletal muscle
Chemoreceptors*
Mechanoreceptors

Respiratory
muscles

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 10

Central command
Fictive" locomotion

Induction of locomotion by stimulation of the


subthalamic locomotor region. Cats were paralyzed
with gallamine triethiod
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 10

Central command

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Chapter 10

Are type IIIIV muscle afferents required for a normal steadystate


exercise hyperpnoea in humans?

The Journal of Physiology


Volume 592, Issue 3, pages 463-474, 30 SEP 2013 DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.261925
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/jphysiol.2013.261925/full#tjp5875-fig-0001

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A Closer Look 10.2

Chapter 10

Training Reduces the Ventilatory


Response to Exercise
No effect on lung structure
Normal lung exceeds demand for gas exchange
Adaptation is not required for the lung to maintain blood-gas
homeostasis
One exception: Elite endurance athletes
Failure of lung to adapt to training results in hypoxemia
Ventilation is lower during exercise following training
Exercise ventilation is 2030% lower at same submaximal work rate
Mechanism:
Changes in aerobic capacity of locomotor muscles
Result in less production of H+
Less afferent feedback from muscle to stimulate breathing
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A Closer Look 10.2

Chapter 10

R LOOK
10.2
Effects of Endurance Training on

Ventilation
During
atory
Response to Exercise

Exercise

Training Reduces Exercise Ventilation


90

Ventilation (liters min-1)

Before training
80
70

After training

60
50
40
30
80

|
100

|
120

|
140

|
160

|
180

|
200

|
220

Work rate (watts)

FIGURE 10.28 Illustration of the effects of endurance training on ventilation


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Chapter 10

Does the Pulmonary System Limit Maximal Exercise Performance?

Does the Pulmonary System Limit


Exercise Performance?
Low-to-moderate intensity exercise
Pulmonary system not seen as a limitation

Maximal exercise
Historically not thought to be a limitation in healthy individuals at
sea level
New evidence that respiratory muscle fatigue does occur during high
intensity exercise (>90% VO2 max)

May be limiting in elite endurance athletes


4050% experience hypoxemia

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 10

Effects of Respiratory Muscle Work


During Exercise on Cardiac Output

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 10

Diaphragm Metaboreflex

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Chapter 10

Does the Pulmonary System Limit Maximal Exercise Performance?

In Summary
The pulmonary system does not limit exercise performance in healthy
young subjects during prolonged submaximal exercise (e.g., work
rates <90% VO2 max).
In contrast to submaximal exercise, new evidence indicates that the
respiratory system (i.e., respiratory muscle fatigue) may be a limiting
factor in exercise performance at work rates >90% VO2 max. Further,
incomplete pulmonary gas exchange may occur in some elite athletes
and limit exercise performance at high exercise intensities.

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