A rating scale is a set of categories designed to elicit information about a
quantitative attribute in social science. A rating scale is a method by which we
systematize the expression of opinion concerning a trait.
 The ratings are done by parents, teachers, a board of interviewers and judges and by
the self as well.
 These ratings scale given an idea of the personality of an individual.
 Examples are the Likert scale and 1-10 rating scales for which a person selects the
number which is considered to reflect the perceived quality of a product.
Types of Rating Scale

Numerical rating scales,
Narrative scales,
Behaviorally anchored rating scale and
Graphic rating scale
Descriptive rating scale

1. Numerical Scale
 Numerical scales use numbers to rate performance.
 Applicants must display an ability or skill in certain areas or an understanding of
certain factors.
 Marks are awarded for each area or factor.
 One problem with numeric scales is that a rating such as a “3” in and of itself is
not clear and often means different things to different people.
 To make such a number relevant, it needs to be anchored by some type of
objective criteria.
Problem Solving Ability
a) defines the problem

- 2 Points

b) identifies cause of the problem - 3 Points
c) identifies possible solutions

- 3 Points

d) recommends a solution

- 2 Points



10 Points

 A more simple scale would be to have a rating scale of 1-5, 1-10, etc. with one point
being awarded for each correct answer to a question that has multiple parts.

Here, the number next to each response has no meaning except as a placeholder for
that response. The choice of a "2" for a lawyer and a "1" for a truck driver is arbitrary
-- from the numbering system used we can't infer that a lawyer is "twice" something
that a truck driver is.

2. Narrative Rating Scales

Narrative scales use adjectives such as “excellent” or “poor” to rate performance.
Applicants are rated on how well they meet ‘mandatory’ and ‘desirable’ selection
These scales may be used in their narrative form with a “pass” or “fail” being used
to identify applicants who qualify or not for further consideration.
This may be an appropriate approach for a short listing exercise where marks
would not be carried forward to the next phase of the selection process, or for
when a pool of applicants is being created where ranking is not important to the
outcome, or for past work performance checking.

Example of a narrative rating scale:


 The applicant, beyond having met all mandatory factors, exceeds or meets many
desirable factors.

Very good:

 The applicant, beyond having met all mandatory factors, exceeds in one or more of
the desirable factors.


 The applicant meets all mandatory sub-factors, and is assessed at being able to
perform at a fully satisfactory level on the job.

Not Suitable:

 The applicant does not meet one or more mandatory factors and is therefore assessed
as being unable to perform at a fully satisfactory level on the job.
3. Behavioural-Anchored Rating Scales (BARS):

A BARS describes behaviours differentiating between effective and ineffective
performers that can be observed and anchors them at points on a scale.

The applicant’s behaviour displayed (e.g. role-play, oral presentation, in-basket) or
past behaviour described (e.g. behavioral interview, reference checks) are
compared to these examples and rated accordingly.
The content of the scale is developed from a job analysis and is based on
responses to critical job incidents or situations.
The scale used is usually a 3-Point or 5-Point scale but could also be narrative if
Sample Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales.


These types of rating scales are particularly effective for assessing competencies,
skills and abilities.

BARS rating scales are highly valid and job-related because important job
requirements are covered.

Objective benchmarks are provided against which observations can be rated;
therefore, there is less rating error than when using other types of scales (e.g.

 BARS scales take some time and effort to create
4. Graphic Rating Scales

Graphic rating scales rate performance by placing a mark somewhere along a
horizontal line that is divided into sections with labels such as “always”,
“frequently”, “usually”, “seldom”, and “never”.
All standards of performance are listed on the evaluation tool and rated by this

Were the illustrations used interesting?





Too little




Too much

5. Descriptive rating scales

Descriptive graphic scales describe in varying terms the degree of frequency with
which each standard of performance is met and these descriptions are placed along
a continuum.
For example: if the standard of performance relates to accurate and complete
charting, the description at one end of the continuum might stale.
“Charts accurately and completely on all patients assigned, giving meaningful
examples and observations.”

The statement at the opposite end of the continuum might state.
“Charting is incomplete and not always accurate.
Contains many misused and misspelled words.

While preparing black board summary how was the penmanship?
Legible, beautiful, Normally illegible Uniform size readable bad looking good looking fluent
tends to draw out lines

 Using subject matter experts, identify examples of behaviors reflecting all different
levels of effectiveness ranging from ineffective to for all the different parts of the job.
These are key indicators only.
Developing a Rating Scale

It is not required to be an exhaustive list of every possible criterion.
Examples are then clustered by content and categories of performance and ranked
according to importance.
Major, essential, or core criteria are distinguished from those that are minor or
secondary within the group.
Tip: Focus on the extreme ends of each range (i.e. the 5 and the 0-1 points) and
describe them fully first OR focus on describing the "3 or 4 Point" passing answer
first, then add or subtract to define other answers.
Decide how many points will be awarded and how irrelevant or incorrect
responses will be scored. A wrong answer should result in a failing grade.
Assign marks that reflect the relative importance of the question and the
competency being assessed.
The scale may be multiplied by a factor to increase the overall weighting. For
example, a 5-point scale is multiplied by a factor of 4 to increase the weight of the
assessment to 20 points in the overall competition.

Advantages of rating scales
 Technically, rating scale is standard device for recording qualitative and
quantitative judgments about observed performance.

 It measures specified outcomes or objectives of education deemed to be
significant or important to the teacher.
 It evaluates procedures such as playing an instrument, operating an equipment or
machine. Working in laboratory, demonstrating the nursing procedures, acting in
play, etc.
 evaluates products such as typed letter, responses of demonstration, a speech,
sample of handwriting, sample of diagram in charts, and art of work performed.
 evaluates personal social development.
 helps teachers to rate their students periodically on various characteristics such as
punctuality, honesty, enthusiasm, cheerfulness, cooperativeness, considerations of
others and other personality traits.
 In general, rating scales with behaviorally expressed items are more helpful than
these with items expressed as a list of traits, the behaviors are less ambiguous.
 They can also be used by a student to rate himself.
 They can be used with a large number of students.
 They tend to be very adaptable and flexible.
 They can be efficient and economical in the use of a teacher’s time.
 They can be comprehensive in the amount of information recorded.
 They can help to reduce the subjectivity and unreliability that are usually
associated with observations method.
Disadvantages of Rating Scales:
 Since the scales are standardized procedures, the items (behaviors) listed may or
may not be consistent with stated objectives for a particular course or learning
 There is a lack of uniformity with which terms are interpreted by evaluators.
 There are several common sources of errors in rating scales.

Personality of the rater; Halo effect; personal bias; logical error.
Attitude of the rater
Opportunity for adequate observation

Observation checklists not only give an observer a structure and framework for an observation but also serve as a contract of understanding with the teacher. If not.Does the teacher follow the timings on the lesson plan? . For example The teacher has asked the observer to look at the issue of timing so the observer's checklist includes these questions: . the observer may intimidate the class and the data gathered may not be accurate. who may as a result be more comfortable. This list may have been prepared by the observer or the teacher or both.Does the teacher tell learners when time is nearly up? In the classroom It is important that learners understand the function of the observer and are pre-warned about the observation. and will get specific feedback on aspects of the class.OBSERVATION CHECKLIST An observation checklist is a list of things that an observer is going to look at when observing a class.Does the teacher tell learners how long they have for an activity? . .

Respects others’ opinions 5. Completes homework Respects Peers 1. Listens to peers 3. thorough. Arrives to class on time 2. Listens to Teacher/Staff 3. trustworthy. Demonstrates a level of concern for others Demonstrates a Level of Concern for Never Rarely Most of the Time Always . Brings necessary materials 3.BEHAVIOR OBSERVATIONAL CHECK LIST FOR EVALUTION OF STUDENTS Student Name: Date: Teacher Name: Behavior Skill On Time and Prepared 1.e. Respects others’ property 2.e. honesty) 2. kindness. Demonstrates productive character traits(i. Refrains from abusive language Respects Teacher/Staff 1. Accepts Responsibility for actions Demonstrates Appropriate Character Traits 1. Follows directions 2. Responds appropriately to peers 4. hardworking) 3. patience. Demonstrates positive character traits?( i.

Learning 1. Although one of the first scaling methods to be developed. exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all objects and situations to which it is related (Allport. they can be complex and difficult to measure and there are a number of different measuring instruments that have been developed to assess attitude. Remains on task 2.e. Thurstone scalling is 'based on the law of comparative judgment' (Neuman. the questionnaires are mostly generated by face to face interviews and rarely used in determining attitude measurement today. usually by ticking a true/false box. thus the example below (figure 1) is irrelevant to online learners. organised through experience. An example of a Thurstone Scale ATTITUDE TOWARD WAR An individual is asked to check those items which represent his . i. or agree/disagree. An attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness. Allows others to remain on task ATTITUDE SCALES The concept of measuring attitude is found in many areas including social psychology and the Social Sciences. a choice of two possible responses. Attitude is an important concept that is often used to understand and predict people's reaction to an object or change and how behaviour can be influenced. Thurstone scales typically present the reader with a number of statements to which they have to respond. 1935 cited by Gross) There are several types of scales that have been developed to measure attitude: THURSTONE SCALES This is described by Thurstone & Chave (1929) as a method of equal-appearing intervals. It requires the individual to either agree or disagree with a large number of statements about an issue or object. 2000).

A country cannot amount to much without a national honor. 3. 1. 4. When war is declared. 7. The respondent is required to mark on a scale between two opposing opinions (bipolar adjectives) the position they feel the object holds on that scale for them. All nations should disarm immediately. It is often used in market research to determine how consumers feel about certain products. ADVANTAGES  Items are weighted or valued rather than subjects  Easier to construct than a Guttman scale DISADVANTAGES  More difficult to construct than a Likert scale  No more reliable than a Likert scale  Measures only agreement or disagreement DIFFERENTIAL SCALES Definition: The semantic differential (SD) rating scale measures people reaction to stimulus words and concepts in term of rating on bipolar scale defined with contrasting objectives at each end. Three main factors emerge from the ratings. 6. 5. the idea or association that individuals attach to words or objects. 2. we must enlist. Semantic Differential Scaling This is concerned with the 'measurement of meaning'. Peace and war are both essential to progress. Wars are justifiable only when waged in defense of weaker nations. these are: . The most that we can hope to accomplish is the partial elimination of war.views. and war is the only means of preserving it. The disrespect for human life and rights involved in a war is a cause of crime waves.

the potency factor (strong-weak. hard-soft).The evaluative factor (good-bad. slow-fast. the author argues that this would not be suitable for measuring attitude of online learners as it tends to relate more to material associations than cognizance of feelings. . hot-cold) Although this scale is comparatively easy for the respondent to complete. kind-cruel). thick-thin. pleasant-unpleasant. the activity factor (active-passive. An example of a Semantic Differential Scale.

 Finally.  Allows for several types of analyses to take place DISADVANTAGE  Analyses can be complex SUMMATED SCALES  the numerical values assigned to the response categories for each question are simply added to produce a single scale score.g: Likert Scale .ADVANTAGES  Simple to construct.  Easy for subjects to answer. it is assumed that those persons who are opposed to the concept being measured will respond by selecting those statements which reflect a negative position E.  The summated scale approach theoretically works because persons who are very strongly favorable toward some idea. will more often select positive response categories. while those who have more neutral ideas will select some positive and some negative categories.

about 80-100 would be best.  Create the set of potential scale items. 2.  It's desirable to have as large a set of potential items as possible at this stage.  Usually you would use a 1-to-5 rating scale where: 1.  You might operationalize the definition as an instruction to the people who are going to create or generate the initial set of candidate items for your scale.  An individual's score would be computed by adding the values assigned to each of the responses selected for all of items of the scale. 5. 3.  The next step is to have a group of judges rate the items.  The most common type is the 4 point Likert Scale--(1) strongly agree. Steps . Rating the Items. For instance. 3. 2.e. religious orthodoxy. conservatism. Defining the Focus.  The first step is to define what it is you are trying to measure.Likert Scaling 1. (3) disagree.  Because this is a one-dimensional scaling method.  The item creation step.LIKERT SCALE  Typically. and (4) disagree. a number of statements are developed which are thought to reflect positive and negative attitudes toward some concept (i. you might use some form of brainstorming to create the items. it is assumed that the concept you want to measure is one-dimensional in nature. prejudice. feminism. 4. Generating the Items. = strongly unfavorable to the concept = somewhat unfavorable to the concept = undecided = somewhat favorable to the concept = strongly favorable to the concept .)  Each question is then written with a number of response categories. etc. (2) agree.  These should be items that can be rated on a 1-to-5 or 1-to-7 Disagree-Agree response scale.

Then. items with higher t-values are better discriminators.  Compute the Interco-relations between all pairs of items. For instance. they could rate each item on a 1-to-5 response scale where: = strongly disagree = disagree = undecided = agree = strongly agree There are variety possible response scales (1-to-7. .  In making judgments about which items to retain for the final scale there are several analyses you can do:  Throw out any items that have a low correlation with the total (summed) score across all items • Compute Item-Total correlation. you make it a 5. 4. 1-to-9. All of these odd-numbered scales have a middle value is often labeled Neutral or Undecided. the judges are not telling you what they believe -. as in other scaling methods. get the average rating for the top quarter of judges and the bottom quarter. Administering the Scale. Each respondent is asked to rate each item on some response scale. * t-values mean that there is a greater difference between the highest and lowest judges. 5 = 1. the respondent is forced to decide whether they lean more towards the agree or disagree end of the scale for each item. if they gave a 2 you make it a 4. Selecting the Items. The final score for the respondent on the scale is the sum of their ratings for all of the items (this is why this is sometimes called a "summated" scale). These are called reversal items.    • • • • • • • • • • • • • You're now ready to use your Likert scale. and.they are judging how favorable each item is with respect to the construct of interest. On some scales. if the respondent gave a 1. 4 = 2. 5. . Notice that. It is also possible to use a forced-choice response scale with an even number of responses and no middle neutral or undecided choice. You will need to reverse the response value for each of these items before summing for the total. and 0-to-4). That is. In more practical terms. do a t-test of the differences between the mean value for the item for the top and bottom quarter judges. you will have items that are reversed in meaning from the overall direction of the scale. based on the ratings of the judges.  For each item. In this situation. 3 = 3.

' this is the most commonly used question format for assessing participants' opinions of usability'. generally on a five-point scale (ie. It requires the individuals to make a decision on their level of agreement. The number beside each response becomes the value for that response and the total score is obtained by adding the values for each response. Strongly Agree.Likert Scale (Summated scale) This was developed by Rensis Likert in 1932. Strongly Disagree) with a statement. hence the reason why they are also called 'summated scales' (the respondents score is found by summing the number of responses). Dumas (1999) suggests. Disagree. Agree. Two examples of Likert Scales .

ADVANTAGES  Simple to construct  Each item of equal value so that respondents are scored rather than items  Likely to produce a highly reliable scale  Easy to read and complete DISADVANTAGES  Lack of reproducibility  Validity may be difficult to demonstrate .

description of what happened. Merits of Anecdotal Records  These records help in clinical service practices. when it happened. The incident recorded should be considered significant to the student’s growth and development. . The interpretations and recommended action should be noted separately from the description. Interpretation: Gunasree is very much interested in Medical Surgical Nursing Recommendation: Gunasree should be encouraged to do more in Medical Surgical Nursing and also not to neglect Community Health Nursing and other subjects. (N) Name of the institution: Maaruthi College of Nursing Setting: Class Room Incident: Gunasree was caught reading a “Medical-Surgical Nursing” book during “Community Health Nursing” hour and was asked to leave the room. any narration of events in which may be significant about his personality”. as the name implies. Example: Name of the student: Gunasree Year: III year B. – Randall  Anecdotal record. 2. They should contain a factual. 3. 4.Sc. Each anecdotal record should contain a record of a single incident. a record of an episode in the life of student.ANECDOTAL RECORD Definition:  “Anecdotal record is a record of some significant item of conduct. Tandler Characteristics of Anecdotal Records  Anecdotal records must possess contain characteristics as given below: 1. A word picture of the student in action a word snapshot at the moment of the incident. and under what circumstances the behavior occurred. involves setting down an anecdote concerning some aspects of student behavior which seems significant to the observer”.

 They are time-consuming to write. They stimulate teacher to use the records and contribute to them. They can be used by the counselor as a source of information for giving evidence.  They do not reveal causes. ………………………………………………………….  The new members may use these records and acquaint themselves with the students...  They present only a verbal description of the incident.  When incidents are noted and read out of context. They direct the teachers’ attention to a single student. who are unable to use paper-pencil test. They provide the teacher with objective description. They provide specific and exact description of personality and minimizes generalizations. they may lose their meaning.  The observer tends to record only undesirable incidents and neglect the positive incidents.          Demerits of Anecdotal Records  They tend to be less reliable than other observational tools as they tent to be less formal and systematic.. Objective description. Comments of the Observer ………………………… …………………………………………………………………..They provide a factual record. They are very good for young children.  They can be used as a supplement to quantitative data. Signature of the Observer: . ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. They record critical incidents of spontaneous behavior in natural setting. Name of the observer ……………………….  They provide more complete descriptions of behavior better suited to understanding and guiding students than the other observational tools available.. They provide commutative record of growth and development. Date and Place………………………………. Format of Anecdotal Record Name of the school or college ……………… Name of the student …………… Class…….  It is difficult for the observer to maintained objectivity when he/she records the incident observed.

oral or practical and can be conducted as essay type . DEFINITION Test is a device procedure for confornding a subject with a set of questions. objective type. LIMITATION  Ofen ambigious and unclear. NON STANDARDISTED TEST OR TEACHER MADE TEST These test are very useful in evaluating the students progress to report parents and administrations. .Signature of the student: NON STANDARDISED TEST INTRODUCTION Test is part of a n evaluation technique which helps to assess the level of the student and also plays major role in identifying the mistake by both teacher and student and also improvement in teaching type and improvement of the student.  They are either too short or too lengthly. USES  to know the about ability and achievements of student  help the teracher to assess the strength. weakness of student. It can be conducted as written . short answer type.  Motivates the students  Achieve particular objectives  Provides continous evaluation and feedback to the teacher.  Supervision is not proper  Test do not cover the content.

o Words simple.  The answer vary in their degree of equality. pertinent and relevant material whatever he wishes can be used. PRINCIPLES FOR ESSAY QUESTION o Do not give too lengthy questions o Avoid phases o Well structured with specific purpose. Answer books not marked with care.  The examinee is permitted freedom of response.  Restricted response  Less scope. TYPES OF ESSAY QUESTION: Based on the amount of freedom given to a student to organize his ideas and write his answer the easy questions are divided into 2 types.  Most important.  Permits to demonstrate his ability to recall and evaluate factual knowledge. limited nature. . ESSAY TYPE TEST It require the student to structure a long written response up to several paragraph FEATURES  No single answer can be considered. clear.  Extended response  No restriction. unambiguous and carefully selected.

set out the elements which accordingly to you .o Do not allow too many choices.  It require short time for the teacher to prepaire the test administer. DISADVANTAGES:  Lack objectively  Provide little useful feed back.  The time allowed and the marks allotted will acts as a guide to the students to answer the questions.  Score the answer of all the students for one question. the should agree on the scoring procedure before the test and correct the answer scripts. before going on to scoring of another questions.  Student can have the ability for free thinking.  Limited condent sampling  Long time to score. o According to level of students SCORING PROBLEM  For every question.  Subjectivity to scoring. SHORT ANSWER TYPE TEST . ADVANTAGES  Tests the ability to communicate in writing depth of knowledge and understading.  When two or more teachers corrected the same test.  It can be successfully for all the school subjects. should appear in the answer bypoint scoring system.

PRINCIPLES  Use action oriented precise verbs. ADVANTAGES  Easy to score. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS A traditional multiple choice question (or item) is one in which a student chooses one answer from a number of choices supplied.  highly reliable test scores.  Provide the necessary spase fpr the answes below each question.the choices provided after the stem • the key: the correct answer in the list of options • distracters: the incorrect answers in the list of options Advantages in Using Multiple-Choice Items Multiple-choice items can provide.The student responds my selection of one or more of several given alternatives my giving or filling in a word or phrase.  Each item should deal with important content area. Parts of a multiple choice question: A multiple choice question consists of • a stem .  Quick response..  scoring efficiency and accuracy..  Reliability of the score is improved.the text of the question • options .  versatility in measuring all levels of cognitive ability. .  Question can be as long as possible. but answer should be short.

.  Also require careful preparation to avoid questions testing only recall.  lead an instructor to favor simple recall of facts.  Best answer.  Provide clues that do not exist in practice.  place a high degree of dependence on the student’s reading ability and instructor’s  writing ability. VARIATION OF MULTIPLE CHOICE ITEMS  One correct answer. Limitations in Using Multiple-Choice Items Multiple-choice items ….  are difficult and time consuming to construct.  a wide sampling of content or objectives.  Analogy type. Disadvantages in Using Multiple-Choice Items  takes a long time to construct in order to avoide arbitrary and ambiguous questions.  Reserve type.  different response alternatives which can provide diagnostic feedback.  a reduced guessing factor when compared to true-false items. . objective measurement of student achievement or ability.

Intelligence tests are excellent predictors of academic achievement and provide an outline of a person's mental strengths and weaknesses. There are many types of intelligence tests. and they may measure learning and/or ability in a wide variety of areas and skills. and judgment. The tests center around a set of stimuli designed to yield a score based on the test maker's model of what makes up intelligence. comprehension. it may provide important information on how students approach problem solving. Many times the scores have revealed talents in . intelligence tests measure a wide variety of human behaviors better than any other measure that has been developed. intelligence testing is required by federal special education regulations to confirm or rule-out the presence of mental disabilities and to establish IQ for the purposes of diagnosing a learning disability. a mental age. These tests also provide information on cultural and biological differences among people. ADVANTAGES In general. Scores may be presented as an IQ (intelligence quotient). and Properly interpreted. Depending on the type of intelligence test administered. It is generally understood that intelligence tests are less a measure of innate ability to learn as of what the person tested has already learned. intelligence testing help educators develop appropriate specially designed instruction and educational strategies for IEP developme The goal of intelligence tests is to obtain an idea of the person's intellectual potential. such as reasoning. PURPOSE    In most cases. DEFINITION A questionnaire or series of exercises designed to measure intelligence.INTELLIGENCE TEST INTRODUCTION Intelligence tests are psychological tests that are designed to measure a variety of mental functions. Intelligence tests are often given as a part of a battery of tests. They allow professionals to have a uniform way of comparing a person's performance with that of other people who are similar in age. or on a scale.

Typically. It is important to know the person's performance on the various subtests that make up the overall intelligence test score. parents. most questions and tasks start out easy and progressively get more difficult. Although both people have the same test score. they should not be considered a perfect indicator of a person's intellectual potential. and doing a variety of tasks that require eye-hand coordination. It is unusual for anyone to know the answer to all of the questions or be able to complete all of the tasks. intelligence tests only measure a sample of behaviors or situations in which intelligent behavior is revealed. Teachers.many people. which have led to an improvement in their educational opportunities. Along with this. and/or creativity. Since intelligence test scores can be influenced by a variety of different experiences and behaviors. Furthermore. For example. This single score is often inadequate in explaining the multidimensional aspects of intelligence. the formats of many intelligence tests do not capture the complexity and immediacy of real-life situations. and psychologists are able to devise individual curricula that matches a person's level of development and expectations. If a person is unsure of an answer. For instance. DESCRIPTION When taking an intelligence test. some intelligence tests do not measure a person's everyday functioning. Therefore. two people have identical scores on intelligence tests. These tasks may include having to answer questions that are asked verbally. mechanical skills. Another problem with a single score is the fact that individuals with similar intelligence test scores can vary greatly in their expression of these talents. a person can expect to do a variety of tasks. social knowledge. For example. . doing mathematical problems. Some tasks may be timed and require the person to work as quickly as possible. Knowing the performance on these various scales can influence the understanding of a person's abilities and how these abilities are expressed. one person may have obtained the score because of strong verbal skills while the other may have obtained the score because of strong skills in perceiving and organizing various tasks. DISADVANTAGES Some researchers argue that intelligence tests have serious shortcomings. guessing is usually allowed. many intelligence tests produce a single intelligence score. intelligence tests have been criticized for their limited ability to predict non-test or nonacademic intellectual abilities.

and employment. PRECAUTIONS There are many different types of intelligence tests and they all do not measure the same abilities. Therefore. it is valuable to know how a person performs on the various tasks that make up the test. will be similar to scores on another intelligence test. Although the tests often have aspects that are related with each other. Most intelligence tests generate an overall intelligence quotient or IQ. This can influence the interpretation of the test and what the IQ means. As previously noted. that measures a variety of factors. psychometric testing requires a clinically trained examiner. admission to college. Also. Additionally. The average of score for most intelligence tests is 100. a variety of scores can be obtained. by converting raw scores to standard scores the examiner has uniform scores and can more easily compare an individual's performance on one test with the individual's performance on another test. Depending on the intelligence test that is used. The standard scores allow the examiner to compare the individual's score to other people who have taken the test. that measures a single factor. A central criticism of intelligence tests is that psychologists and educators use these tests to distribute the limited resources of our society. Additionally. These test results are used to provide rewards such as special classes for gifted students. the test should only be administered and interpreted by a trained professional. one should not expect that scores from one intelligence test. a person should make sure that the test has been adequately developed and has solid research to show its reliability and validity. when determining whether or not to use an intelligence test.The four most commonly used intelligence tests are:  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales  Wechsler-Adult Intelligence Scale  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children  Wechsler Primary & Preschool Scale of Intelligence INTERPRETING RESULTS The person's raw scores on an intelligence test are typically converted to standard scores. Those who do not qualify for these resources based on intelligence test scores may feel angry and as if the .

In addition.  Intelligence testing requires a clinically trained examiner. EXAMPLES OF INTELIGENCE TEST STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE TEST: Definition  The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults aged two to 23. In general. which assess academic areas. puzzle and game-like tasks. they can be helpful as a screening measure to consider whether further testing is needed and can provide good background information on a child's academic history. Precautions  Although the Stanford-Binet was developed for children as young as two. but with selfworth. in determining the presence of a learning disability or a developmental delay. and the scoring design may not detect developmental problems in preschool-age children. however. COMMON TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS Intelligence tests (also called instruments) are published in several forms:    Group intelligence tests usually consist of a paper test booklet and scanned scoring sheets. The test cannot be used to diagnose mental retardation in children aged three and under. In some cases. The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale should be administered and interpreted by a trained professional. Computerized tests are becoming more widely available. Individual intelligence tests may include several types of tasks and may involve easel test books for pointing responses. it is sometimes included in neuropsychological testing to assess the brain function of individuals with neurological impairments. Unfortunately.tests are denying them opportunities for success. and question and answer sessions. sometimes include a cognitive measure. preferably a psychologist. examiners must consider the needs of the child before choosing this format. group tests are not recommended for the purpose of identifying a child with a disability. but as with all tests. intelligence test scores have not only become associated with a person's ability to perform certain tasks. . Group achievement tests. and in tracking intellectual development. Some tasks are timed. examiners should be cautious in using the test to screen very young children for developmental delays or disabilities. Purpose  The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is used as a tool in school placement.

Raw scores are based on the number of items answered. For example. Normal results  The Stanford-Binet is a standardized test. was designed with a larger. and are converted into a standard age score corresponding to age group. similar to an IQ measure. or average. including vocabulary. abstract/visual reasoning. The concept of IQ. determines the number and level of subtests to be administered. meaning that norms were established during the design phase of the test by administering the test to a large. released in 1986. and short-term memory. the first intelligence scale created in 1905 by psychologist Alfred Binet and Dr. and bead memory. The test has a mean. copying. representative sample to minimize the gender and racial inequities that had been criticized in earlier versions of the test. A trained psychologist will evaluate and interpret an individual's performance on the scale's subtests to discover strengths and weaknesses and offer recommendations based upon these findings. This child's score would be one standard deviation above that norm. they represent an average of a variety of skill areas. more diverse.  All test subjects take an initial vocabulary test. or "Intelligence Quotient" was first introduced by French . comprehension. equation building. The standard deviation indicates how far above or below the norm the subject's score is. quantitative reasoning. Theophilus Simon. verbal absurdities.Description  The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a direct descendent of the Binet-Simon scale. an eight-year-old is assessed with the Stanford-Binet scale and achieves a standard age score of 116. Many insurance plans cover all or a portion of diagnostic psychological testing. Billing time typically includes test administration. number series. standard score of 100 and a standard deviation of 16 (subtests have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 8). This revised edition. The mean score of 100 is the average level at which all eight-year-olds in the representative sample performed.  The 1997 Medicare reimbursement rate for psychological and neuropsychological testing. memory for sentences.  The Stanford-Binet scale tests intelligence across four areas: verbal reasoning.  While standard age scores provide a reference point for evaluation. and reporting. representative sample of the test population. depending on the subject's age and the number of subtests given. INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE TEST  Building block test or cube construction  Fitting the block in the holes  Tracing a maze  Picture arrangement or picture completion CONCEPT OF MENTAL AGE AND IQ IQ testing is a method used by psychologists to measure what is generally considered intelligence. is $58. Total testing time is 45-90 minutes. paper folding and cutting. memory for objects.35 an hour. which along with the subject's age. quantitative. The areas are covered by 15 subtests. scoring and interpretation. matrices. pattern analysis. memory for digits. including intelligence testing.

such as factual knowledge. visual-spatial abilities. IQ tests do a good job of predicting academic success. and the WPPSI-III (age 2.5).000 Borderline 2 out of 100 Low Average 16 out of 100 Average Half High Average 84 out of 100 Superior 95 out of 100 Very Superior/Gifted 98.psychologist Alfred Binet in 1904. Intelligence is always measured relative to a particular culture. abstract reasoning. They are not good at measuring such qualities as interpersonal skill or creativity. Multiplying this quotient by 100 gives the child's ratio IQ: 150. Shown below are the labels and frequency of Wechsler IQ scores. multiply the IQ by 16. the WAIS-IV (age 16-89 years). Using this method.913 out of 10. Keep in mind that. With this method. Most of the abilities measured by an IQ test tend to level off around age 16. so this method does not work for adults. IQ will vary over time.000 Wechsler IQ tests include the subtests below: VERBAL SCALES:  Information: Similar to "Trivial Pursuit. It is strongly influenced by culture. To convert a mentally retarded adult's IQ into a rough age equivalent. short-term memory." this subtest measures fund of factual information. but deviations from the average are assigned a number which corresponds to a percentile rank. Modern IQ tests use a "deviation IQ" rather than a ratio IQ. They currently include the WISC-IV (age 6-16 years). and then divide by 100. due to random factors. Most IQ tests consist of subtests measuring various qualities.7 years).5 . IQ scores can vary about 5 points from week to week. and common sense. An American education and intact . a child functioning at the average level for her age would obtain an IQ of 100. "culture free" tests of intelligence do not exist.A. IQ 10 25 40 55 70 85 100 115 125 130 145 Archaic Description Idiot " Imbecile Moron Dull Normal Genius  Description Score higher than: Profound Mental Retardation Fewer than 1 out of 100. The average IQ is still 100.5 out of 100 9. The "quotient" refers to Binet's definition of IQ as (Mental Age) divided by (Chronological Age) or M.A.000 Severe Mental Retardation " Moderate Mental Retardation 3 out of 100./C. Although IQ scores tend to be fairly stable.50 times his chronological age (12/8 = 1. So an adult with a 50 IQ is functioning at roughly an 8-year-old level.000 Mild Mental Retardation 13 out of 10. This quotient is then multiplied by 100 to make it a whole number. An 8 year old child with the mental ability of a 12 year old has a mental age which is 1. test takers are referenced to other people of their own age. and can often change by 10 points or even more over a period of years. The Wechsler tests are the most common individually administered IQ tests.

Memory Tasks for Coding Added: Figure Weights: A visual measure of fluid intelligence. this is an untimed test which measures abstract nonverbal reasoning ability. and paid ten percent sales tax. Block Design: One of the strongest measures of nonverbal intelligence and reasoning. Measures concentration. It is also culturally loaded. long-term visual memory. and immediate memory. Sample question: "How are a snake and an alligator alike?" Vocabulary: This test measures receptive and expressive vocabulary. Lower scores are obtained by persons with an attention deficit or anxiety. Sample question: "What is the thing to do if you find an injured person laying on the sidewalk?" Digit Span: Requires the repetition of number strings forward and backwards. Consists of colored blocks which are put together to make designs. Picture Completion: Requires recognition of the missing part in pictures. It is the best overall measure of general intelligence (assuming the test-taker's native language is English). Requires matching pictures which belong together based on common characteristics. The WAIS-IV was released in January 2009. Measures non-verbal concept formation and reasoning. How much did he pay all together?" PERFORMANCE SCALES:          Object Assembly: Consists of jigsaw puzzles.     long-term memory will contribute to a higher score. Measures visual-spatial abilities and ability to see how parts make up a whole (this subtest is optional on the revised Weschler tests). Picture Arrangement: Requires that pictures be arranged in order to tell a story. Sample question: "What is the meaning of the word 'articulate'?" Arithmetic: Consists of mathematical word problems which are performed mentally. Measures visual perception. and the individual is required to fill in a missing design from a number of choices. concentration. Similarities: This subtest measures verbal abstract reasoning and conceptualization abilities. with complex verbal . Measures nonverbal understanding of social interaction and ability to reason sequentially. It consists of a sequence or group of designs. PsyD for the following information on the new edition: Omitted: Object Assembly. Picture Concepts: A new subtest on the WISC-IV. Sample question (not really on the tests): "What is the capital of France?" Comprehension: This subtest measures understanding of social conventions and common sense. Measures visual-motor speed and short-term visual memory. Sample question: "John bought three books for five dollars each. Picture Arrangement. Measures attention. Matrix Reasoning: (WAIS-III only) Modeled after Raven's Progressive Matrices. and the ability to differentiate essential from inessential details. The individual is asked how two things are alike. and numeric reasoning. Thanks to Ann Simun. Digit Symbol/Coding/Animal House: Symbols are matched with numbers or shapes according to a key. a non-verbal counterpart of Similarities. attention.

particularly your logical and analytical reasoning abilities. The subject is asked.instructions. Loads on Perceptual Organization Index. which would be incorrect. "Which 3 of these pieces go together to make this puzzle?" Mental flexibility and rule following is also involved. These are:  Specialized aptitude tests  General aptitude tests SPECIALIZED APTITUDE TESTS These aptitude tests have been devised to measure the aptitudes of individual in various specific fields or activities. Two types of aptitude tests are usually employed. whole part integration. Loads on Processing Speed Index. using a drawing of a scale. and pencil use speed are required. with a pencil mark response. Visual Puzzles: Measures visual spatial reasoning. Untimed. problems are presented sequentially. color discrimination. The subject uses logic to determine equivalence of figures. and underneath are a 6 choices. APTITUDE TEST INTRODUCTION Aptitude test measure or assess the degree or level of one's special bent or flair much the same way as intelligence tests are employed or measuring one’s intelligence. Cancellation: A speeded visual scanning task. and mental rotation. APTITUDE TEST An aptitude test is a standardised test designed to measure the ability of a person to develop skills and acquire knowledge. Loads on Perceptual Organization Index. Verbal directions. They are chiefly used to estimate the extent to which profit from a specific course or traning. nonverbal responding allowed (pointing response). visual discrimination. as some choices involve a 2 piece solution. Generally these tests are divided into :  Mechanical aptitude test  Musical aptitude test  Art judgment tests  Professional aptitude tests  Scholastic aptitude test GENERAL APTITUDE TESTS . information processing speed. or to predict the quality of his or her achievement in a given situation. A figure is presented. Measures quantitative and analytical reasoning. a pointing response is allowed. It measures your capabilities for thinking and reasoning.

Thhe GATB has proved to be the most successful multiple aptitudebatteries particularly for the purposes of classification.  The DAT developed by US Psychological cooperation. Children who obtain extreme scores can be easily identified to receive further specialized attention. DAT has proved very successful in predicating acadmatic success and has been found specially useful for providing educational and vocational gudienceprogramm to secondary school children. has been adapted in Hindi for use of india by SM.Ojha.The Genral Aptitude Test Battery(GATB) and Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) are two example of such tests. It includes tests for verbal reasoning. The other 4 require the use of simple equipment in the shape of movable pegs on a board. numerical ability. Aptitude tests are valuable in making program and curricula decisions. * They provide ways of comparing a child's performance with that of other children in the same situation. motor coordination. from the scores obtained by the subject. for name comparison computation. * They assess differences among individuals. mechanical rasoning. THE VALUE OF APTITUDE TESTING Research data show that individually administered aptitude tests have the following qualities: * They are excellent predictors of future scholastic achievement. clerical perception. clerical speed and accuracy and two tests for language . They can also be used for grouping students as long as grouping is flexible. the experimenter is able to draw interferences about nine aptitude factors. group aptitude tests--usually given as part of a group achievement battery of tests--can be given quickly and inexpensively to large numbers of children. * They are valuable tools for working with handicapped children. abstract reasoning spatial relation. GATB developed by the Empliyment Service Bureau of USA. verbal aptitude. form matching.assembling and disassembling rivets andwashers. arithimetic. reasoning. intelligence. MAIN AREAS OF NURSING APTITUDE TESTS . contains 12 tests 8 of these are:  Paper – pencile tests. spatial aptitude from perception. In addition.test and there dimensional space. vocabulary. From the scores obtained by assembling and disassembling rivets and washers. by forms. nurmerical aptitude. * They provide a profile of strengths and weaknesses. * They have uncovered hidden talents in some children. thus improving their educational opportunities. finger dexterity and manual dexterity. one for spelling and other for grammer.

You are expected to know basics of solvents.Physics The multiple choicequestionnaire tries to measure your comprehensions for mechanics. measurements. Sometimes. human nervous system. Mathematics Skills Though the nursing aptitude tests include only a portion of math to test your mathematical reasoning but it is still a important to know about real numbers. Daly Life Science You need to learn basics of TCA cycle. You are expected to hear and use these basic things about the human medical science for your life long nursing career. area calculations. 2. cardiovascular system. endocrine glands. lungs and respiratory effects. Reading Comprehension In your nursing career you will have often to read the instructions issued by the doctors during their visits. fractions. thyroid hormones. laws of thermodynamics. ECG basics. logarithmic scale etc. When you fail to comprehend the simple instructions. momentum etc. The psychologists build them around the following main areas: Applied Sciences 1. Vocabulary Skills The nursing career requires you to have correct knowledge of different words.Organic and Inorganic Chemistry You have to take care of the patients with certain medicines and chemicals. trigonometry. etc. acceleration. electrons. periodic table etc. Analytical Reasoning . titration. you can’t help the patients in any way. cardiac control. ATP. So your readingcomprehension is also tested before you qualify for entry level nursing jobs.Most of the nursing jobs screen you through nursing aptitude tests. your wrong perception of words can put lives of the patients in severe danger. That’s why vocabulary skills are tested with nursing aptitude test.

(1937) TYPES OF PERSONALITY Personality can classified through type approach and trait approach. modes of behaviour. . traits. Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. the field of activity in which an individual would be most likely to be successful. PERSONALITY TEST INTRODUCTION The term personality is derived from the Latin word persona meaning a mask. attitudes and ideas of an individual as these are organized externally into roles and statuses and as they relate internally to motivation. attitudes. and aptitudes. . Personality is a patterned body of habits.Gordon Allport. goals and various aspects of selfhood.  Tests help us in selecting individuals who are likely to benefit most from the pre professional traning or experiences. UTILITY OF APTITUDE TESTS  Aptitude tests are the back bone of the guidance services.Analytical reasoning helps you to make quick decisions during emergency. DEFINITION 1. abilities. CONCLUSION Tests can help a great extent. Most of the nursing aptitude tests include this portion before you are selected for a nursing career. Interests. capacities.  The result of these tests enable us to locate with reasonable degree of certainty.  They helps in the systemic selection of sutible candidates for the various educational and professional courses as well as for specialized job.  These test are to be found verey useful for vocational and educational selection.  Aptitude tests are thus properly anticipate the future potentials of individual. Personality may be defined as the most characteristic integration of an individual’s structure. .Munn N L 2. in avoiding considerable wate of human as well as material resources by placement of individuals in places and lines of in which they are most likely to be productive.

Type based on body build Sheldon's Body Personality(1954) Sheldon noted three personalities based on their physical make-up. Galen. According to their relative predominance in the individual. They tend to have:  Wide hips and narrow shoulders. temperaments designated     sanguine (warm. pleasant. and is typified as the 'barrel of fun' person. black bile. in psychology. respectively.  They have quite slim ankles and wrists. anesthetic. The 16 temperament and personality types described in PTypes are classified in groups of four under Ernst Kretschmer's hyperesthetic. ENDOMORPH The Endomorph is physically quite 'round'. they were supposed to produce. phlegm. Type base on temperament: David Keirsey's temperament theory extends the scheme laid down by Hippocrates. temperament is the aspect of personality concerned with emotional dispositions and reactions and their speed and intensity. According to the Encyclopïdia Britannica. which makes them rather pear-shaped. the term often is used to refer to the prevailing mood or mood pattern of a person. the endomorph is:  Sociable  Fun-loving  Love of food  Tolerant . hot tempered. and Kretschmer. apathetic. yellow bile) choleric (quick to react. which only serves to accentuate the fatter other parts. mucus) melancholic (depressed. sad. 1. blood) phlegmatic (slow-moving. and hypomanic temperaments. black bile) 2. and yellow bile.1.  Quite a lot of fat spread across the body. depressive. including upper arms and thighs. The notion of temperament in this sense originated with Galen who developed it from an earlier physiological theory of four basic body fluids (humours): blood. Psychologically.

they never seem to put on weight (much to the endomorph's chagrin). MESOMORPH . ECTOMORPH The Ectomorph is a form of opposite of the Endomorph. Physically. Even-tempered  Good humored  Relaxed  With a love of comfort  And has a need for affection 2. with a high forehead  A thin and narrow chest and abdomen  Thin legs and arms  Very little body fat Even though they may eat as much as the endomorph. they tend to have:  Narrow shoulders and hips  A thin and narrow face. Psychologically they are:  Self-conscious  Private  Introverted  Inhibited  Socially anxious  Artistic  Intense  Emotionally restrained  Thoughtful 3.

they have the more 'desirable' body. they are:  Adventurous  Courageous  Indifferent to what others think or want  Assertive/bold  Zest for physical activity  Competitive  With a desire for power/dominance  And a love of risk/chance BY PHYSIOLOGICAL TYPES: A. and have:  Large head.  Muscular body. with strong forearms and and thighs  Very little body fat They are generally considered as 'well-proportioned'. there own feelings. INTROVERTED: Those who are interested in themselves. Extroverts: Extroverts are people who take more interest in others and like to move with people and are skilled in etiquette.The mesomorph is somewhere between the round endomorph and the thin ectomorph. The personality traits in the big five personality theory include extraversion. agreeableness. . lively. B. This big five personality theory suggests that there are five basic personality dimensions that can explain individual differences in behavior. They are busy in there own thoughts and are self centered . A PERSONALITY TRAITS LIST: The Big Five Personality Traits The "Big Five" personality traits can be viewed as one trait personality theory and an ideal personality traits list. Psychologically. Physically. Below are some definitions of these five personality traits: Extraversion: Extraversion refers the extent to which a person is sociable. broad shoulders and narrow waist (wedge-shaped). and conscientiousness. openness to experience. emotional stability. talkative. emotions and reactions.

self-disciplined. and responsible. The 32-items on this scale concern somatic symptoms and physical well being. METHORDS OF PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT PENCIL AND PAPER TEST  Interviews  Questionnaires. and strive to be cooperative in groups. McKinley. lively. Because of this. careful. Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness refers to the extent to which a person is organized. Emotional Stability: Emotional stability refers to the extent to which a person is calm and secure. The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology. and C. trust others. and excitable. and has a preference for variety. Openness to Experience: Openness to experience refers to the extent to which a person is imaginative. they are not a pure measure since many conditions have overlapping symptoms. trusting. A person who is very stable emotionally would remain calm in many situations and would feel secure. and excitable. talkative. helpful. MD. independent. Agreeableness: Agreeableness refers to the extent to which a person is good-natured. Scale 1 – Hypochondriasis: This scale was designed to asses a neurotic concern over bodily functioning. active. most psychologists simply refer to each scale by number. A person who is high in agreeableness would be caring. A person who is high in conscientiousness would make an effort to be careful.  The Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI) The Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health. PhD. and cooperative. Despite the names given to each scale. The original authors of the MMPI were Starke R. and J. The MMPI is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota. A person who is high in openness to experience would be a creative thinker who is independent and does not like routines. help others. . Hathaway. 10 SCALES OF THE MMPI The MMPI has 10 clinical scales that are used to indicate different psychotic conditions. organized. A highly extraverted person would be very sociable.

Those who are well educated and of a high social class tend to score higher on this scale. Scale 6 – Paranoia: This scale was originally developed to identify patients with paranoid symptoms such as suspiciousness. and rigid attitudes. High scorers tend to be more rebellious. while low scorers are more accepting of authority. social alienation. and brief periods of depression. grandiose self-concepts. and unreasonable fears. This scale is considered difficult to interpret. compulsions. obsessions. Scale 9 – Hypomania: This scale was developed to identify characteristics of hypomania such as elevated mood. and a general dissatisfaction with one's own life situation. This scale can be thought of as a measure of disobedience. lack of deep interests. Women tend to score low on this scale. this scale measures social deviation. This scale was originally used to measure excessive doubts. excessive sensitivity. characterized by poor morale. Those who score high on this scale tend to have paranoid symptoms. Scale 3 – Hysteria: The third scale was originally designed to identify those who display hysteria in stressful situations. but was found to be largely ineffective. and sexual difficulties. lack of hope in the future. disturbing questions of self-worth and self-identity. Scale 4 . Scale 7 – Psychasthenia: This diagnostic label is no longer used today and the symptoms described on this scale are more reflective of obsessive-compulsive disorder. while moderate scores tend to reveal a general dissatisfaction with one’s life. high scorers are usually diagnosed with a personality disorder rather than a psychotic disorder. socioeconomic status. and education. Women also tend to score higher than men on this scale. Scale 8 – Schizophrenia: This scale was originally developed to identify schizophrenic patients and reflects a wide variety of areas including bizarre thought processes and peculiar perceptions. Despite the name of this scale. . difficulties in concentration and impulse control. lack of acceptance of authority.The scale was originally developed to identify patients displaying the symptoms of hypochondria.Psychopathic Deviate: Originally developed to identify psychopathic patients. Very high scores may indicate depression. poor familial relationships. irritability. Scale 2 – Depression: This scale was originally designed to identify depression. and amorality. Scale 5 – Masculinity/Femininity: This scale was designed by the original author’s to identify homosexual tendencies. High scores on this scale are related to factors such as intelligence. flight of ideas. feelings of persecution. accelerated speech and motor activity.

clearly defined questions result in answers that are carefully crafted by the conscious mind. A couple have black and red blots. PROJECTIVE TEST A projective test is a type of personality test in which the individual offers responses to ambiguous scenes. Types of Projective Tests There are a number of different types of projective tests. to help plan your therapy). Several of them have black blots. and 3 have multiple colors. The test taker then goes through the 10 cards. the underlying and unconscious motivations or attitudes are revealed. they are encouraged to see some more. the test giver writes down everything the taker says. According to the theory behind such tests. After the taker has seen all ten. How Do Projective Test: In many projective tests. which suggested that people have unconscious thoughts or urges. This type of test emerged from the psychoanalytic school of thought.Scale 0 – Social Introversion: This scale was developed later than the other nine scales as is designed to assess a person’s tendency to withdraw from social contacts and responsibilities. If they see only one thing per card. saying what they see in the cards. During the test. they are stopped at 5 (except for special circumstances).   The Rorschach Inkblot Test Description of the Rorschach: The Rorschach contains 10 inkblots. These projective tests were intended to uncover such unconscious desires that are hidden from conscious awareness. the participant is shown an ambiguous image and then asked to give the first response that comes to mind.. If they see more than 5 per card. The key to projective tests is the ambiguity of the stimuli. The following are just a few examples of some of the best-known projective tests.g. one by one. By providing the participant with a question or stimulus that is not clear. The test giver explains what will happen in the test (you will describe what you see in some inkblots) and what the test is used for (e. words or images. the giver goes over . All of the inkblots have a white background.

Instructions: tell a story: what is happening. The TAT contains 31 cards. and other reactions are also noted.the responses. The examiner then scores the test based on the needs. therapists use these tests to learn qualitative information about a client. The results of the test can vary depending on which scoring system the examiner uses. inquiring what was seen. and continues to be one of the best-known. Scoring projective tests is also highly subjective. the respondent's answers can be heavily influenced by the examiner's attitudes or the test setting. Developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921. Usually only a subset (maybe 10) are administered. an individual is asked to look at a series of ambiguous scenes. and the outcome. The participant is shown one card at a time and asked to describe what he or she sees in the image. of which many different systems exist.  Word association test. For example.  While projective tests have some benefits. The participant is then asked to tell a story describing the scene. The responses are recorded verbatim by the tester. motivations and anxieties of the main character as well as how the story eventually turns out. including what is happening.  The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) The TAT was first published in 1935 by Christina Morgan & Henry Murray. Then the fun of scoring the thing begins. how the characters are feeling and how the story will end. what characters are feeling. Some pictures are intended for boys. and one blank card. so interpretations of answers can vary dramatically from one examiner to the next. The Rorschach is difficult to score reliably. where it was seen and why the taker thought it was what it was. 30 black and white pictures. some for girls. they also have a number of weaknesses and limitations. The Rorschach Inkblot was one of the first projective tests. Some therapists may use projective tests as a sort of icebreaker to encourage the client to discuss issues or examine thoughts and emotions. some for women and some for men.  Sentence completion test. Gestures. Strengths and Weaknesses of Projective Tests  Projective tests are most frequently used in therapeutic settings. the test consists of 10 different cards that depict an ambiguous inkblot. . tone of voice. In many cases. In the Thematic Apperception Test.

( the . The parent of the child and a team of qualified professional must determine whther the child is a child with a disability and in need of special education and related services. Validity refers to whether or not a test is measuring what it purports to measure. Additionally. while reliability refers to the consistency of the test results. In order for a child to be declared eligible for special education and related services it must be determined that the child is a “ child with a disability” and is in need of special education and related services. TEST FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL DISABILITIES INTRODUCTION The eligibility of child for special education and related services is considered upon completion of the administration of tests and other evulation materials. projective tests lack both validity and reliability.

including aptitude and achievement tests. cultural or economic disadvantage.) THE TEAM CONSIDERING DISABILITY In interpreting evaluation data for the purpose of determining if a child is a child with a disability and in need of special education.determination of whther a child suspected of having a specific learning disability is a child with a disability. parent input. mathematics calculation. each public agency is to draw upon information from a variety of sources.language pathologist or remedial reading teacher.  Mental retardation. hearing. The team may not identify a child as having a specific learning disability if the severe discrepancy between ability and achievement is primarily the result of:  A visual. and  The child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of the following areas: Oral expression. social or cultural background. person qualified to conduct individual diagnostic examimnations of children. Observation: . or a regular class room teacher qualified to teach a child of his or her age if the child does have a child of his or age and atleast one . 3. or motor impairment. physical condition. or  Environmental. mathematics reasoning. and adaptive behavior. listening comprehension. such as a school psychologist . must be made by the child’s parents and a team of qualified professionals which must include the child’s regular teacher. ADDITIONAL PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING CHILDREN AND DETERMINING THE EXISTENCE OF A SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY IDEA includes the following additional procedures when evaluating and determining the existence of a specific learning disability: 1. speech. basic reading skill. teacher recommendations.  Emotional disturbance. 2. if provided with learning experiences appropriate for the child’s age and ability levels. A team may determine that a child has a specific learning disability if:  The child does not achieve commensurate with his or her age and ability levels in one or more of the areas listed below. reading comprehension. written expression.

 In the case of a child of less than school age or out of school. cultural. an other health impairment. serious emotional disturbance (referred to in IDEA as emotional disturbance). autism. At least one team member other than the child’s regular teacher shall observe the child’s academic performance in the regular classroom setting. a specific learning disability.  The educationally relevant medical findings. a visual impairment including blindness.  At the discretion of the State and Local Education Agencies. as defined by the State and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures. a team member shall observe the child in an environment appropriate for a child of that age. needs special education and related services. deaf-blindness. communication development. Each team member shall certify in writing whether the report reflects his or her conclusion. a hearing impairment including deafness.  The relevant behavior noted during the observation of the child.  Whether there is a severe discrepancy between achievement and ability that is not correctable without special education and related services. an orthopedic impairment. by reason thereof. .  The basis for making the determination. in one or more of the following areas: physical development. a speech or language impairment. cognitive development. 4. the team member must submit a separate statement presenting his or her conclusions. The Law Define A Child With A Disability The term “a child with a disability” means:  A child evaluated according to IDEA as having mental retardation. and  Who. or economic disadvantage. if any. the documentation of the team’s determination of eligibility must include a statement of:  Whether the child has a specific learning disability. If it does not reflect his or her conclusion.  The determination of the team concerning the effects of environmental. a “child with a disability. or multiple disabilities. may include a child who is experiencing developmental delays.” aged three through nine.  The relationship of that behavior to the child’s academic functioning. traumatic brain injury. Written report — For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability.

Parents should ensure that:  Assessment tools and strategies used gather relevant functional and developmental information. The Possible Implications For Students With Learning Disabilities When They Are Identified As Having A Developmental Delay: The use of a “developmental delay” category to determine whether a child is eligible for special education and related services could make it possible to identify some children early before they experience failure in school and fall behind their peers. Contact special education administrators at the State Department of Education or the local school district for this information. some concern that children with learning disabilities will be included in the “developmental delay” category without identifying the specific processing disorder/s present and. THE PATIENT NAME :…………. There is. or adaptive development. Many children with learning disabilities show delays in one or more of the areas specified. TEST FOR PHYSICAL DISABILITY There is no agreed single measure of physical disability for use either clinically or in research. however. thus the specific intervention strategies needed will not be provided. needs special education and related services.  Assessment tools and strategies provide relevant information that directly assists persons in determining the education needs of the child. but can make a choice regarding whether to use “developmental delay” for children aged three to nine.. Activity score Bowels (preceding week) . The Barthel ADL Index is proposed as the standard index for clinical and research purpose. and who. improves clinical management of disabled patients. by reason thereof. Since States and Local Education Agencies are not mandated to follow a certain course. BARTHEL RATER NAME :……. INDEX DATE :…….social or emotional development.  Tests and other evaluation materials used include those tailored to assess specific areas of educational need. It is argued that acceptance of a single standard measure of activities of (ADL) Might increase awareness of disability . parents need to determine the eligibility criteria used by their State and Local Education Agencies.. and might even increase acceptance for clinical and research.

Mobility • Refers to mobility about house or ward. • 'Help' = food cut up. dress. Can sit up. clean self.' Grooming (preceding 24 – 48 hours) • Refers to personal hygiene: doing teeth. indoors. then 'incontinent. Transfer • From bed to chair and back. washing face. Feeding • Able to eat any normal food (not only soft food). Food cooked and served by others. including supervision/moral support. Implements can be provided by helper. Toilet use • Should be able to reach toilet/commode. Bladder (preceding week) • 'Occasional' = less than once a day. must negotiate corners/doors unaided. If in wheelchair. doing hair. fitting false teeth. Dressing .' • 'Occasional' = once a week. • 'Major help' = one strong/skilled. OR needs any supervision for safety. two people to lift. but not cut up. May use aid. • 'With help' = can wipe self and do some other of above. • 'Help' = by one untrained person. or two normal people. • A catheterized patient who can completely manage the catheter alone is registered as 'continent. undress sufficiently. • 'Dependent' = NO sitting balance (unable to sit). shaving.• If needs enema from nurse. patient feeds self. and leave. • 'Minor help' = one person easily.

direct testing is not needed. The need for supervision renders the patient not independent. THE BARTHELADL GUIDELINES         The Index should be used as a record of what a patient does. arithmetic and visual-spatial capabilities. etc.• Should be able to select and put on all clothes. but direct observation and common sense are also important. HISTORY OF WAIS IQ TESTS . TEST FOR MENTAL DISABILITY WAIS IQ test is the most popular intelligence assessing scale. Psychiatrists preferably use this scale to diagnose level of mental retardation in their patient. NOT as a record of what a patient could do. and wash self. but can put on some garments alone. It takes into accunt general knowledge. However. zips. • Must get in and out unsupervised. Bathing • Usually the most difficult activity. physical or verbal. The main aim is to establish degree of independence from any help. (check!). • 'Half' = help with buttons. Usually the performance over the preceding 24 – 48 hours is important. social awareness and short term memories as well. Use of aids to be independent is allowed. however minor and for whatever reason. and nurses will be the usual source. WAIS stands for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. friends/relatives. but occasionally longer periods will be relevant. This adult IQ test claims to classify intelligence of human beings of 16-74 years old and above. Stairs • Must carry any walking aid used to be independent. • Independent in shower = 'independent' if unsupervised/unaided. Middle categories imply that the patient supplies over 50percent of the effort. A patient's performance should be established using the best available evidence. The other two Wechsler scales are used for kids and children. It measures vocabulary. Asking the patient. which may be adapted.

Comprehension: 18 items that require examinee to explain what should be done in certain circumstances. After calculating their results. The sample group was representative set of men. . Verbal Scales 1. Measures concrete.[2] The fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV) was released in 2008 by Pearson. white. black. common sense. some of the items cover quite sophisticated information. Now adapted versions. and the ability to understand and adapt to social customs. STANDARDIZATION OF WAIS IQ TESTS The WAIS is a standardized IQ test. Score on each item varies (0-2 pts) according to the degree to which the response describes the most pertinent aspects of the question. the rating on the scale were identified. Later on psychologists of different countries customized WAIS under their culturaland linguistic preferences. and so forth. Similarities: 19 items requiring examinee to describe how two given things are alike. Spanish IQ Tests and Chinese IQ test are available all over the world. the meaning of proverbs. women. however.[1] The original WAIS (Form I) was published in February 1955 by David Wechsler. Information: 28 items on a variety of information adults have presumably had opportunities to acquire in our culture. rural and urban population as per 1981 census. test measures concentration and systematic problem-solving ability. 2. why certain societal practices are followed. as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale.The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are the primary clinical instruments used to measure adult and adolescent intelligence. 4. Other representative considerations were also taken into account. Score on each item varies according to the degree to which the response describes a general property primarily pertinent to both items in the pair. Problems are administered orally and must be solved without paper and pencil. In addition to math knowledge. functional. The test measures practical judgement. such as Australian IQ tests. Arithmetic: 20 arithmetic problems similar to those encountered in elementary math courses. No specialized or academic information included. DESCRIPTION WAIS IQ tests are composed of two main scales: verbal and performance. and abstract concept formation. For the purpose the subtests were administered to 1800 USA citizens. 3.

Picture Arrangement: Eleven items. There are two additional. then the letters in alphabetical order (e..9 digits backwards. Coding-Digit Symbol: Numbers 1 . each containing a picture having a part missing.7 are paired with symbols on a key presented to examinee.5. 7. repeating the numbers in ascending order. Vocabulary: 66 words of increasing difficulty are presented orally and visually. Measures "working memory." the ability to simultaneously recall and organize stimuli of different. Examinee must repeat each series by. first. and part to whole organization. Block Design: Perhaps the butt of more jokes than any other WAIS scale! Included in the test are nine red and white square blocks and a spiral booklet of cards showing different color designs that can be made with the blocks. but less commonly given arrangements to some items.. 4. correct response is 2-9-A-L). Digit Span: Two parts. Digits forward and digits backwards. optional extensions of the coding test that measure the examinees skills in learning the coding process after completing the initial task. similar types. each item is scored for speed as well. Measures verbal knowledge and concept formation. 2. Measures visual-motor speed and complexity. Examinee required to define the words. from 2 to nine letter-number combinations. The examinee must arrange the pictures from left to right to tell the intended story. Examinee must identify the missing part. This also is a standard test on the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. and concentration.e. Measures ability to observe details and recognize specific features of the environment (I.. 3. Performance Scales 1. Also measures performance in deliberately focusing attention. Partial credit is given for alternate. . 6. Measures short-term memory.g. Examinee required to repeat 3 . Letter-Number Sequencing (Optional Test): Examiner presents combinations of letters and numbers. Again. In addition to being scored for accuracy. The examinee must arrange the blocks to match the design formed by examiner or shown on cards. both accuracy and speed are scored. Measures spatial problem-solving and manipulative abilities. Examinee has 120 seconds to go through a grid of 90 numbers and place the correct symbol above each number. Each item consists of 3 to 6 cards containing pictures. whole to part discrimination). motor coordination. Picture Completion: 25 cards. 9-L-2-A.9 digits forward and 2 . Score (0-2) based on sophistication of definition. attention.

and visual anticipation skills 7. and grasp of social cause and effect (also known as social intelligence). it is a normal phenomenon. but also for interventions to bring about positive change and for determining the extent of change. Without a prejudice and contempt. Measurement of relatedness can be useful not only in the assessment of behavior within groups. Examinee is presented with a series of design with a part missing. Matrix Reasoning: A new test on the WAIS-III. Measures nonverbal analytical reasoning. like a puzzle. if standard devitation is more thean futher investigation into the subject is required.” meaning measure. As these roots imply. Object Assembly (Optional Test): Four items. Examinee must correctly assemble the parts of the puzzle. each item being a "cut up" object. from five choices. 6.” meaning social and the Latin “metrum. Measures visualmotor problem-solving and organizational abilities. The lower rating is for the mentally retarded people. 5. . if you are going to encounter a WAIS session. you are atleast average and at the maximum a super genius. Examinee chooses the missing part that will complete the design. SOCIOMETERY MEANING The word sociometry comes from the Latin “socius. sociometry can be a . However. Symbol Search (Optional test): Examinee must match one or two symbols shown on the left column with the same symbol/s in the right column of each page in the supplemental test booklet.Measures nonverbal reasoning and sequencing skills. When standard deviation between the scale is 15 point. Measures organization accuracy and processing speed CONCLUSION WAIS underlines that the both verbal and performances scales should be administered separately. For a work group. sociometry is a way of measuring the degree of relatedness among people.

pp. . the experimental technique of and the results obtained by application of quantitative methods” (Moreno. it is immaterial whether [the choices] are inarticulate or highly expressive. written respondses. in settings including other schools. As part of this study. It shows the patterns of how individuals associate with each other when acting as a group toward a specified end or goal (Criswell in Moreno. 15-16). p. “Choices are fundamental facts in all ongoing human relations. (Moreno. choices about who is perceived as friendly and who not. o Special methods of obtaining the information through oral questions. 1960. DEFINITON OF SOCIOMERTIC TECHNIQUES Methods for quqntitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships. by Moreno and others. and business corporations. who is rejected. p. the military. who is central to the group. analyzing the records in studying the group. They do not require any special justification as long as they are spontaneous and true to the self of the chooser. It is also a powerful tool for assessing dynamics and development in groups devoted to therapy or training. ADVANTAGES: o It enables the structure of social teacher to get a comprehensive picture of the structure of social relationship in the entire class by means of certain instruments and method of interpreting the result obtained.” (Moreno. He found that assignments on the basis of sociometry substantially reduced the number of runaways from the facility. It is immaterial whether the motivations are known to the chooser or not.powerful tool for reducing conflict and improving communication because it allows the group to see itself objectively and to analyze its own dynamics. whether rational or irrational. Moreno used sociometric techniques to assign residents to various residential cottages. choices of people and choices of things. they make choices--where to sit or stand. A useful working definition of sociometry is that it is a methodology for tracking the energy vectors of interpersonal relationships in a group. 1953. Whenever people gather. Many more sociometric studies have been conducted since. p. As Moreno says. 140). Moreno himself defined sociometry as “the mathematical study of psychological properties of populations. therapy groups. Sociometry is based on the fact that people make choices in interpersonal relationships. New York. who is isolated. 527). 1953. 720). They are facts of the first existential order. Jacob Levy Moreno coined the term sociometry and conducted the first long-range sociometric study from 1932-38 at the New York State Training School for Girls in Hudson. 1953.

Hoboken (NJ): Wiley.S.). 181-194. the reluctance to actively think about and explore these issues--can also help us reflect on why there is such reluctance. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment.) o Loe .washoecountry.M. & Marks. patterns for specific activities.2007. R. person. 1997 o Kline. adults. W. people. 25: 237-247 o Groth-Marnat. Elizabeth (2006). New York: John Wiley and Sons. skills http://www. o Sociometry–and  http//www. Lichtenberger. 3rd 36-43 o Lord.o The curricular and co. used.html#ixzz1OpdqWOBI  http// www Wikipedia. Assessing Adolescent and Adult Intelligence (3rd ed.M. ISBN 978-0-471-73553-3. (2007). Jaypee The Handbook of Psychological Testing.25-8. "The Relationship of the Reliability of Multiple-Choice Test to the Distribution of Item Difficulties.children. and thus offers some promise of understanding–and sometimes meaningful insights– about the ways people 1952. Handbook of Psychological Assessment. 3. brain. Gary.” Psychology for graduate nurses” 2005. Administration and Scoring Errors on the WISC-IV Among Graduate Student Examiners. 18. in terms of individual and cultural dynamics BIBLIOGRAPHY o Anthikade Jacob. New York: Routledge. o It brings into explicit awareness a number of themes that have been generally overlooked by most other theories of psychology and sociology. o It opens our minds to phenomena that are emotionally sensitive. WEB REFERENCE  http// www. Kadlubek. F.  http//www advocacy handbook: a parent’s guide for special education. P.. personality. Lay summary (22 August 2010). o It can help a group address themes that may be operating but their action has not been noted in of child for special educationthe sphere of explicit  http//www.ScorePak® run. score. o Kaufman. Paul.deltabravo." Psychometrika. Com  http// www Wechsler adult intelligence scale .A. choosing companions.curricular activities formation of groups..  http// . Alan S. 3rd edition.J.

com .ppicentral. http//www.