Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina

Specification

Technical

SECTION 31 62 13.23
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DRIVEN PILES
PART 1 - GENERAL
1.1

SUMMARY
A.

Work of this Section includes all labor, materials, equipment, and services
necessary to provide new solid, precast prestressed concrete piles based
on the number, size, capacity, and lengths of piles as shown on the Contract
Drawings and/or specified herein. The work includes:
1.
2.
3.

B.

Related Sections:
1.
2.
3.
4.

C.

Driving piles to the required minimum penetrations indicated.
Quality control recording of each pile driven and verification
survey of pile layout and elevations.
Cutting-off piles as specified.

Section 01 22 00, “Unit Prices” for pile unit pricing.
Section 03 31 01, “Marine Concrete” for cement, water,
aggregates, admixtures, and concrete mix design criteria.
Section 31 62 01, “Pile Testing” for dynamic testing of piles.
Section 33 79 13 “Pier Grounding” for provision of grounding
piles.

Measurement and Payment
1.

There is no separate payment item for the work of this section.
Base the Contract Sum on number, size, capacity and dimensions of
piles indicated from tip to cutoff, plus not less than 300mm(12 inches)
of overlength for cutting piles at cutoff elevations. The CONTRACTOR
shall submit a “Schedule of Values” to receive partial payments.
a.

Should the total length of piles required vary from the lengths
shown on the Contract Drawings, an adjustment in the time for
completion will be made in accordance with the contract
documents.The contract price will be adjusted on the basis of
the unit price bid/contracted for adjustment of pile length as
specified in Section 01 22 00, “Unit Prices”.

b.

The contract price for piling shall include the cost of all
necessary equipment, tools, material, labor, and supervision
required to: deliver, handle, install, cut-off, dispose of any cutoffs, and meet the applicable contract requirements. The
contract price also includes mobilization, pre-drilling, and
redriving heaved piles. If, in redriving, it is found that any pile is
not of sufficient length to provide the capacity specified, notify
the ENGINEER, who reserves the right to increase or decrease
the total length of piles to be furnished and installed by changing
the pile locations or elevations, requiring the installation of
additional piles, or directing the omission of piles from the
requirements shown and specified. Payment for piles will be

Page 1 of 22
PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES

Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina
Specification

Technical

based on successfully installing piles to both the minimum tip
elevation and satisfying the acceptance criteria identified herein.
No additional payment will be made for: damaged, rejected, or
misplaced piles; withdrawn piles; any portion of a pile remaining
above the cut-off elevation; backdriving; cutting off piles; splicing;
build- ups; any cut-off length of piles; or other excesses beyond
the assumed pile length indicated for which the CONTRACTOR
is responsible.
2.

Additional payment for pile lengths in excess of that indicated,
and credit for pile lengths less than that indicated, will be calculated at
unit prices stated in the Contract, based on net addition or deduction
to total pile length as approved by the ENGINEER measured to
nearest 300mm(12 inches).
a.

1.2

Additional payment for splices required to extend pile lengths in
excess of that indicated will be calculated at unit prices stated in
the Contract.

3.

Additional payment for number of piles in excess of that
indicated, and credit for number of piles less than that indicated, will
be calculated at unit prices stated in the Contract.

4.

Unit prices include labor, materials, tools, equipment, and
incidentals for furnishing, driving, cutting off, capping, and disposing of
cutoffs.

5.

Test piles that become part of permanent foundation system will
be considered as an integral part of the Work.

6.

No payment will be made for rejected piles, including piles driven
out of tolerance, defective piles, or piles damaged during handling or
driving.

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
A.

The work includes: Structural Performance: Piles shall withstand
transportation, erection, and driving stresses and design loads within limits
indicated and under conditions existing at Project site.
1.

Design Loads: 1600 kN or 163 Tons (compression)

B.

Piling: Provide prestressed concrete piles in accordance with PCI JR-382 in
addition to requirements specified in this Section.

C.

Piling Lengths: CONTRACTOR shall propose order lengths for piles based
on subsurface information furnished and supplemented by drive test piles
and/or indicator piles made by the CONTRACTOR. Do not order piles until
ENGINEER approves order lengths.

Page 2 of 22
PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES

Include lists of completed projects with project names and addresses. D. Shop Drawings: Drawings shall be prepared by or under the supervision of a qualified professional engineer detailing fabrication and lifting devices necessary for handling and driving piles. and sizes.8A. names and addresses of engineers and owners.2B. reinforcing steel. size. Page 3 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . bending. General: Refer to and comply with Section 01 33 00 “Submittal Procedures”. weight of drive cap). B. Indicate: a. 3. locations. 2. C. E. date of purchase. driving shoes. d. Include: 1. and pile cushions and calculations as specified in paragraph 3. and properties of driving helmets. for procedures and additional submittal criteria.1 demonstrating driving stresses do not exceed specified maximums. and placing Indicate welded connections by AWS standard symbols. “Qualifications:” to demonstrate their capabilities and experience. Pile-Driving Equipment Data (For Information): Submit a complete description of each pile hammer for driving prestressed concrete piles including type. For each prestressing steel. pile cut-off elevations and a numbering system for the piles. make. Submit before the Work begins. Technical data and test reports for each cement. Include data for type. Coordinate with the requirements of Section 01 73 00. Order Lengths Pile dimensions. c. cross sections. weight of striking part of hammer. capblocks. Detail cast-in hardware. splice units and splice welding materials.3 Technical SUBMITTALS A. Qualifications Submittals: For firms or persons named in paragraph 1. Patching Mortar and Grout materials. and admixture to be used. For steel material(s). and date and description of last overhaul. Product Data: 1. Preconstruction Photographs: Photographs or video of existing conditions of adjacent construction. and other information specified. Relate to concrete mix design requirements as specified. aggregate. and operational characteristics (rated energy range. “Execution Requirements”. Pile Fabrication: Prepare in accordance with ACI 315 and ACI SP-66. Pile Identification Plan: Show location of piles. 5. Show details of pile splices and shoes Types and placement of reinforcement. and related accessory item to be used. including prestressing strand. Submit details for approval no later than 2 weeks prior to pile installation. 2.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification 1. 4. and detail fabricating. b. Submit prior to pile driving.

storage. Details for installation of dowels at top of piles Quality Control Submittals 1. Test Pile Records. if indicator piles are shown on the Contract Drawings or if CONTRACTOR elects to drive additional indicator piles. Transportation. “SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL”. Page 4 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . 3. submit a mix design before concrete is placed. Material Test Reports: Submit the following prior to delivery and driving piles in accordance with Article 2. Include location of special embedded or attached lifting devices. employment of pick-up points. Detailed description or drawings of proposed pile alignment jig or template Proposed sequence for driving all piles 1) c. and Supplementary Office Analysis: Submit in accordance with provisions of Section 31 62 01. Pile driving plan. “Marine Concrete”. d. c. from manufacturer.8. Concrete Mix Design: For each concrete mix proposed.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification e. and lifting points. Conform to requirements of Section 03 31 01. Technical Include plan for installing indicator piles. Certifications by the CONTRACTOR’s Engineer that all pile materials conform to the requirements of this Section. Material Certificates: For prestressing strand and concrete admixtures. for each type of concrete used for the piles. Details of pre-drilling or pre-auguring operations. Include: a. Precasting manufacturer's quality control procedures: Submit precasting manufacturer's quality control procedures established in accordance with PCI MNL-116. b. 3. support points other than pick-up points. 2. b. 4. and any other methods of pick-up. Submit prior to casting piles. if required to advance piles. including sequence of installation. b. Calculations: Submit calculations prepared by the CONTRACTOR’s Engineer demonstrating that pile unit handling and storage stresses as proposed by the CONTRACTOR do not exceed values permitted by PCI JR-382. Include: a. Wave Equation Analysis. F. Design Data a. b. Concrete Aggregates tests Concrete Strength Tests: Submit concrete cylinder compressive strength test results. Certificates a. “Pile Testing”.

REFERENCES The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the extent referenced. Seven-Wire for for Concrete .4 Technical Record Documents: Submit as-built drawing(s) showing the exact location of piles driven including plumbness and horizontal deviation from theoretical position. Relate to survey requirements specified in paragraph 3. G. Reinforcement ASTM A615 Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A775 Epoxy Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars ASTM A884 Epoxy-Coated Steel Wire and Welded Wire Page 5 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES Deformed. American Concrete Institute (ACI): ACI 214R Evaluation of Strength Test Results of Concrete ACI 301 Specifications for Structural Concrete ACI 315 Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI SP-66 ACI Detailing Manual American Society For Testing and Materials International (ASTM): ASTM A416 Steel Strand. Pile-Driving Records: Submit within three days of driving each pile. including obstructed. The publications are referred to in the text by the basic designation only. the CONTRACTOR shall submit as-built drawings (Record Documents) having the same locations of all the piles. “Verification of Pile Layout and Elevations”. Uncoated Prestressed Concrete ASTM A496 Steel Wire. in order to expedite the approval of the pile work. each covering a partial area only. 1. b. Field Reports: a. percentage out of plumb and the cutoff elevation and length below cutoff for each pile. damaged and compensating piles. 1. Field quality-control reports Contract Closeout Submittals: No superstructure shall be constructed prior to the approval of the following documentation. as the job progresses. Identify abandoned piles. but upon completion of all pile driving. Survey information may be submitted on several drawings.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification 5.4D.

Testing. Engineering Responsibility: Assumes engineering responsibility to comply with requirements in "Performance Requirements" Article by engaging a qualified professional engineer to prepare design calculations. and other structural data for piles. Qualifications 1. Manufacturer Qualifications: A qualified manufacturer complying with the following: a.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical ASTM C31 Fabric Reinforcement Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field ASTM C33 Concrete Aggregates ASTM C39 Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens ASTM C42 Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete ASTM C136 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates ASTM C143 Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete ASTM C172 Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete ASTM C1077 Agencies Testing Concrete Aggregates for Use in ASTM E329 Agencies Engaged in Construction Inspection. Page 6 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . or Special Inspection and Concrete Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI ): CRSI MSP Manual of Standard Practice Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI): 1. Shop Drawings. Manufacture and Prestressed Concrete Piling Installation of QUALITY ASSURANCE A.5 PCI STD-112 Standard Prestressed Concrete Piles PCI MNL-116 Manual of Quality Control for Plants and Production of Precast Concrete Products PCI MNL-135 Tolerances Manual for Precast and Pre Stressed Concrete Construction PCI JR-382 Design.

“Quality Requirements”. Comply with related requirements in Section 01 40 00 “Quality Requirements”. in accordance with the provisions of Section 31 62 01. 4. engage the services of a licensed Professional Engineer who will be present on the site at all times during pile installations to ensure and certify the piles are installed in accordance with design and code requirement. quality-control recommendations. 5. in accordance with the provisions of Section 01 70 00. “Execution Requirements”. Page 7 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . Coordinate work in fabrication / precasting facility to allow testing of provision for ground continuity with Section 33 79 01. Installer Qualifications: Manufacturer's authorized representative who is trained and approved for installation of units required for this Project. or better Installer Qualifications: Manufacturer's authorized representative who is trained and approved for installation of units required for this Project. The independent testing agency shall be qualified according to ASTM C1077 and ASTM E329 for testing indicated. comply with applicable requirements in PCI MNL-116. for the performance of the survey work called for herein. The CONTRACTOR’s Engineer shall prepare and submit.8B. The installed location of each pile shall be established and verified by survey. Manufacture and Installation of Prestressed Concrete Piling". and dimensional tolerances for piles. a. The CONTRACTOR shall. approved by the ENGINEER. Testing Agency/Laboratory and Technicians: Engage the services of an independent testing laboratory approved by the ENGINEER to perform testing specified in paragraph 2. Installer's responsibility includes engaging a professional engineer to prepare pile-driving records. Quality-Control Standard: For manufacturing procedures and testing requirements. Design Practices: Comply with ACI 318 and the recommendations in PCI Committee Report: "Recommended Practice for Design. B. D. in the requisite number of copies. Technical PCI Plant Certification Program: Participates in PCI's Plant Certification Program and is designated a PCI-Certified Plant for B2 product group and category. engage the services of an approved and independent licensed Surveyor. “Pier Grounding”. C.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification b. The CONTRACTOR shall. 2. “Pile Testing” and Section 01 40 00. qualified 3. a report of the pile driving and also fulfill all other requirements specified.

distorting. Geotechnical investigations have been undertaken at the site and a Geotechnical Report is available as described in Section 01 11 00. or else supported along their full length. Subsurface Conditions (Including Underwater): 1. D. Replace piles damaged in handling or driving unless repairs can be made satisfactory to the ENGINEER. The CONTRACTOR is responsible for any conclusions they may draw from this information. make an independent interpretation of the surface and subsurface conditions.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification 1. Comply with Section 01 32 33. underground utilities. or other physical damage. Preconstruction Photographs: Inventory and record the condition of adjacent structures. but are available for information purposes only. and other construction from damage caused by pile driving. Lift and support piles only at designated lifting or supporting points as shown on Shop Drawings while being handled. The CONTRACTOR may use this report to establish the quality of materials expected to be present at the project site and determine the proper length of piles. Protect structures. and assess the site geometry. including the character of the materials that may be encountered and the degree of difficulty to be expected in the performance of the Work. C. transported. Deliver piles to Project site in such quantities and at such times to ensure continuity of installation. B. and transport piles in accordance with PCI MNL-116 B. underground utilities. “Photographic Documentation”.6 1. 4.23 “Marine Selective Demolition” for related provisions. and other construction. cracking. 3. Handle. and equipment access conditions that may affect the work of the Contract. Neither the owner nor the engineer guarantees that materials other than those disclosed by the Page 8 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . and stored as shown on the plans. handle. 2. C. Provide photographs or video of conditions that might be misconstrued as damage caused by pile driving. and so markings are visible. Prior to bidding this project. Reference Section 01 73 00. PROJECT CONDITIONS A. Site Information: A geotechnical report has been prepared for this Project. transport and store piles at Project site to prevent injury. D. review all available information and existing site conditions. “Execution Requirements” and Section 02 41 19. STORAGE AND HANDLING A. “Summary of Work”. Store. warping. The CONTRACTOR is advised that all available samples and information relating to boring records and subsurface conditions are expressly excluded from and are not a part of the Contract.7 Technical DELIVERY.

1 FORM MATERIALS A. lowrelaxation strand free of grease.5 Epoxy-Coat Reinforcing Bars: ASTM A775 Spirals may alternately conform to ASTM A496. such as additional test borings and other exploratory operations. 5. If the CONTRACTOR finds that the geotechnical report and data therein is insufficient to determine the nature of the work. or another material that is nonreactive with concrete and will produce required finish surfaces. Reinforcing Bars: ASTM A615.2 Forms: Provide forms of metal. plastic. PILE ACCESSORIES A. seven-wire. 1. wax. or other defects. before or after submission of its bid. deformed. STEEL REINFORCEMENT A.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical geotechnical report will not be encountered. and loose rust. CONCRETE MATERIALS A. PART 2 . Patching Mortar: Page 9 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . Class A. undertake his/her own investigations.3 PRESTRESSING TENDONS A. Grade 270. coated in conformance with ASTM A884. Type 2. Perform all pile installation work of this Contract from waterborne equipment. at no additional cost to the owner. Grade 60. soil. It is expressly understood that neither the owner nor the engineer will be responsible for interpretations or conclusions drawn wherefrom by the CONTRACTOR. minimum. 2. deformed. Do not use prestressing strands or wire having kinks. Cement. carbon-steel plate fabricated to match shape of pile tip. and admixtures: Conform to Section 03 31 01 “Marine Concrete”. or that proportions and character of the various materials will not vary from those indicated in the boring logs. 2. the CONTRACTOR may. water. wood. 2. Data on indicated subsurface conditions is not intended as a representation or warranty of continuity of such conditions. oil. Pile Shoes: 25mm (1-inch).PRODUCTS 2.thick. 2.4 Prestressing Strand: ASTM A416. dirt. 6. Pile Splices: Not Permitted C. 2. bends. aggregates. B. paint. E. uncoated.

determine cause of discrepancy and correct. and securely tie bars and bar supports to hold reinforcement in position while placing concrete. Tamms Duraltop Gel.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification 1. and dimensions indicated. and supporting reinforcement. “Marine Concrete”. Master Builders Emaco or approved equal. install pile connection plates and grounding jumper cables and connect to grounding plate and stands in accordance with provisions of Section 33 79 13 “Pier Grounding”. B. Denso SeaShield 525. earth. Below water placement: Tamms Aquaseal. 2. mortar tight. CONCRETE MIXES A. When difference between results of measurement and gage reading is more than 5 %. 2. and hangers. runners. Form precast dowel holes with galvanized flexible metal conduit. ends and corners of square piles. design forms so stresses are not induced in piles due to deformation of concrete under prestress or movement during detensioning. between 20mm (3/4 inch) and 30mm (1 1/8 inch). FABRICATION A. Chamfer. float or collapse during placing of concrete. 3. Measure tension to which steel is to be pretensioned by jack pressure read on a calibrated gage and verify by elongation of steel. At designated piles. Form surface of pile ends perpendicular to axis of pile. 4. Clean reinforcement of loose rust and mill scale. within fabrication tolerances specified in PCI MNL-116 and PCI MNL-135. Maintain molds to provide completed piles of shapes. or concrete placement. temperature changes. Comply with PCI MNL-116. lines. Prestress tendons for piles by pre-tensioning. and for pre-tensioning and de-tensioning operations. placing. Use gage calibrated within last 6 months by a laboratory approved by ENGINEER. Unless forms are stripped before de-tensioning. and secure reinforcement against displacement by forms. Arrange. bolsters. Place reinforcement to obtain at least the minimum coverage for concrete protection. 1. or approved equal. 1. Set wire ties so ends are directed into concrete. 2. construction.6 Above water placement: Sikatop 123Plus. Anchor void forms firmly so they will not move.7 Technical Conform to Section 03 30 01. as required. support. spacers. Give tensioning steel a Page 10 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . space. 2. Locate and support reinforcement by metal chairs. not toward exposed concrete surfaces. braced and stiffened against deformation. Provide means for measuring elongation of steel to nearest 1/8 inch. Reinforcement: Comply with recommendations in CRSI MSP for fabricating. 2. C. Accurately position. Formwork: Accurately construct forms of metal. 5. of sufficient strength and supported on unyielding casting beds to withstand pressures due to concrete placement. and other materials that reduce or destroy bond with concrete.

make any free vertical drop of the concrete less than 1m or 3 feet. Pile Shoes: Accurately position and secure pile shoes at pile tips so as to not affect pile alignment during driving. runners. a. Moist Curing: Moist cure using moist burlap coverings. Conveying: Clean conveying equipment thoroughly before each run. After initial concrete batching. Remove concrete that has segregated in conveying or placing. b. Placing and Casting: 1. Produce each pile of dense concrete straight with smooth surfaces with reinforcement retained in its proper position during fabrication. 2. support. spacers. Identify pickup points of piles with permanent markings corresponding with markings indicated on Shop Drawings. F. H. moist cure for a period of 4 hours. plastic sheeting. E. 1. G. no additional water may be added. During placing. bolsters. mixing. Induce same initial prestress in each unit when several units of prestressing steel in a pile are stretched simultaneously. do not deposit concrete in forms until placement of reinforcement and anchorages has been inspected and approved by pile manufacturer's quality control representative. Imprint casting date on each pile. Locate and support reinforcement by metal chairs. Weld pile shoes to longitudinal reinforcements. Comply with requirements in PCI MNL-116 for measuring. Place concrete in a continuous operation to prevent seams or planes of weakness from forming in piles. Use vibrator with heads smaller than the minimum distance between steel for pre-tensioning. Thoroughly consolidate placed concrete by internal and external vibration without dislocating or damaging reinforcement and built-in items. construction. Use equipment and procedures complying with PCI MNL-116. Accelerated cure until concrete has reached Page 11 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . Accelerated Curing: After placement of concrete. Perform concrete casting within 3 days after pre-tensioning steel. transporting. Cure concrete according to requirements in PCI MNL-116 by moisture retention without heat or by accelerated heat curing using low-pressure live steam or radiant heat and moisture. D. Convey concrete from mixer to forms as rapidly as practicable by methods that will not cause segregation or loss of ingredients. Mix concrete according to PCI MNL-116 and requirements in this Section. or membrane curing compound until minimum strength to de-tension is achieved. or concrete placement. and hangers. as required. Deposit concrete as nearly as practicable to its final position. Accurately position. 3. however.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical uniform prestress prior to bringing to design prestress. 2. and secure reinforcement against displacement by forms. and placing concrete.

Consolidate concrete. increase the air temperature at a rate not to exceed 40°F per hour. float. moist cure using either water or membrane curing until a total accelerated and moist curing time of 72 hours is achieved. De-tensioning: Delay de-tensioning piles until concrete has attained a minimum compressive strength of 5. Page 12 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . L. Perform releasing of prestressed steel in pretensioned piles in such an order to minimize eccentricity of prestress. uniform finish. c. Small surface holes caused by air bubbles. SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL A. 3. and trowel to a smooth. Where ends of strands will not be enclosed or covered. a.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical specified release strength. Major or unsightly imperfections. as established by test cylinders cured under the same conditions as concrete. Finish unformed surfaces by trowel unless otherwise indicated. N. Enclose casting bed for accelerated curing with a suitable enclosure. Pile-Length Markings: Mark each pile with horizontal lines at 300mm (12inch) intervals. J. 1. Maintain markings on piles until driven.8 During application of steam or heat. form joint marks. or structural defects are not permitted. Finish: Fabricate concrete piles with normal plant-run finish produced in forms that impart a smooth finish to concrete. Cure at a maximum temperature of 150°F until concrete has reached specified release strength. I. After accelerated curing. If concrete has been heat cured. using a sequence and pattern to prevent shock or unbalanced loading. normal color variations. 2. b. bring to proper level with straightedge. and minor chips and spalls will be tolerated. label the distance from pile tip at 400mm (60-inch) intervals. honeycombs. Detension only after approval by pile manufacturer's quality control representative. De-tension pretensioned tendons either by gradually releasing tensioning jacks or by heat-cutting tendons. Reduce temperature at a rate not to exceed 20°F per hour until a temperature of 20°F above ambient air temperature is reached. cut flush and cover with a high-strength mortar bonded to unit with an epoxy-resin bonding agent. whichever is greater. K. Fabricate precast prestressed concrete piles straight and true to size and shape with exposed edges and corners precise and true so each finished unit complies with PCI MNL-116 and PCI MNL-135 product tolerances. 2.000 psi at least 70% of its compressive strength. M. Testing Agency: Engage a qualified testing agency to evaluate pile manufacturer's quality-control and testing methods. de-tension while concrete is still warm and moist to avoid dimensional changes that may cause cracking or undesirable stresses.

Identification letter. Strength of concrete for each series of three cores shall be considered satisfactory if average compressive strength is at least 85% of the 28-day design compressive strength and no core compressive strength is less than 75% of the 28-day design compressive strength. Patching: If core test results are satisfactory and piles comply with requirements. with copies to ENGINEER. name. e. c. 5. A minimum of three representative cores shall be taken from piles of suspect strength. Cores shall be tested in an air-dry condition per ACI 301 if piles will be dry under service conditions. Where piling is manufactured in a plant with an established quality control program as attested to by a current certification in the PCI "Certification Program for Quality Control" perform product quality control in accordance with PCI MNL-116. Test reports shall include the following: a. compressive strength at break. 3. Name of concrete testing agency. CONTRACTOR shall engage an independent testing agency to obtain. Where piling is manufactured by specialists or in plants not currently enrolled in the PCI "Certification Program for Quality Control. Cores shall be tested. Strength of piles will be considered deficient if units fail to comply with requirements. Testing: If there is evidence that strength of piles may be deficient or may not comply with PCI MNL-116 requirements. b. C. prepare. d. 2. and direction of applied load to core in relation to horizontal plane of concrete as placed. Date when tests were performed. Piles will be considered defective if they do not pass tests and inspections. D. design compressive strength. E. and pile manufacturer. solidly fill core holes with Patching Mortar and finish to match adjacent pile surfaces. corrected for length-diameter ratio. G. F. 4. Plant Facility Quality Control Program: 1. in a wet condition per ACI 301 if piles will be wet under service conditions. type of break. 2. 1. and type of pile represented by core tests." set-up a product quality control system in accordance with PCI MNL-116 and perform concrete and aggregate quality control testing using an independent commercial testing laboratory approved by the ENGINEER in accordance with the following: Page 13 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . Test results shall be reported in writing on same day that tests are performed. Project identification name and number. Testing: Test and inspect piles according to PCI MNL-116. and test cores drilled from hardened concrete to determine compressive strength according to ASTM C42.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical B. from locations directed by ENGINEER. Name of precast concrete manufacturer. CONTRACTOR. following immersion in water.

surface drying. Compressive Strength Test Results: Evaluate compressive strength test results at 28 days in accordance with ACI 214R using a coefficient of variation of 10%. Cure cylinders in same manner as piles and for accelerated curing. storage. H. or handling to the extent they are rendered unsuitable for the work. shrinkage cracks and end cracks). Mold at least six cylinders per day or one for every 20 cubic yards of concrete placed. if approved. Protection: Comply with specified provisions for protection in Section 02 41 19. Bring to the attention of the ENGINEER. or may be repaired. I. in the opinion of the ENGINEER. Mold cylinders in accordance with ASTM C31. Tabulate results of tests in accordance with ASTM C33. “Execution Requirements” and additional provisions of this Section. Perform mechanical analysis (one test for each aggregate size) in accordance with ASTM C136. Test two cylinders of each set at 7 days or 14 days. B. Test remaining cylinders of each set 28 days after molding. Perform strength tests in accordance with ASTM C39. shall be rejected and removed from the project site. Page 14 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . place at coolest point in casting bed. “Marine Selective Demolition” C. Perform slump tests in accordance with ASTM C143. Technical Concrete Aggregate Tests: Take samples of fine and coarse aggregate at concrete batch plant and test. Changes in Proportions: If. whichever is greater. at no cost to the Government. PART 3 . Submit changes in mix design to ENGINEER in writing. moisture. Evaluate strength of concrete by averaging test results of each set of standard cylinders tested at 28 days. make adjustments in proportions and water content and changes in temperature. Concrete Strength Tests: Sample concrete in accordance with ASTM C172 at time concrete is deposited for each production line. compressive strength is less than specified compressive strength. Layout and Field Survey Work: Comply with Section 01 73 00.23.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification a. and curing procedures as necessary to secure specified strength.Piles which are damaged during delivery. Not more than 10% of individual cylinders tested shall have a compressive strength less than specified average compressive strength. after evaluation of strength test results. b. Inspection of Piles: Inspect each pile for sweep and structural damage such as cracking and spalling before transporting them to the project site and immediately prior to placement in the driving leads. any unusual cracks (cracks other than crazing.EXECUTION 3. or at a time for establishing transfer of prestressing force (release strength) and removal of pile from forms.1 EXAMINATION A.

3. At final driving. Pile Hammer: Air-. DRIVING EQUIPMENT A. 2. obtain required driving energy of hammer.06 inches). by use of a heavy ram and a short stroke with low impact velocity. Except for diesel hammers. During pile driving operations. Restore piles in accordance with his approved plan. cross section.06 inches).000 foot-pounds) per blow capable of consistently delivering adequate peak-force duration and magnitude to develop the ultimate capacity required for type and size of pile driven considering hammer impact velocity. Piles having excessive sweep shall be rejected. Hammer used shall subject to prior approval by the ENGINEER. the number of blows per minute during and at completion of driving of a pile is equal approximately to that at which hammer is rated. and for differential type hammer. a. the Contractor may.15mm (0. or diesel-powered type. for double-acting hammer. b.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification 1. there is a slight rise of hammer base during each upward stroke. As an alternate to pile rejection. At final driving. length. prior to driving: a. and total weight of pile. 3. minimum 55kN-m (40. hydraulic-. 3. Keep hammer in good mechanical condition and operate it at the speed and pressure recommended by the manufacturer. Pile Sweep: Sweep shall be limited to 3 mm per 3 M (1/8 inch per 10 feet) over the length of the pile.006 inches) but less than 1. and character of subsurface material anticipated without damaging the pile.5mm (0. 2. operate pile hammer in accordance with manufacturer's recommendation for driving either end bearing piles or friction piles.5mm (0. taking into consideration long-term durability in corrosive environment and. Non-Repairable Cracks: Reject piles with cracks equal to or greater than 1. Use pile hammer capable of adjustment to deliver reduced impact to maintain tensile stress within 70 % of yield strength of pile reinforcement. Repairable Cracks: Reject piles with cracks equal to or greater than 0. steam-. stiffness of hammer and pile cushions. operate diesel powered hammers at rate recommended by manufacturer for hard driving. for single-acting hammer. ram weight. there is a full upward stroke of the ram.2 Technical Submit for approval a proposal to repair deficient piles to provide their required design capacity and perform their intended function in the structure. the ENGINEER may order that CONTRACTOR’s Engineer make occasional measurements of the velocity of the hammer ram using a Hammer Performance Analyzer (radar gun Page 15 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . 1. Maintain pressure at steam or air hammer so that: 1) 2) 3) b.

Use a hammer cushion or capblock between driving helmet or cap and hammer ram in conformance with the recommendations of the hammer manufacturer. b. fixed lead type pile-driver leads that will hold full length of pile firmly in vertical position or to required Page 16 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . 2) Substitutes not employing phenolic laminate will not be permitted. Replace pile cushion when it becomes highly compressed. Provide driving helmet or cap fit sufficiently loose around top of pile so that pile may be free to rotate without binding within driving helmet. Driving Helmets and Cushion Blocks 1. Unless a template is employed. c. “Pile Testing” shall perform a wave equation analysis of the various lengths of piles to determine the pile cushion thickness required for each range of pile length. 2. Use pile cushion of solid wood or of laminated construction using plywood.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical device). Conbest or any approved equal. Stresses due to driving shall not exceed 0. Driving Helmets or Caps and Pile Cushions: Use a steel driving helmet or cap including a pile cushion between top of pile and driving helmet or cap as recommended by hammer manufacturer and as required to prevent impact damage to pile. softwood or hardwood boards with grain parallel to end of pile. alternatively. replace when it becomes highly compressed. B. If the energy per blow computed in the basis of the measured ram velocity at impact is less than 80% of the rated energy per blow as specified by the manufacturer of the pile hammer. Use a driving helmet or cap and pile cushion combination capable of protecting pile head. the CONTRACTOR shall make all necessary repairs so as to improve the energy output to a value of at least 80% of the rated energy per blow.85f’c-UPLin compression and 3 √f’c +UPL in tension where UPL = Unit Prestress after Losses. C. obtained value from pile manufacturer. use rigid frame. wood chips. charred or burned. or. and transmitting hammer energy uniformly over top of pile. CONTRACTOR’s Specialty Engineering Firm as specified in Section 31 62 01. charred or burned or becomes spongy or deteriorated in any manner except do not replace wood capblock during final driving of any pile. the CONTRACTOR shall replace the pile hammer. consisting of either a solid hardwood block with grain parallel to the pile axis and enclosed in a close-fitting steel housing or of aluminum and phenolic laminated discs stacked alternately in a steel housing. split or deteriorated in any manner. minimizing energy absorption and dissipation. replace discs that have become damaged. rope or other materials that permit excessive loss of hammer energy. Do not use small wood blocks. If aluminum/phenolic laminated capblock is used. Use steel plates at top and bottom of capblock. 1) The phenolic laminated plates shall be either Micarta. If wood capblock is used. Hammer Cushion or Capblock a. or has become spongy or deteriorated in any manner.

as measured at pile cut-off elevation. Install Indicator Piles prior to production piles to ascertain pile order lengths.000 psi. Provide pile guides or leads. General: Continuously drive piles to elevations or capacity indicated or specified herein as established by load testing of piles as specified in Section 31 62 01. Maintain and check axial alignment of pile and leaders at all times. Use an approved driving head designed to fit properly atop the head of the pile or a cast-steel. If subsurface conditions cause pile drifting beyond allowable axial alignment tolerance. 3. hammer and leads to minimize bowing of pile during impact of the hammer ram. 2. and during pile driving operations. Place butts within 100mm (4 inches) of location indicated. In addition to specified tolerances. “Pile Testing”. install indicator piles in locations shown on Contract Drawings or locations otherwise approved by ENGINEER. Support piles laterally during driving. Jetting of Piles: Water jets will not be permitted. Driving Tolerances: Drive piles with a variation of not more than 2% from vertical for plumb piles or more than 4% from the required angle for batter piles. Predrilling to remove soil or other material representing the bulk of the volume of the pile to be driven will not be permitted. I. Re-drive heaved piles to tip elevation at least as deep as original tip elevation with a driving resistance at least as great as original driving resistance. Heaved Piles: Check each pile for heave. placing pile in leads. G. outside type. F. Pile Splices: Not Permitted.3 D. DRIVING PILES A. Maintain accurate alignment of the pile. Top of pile shall be normal to the driving force. Perform driving operations in the presence of the ENGINEER unless otherwise approved. notify ENGINEER and perform corrective measures as directed by the ENGINEER. but allow rotation in leads. drive sleeve to prevent damage to the top of the pile during driving.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical batter and in axial alignment with hammer. C. Unless otherwise approved by the ENGINEER. leads shall be of sufficient length so that use of a follower will not be necessary. Use compressor that meets minimum requirements for capacity or horsepower as recommended by hammer manufacturer. H. 1. Use a special driving head to drive piles having strands or mild steel reinforcement projecting from head. Protection of Piles: Take care to avoid damage to piles during handling. E. Manipulation of piles within specified tolerance will not be permitted. Page 17 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . B. D. Do not drive piles until the concrete in pile has attained a minimum concrete strength of 5. When required or shown. E.

pile section may be extended to cut-off elevation by means of a cast-in-place reinforced concrete build-up. If build ups are required at grounding piles. withdraw piles of insufficient length and replace with longer piles at no additional cost to the DISTRICT. M. 1. J. N. Withdraw damaged or defective piles and piles that exceed driving tolerances and install new piles within driving tolerances. or if in the judgment of the ENGINEER. Where build-ups are exposed to water. Should cut-off exceed a length such that dowels into pile caps cannot extend into the tubing sleeves provided. 2. Use of explosives for cutting is not permitted. Construct build-ups made after completion of driving in accordance with detail. Place and compact in lifts not exceeding 1. “Marine Concrete”. broken stone. holes or other devices used for handling piles that are exposed above the mud line. Fill holes left by withdrawn piles as directed by ENGINEER. Remove and patch all temporary lifting eyes.8m (72 inches). protect castin-place section from water during curing period. Have details of means for protecting joints by a suitable mortar or epoxy approved by ENGINEER. Page 18 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . Connect ground wire to strand in accordance with the provisions of Section 33 79 13 “Pier Grounding”. and gravel-sand mixtures. Do not cut off strands at grounding piles.000 psi at 28 days and shall conform to and be constructed in accordance with the requirements of Section 03 31 01. If clear distance cannot be maintained.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical maintain a location to provide a clear distance of at least 125mm (5 inches) from butt to edge of pile cap.8m (72 inches). the clustered location of build-ups is undesirable. Pile Cut-Off: Cut off piles square with pile axis unless otherwise indicated with a smooth level cut using pneumatic tools. Leave rejected piles in place and install new piles in locations as directed by ENGINEER. "Build-Up Without Driving”. Abandon and cut off rejected piles as directed by ENGINEER. If this percent figure is exceeded. the CONTRACTOR shall extend the sleeves by coring or other approved methods so that the dowels can be completely embedded in the pile at no additional cost to the DISTRICT. 1. Fill holes left by withdrawn piles using cohesionless soil material such as gravel. Place and compact in lifts not exceeding 1. L. or other suitable methods approved by the ENGINEER and at elevations indicated. Concrete in build-up shall have a minimum compressive strength of 6. Build-Ups: Where required. do not cut off strands and notify the ENGINEER for additional instructions. Build-ups will not be permitted on more than 10% of total number of piles. 3. sawing. Patch with approved patching materials in accordance with material manufacturer’s written instructions. Make build-up in accordance with the details shown on the Contract Drawings and in conformance with PCI STD-112. then notify ENGINEER. 2. K.

a. Perform pile driving tests at locations shown on Contract Drawings. 6. length of cut-off Records of redriving.4 Technical FIELD QUALITY CONTROL A. C. 9. Page 19 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . 3. 13. Any pile driving test not accomplished in accordance with this specification shall be redone at no additional cost to the DISTRICT. Pre-drilling or jetting of test piles is not permitted. model. Test Piles: Use test piles of the same type and drive as specified for piling elsewhere in this Section. undamaged and offering adequate driving resistance. Project name and number Name of CONTRACTOR Type of pile and date of casting Pile number. General: Dynamic pile tests will be used to verify driving criteria and pile lengths and to confirm allowable load of piles. Use test piles. Record any increase or decrease in driving resistance. if located properly. 14. in finished work. 7. 1. 5. Furnish test piles 1. 10. 5. Pile driving tests shall be carried to completion without interruption. 3. Drive test piles at the locations indicated. Sequence of driving in pile group Pile dimensions Ground elevation Overall length before driving Sounded length of each pile Elevation of pile top and tip after driving to nearest 2. Pile-Driving Records: The CONTRACTOR’s Engineer shall maintain accurate driving records for each pile.5mm (0. location of splices Hammer type and speed. The ENGINEER will use CONTRACTOR test pile data to confirm and/or determine the necessary driving resistance for production piles. number. rate of operation or equivalent stroke for diesel hammer Weight and stroke of hammer.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification 3. “Pile Testing B. 12. Field Weld Testing and Inspection: CONTRACTOR’s Testing Agency shall perform field testing and inspection services for welding work related to pile field welding. 2. 2. Such record will include the following data as a minimum: 1. 11. make. 4. 8. Reference Section 01 40 00 “Quality Requirements” for additional and related provisions. compiled and attested to by a qualified professional engineer. rated energy. Notify ENGINEER at least 72 hours prior to driving of test piles. Determination of actual length of piles will be based on results of dynamic pile tests. 4. The ENGINEER will be present during each pile driving test unless otherwise approved. Type. Conduct testing of Piles in accordance with the requirements of Section 31 62 01. “Pile Testing”.5m (60 inches). A sample form for such use is attached at end of Section 31 62 01.1 inch) immediately after driving Final tip and cutoff elevations of piles after driving pile group. location in pile group and designation of pile group.

Actual stroke and blow rate of hammer. Pre-boring. Do not cut off piles until the ENGINEER has determined that no further redriving is required.5 Technical After all piles have been installed at proposed location(s). number of blows for every 300mm (12 inches) of penetration. jetting. including all information required for redesign. Corrections of Deficiencies 1. Re-drive all piles that the ENGINEER and/or ENGINEER determine have heaved or uplifted 6mm (¼ inch) or greater from their original tip elevations as directed by the ENGINEER. pile-driving cap and type and dimension of hammer cushion (capblock) and pile cushion used including cushion material and thickness. a. blows per 25mm(1 inch) where driving resistance exceeds 75 blows per 300mm (1 foot) . b. 2. 16. c. 23. 17. Redrive until both the original tip elevation and the driving resistance commensurate with pile capacities shown on the Contract Drawings have been obtained. in writing. Equipment for redriving shall be as specified for original driving except that use of a free hanging hammer will be permitted. If it is determined that a pile does not meet the requirement of this Section. perform all remedial work associated with the deficient pile. 2. For vibratory hammers. 3. For impact hammers. 18. 20. Type of driving helmet. interrupted resumed and stopped Verification of Pile Layout and Elevations 1. 21. Such written notification shall include all information required for the evaluation of remedial measures. and reason for interruptions. FIELD QUALITY CONTROL A. Page 20 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . Submit record survey drawings to show verification of pile layout and pile elevations. or special procedures used. including changes to concrete and reinforcement steel in the pile cap or driving and spudding any natural or manmade object or obstruction which does not permit the pile to be advanced with the approved pile driving hammer. of the failure of a pile to meet any requirements of this Section. Unusual occurrences during pile driving affecting the driving of the particular pile. pile-tip elevation. For impact hammers blows per 12mm (½ inch) of re-drive. 19. subsequently. except that if original tip elevation cannot be reached. D. Time.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification 15. the CONTRACTOR's Surveyor shall take and record optical survey measurements to establish the elevation of the top of each pile immediately after driving (or redriving) and. the time for each ½ inch of redrive Slope or batter of pile. after driving adjacent piles. and total driving time. driving may be discontinued at a resistance of 7 blows per 6mm (¼ inch). d. 24. Pile-driving start and finish times. 22. deviations from location and plumb or batter. The time pile driving is started. Redrive piles at such times as approved by the ENGINEER. and number of blows per 25mm (1 inch) for the last 150mm (6 inches) of driving. Notify the ENGINEER immediately.

If a pile fails to comply with the alignment or location requirements of this Section. Such abandonment shall be for the CONTRACTOR’s convenience and subject to all applicable provisions of the Contract. If the calculation indicates that the loading on that pile exceeds 110% of the design load. 7. Unless they will interfere with new construction. at his option and at any time that he determines that a pile will not satisfy the requirements of this Section for any reason including encountering an underground obstruction. in exercising this option. If a pile fails to comply with any other requirement of this Section and the ENGINEER determines that modification to concrete or reinforcement steel. may. Page 21 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES . “as-driven” alignment and location. Abandoned piles that interfere with new construction shall be removed unless otherwise approved by the ENGINEER. as determined in the sole judgment of the ENGINEER. furnishing and driving additional piles at locations approved by the ENGINEER and modifying concrete or reinforcement steel. abandon such pile and replace it with a new pile or piles rather than await direction or approval from the ENGINEER. The CONTRACTOR. However. If the calculation indicates that the loading on the pile exceeds some reduced allowable loading less than the design load. including but not limited to redriving piles. 6. including but not limited to redriving piles. abandoned piles shall be removed or cut off at the mudline as directed by the ENGINEER.6 Technical 3. the CONTRACTOR’s Engineer shall calculate the load capacity requirements of that pile. 4. including a zero loading. the CONTRACTOR’s Engineer shall calculate and submit to the ENGINEER for approval. DISPOSAL A. then the CONTRACTOR shall perform such remedial work as the ENGINEER in his sole discretion may approve. the CONTRACTOR. or the driving of additional piles is necessary. the CONTRACTOR’s Engineer shall perform all required redesign and detailing and submit to the ENGINEER for approval.Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification 3. the load capacity requirements of that pile based on the actual. 5. then the CONTRACTOR shall perform such remedial work as the ENGINEER may approve. subject to the notification provisions hereinbefore. In the case of a pile with some deficiency that affects load capacity. based on its actual a “as driven” location and alignment. furnishing and driving additional piles at locations approved by the ENGINEER and modifying concrete or reinforcement steel in piles and/or the pile cap and superstructure. Remove withdrawn piles and cutoff sections of piles from site and legally dispose of them off property. assumes the risk that such replacement pile or piles have not been installed at the proper design location and alignment so as to carry satisfactorily the design load as determined by subsequent analysis performed by the ENGINEER.

Proposed Foundation for Toyota Marikina Specification Technical ** END OF SECTION ** Page 22 of 22 PRESTRESSED DRIVEN PILES .