CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY

Biology - the study of living organism
CHARACTERISTICS COMMON TO ALL LIVING ORGANISMS
 Composed of cells (prokaryotic & eukaryotic)

Organized (Organization of Life)
o Atoms - The smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist alone or in
combination.
o Molecules - A small unit of matter /two or more atoms held by covalent bond
o Macromolecules
o Organelles
o Cells - Smallest unit of life / the fundamental unit of living things.
o Tissues - A group of cells with similar function. (Areolar tissue)
o Organs - A group of tissues with overall function (heart)
o Organ systems - A group of cell, tissues and organs that perform a specific major
function
o Individual/Complex organism - The total interaction of the organ systems
o Population – Group of similar individual who tend to mate with each other in a
limited geographic area
o Community - the relationships of smaller groups of organisms with each other
and their environment.
o Ecosystem – community and environment
o Biosphere – everything in this earth

Require nutrients and energy
o Nothing lives without energy
o Energy - Capacity to do work
o Metabolism - Reactions by which cells acquire and use energy to grow, survive,
and reproduce

Respond to the environment
o Organisms sense changes in their environment and make responses to them
o Receptors detect specific forms of energy (stimuli)
o Allows maintenance of homeostasis (state of balance)

Contain DNA
o The genetic instructions of all living organisms is contained in molecules of
deoxyribonucleic acid.
o Only cells can build/make the biomolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, protein,
nucleic acid)
o Capacity for life – DNA molecules
o Non-living things – no DNA molecules

Ability to reproduce
o Asexual reproduction – production of clones

more offspring will have the better traits  Evolution  Genetically based change in a line of descent over time  The relative frequency of many shared traits typically change through successive generation  Population changes. they will have more offspring. they are not all identical.8 million different species of organisms have been identified. - The traits that vary are heritable.  Mutation  Evolutionary change has led to diversity among organisms. - The “better” individuals will have more success reproducing.  Genetic changes may result in changes in the physical or behavioral characteristics of the individuals. approximately 1.process offspring  Mechanism by which an organism produces offspring  Governed by instructions in DNA Ability to adapt (Venus flytrap / Chicken panting)  Evolution refers to changes in the genetic composition of a population. Natural selection occurs because - Individuals within a population vary. Biologists estimate that there are between 10 and 200 million species on earth. proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria increases . To date. - Some variants are “better” than others. not individuals      Antibiotic Resistance Powerful agent for selection Mutations for antibiotic resistance exist or arise . In successive generations. o Sexual reproduction – genetic variation o Reproduction .mutation Antibiotic-resistant bacteria survive and reproduce better than nonresistant Over time.  Natural Selection  Operates to produce individuals that are better adapted to their environment.

No representative sample skews results . Observing and asking questions Forming hypothesis – intelligent guess Conducting controlled experiments Collecting and analyzing data Drawing conclusions of Experiments Used to study a phenomenon under known conditions Allows you to predict what will happen if a hypothesis is not wrong Can never prove a hypothesis 100% correct Experimental Design  Control group .A standard for comparison .Identical to experimental group except for variable being studied  Sampling error .Minimize by using large samples .     Role    Scientific Method – way of gaining information about the world by forming possible solutions to questions followed by rigorous testing to determine if the proposed solutions are valid.

Scientific Names (by Carolus Linnaeus) . Botany – the scientific study of plants 2. Physics 3. or philosophical standards  Conflict with supernatural beliefs 8. Paleozoology – the study of animal fossils k. Genetics – the study of genes. Zoology – deals with the study of all aspects of animal life. Mathematics 2.study of interrelationships of organisms in the habitat.Classification scheme . (mix anatomy and histology) j. e. genera)  Homo sapiens . aesthetic. Conchology – study of shells OTHER SCIENCES LINKED TO BIOLOGY 1. Physiology – the study of how body parts function and how they work. Chemistry 5. Evolution – the study of change undergone by species through the ages. 9. f. 11. Geology 6. OTHER SPECIALIZED SCIENCES Taxonomy – naming. Carcinology – study of crabs 4. Gross Anatomy – it is a study of microscopic structure of tissues and organs. Anthropology – study of man 3. Limits of Science  Scientific approach cannot provide answers to subjective questions  Cannot provide moral. c. Review: Diversity of Life  Millions of living species  Millions more now extinct  Classification schemes attempt to organize diversity 10. i. Histology – study of tissues. *Some variations: 1. Embryology -it is the study of the formation and development of an individual from gametes to an organism d. a. 7. describing. Astronomy 4. Morphology – study on form and structure of organism g. Cytology – study of cells h. Anatomy -the study of body parts and their location b. heredity and variation.Scientific Theory  A hypothesis that has been tested for its predictive power many times and has not yet been found incorrect  Has wide-ranging explanatory power  Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection FIELDS OF BIOLOGY 2 Major Divisions 1. classifying living organism.Two-part name  First name is genus (plural. Ecology. Apiculture – study of bees 2.genus is Homo .

 Second name is species within genus 12. Archaebacteria (Archaea) 3. Biologist group species that are related by descent from a common ancestor 1.decreasing pH level . 13. Eukaryota (Eukaryotes)  Extremophiles – loving bacteria  Alkalmophile – increasing pH level  Termophiles – heat loving (volcano)  Mesophile – pH level = 7  Cryophiles – cold loving (pole)  Halophile (salt)  Acidophile . 3 DOMAINS (highest taxonomic rank of organisms) 14. Eubacteria (Bacteria) – true bacteria 2.

Richard Owen.  Regnum Animale (Animal Kingdom)  Regnum Vegetabile (Plant kingdom)  In 1674.Established by Carolus Linnaeus (1778)  . the original category of plants has been split into Plantae and Fungi. John Hogg and Ernst Haeckel proposed the 3rd kingdom  Kingdom Protista.Invented the simple microscope and observed the single celled organisms. and single-celled organisms have been introduced and split into Bacteria.  .Carl Woese divided the prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera) into two groups.  .  ..1866.or multi-celled Nucleus and other organelles Larger. stressing that there was as much genetic difference between these two groups as between either of them and all eukaryotes.  .The “father of microscopy”  ...increasing emphasis on molecular level comparisons of genes. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek  . called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. Archaea and Protista.             Prokaryotic Organisms Single cells No nucleus or organelles Smaller. Animalia & Plantae   1970 onwards..   6 KINGDOMS  The six-kingdom system is still recognizably an expansion of the original two-kingdom system: Animalia remains. less complex Eukaryotic Organisms Single.. more complex The Living Kingdoms Kingdoms are divisions of living nature categorizing living things to express their line or phylogeny  When these kingdoms of life established?   In the beginning.He pioneered the biological nomenclature. two (2) kingdoms  .