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Shahjalal University Of Science & Technology
Sylhet-3114
Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Polymer Science

Course Title: Fuel and Energy Sessional
Course No. : CEP 325

Lab Report
Dr. Engr. Salma Akhter

Submitted To:
Mithun Chandra Bhoumick

Professor
Dept. of CEP

Lecturer
Dept. of CEP

Submitted By:
Reg no. :
2012332001
2012332007
2012332008
2012332054
2012332055
2012332057
2012332062

Group-07
Name:
Sayeed Ahmed Sourove
Md. Abdus Samad Azad
Ahsan Habib
Md. Zarifuzzaman
Musabbir Jahan Talukdar
Md. Loshanur Rahman
Sudipta Mitra

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INDEX
No.

Name of the Experiment

Page No.

1.

Determination of moisture content, volatile
matter content, fixed carbon content of coal.

07-15

2.

Determination of aniline point.

16-18

3.

Determination of cloud point and pour point
of palm and soya bean oil.

19-22

4.

Determination of flash point and fire point of
kerosene.

23-25

5.

Determination of kinematic viscosity of
some oil.

26-30

6.

Determination of calorific value of ethanol
using bomb calorimeter.

31-35

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Safety

Safety:
Safety is the state of being safe ,the condition of being protected against physical,
social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological,
educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accident ,harm or
any other event which could be considered non-desirable. Safety can also be defined
to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. But in
laboratorial fact it defines slightly different thing. For laboratorial fact, safety means,
Isolates users from heat, sharp edges, hazardous energy (such as uv, microwave, etc)
and hazardous materials.
MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet):
A material safety data sheet (MSDS) is an important component
of product stewardship and occupational safety and health. It provides guidance for
handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and its properties.
It intended to provide workers and emergency personal with procedure for handling
or working with that substance in a safe manner and includes information such as
physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point, etc), toxicity, and protective
equipment procedure. The MSDS follows a 16 section format which is internationally
agreed and for substances especially, the MSDS should be followed with an Annex
which contains the exposure scenarios of this particular substance.
The 16 sections are:

SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture
 1.1. Product identifier
 1.2. Relevant identified uses of the substance or mixture and uses advised
against
 1.3. Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet
 1.4. Emergency telephone number
SECTION 2: Hazards identification
 2.1. Classification of the substance or mixture

2.2. Label elements
 2.3. Other hazards
SECTION 3: Composition/information on ingredients
 3.1. Substances
 3.2. Mixtures
SECTION 4: First aid measures
 4.1. Description of first aid measures
 4.2. Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
 4.3. Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment
needed
SECTION 5: Firefighting measures

UN number  14.3. Methods and material for containment and cleaning up  6.2. Extinguishing media 5.1. Possibility of hazardous reactions 10.6.4.3. Mobility in soil 12.4. Hazardous decomposition products  SECTION 11: Toxicological information  11. Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture  5.3. Advice for firefighters  SECTION 6: Accidental release measures  6. Packing group .5. Incompatible materials 10.6. Exposure controls  SECTION 9: Physical and chemical properties  9.1.1.2.3. Information on toxicological effects  SECTION 12: Ecological information  12. Control parameters  8. Conditions to avoid 10.Page |4   5. Precautions for safe handling  7. Specific end use(s)  SECTION 8: Exposure controls/personal protection  8.2.4.2. Other adverse effects  SECTION 13: Disposal considerations  13.1. Reactivity  10. Information on basic physical and chemical properties  9.3. Bioaccumulative potential 12. UN proper shipping name  14.1. Conditions for safe storage. Other information  SECTION 10: Stability and reactivity  10.1.1.2.1. Environmental precautions  6. Results of PBT and vPvB assessment 12.2.1.2. Personal precautions.4. Transport hazard class(es)  14. Waste treatment methods  SECTION 14: Transport information  14.3.1. protective equipment and emergency procedures  6.5. Persistence and degradability     12. including any incompatibilities  7.2. Chemical stability     10. Reference to other sections  SECTION 7: Handling and storage  7. Toxicity  12.

 Read all procedures carefully before doing the experiment.  Never do any experiment without knowing about the component. Avoid handling chemicals with fingers. Never work alone in the laboratory Unattended experiment  Only do the experiment which is desired. or dirty glassware. health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture  15.  Never use chipped.  Never return unused chemicals to their original container.1.  Check the label on all chemical bottles twice before removing any of the contents.  Maintain an unobstructed access to all electrical panels.5. Chemical safety assessment  SECTION 16: Other information General safety procedure for the laboratory:        Safe work practices  Keeping the laboratory clean  Organized and functioning properly can help to prevent incidents and injuries .2. or change any high voltage equipment. Chemical safety  Treat every chemical as they are hazardous.Page |5   14.  Always make sure all capacitors are discharged before touching high voltage equipment. Always use a tweezer. Safety. cracked. Electrical safety  Careful before operating any high voltage equipment. Environmental hazards 14.  Never remove chemicals or other materials from the laboratory area.  Do not immerse hot glassware in cold water Safe use of laboratory equipment  All chemicals in the laboratory are to be considered dangerous.  Never modify.6. . Special precautions for user  SECTION 15: Regulatory information  15. attach. Safe use and disposal of sharps  Never handle broken glass with your bare hands  Examine glassware before each use.  Avoid using extension cord whenever possible.

Page |6   Never smell a solvent. working safe and sound we should be aware those terms of safety very carefully.  Never allow a solvent come to a contact with your skin.  Eye safety goggles.  Foot protection. . So.  Skin protection. We must work in lab very safely thus no accident can happen. Safety is an important term for our laboratorial work. For these reason we need to learn safety method very carefully. Personal protective equipment:  Gloves.

where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Coal contains the energy stored by plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swampy forests. ash content and volatile matter content of a coal was determined by following ASTM standard method in our experiment. Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock with a high amount of carbon and hydrocarbons. carbonaceous matter.” with peat being the lowest rank coal and anthracite the highest. and Volatile matter content of coal. carbonaceous matter. 1. ash content and volatile matter content. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form. or industrial processes.-01 Determination of Moisture content. as well as the illumination that comes with combustion.Page |7 Experiment no. we measured the weight of coal four times. The plants were covered by layers of dirt and rock over millions of years. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission or nuclear fusion). As the weight of coal was needed after the coal being treated with different temperature. For this we measured the amount of coal in a crucible given by lab assistant after properly weighing the crucible. Introduction: A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration.The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Abstract The moisture content. For treating coal with different temperature we used dryer and muffle furnace.[2] . Every time the weight was subtracted from the previous one to determine the moisture content. cooking. Ash content. The resulting pressure and heat turned the plants into a substance now known as coal. Finally the values of the moisture content. coal development is accelerated by volcanic heat or crustal stresses. ash content and volatile matter content were calculated in percentage.[1] There are several different types of coal that have different properties usually dependent on their age and the depth to which they have been buried under other rocks. In some parts of the world (for example New Zealand). The degree of coal development is referred to as a coal’s “rank.

Groundwater and other extraneous moisture that coal absorbs are known as adventitious moisture and are readily evaporated when coal is heated to 100-120oC. The structure also includes varying amounts of sulphur and other environmental pollutants.[3] 2. not only hydrogen but significant amounts of oxygen and nitrogen. The most basic analysis carried out to determine characteristics of a coal is called proximate analysis. . It can be in the form of: • Decomposition moisture: water held within the coal's decomposed organic compounds • Mineral moisture: water which comprises part of the crystal structure of hydrous silicates such as clays Total moisture is analyzed by loss of mass when coal is heated.[1] The moisture content of coal ranges from 6% by weight in anthracite coals to 45% by weight in lignite. Moisture content: Moisture is an important property of coal. Up to one tenth of the total mass of coal can be material with no fuel value. . The adventitious moisture can be held in coal body in the form of: • Surface moisture: water held on the surface of coal particles • Hydroscopic moisture: water held by capillary action within the micro fractures of the coal Moisture held in chemically bonded form inside the coal is known as inherent moisture. it gets released at higher temperature during the combustion of coal.1. volatile matter. Inherent moisture is not removed at low temperatures (100-1200C).Page |8 Figure: Formation of coal 2. Theory: Coal varies widely in its composition. Coal is usually analyzed for moisture. It is composed chiefly of rings of six carbon atoms joined together in an extremely complex composition of layered arrangements that have in them. There are various standardized tests to determine the moisture content of coal and they are classified depending upon the type of moisture content tested (1) ASTM D-1412 (ISO 1018) for determination of the equilibrium moisture of coal at 96 to 97% relative humidity and 30C. fixed carbon and ash. as all coals are mined wet.

angular ash particle that is too large to be carried up into the smoke stacks so it forms in the bottom of the coal furnace. from the original mass of the coal sample. According to the American Coal Ash Association's Coal Combustion Product Production & Use Survey Report. Ash content: Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. Fixed carbon is used as an estimate of the amount of coke that will be yielded from a sample of coal. aromatic hydrocarbons and some sulfur.Fixed carbon: The fixed carbon content of the coal is the carbon found in the material which is left after volatile materials are driven off.3 1 7 3 f o r determination of the moisture in the analysis sample of coal and coke. powdery material composed mostly of silica made from the burning of finely ground coal in a boiler. (3) A S T M D . a material leftover from the process of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from a coal-fired boiler that can be a wet sludge consisting of calcium sulfite or calcium sulfate or a dry powered material that is a mixture of sulfites and sulfates. molten bottom ash from slag tap and cyclone type furnaces that turns into pellets that have a smooth glassy appearance after it is cooled with water.and long-chain hydrocarbons. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon. Coal ash includes a number of by-products produced from burning coal. (4) ASTM D-2961 for determination of the total moisture o f c o a l [ 4 ] 2.2.  Boiler Slag.4. sulfur and water (including from clays) has been driven off during combustion. a coarse.Page |9 (2) ASTM D-1412 (ISO 1018) for determination of the equilibrium moisture of coal at 96 to 97% relative humidity and 30C. The main difference between the two is that the latter is determined after expelling the moisture content in the sample of coal. above. nearly 130 million tons of coal ash was generated in 2014. including:  Fly Ash. Analysis is fairly straight forward. The volatile matter of coal is determined under rigidly controlled standards. Ash content may be determined as air dried basis and on oven dried basis. which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air.  Flue Gas Desulfurization Material.[5] Coal ash is one of the largest types of industrial waste generated in the United States. This is usually a mixture of short. 2. oxygen.  Bottom Ash. a very fine. Fixed carbon is determined by removing the mass of volatiles determined by the volatility test. except for moisture.3. 2. with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight. This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles. . In Australian and British laboratories this involves heating the coal sample to 900 ± 5 °C (1650 ±10 °F) for 7 min. It can also give an indication about the quality of coal. Volatile matter: Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal.

65 20.79 Fixed carbon (%) 41.1.43 Ash (%) Volatile matter (%) 10.P a g e | 10 Table: Proxymite analysis of typical coal: Lignite Bituminous coal (Sample I) Bituminous Coal Indonesian Coal (Sample II) Moisture (%) 50 5.  Weigh the crucible to find the loss in weight of coal due to presence of moisture.86 17.83 34. Figure: Translucent Silica crucible. Weigh the crucible again to find the exact mass of the sample.41 47. Testing Materials and Procedure: 3. Spread out mesh coal sample on the crucible.  Take out the crucible from the oven.76 38. .2.Testing Material:  Translucent Silica crucible.39 9. Heat the crucible without any cover in the oven at about 105±5oC for 1 hour.  Charcoal  Muffle furnace  Dryer 3. cover it with the lid and cool. Procedure: Moisture determination:     Dry the silica crucible in an oven and weigh.98 4.79 3.70 47.69 29.99 29.97 13.78 46.

 Put sample and weigh again to know the exact mass. .  Weigh the crucible to find the mass left which is the ash content of the coal.  Insert the open crucible in the furnace at 815oC for an hour.  Weigh the crucible with the lid to know the weight loss due to expulsion of volatile matter Figure: Muffle furnace Ash determination:  Follow the steps 1 to 3 of moisture determination.  Weigh the crucible and lid together.  Insert the crucible with the lid on it into the furnace at 900oC and keep there for a period of 7 minutes.P a g e | 11 Volatile Matter:  Heat a clean crucible and its lid at 900±15oC for 7 minutes in muffle furnace.  Allow the crucible and lid to cool on a metal plate for a minute and in desiccator for 10 minutes. allow it to cool for 10 minutes on the slab and 15 minutes in the desiccator.  Remove the crucible.

963 Crucible+ coal (750) crucible+ coal(925) 17.332 18.53(moisture content) 0. 4.383 17.581g(coal) 0. Data and Calculation: DATA: Instruments (temperature) Crucible Crucible+ coal Crucible+ coal (at 105) Crucible+ coal (400) Weight (g) 17.038g(ash content) 0.008( volatile matter content) .42(carbonaceous matter) .P a g e | 12 Charcoal (raw material) (400 Muffle furnace ℃ for 1hour) Weigh the crucible Crucible (weighed) Weigh the crucible Muffle furnace (750℃ for 1 hour Weigh the crucible Weigh the crucible with charcoal Muffle furnace (105-110℃ for 1hour) Weigh the crucible Muffle furnace (925℃ for 7 minutes) Figure: Block diagram of the process.917 Loss of weight (g) 1.925 17.913 18.

581) ×100% (Wet basis) =2.917g And % volatile matter content = (loss in weight/initial weight of coal) ×100% = (0.53/1. Result & Discussion: Free moisture content=33.631) ×100% =6.925) g =0.038/0.52%+2.40% (Wet basis) Fixed carbon=62.40%+1.963-17.925g So the ash content = (17.038g And the corresponding % Ash content= (loss in weight/ weight of coal without moisture) ×100%(dry basis) = (0.58% 5.963 So the carboneous matter = (18.533) ×100% =1.02% (Dry basis) Ash content=2.581g After drying the coal to 105℃ in muffle furnace.963) g = 0.008/0.52% Volatile matter content=1.50% Ash content=6.52% The next day the crucible with coal was heated to 400℃ and weight found=17.50%) =62. the weight of the coal= 1.53g And % free moisture content = (loss in weight/initial weight of coal) ×100% = (0.42g On the third day. the new weight is =18.038/1.P a g e | 13 Calculation: Weight of the crucible: 17.50% Fixed carbon content=100-(free moisture in %+volatile matter in % +ash in %) =100-(33.332 Weight of the crucible with coal=18.913g So.913-18.88g Final weight of moister content = (18.383) g =0.02% % Ash content = (0.40% Finally the crucible with the remaining content was heated to 925℃ and the corresponding Weight is =17.581)×100% = 33.58% .383-17. It was again heated to 750℃ for complete combustion and the corresponding weight is=17.

58 1.03 2.52 30 20 23.4 2.51 23. .4 1.P a g e | 14 proximate analysis of coal 33.629 17.195 4.14 0.9 3.119 50 40 33.4 volatile 5.29 19.18 12.52 62.33 10 7.119 7.9 3.61 22.18 0 4.629 22.4 1.52 ash 0.51 12.4 moisture volatile ash fixed carbon Figure: Pie chart showing different content of coal after proximate analysis Chart Title 60 49.5 moisture moisture ash volatile Figure: Bar diagram of the experimental data from different groups.195 0.14 0.03 5.5 group 1 group 2 group 3 group 5 group 7 19.29 17.5 2.61 33.33 49.

eia.gov/coalash/coal-ash-basics 6. The ash content of all the samples fall within the expected range of 3-15% Reference: 1.html 4.P a g e | 15 Discussion: The process was very much time consuming. Conclusion: The composition of coal varies widely and hence it is necessary to analyze and intercept the results from the point of commercial classification. for this reason some problem may happen. And there was only one muffle furnace. low moisture content and low ash content.com.scribd. https://www. For selection of coal for different applications is mainly made on the basis of high volatile content.epa. The crucible don’t have proper cape. https://www. http://www.com/doc/215173482/total-moisture-content-of-coal 5. so we may have some fluctuation in result for this reason. But we try our best to get the best possible result.com/articles/2008/05/the-chemicalcomposition-of-coal-and-its-negative-impact-52584.griffincoal. http://www.researchgate.au/coal-education/coal-types/ 3. https://www.renewableenergyworld.gov/energyexplained/?page=coal_home 2. http://www. 6. But there was no major problem occurs by our group.net/post/How_do_you_calculate_fixed_carbon_in_bio mass .

Moreover aromatic hydrocarbons dissolve natural rubber and some synthetic rubbers also. Test Method A is suitable for transparent samples with an initial boiling point above room temperature and where the aniline point is below the bubble point and above the solidification point of the aniline-sample mixture. In the case of oils the high paraffin content to better ignition quality. Test Method D is particularly suitable where only small quantities of sample are available. 2. Test Methods C and D are for samples that may vaporize appreciably at the aniline point. This means a higher aromatic content in a lubricating oil otherwise it may damage the oil sealing or packing which are usually made of rubber and used in the machines [2]. Introduction: Aniline point (AP) is a characteristic of petroleum fractions that indicates the degree of aromaticity of hydrocarbon mixtures. Our experiment covers the determination of aniline point of petrol. Test Method B. A high aniline point indicates a high paraffin content and higher ignition quality. Cycloparaffins and olefins exhibit values that lie between those for paraffin and aromatics. Test Method E describes a procedure using an automatic apparatus suitable for the range covered by Test Methods A and B [4]. ASTM has also published a method for determining the aniline point by observing the temperature at which a 50/50 mixture of oil and aniline becomes turbid upon cooling [3].P a g e | 16 Experiment no. Aromatic hydrocarbons exhibit the lowest values and paraffins the highest. 02 Determination of Aniline Point of Petrol Abstract Aniline point is used to characterize pure hydrocarbons and to indicate aromatic content of hydrocarbon mixtures. For non-fuel products such as solvents aniline point is usually specified to quantify their effectiveness [1]. Aniline point is defined as the lowest temperature at which equal volumes of aniline and the sample become completely soluble . Aniline point is a useful parameter in calculation of heat of combustion.As amount of aromatics in a petroleum fraction increase the aniline point decreases. Therefore. These test methods cover the determination of the aniline point of petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents. is suitable for samples too dark for testing by Test Method A. The aromatic hydrocarbons mix readily with aniline at room temperature but mix only at relatively higher temperatures. diesel index and hydrogen content of petroleum fuels. . Theory: The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) has defined aniline point as the minimum equilibrium solution temperature for equal volumes of aniline and sample. There are several methods to determinate the aniline point. a thin-film method. Our analysis exhibits a value of 103̊ that indicates the sample as paraffin. The approximate method of testing the ignition quality of oils is based measuring the proportion of paraffin hydrocarbons in the fuel. the aniline point is a parameter that is highly related to the hydrocarbon types in petroleum fractions. 1.

. higher cetane fuels will have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels The Diesel Index indicates the ignition quality of the fuel. 3 ml of aniline and 3 ml petrol are stirred continuously in a test tube fitted with thermometer. 3.1 Material:  Petrol  Aniline  Paraffin  Thermometer  Test tube  Beaker 3. Diesel fuel rating based on ignition qualities. 4. This is the time period between the start of injection and start of combustion (ignition) of the fuel. the lower the aromatics in fuel oil. The temperature at which the two phases separate out is recorded as aniline point.04 on Hydrocarbon Analysis. Diesel Index  aniline point o F  × Degrees API gravity 60o F  100 Cetane no.2 Procedure: 1. Aniline and Petrol in test tube Heat the mixture Cool the homogene ous solution Record the aniline point . high-quality fuel has a high index number. =0. Also aniline point is used to determine the cetane number and diesel index of fuel.P a g e | 17 These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants and are the direct responsibility of D02. Heating was stopped and the tube is allowed to cool. 2. Paraffin is the common name for the alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2 [5] 3.I + 10 Cetane number is actually a measure of a fuel’s ignition delay. A higher aniline point also indicates a higher proportion of paraffin. Testing material and Procedures: 3.72*D. In a particular diesel engine. It is mentionable that test method A is experimented here. The greater the aniline point. The test tube was heated until the two merged into a homogeneous solution.

Aniline being an aromatic compound freely mixes with aromatic so a low aniline point indicates low diesel index (because of high percentage of aromatics). Riazi and A. since the miscibility of aniline. Albahri.astm. For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information. 1969.acs. visit the ASTM website. The thermometer fitted test tube was faulty in the experiment. / http://pubs. Aniline Point for Petrolium Products. Moreover. refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website. Niaz Salihm.org or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm. 5. R. which is also an aromatic compound suggests the presence of similar (i. L.1021/i560102a002 4. There was a little bit heat loss. the experimented value was some difference. 4. www. 2. Oil and Gas Journal.e. Chicago. So. M. High aniline point indicates that the fuel is highly paraffinic and hence has a high Diesel index and very good ignition quality. A. Conclusion: Because that Point gives an approximation for the content of aromatic compounds in the oil.org. Alqattan. ENGINEERING EXP 3. Agruss. The lower the aniline point.P a g e | 18 Figure: Block diagram of determination of amylin point of petrol. Reference: 1. 67. little bit fluctuated.Tech. For referenced ASTM standards.122 / T. III. A. ASTM Standards: D 1500 Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale). Result and Discussion: The aniline point of the given sample is 103oC. Bruce B.org/doi/abs/10. Nelson. Kuwait University. 5. B. In case of aromatics the aniline point is low and the ignition quality is poor. the greater is the content of aromatic compounds in the oil as obviously a lower temperature is needed to ensure miscibility. aromatic) compounds in the oil.. The Pure Oil Company. the aniline was slightly impure and the thermometer reading was faulty. . University of Sulaimani. W. Carr & M. Chemical Engineering Department. S. Octen Number and Anilne Number of Pterolium Fuels. in the end. Dtetermination of the Aniline Point of Dark Petrlium Oil.

. and the physical structure of the solidified oil. cloud point is synonymous with wax appearance temperature (WAT) and wax precipitation temperature (WPT). Introduction: The pour point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which the oil will just flow. and not an exact measure. The failure to flow at the pour point is usually attributed to the separation of waxes from the oil. the degree and duration of heating and cooling to which the sample has been exposed. it must be emphasized that the tendency of the oil to flow will be influenced by the size and shape of the container. under standard test conditions. Therefore. The pour point of the oils is therefore an indication. Through our experiment we found the cloud point of soybean and palm oil 1°C and 17°C respectively and the pour point 0°C and 15°C respectively. but can also be due to the effect of viscosity in the case of very viscous oils. pour points may be influenced by the thermal history of the sample. Also. pipeline or heat exchanger fouling) and forms an emulsion with water. The presence of solidified waxes thickens the oil and clogs fuel filters and injectors in engines. In the petroleum industry.P a g e | 19 Experiment no. In crude or heavy oils. of the temperature at which flow ceases. The pour point of a liquid is the temperature at which it becomes semi solid and loses its flow characteristics. In the petroleum industry. cloud point refers to the temperature below which wax in diesel or bio wax in biodiesels form a cloudy appearance. cloud point indicates the tendency of the oil to plug filters or small orifices at cold operating temperatures. The wax also accumulates on cold surfaces (e. cloud point refers to the temperature below which wax in diesel or bio wax in biodiesels form a cloudy appearance. From a spill response point of view. .g. particularly in the case of residual fuel oils. 1.03 Determination of cloud point and pour point of the palm oil and soya bean oil Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to measure the pour point and cloud point of the provided oil in the laboratory using the apparatus. the head of the oil. that is.

P a g e | 20 Biodiesel made from different feedstocks may have different cloud and pour points: Biodiesel Feedstock Cloud Point (degrees Celsius) Pour Point (degrees Celsius) Soybean oil 1 0 Canola oil 0 -9 Palm oil 17 15 Jatropha oil 8 6 Tallow 12-17 6 2. 4.Ice 4. 5. Pour point is the temperature at which the oil ceases to flow when cooled. The sample oil was taken in a test tube. The test tube was placed in this chamber and observed for a temperature interval of 1°C. 3. the temperature was noted down. Nacl salt 6. We used pour point apparatus to measure both pour and cloud point. Then the pour point apparatus chamber was filled with crushed ice and NaCl.Thermometer 3. Procedure: 1. Cloud point is an index of dissolved wax concentration and may be defined as the temperature at which cloudiness appears due to separation of wax. Theory: Cloud point and pour point are important properties of oil. It is the cloud point.Pour point apparatus 2.Test tube with cork 4. When the sample became cloudy. the test tube was removed and tilted to check for surface . 3. 2. Materials: 1.Palm oil and soybean oil 5. A cork carrying the test thermometer was used to close the test tube. As the process further continued.

Actual cloud point and pour point of soybean oil is -9°C and -16°C respectively. 6. it is often necessary to know the minimum temperature at which a particular fuel oil loses its fluid characteristics. the tube was held horizontally for 5 sec. 5. If it does not flow. Conclusion: For pumping and handling purposes. This happened because the sample provided in the laboratory might contain some impurities. When the specimen did not flow when tilted. Result and Discussion: The cloud point of soybean oil through our experiment was found to be 1°C and the pour point to be 0°C. the corresponding temperature was taken as the pour point temperature. Waxy Oil lost fluidity Figure: Block diagram of the procedure. because wide variations in pour point exist between different oils − even between oils of comparable viscosity. our measured value was far away from the actual value. This information can be of considerable importance. Besides this the performance of the apparatus was below the mark.P a g e | 21 movement. The behavior of an oil at low temperature depends upon the type of crude from which it is . So. Chamber filled with ice+ Nacl Taking sample oil in test tube Putting test tube in chamber Oil become cloudy.

When the temperature is decreased. https://en.pdf 4. References: 1. They become fully crystallized at a temperature slightly below the pour point.eagle.org/wiki/Pour_point 2. Paraffinic base stocks contain waxy components which remain in solution at warmer temperatures.org/wiki/Cloud_point 3. At this temperature. https://en. http://www.P a g e | 22 refined.https://www.org/eagleExternalPortalWEB/ShowProperty/BEA%20Repository/Rules&G uides/Current/31_HeavyFuelOil/Pub31_HeavyFuelOil . of additives. the undisturbed oil generally will not flow under the influence of gravity.wikipedia.oilproduction.wikipedia. if any. these waxy components begin to crystallize. the method of refining and the presence.net/files/Introduction.

It is important to realize that the value of the flash point is not a physical constant but is the result of a flash point test and is dependent on the apparatus and procedure used. 1. Flash point measuring requires an ignition source. as it supplies enough vapors to combine with air and burn even after the removal of the ignition source. Theory: The flash point test can be summarized as a procedure in which a test specimen is introduced into a temperature-controlled test cup and an ignition source is applied to the vapors produced by the test specimen. 2. But in fire point the material will produce a flame for at least 5 seconds from the ignition point. Flash point and fire point help in determining the nature of fuel's Flammability.P a g e | 23 Experiment no. . Introduction: Flash point is a temperature and the property of a volatile material which suggests when volatile material gives off sufficient vapor when heated. Lower value of flash point means fuel is highly flammable. We used closed cup method in our laboratory. – 04 Determination of Flash point and Fire point of Kerosene oil Abstract: The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will ignite. given an ignition source. The fire point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of that fuel will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame. Fire point may be considered as the lowest temperature of the liquid at which vapor combustion and burning commences. The aim of the test is to determine whether the vapor/air mixture is flammable or at what temperature the vapor/air mixture is flammable. At flash point. the vapor may not be burn if the ignition source is removed. There are two general classes of flash point tests: open cup and closed cup. A fire point happens when an ignition source is applied and the heat produced is self-sustaining. The flash point and fire point of fuel is very important to know as it is essential for determining the methods for transporting and handling the fuel accordingly. it will start ignite for a moment but not lasts more than few seconds.

4. 5. 2. An ignition source is directed into the cup at regular intervals with simultaneous interruption of the stirring. the temperature was noted as fire point. Apparance of fire point . We took kerosine sample in the brass cup of the apparatus 2. The sample is heated and stirred at a specific rates 3. 5. Flash point apparatus Thermometer Bunsen Burner Gasoline (Petrol) Stirrer Procedure: 1. When the vapor caught fire the temperature was noted as flash point. Testing materials and procedures: Materials: 1. 4. 3. We continued the process and when the oil vapor caught fire and continued to fire. Taking Patrol oil in the apparatus Heating & Stirring Directing ignition source Appearance of flash point Figure: Flow diagram of experimental process.P a g e | 24 3.

mechanicalduniya.wikipedia. 2. The test methods we used is applicable for relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable materials to assessing the overall flammability hazard.org/wiki/Flash_point https://en. References: 1. 4. This method is also used for product specifications and regulations due to its better precision. https://en.com/a-guide-to-flash-and-fire-point-measurement/ http://www.wikipedia. Result & Discussion: 5.org/wiki/Fire_point http://blog. Conclusion: The flash point and fire point are empirical measurements. 3.anton-paar.P a g e | 25 4.html .com/2012/01/importance-of-flash-point-fire-point.

with a large area A. The relationship between the shear stress and the velocity gradient can be obtained by considering two plates closely spaced at a distance y. in super fluids. on other hand if viscosity is too high it will results in excessive friction. The viscosity of liquid found at temperature 40℃. while honey is "thick". 1. For example engine oil has much higher viscosity than water. the stress required is proportional to the fluids viscosity. therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube). When the fluid is forced through a tube. Fluid flow plays a very important part in the processing of materials. and separated by a homogeneous substance. viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". . [1] Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. in any flow. reagents. is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers and keep the fluid moving. Thus. such that edge effects may be ignored. A fluid has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal fluid. layers move at different velocities and the fluid's viscosity arises from the shear stress between the layers that ultimately opposes any applied force. the top layer moves faster than next layer due to viscous drag. In everyday terms (and for fluids only). The purpose of this experiment is to determine the kinematic viscosity. the particles which comprise the fluid generally move more quickly near the tubes axis and more slowly near its wall.P a g e | 26 Experiment no. and are technically said to be viscous or viscid fluid. For liquids. the greater its ease of movement (fluidity). having a lower viscosity. Viscosity is a property arising from collisions between neighboring particles in a fluid that are moving at different velocities. A kinematic viscometer is used to measure the flow of soybean oil. Kinematic viscosity is determined by kinematic viscometer with help of its constants. Introduction The viscosity of a fluid is measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. having a higher viscosity. A liquid in a state of steady flow on a surface may be supposed to consist of series of parallel layers moving one above the other. Assuming that the plates are very large. Zero viscosity is observes only at low temperature. Put simply. Otherwise all fluids have positive viscosity.[2] In general. The liquid samples taken such a way in that are low sticky. the less viscous the fluid is.05 Determination the kinematic viscosity of transparent and opaque liquid Abstract Viscosity is a property of a liquid and is defined as the resistance of a liquid to flow. or heat transfer media. it corresponds to the informal concept of thickness. If viscosity of oil is too low. Most processes are based on the use of fluids either as raw materials. For the same velocity pattern. If any two layers of liquid moves with different velocities. water is "thin". and that the . then a liquid oil film can’t be maintained between two moving parts or sliding surfaces and consequently excessive wear and tear will take place.

P a g e | 27 lower plate is fixed. is a result of the geometry the fluid is flowing through (e. The force required for this action is a measure of The fluid's viscosity. let a force F be applied to the upper plate. If this force causes the substance between the plates to undergo shear flow with a velocity gradient u (as opposed to just shearing Elastically until the shear stress in the substance balances the applied force). the substance is called a fluid. the non-constant gradient. This type of flow is known as a Couette flow.[4] . Combining these three relations results in the equation: Where μ is the proportionality factor called viscosity. [3] Laminar shear of fluid between two plates. a pipe). Laminar shear. The applied force is proportional to the area and velocity gradient in the fluid and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates.g. Friction between the fluid and the moving Boundaries causes the fluid to shear.

P a g e | 28 1. to the point of becoming a viscoelastic solid. • A Bingham plastic is a material that behaves as a solid at low stresses but flows as a viscous fluid at high stresses. or otherwise stressed. but misleadingly. • Rheopectic: materials which become more viscous over time when shaken. • Shear thickening: viscosity increases with the rate of shear. given above. Types of viscosity Newton's law of viscosity. Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit a more complicated relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient than simple linearity. Ohm's law). agitated. such as water and most gases which have a constant viscosity. Viscosity. or otherwise stressed. described as thixotropic. greatly increases its apparent viscosity.1. • Shear thinning: viscosity decreases with the rate of shear. Thus there exist a number of forms of viscosity: • Newtonian: fluids. varies among materials [5] . • A magnetorheological fluid is a type of "smart fluid" which. the slope of each line. Shear thinning liquids are very commonly. It is not a fundamental law of nature but an approximation that holds in some materials and fails in others. • Thixotropic: materials which become less viscous over time when shaken. Fick's law. agitated. is a constitutive equation (like Hooke's law. when subjected to a magnetic field.

Temperature measuring device 5. St). 10−3 Pa·s. s 2.3. Calculations: Calculate the kinematic viscosity as follows: Kinematic viscosity. • Kinematic viscosity is the dynamic viscosity divided by the density (typical units m2/s. describing the reaction to applied shear stress. the more usual one (typical units Pa·s. often referred to as simply viscosity. also absolute viscosity. For example. widely used for characterizing polymers.[6] 1. Examples would include shock waves and sound propagation. Experimental 2. Kinematic viscometer 2. cSt/s. in the lateral or horizontal direction. Soybean oil 3. It appears in the Stokes' law (sound attenuation) that describes propagation of sound in Newtonian liquid. Timing device 4. P). Viscosity is a tensorial quantity that can be decomposed in different ways into two independent components. the most important one. a linear combination of shear and bulk viscosity. it is the ratio between the pressure exerted on the surface of a fluid. 10−3 Pa·s and motor oil of about 250 . at room temperature. The most usual decomposition yields the following viscosity coefficients: • Shear viscosity. water has a dynamic shear viscosity of about 1.2.P a g e | 29 1. Poise. cSt = Ct Where: C = calibration constant of the viscometer. • Volume viscosity (also called bulk viscosity or second viscosity) becomes important only for such effects where fluid compressibility is essential. Stokes. to the change in velocity of the fluid as you move down in the fluid (this is what is referred to as a velocity gradient). simply put.0 . Ostwald viscometer Fig: Kinematic viscometer .Viscosity coefficients Viscosity coefficients can be defined in two ways: • Dynamic viscosity.1. and t = flow time. Materials: 1. Alternatively. • Extensional viscosity. describes the reaction to elongation.

Allow the charged viscometer to remain in the bath long enough to reach the test temperature.33 min = (37. Ascertain that the thermometer has been standardized recently. adjust the volume of the test sample after the sample has reached temperature equilibrium.svg [5] http://en. pipes and valves.Results and Discussion: The flow time. With the sample flowing freely.74 mm2/s 4. Use suction (if the sample contains no volatile constituents) or pressure to adjust the head level of the test sample to a position in the capillary arm of the instrument about 5mm ahead of the first timing mark.15680/IJIRSET. If this flow time is less than the specified minimum.wikipedia. 7. measure in seconds. this operation being in conformity with that employed when the instrument was calibrated. Because this time will vary for the different instruments and for different temperatures. the kinematic viscosity of the soybean oil is 46. Addison-Wesley.2s.). Apply the necessary corrections. whichever is the greater.4s) = 46. calibrated viscometer which will give a flow time not less than the minimum specified for the viscometer. dry. t = 37. 6.8s Kinematic viscosity.2015. Charge the viscometer in the manner dictated by the design of the instrument. to all thermometer readings.wikipedia. or 200s.php?title=File:Laminar_shear_flow.P a g e | 30 2. 5.php?title=File:Viscous_regimes_chart. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. 4. Select a clean.svg [4] http://en. such as pumps. cSt = Ct = (0. Mechanics (Third ed. establish a safe temperature equilibrium time by trial.Reference: [1] DOI: 10.Conclusion: Accurate measurements of viscosity are essential in engineering calculations and design of equipment that move liquids. Keith (1971).php?title=File:Laminar_shear.0404020 [2] Symon. to within 0.org/w/index.org/w/index. 3. Methods: 1.org/w/index. if any. Where the design of the viscometer requires it.wikipedia. 2. the time required for the meniscus to pass from the first timing mark to the second.74 mm2/s So. new thermometers may require checking every week.png . My experiment shows that effect of temperature on a liquid's viscosity must be taken into account in the design calculations 5. Maintain the bath at the test temperature. 3. [3] http://en.0208652 mm2/s2)*(2239.33*60) s = 2239.2. select a viscometer with a capillary of smaller diameter and repeat the operation.

However. with the International Steam Table calorie as the basic unit in this system.P a g e | 31 Experiment no. the initial and final temperatures are not the same – differing by the amount of temperature rise in the calorimeter – but the effect of this difference is small and usually it is neglected. we determine the calorific value of a solid or liquid fuel by high pressure oxygen bomb calorimeter. Also. as distinct from “temperature”. Here. flame temperature. The calorific value (heat of combustion) of a sample may be broadly defined as the number of heat units liberated by a unit mass of a sample when burned with oxygen in an enclosure of constant volume.74 j/g. 1. Introduction: Calorimetry is the science of measuring quantities of heat. calorific intensity. In this publication we are concerned only with oxygen bomb calorimeters. ash content etc. Calorific value is one of them. Thus the term calorific value (or heat of combustion) as measured in a bomb calorimeter denotes the heat liberated by the combustion of all carbon and hydrogen with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. moisture content. A more exact definition would specify the temperature at which the reaction begins and ends.06 Determination of calorific value of a fuel (ethanol) by using bomb calorimeter. The heat energy measured in a bomb calorimeter may be expressed either as calories (cal). In this reaction the sample and the oxygen are initially at the same temperature and the products of combustion are cooled to within a few degrees of the initial temperature. British thermal units (Btu) or Joules (J). which are the standard instruments for measuring calorific values of solid and liquid combustible samples. The objectives of this experiment is to determine the calorific value of ethanol. . . The value of the calorific value of the fuel is 26120. Abstract: There are many criteria’s for selecting a fuel like as calorific value. including the heat liberated by the oxidation of other elements such as sulfur which may be present in the sample. also the water vapor formed by the combustion is condensed to the liquid state. Our experimental the calorific value of ethanol was found to be close to the standard value. The instruments used for such measurements are known as calorimeters. the change in the heat of combustion with possible variations in the initial temperature is so small that this specification is not necessary.

P a g e | 32 Fig: bomb calorimeter 2.Latent heat of water vapor. Gross calorific value (GCV) represents the absolute value of the specific energy of combustion. There are two types of calorific value. the net calorific value (NCV) is calculated.V. Theory: The calorific value of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat obtainable by the complete combustion of a unit mass of the fuel. in joules. The net calorific value.V = Gross C. formed during the combustion of m grams of the fuel. . The gross calorific value 2. Net C. 1. Here we use heat exchanging method by transferring heat of combustion of fuel to water. for unit mass of a solid biofuel burned in oxygen in calorimetric bomb under the conditions specified. On the basis of the GCV and the elemental composition.

Equipment: 1. Calorimeter 4. Weight of the fuel sample taken = m kg Gross calorific value of the fuel = ? j/kg Weight of water taken in the calorimeter = W1 kg Weight of the calorimeter (i.e. If the motion of the fluid is caused by the buoyancy forces which arise due to variation in the density of the fluid with temperature. If the motion of the fluid is caused by external means such as blower. Thermometer 5. the process is called free or natural convection. bucket) = W2 kg Initial temperature = t1℃ Final temperature = t2℃ Heat liberated by the combustion of fuel = m? j Specific heat capacity of calorimeter(i. T1 and T2 are the solid and fluid temperatures respectively. Ethanol (1. Heat exchange due to convection may be described in terms of a heat transfer coefficient ‘h’ by Newton’s law of cooling as: Q = Ah (?1 − ?2 ) A is the area of the solid-fluid interface. Cw = 4200 j/kg℃ Heat liberated = Heat absorbed m? = W1Cw(t2-t1) + W2Cs(t2-t1) W1Cw(t2−t1) + W2Cs+(t2−t1) ?= ? 3.P a g e | 33 Heat exchange between the solid and fluid is said to occur due to convection whenever there is a difference in temperature between two phases and there is motion in the fluid. the process is called as forced convection. fan or pump. wind. Stirrer 3.5g) (1) .e. Bomb 2. Cs = 450 j/kg℃ Specific heat capacity of water. bucket made of stainless steel).

t2 = 34.64 kg Weight of the calorimeter (i. 8) We noted down the temperature of the calorimeter before ignition. 4) We closed the bomb tightly and then using an oxygen cylinder.P a g e | 34 4. filled the bomb with oxygen. and took the crucible out. we washed the bomb and the bucket so there is no residue of burned fuel or wire. After filling with oxygen. 2) We took 0. t1 = 33.93kg . 7) Then. W2 = 0. 1) We took the bomb out of the calorimeter. we attached the two electrodes with the bomb and turned on the stirrer. m = 0. 9) After that. opened the bomb. Procedure: The testing procedure conforms to the ASTM d4809 standard.64 liters of water by carefully measuring and put the water in the bucket of the calorimeter. 5) We took 1.e. 6) Then we put the bomb in the bucket of the calorimeter and ensured that it was fully immersed in the water. 11) After finishing the experiment. 10) Afterwards we saw the temperature rise gradually and noted down the maximum temperature.4*10-3 kg Initial temperature. Calculation: Weight of the sample. 3) Then we took about 15-20 cm fuse wire and set it in a manner that it touches the fuel sample or is immersed in it. Then again fill the bomb with oxygen of 20 atmospheres approx. we let all the air out through the valve to purge all the nitrogen in the bomb. W1 = 1. we plugged in the electrodes plug in a socket and switched it on.95℃ Weight of water taken in the calorimeter. The pressure was about 20 atm. Then we turned it off after a few seconds. 5.4 grams of the fuel sample in the crucible and place it in the holder of the bomb. bucket).52℃ Final temperature.

S.P a g e | 35 Putting all the values in equation (1).74 j/g 6.64 ∗ 4200 ∗ (34.52)} + {0. Again we did not consider the weight of calorimeter. Dr. But finally we get a calorific value of ethanol fuel. cooling correction. the Gross calorific value of ethanol is 26120. Result & Discussion: The Gross calorific value of ethanol is 26120.S.Here we got the value of calorific value of ethanol without considering fuse wire correction. Ester Foppa Pedretti. References: 1. In another way motor did not work so that we had to done this experiment without stirrer. stirrer etc for lacking of data of them.S.95 − 33.4 ∗ 10^ − 3 = 26120. S.74*103 j/kg = 26120.95 − 33. A journal paper “CALORIFIC VALUE DTERMINATION OF SOLID BIOMASS FUEL BY SIMPLIFIED METHOD “ by Giuseppe Toscano. A Textbook of Engineering Chemistry by Dr.Umare 2. Wikipedia 3. bomb. we get. cotton thread correction . thermometer. .74 j/g So.93 ∗ 450 ∗ (34. Dara . Reasons for the deviation in value are. ?= {1. Again we have to assume that all fuel is burning up but actually some fuel exist after the final temperature .74 j/g Actual gross calorific value of ethanol is 29700 j/g.So that another error does not include in the calculation.52)} 0.