# Lab 7 – Working with IP Addresses

Objectives
Part 1: Convert between Numbering Systems
Part 2: Determine the Number of Hosts in a Network Using Powers of 2
Part 3: Convert IPv4 Addresses from Dotted Decimal to Binary
Part 4: Use Bitwise ANDing Operation to Determine Network Addresses
Part 5: Apply Network Address Calculations

Identify the network and host portion of an IP address.

Identify whether an address is public or private.

Part 8: Identify the Different Types of IPv6 Addresses

Review the different types of IPv6 addresses.

Match the IPv6 address with the correct type.

Part 9: Examine a Host IPv6 Network Interface and Address

Check PC IPv6 network address settings.

Part 10: Practice IPv6 Address Abbreviation

Study and review the rules for IPv6 address abbreviation.

Practice compressing and decompressing IPv6 addresses.

Part 11: Identify the Hierarchy of the IPv6 Global Unicast Address Network Prefix

Study and review the hierarchy of the IPv6 network prefix.

Practice deriving network prefix information from an IPv6 address.

Part 12: Set Up Topology and Configure Basic Router and Switch Settings
Part 13: Configure IPv6 Addresses Manually
Part 14: Verify End-to-End Connectivity

Background / Scenario
Network technicians use binary, decimal, and hexadecimal numbers when working with computers and
networking devices.
In Parts 1 & 2 of this lab, you will convert between the binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems.
determine the number of hosts that can be addressed based on the number of host bits available.
Every IPv4 address is comprised of two parts: a network portion and a host portion. The network portion
of an address is the same for all devices that reside in the same network. The host portion identifies a
specific host within a given network. The subnet mask is used to determine the network portion of an IP
address. Devices on the same network can communicate directly; devices on different networks require
an intermediary Layer 3 device, such as a router, to communicate.

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Lab 6 – Using Wireshark to View Network Traffic
To understand the operation of devices on a network, we need to look at addresses the way devices do—
in binary notation. To do this, we must convert the dotted decimal form of an IP address and its subnet
mask to binary notation. After this has been done, we can use the bitwise ANDing operation to determine
Parts 3 – 5 of this lab provides instructions on how to determine the network and host portion of IP
bitwise ANDing operation. You will then apply this information to identify addresses in the network.
Addressing is an important function of network layer protocols because it enables data communication
between hosts on the same network, or on different networks. In this lab, you will examine the structure of
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses. In Parts 6 & 7 you will identify the various types of IPv4
addresses and the components that help comprise the address, such as network portion, host portion,
and subnet mask. Types of addresses covered include public, private, unicast, and multicast.
4 With the depletion of the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) network address space and the adoption and
transition to IPv6, networking professionals must understand how both IPv4 and IPv6 networks function.
Many devices and applications already support IPv6. This includes extensive Cisco device Internetwork
Operating System (IOS) support and workstation/server operating system support, such as that found in
Windows and Linux.
Parts 8 – 11 of this lab focuses on IPv6 addresses and the components of the address. In Part 1, you will
identify the IPv6 address types, and in Part 2, you will view the IPv6 settings on a PC. In Part 3, you will
practice IPv6 address abbreviation, and in Part 4, you will identify the parts of the IPv6 network prefix with
a focus on global unicast addresses.
Knowledge of the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) multicast groups can be helpful when assigning IPv6
addresses manually. Understanding how the all-router multicast group is assigned and how to control
address assignments for the Solicited Nodes multicast group can prevent IPv6 routing issues and help
ensure best practices are implemented.
In Parts 12 – 14 of this lab, you will configure hosts and device interfaces with IPv6 addresses and
explore how the all-router multicast group is assigned to a router. You will use show commands to view
IPv6 unicast and multicast addresses. You will also verify end-to-end connectivity using the ping and
traceroute commands.

Required Resources

2 PC (Windows 7, Vista, or XP)

1 Router (Cisco 1941 with Cisco IOS software, Release 15.2(4)M3 universal image or comparable)

1 Switch (Cisco 2960 with Cisco IOS Release 15.0(2) lanbasek9 image or comparable)

Console cables to configure the Cisco IOS devices via the console ports

Ethernet cables as shown in the topology in Part 12

Note: The Gigabit Ethernet interfaces on Cisco 1941 routers are autosensing and an Ethernet straightthrough cable may be used between the router and PC-B. If using another model Cisco router, it may be
necessary to use an Ethernet crossover cable.

Part 1: Convert between Numbering Systems
We are accustomed to using the decimal number system that uses the digits 0 to 9. The decimal
numbering system is used in everyday life for all counting, money, and financial transactions. Computers
and other electronic devices use the binary numbering system with only the digits 0 and 1 for data
storage, data transmission and numerical calculations. All computer calculations are ultimately performed
internally in binary (digital) form, regardless of how they are displayed.
One disadvantage of binary numbers is that the binary number equivalent of a large decimal number can
be quite long. This makes them difficult to read and write. One way to overcome this problem is to arrange
binary numbers into groups of four as hexadecimal numbers. Hexadecimal numbers are base 16, and a

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