The Institution of Khilafah : Should the Institution be rest to the Ulama or Professionals ? A Contemporary study.

-shahdhuanI hope this serves as a reading material and not as a reference for university subjects. All of the arguments connected and raised are based on my humble opinion and it is not complete as it only for the purpose of answering the assignment question. However, all of the references and footnotes are relevant and genuine. This work was done with best hope and proper research for a degree level. Best wishes.

INTRODUCTION Khilafah is a body responsible for implementation of the divine laws and the propagation of Islam. It is the common leadership of all Muslims. He or they shall be the man who will implement Shariah laws and convey dawa of Islam to the world. According to Quran and Sunnah, khilafah is unique. And also, he shall be the representative of Ummah. The Khilafah has already been practiced a long time ago after the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) era. There is group that holds the position of the Khilafah which is the Khulafah Rashideen. The group starts with Abu Bakar, then Umar, Usman and lastly Ali Bin Abi Talib. These are the companions that Prophet Muhammad loved most. They rule the Muslims for the period of 30 years after the death of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). In the past, to appoint someone to become a Khilafah, they will go through certain methods to become the Khilafah. For example like the Syura¶. The structures of the Khilafah started from the above, the Khilafah, i.e the head of State, the Khaleefah's delegated assistants (mo'aawin Tafweed), the Khaleefah¶s executing assistants (mo'aawen Tanfeez), the Ameer of Jihad, the Governors (Wulah), the Judges (qudah), state departments, and the state assembly (Majlis al-Ummah).1 This structure existed until the demolition by Kamal Ataturk on the 3rd of March 19242. After the era of Khilafah Rashideen, the Khilafah continue but they did not use the title of the Khilafah. This was narrated by at-Tirmizi on the authority of Safeenah who said that the Messenger (saw) said: ³The Khilafah in my Ummah after me will be for thirty years. Then there will be Mulkan µaduudan (hereditary rule) after that.´ This hadith does not meant that there were no more khilafah after the Khilafah Rashideen, but not compulsory for them to be called as the Khilafah. Function of the khilafah is to be the rulers of the Muslim and leader of the Ummah. In this world, there cannot be two khilafah and more than one state at a time. This is because, as a Khilafah, their duty is to annex all the other present day Muslim countries thus forming one state for all Muslims. Besides that, he who been appointed to become the leader of the Ummah, shall carry out the administration of their decisions. He must make sure to maintain their restrictive ordinances, guarding their


For further reference look Article 23 of Hizbut Tahrir Draft Constitution in the book The System of Islam (Nidham ul Islam) by Taqiuddin An-Nabahani 2 Look µHow Khilafah Was Destroyed¶ by Abdul Qadeem Zallum, Al-Khilafah Publication

frontiers, equipping their armies with weapons, and perform the worship on Fridays and the Festivals with the Muslims. The Institution of Khilafah consist various department and branch and also co-exist with the Syura Council. Therefore, to obtain definite answer whether Ulema team or Professionals should fill up the institution is difficult. Thus, for the purpose of this assignment most of the studies would be focus to the qualification and requirement of Khalifah (the highest leader of Islamic Polity). It is believed that the other leaders which are subordinate to the Khalifah should also possess the same requirement. However, Khalifah should be the best of them all, strictly best of the best.

CONDITIONS AND CRITERIAS OF CALIPH The criteria of Khalifah are listed and followed on suggestion made Hizbut Tahrir3 and Dr Khalid Ali Muhammad Al-Anbariy4. Their suggestion are based on authentic Hadith and similarly related by most prominent scholars of Islam. The default requirement that must be fulfilled by a candidate of Khalifah is Mukallaf (Muslim, sane and Baligh), a man, just or adil, not a slave, not disable or impaired are not to be discussed. We will only touch on relevance condition to determine whether Ulema or Professional should be the Khilafah. Quraiysh Lineage First and foremost Khalifah should be selected among the Quraish. Though this point essentially eliminates the issue whether it should be Ulama or Professional, or in simple word it doesn¶t matter if he is Ulema or Professional as long as they are Quraisyh, but still it is the criteria and a point that should be pondered. Why Quraisyh? What are their specialities? Is it part of professionalism or Theologian? This is an interesting view, Qurasyh before the coming of Rasulullah was the most ignorance people in their time. However, it is said and proven that they possessed wealth and high status in the pre-Islamic time. They are among leaders of other Arab tribe and most people in Arab Peninsular submit to their leadership5. Even though they are popular for their kabilah assabiyah, but still they have an organized system of management. If Persian Kisras were the King of all Asia, Quraisy are the King of all Arabs. The coming of Islam disposed their immoral value but retain their Arabic goodness. It is said that Quraisy in their Jahiliyyah period are the best in entertaining their visitors and guest, and this can be seen by most Arab nowadays.


Article 31 of Hizbut-Tahrir Draft Constituion available in µThe System Of Islam (Nizham-ul-Islam) by Taqiuddin An-Nabhani

µSistem Politik Islam : Menurut Al-Quran, Sunah dan Pendapat Ulama Salaf¶ by Khalid Al-Anbariy and translated into Malay language by Telaga Biru Sdn Bhd.

Especially during the time of Qusai bin Kilab source

To compare Arab (Bani Ismail) and Yahudi (Bani Yaqob or Isarel) either pre Islam or after the coming of messenger of Islam, Quraishi tend to show powerful management and leadership skill and loyalty. In Surah Al-Baqarah , it is told many times on how ignorant, arrogant and disobedient the bani Isarel to Moses. In fact they were sent many Messengers. To the fact that most Jewish are successful in worldly matters and it is widely spoken that they have the most organized occult structure should not be taken as a good management and leadership skill. It is only an act of greed and discrimination. Most views of Islamic scholars such as Mawardi, Khalid Al- Anbariy suggest that a Quraysh bloodline is a must for selecting Khalifah. This is narrated in Book of Leadership in Sahih Muslim and also in Sahih Bukhari6. But Hizbut Tahrir says that Quraysh is not wajib, it is just mandub. Syiah on the other hand specified that a Quraysh of Ahlul-Bayt should be it. Both Syiah and HT however received major critics by the rest of Islam community due to Syiah¶s fanatics on Ahlul Bayt and HT aggressiveness and intolerance of secularism and democracy politics. Proof Of Professionalism What can be derived from the Hadith of Rasulullah narrated by Muslim is that the term ³Quraysh´ extract the characteristic that possessed by them. These characteristics are relevant to this discussion whether Ulama¶or Professional suits the characteristic Concept of Wilayatul-Faqih by Imam Khomeini clearly said that it should be rested to Ulama¶ where in Syiah they use the term Imamah instead of Khalifah. However through Sunni view the revolution of Ayatollah to set up Republic in Iran is against the teaching of Prophet SAW. Back to basic, what is actually meant by Khalifah? Generally it is divided into two types, Khalifah Adamiyah and Khalifah Rasullah/ Nubuwwah. Khalifah Adamiyah occured when the father of human kind was brought onto earth. On the other hand the Khalifah Nubuwwah started after the demise of Prophet Muhammad SAW where it was replaced by four Khulafa ArRasyidin. Basically Khalifah Adamiyah bears the concept of vicegerent while Khalifah

³This caliphate should remain in Quraish as long as there are two people around´ narrated by Abdullah bin Umar

Nubuwwah bears the concept of successor ship. The Khalifah Nubuwwah used the Manhaj of Rasulullah in administrating the Islamic Polity. It was mention in authentic Hadith that Khalifah is the shadow of Allah on the earth surface7. While it was mention in another authentic Hadeeth that Ulema is the inheritor of Rasulullah. Caliph Abu Bakr, Umar Al-Khattab, Uthman bin Affan and Ali bin Abi Talib have the highest status of Wali Allah or Saint, proven to be blood related and kin to Rasulullah, they were Mujtaheed and were given Baiah or pledge by whole Muslims 8. The relevant issue is what is the Manhaj brought by Rasulullah and followed by His successors? To touch on the issue of Muawiyah Abi Sufyan, minor view argued that he was included under the tree of Khulafa Ar-Rasyidin9. However on my personal view, he was the beginning of an era of non Nubuwwah concept. The modern Khalifah should adapt his concept and follow his footstep. The concept that he brought was more to normal human kind with no special status like Rasulullah and the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. To make the opinion clearer, Muawiyah gain his Baiah through the psychology method, the political play of lobbying and warfare (µAlBidayah Wan Nihayah¶ by Ibn Khatir) while The Khulafa Ar-Rasyidin gain 100% pledge through successor ship and divine intervention10. What Muawiyah did was, what are the leaders of Muslim are currently doing in this new world political society. To summarize this portion of argument, the Caliph to be should follow the Sunnah of Rasulullah, The Khulafa Ar-Rasyidin and Caliph Muawiyah and perhaps Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz11. I would like to quote the Hadith by Imam Ahmad ³«then the Caliphate of nubuwwah method will return´. Besides Rasulullah as the Model of Human, the rest of the above mentioned people are the proof of Professionalism. The discussion does not stop here and it continues.


Look page # of µSistem Politik Islam : Menurut Al-Quran, Sunah dan Pendapat Ulama Salaf¶ by Khalid AlAnbariy and translated into Malay language by Telaga Biru Sdn Bhd.

Syah Waliyullah al-Dihlavi in Izalat al-Khafa an Khilafah al-Khulafa, Hafizi Book Depot, Deoband, India Saidina Mu`awiyah: Khalifah Rashid Yang Teraniya karangan Maulana Muhammad `Asri Yusuf Refer to headings of Economic Policy and Financial Proficiency




Mujtahid Another requirement that should be met by a person to become a Caliph is, he must have the status of Mujtahid, a person that can derive his opinion on Islamic legal and non legal decision. The people who second this opinion was Mawardi (during the reign of Abbasiyyah Caliphate, the rulers are mostly ignorant of Islamic responsibility), the high council of Parti Islam Semalaysia and Islamic Republic of Iran through their concept of Wilayatul Faqih ( Generally this view was supported by Ulema¶. Since Ulema are the person who qualified in Islamic Legal Matters and Studies. There are people who found that this requirement is unnecessary. Hizbut Tahrir argued that there are no specific provision in Al-Quran and As-Sunnah and they stated that Caliph can be advised by Ulama¶ and if we have look back on the structure of Khilafah Institution, there are Ulama¶ body to handle the system and they are acting as an advisor to the Caliph in the Syariah and Fiqh matters. It is the responsibility of Caliph to protect this body. Dr. MAZA the ex Mufti of Perlis also stands on the same ground. He claims that there are no specific provision in Al-Quran and As-Sunnah. Moreover the emergence of group of people who succeed in Professional field with the knowledge of Islamic has given the different perception to the necessity of Mujtahid requirement. They were called Erdogan in PAS (taken from name of Turkish Prime Minister) and Protaz (combination Professional and Ustaz). Traditionally people relied on Ulama to become a Caliph as the top Mujtahid. This is due to the failure of most leaders of Muslim country to uphold Islam genuinely, for example Egypt and other Middle East countries. But, Siyasah Syariah and Syariah consist of obvious different meaning. Siyasah Syariah talks about state administration, human management and politics, while Syariah talks only on Islamic Jurisdiction which is a small part in Islamic Polity. Therefore the outlook of Ulema to be the Caliph should be fade away. This is supported by the view of Hanafi Madhab together with Imam Syatibi and Al Imam Ghazali to say that the condition of Caliph as a Mujtahid is not wajib. It is sufficient that

the Caliph acquire administration knowledge and able to gain help from the Fiqh Ulema12. Imam Al-Syaukani speaking in obiter in the book µWablul Ghumam¶ that ³The Muslim Ummah is never in need of a leader who just sit in the Musolla holding his tasbih beads, prioritizing his book of knowledge, teaching his learned and loyal student, only knows how to write his book, stood away from bloodshed and disruption of public property, while at the same time, the Moslem were fighting each other, where the superior suppress the inferior. If these kinds of situation happen, there is no meaning of the administration and Sultanate, due to the loss of highest element which is justice. Unfortunately, this explanation can only be understood by certain people of knowledge´.


Look Bulghatus Salik; (2/330), Mugnil Muhtaj; (4/130) and al-Iktisam; (2/126).

Knowledgeable Responsible and Outstanding This condition is given by Ibn Jamaah in µTahrim Al-Ahkam¶13. A caliph must possess wide knowledge in order to differentiate between Hak and Batil, to administrate state affair, to provide ummah with complete needs and to dissolve disputes and fights. Below are certain areas where a leader generally and a caliph specifically, must be well verse with: Political Skill What is meant by this condition is a caliph should have variable skill of political art and play, able to manage the wishes of citizen, able to ascertain the matters of the state, able to execute and impose a policy on the state, and able to endure the burden of administration. Dr. Maza14 stated it is inappropriate to say that an individual who masters only one branch of it is qualified to rule a country whereas he does not possess any aptitude in politics. Al-Imam alMawardi in µAl-Ahkam Al-Sultaniyyah¶ himself stated that one of the seven prerequisites of a Caliphate is that he must have the kind of thinking capability that enables him to manage the country¶s political affair and protect the well-being of his people. Even if ³he´ is regarded as ulama but is lacking this aptitude (political skill), he is not qualified to rule a country. Military Affairs The Khaleefah is the State. He possesses all the powers/function of the state; so he possesses the following powers. The Khaleefah is responsible for both the internal and external policies of the State. He takes charge of the leadership of the army and has the right to declare war, conclude peace, armistice, and treaties. The Khaleefah appoints and dismisses the chief judge, the directors of departments, the heads of the armed forces and the generals; all of whom are responsible to the Khaleefah and not to the Majlis al-Ummah.15

³It is wajib to appoint a caliph that is responsible managing religious affair and managing daily life matters of the Moslem, preventing enemy¶s terror, helping to ease the burden on the inferior, putting something to its correct place, protecting the state¶s serenity and the safety of the citizen, preventing damages, because citizen is not secured their safety unless they are protected by a sultan of leader that arrange their daily matters. As what have been stressed by old saying; The tyrant of a leader for forty years is better than a year without him.´

Dr Mohd Asri Zainul Abiddin translation by Umm Hajjar

Article 35(b) and (e) of Hizbut-Tahrir Draft Constituion available in µThe System Of Islam (Nizham-ul-Islam) by Taqiuddin An-Nabhani



The Messenger of Allah (saw) stipulated that the ruler must be strong and that the weak person is not suitable to become ruler. Imam Muslim also narrated from Abu Dharr who said: ³I said: O Messenger of Allah, will you not appoint me as a governor/ruler? He said: He struck my shoulder with his hand then said: O Abu Dhari, you are weak and it is a trust (amanah). On the Day of Judgement it will be a disgrace and regret except for the one who took it by its right and fulfilled his duty in it.´

Method of Getting Baiah: By Force Based on outline given by Al-Allamah Al-Dasuqi in the book µHasyiah¶ outlay the methods: 1. Will from previous Caliph 2. By force or war. ³The conclusion here is whoever compels hardship to the citizen, and then he obtains administration and later maintains the reign on his hand, thus making him the Caliph that is wajib to be given a Baiah and loyalty. It is forbidden for the Moslem to sack the leader and to ignore his order even though he does not fulfill the condition of a Caliph.´ 3. Pledge from the members of Ahl Al-Hil Wa Al¶-Aqd. Imam Ahmad narrated the Athar from Ibn Umar r.a stated that ³I will pray behind person whom he gained power through force.´ Major Islamic Scholars agreed with this method, namely Imam Syafiee, Imam Ghazali, Ibn Hajar and etc. To relate this method into this discussion, speaking about this modern world, do we have a Caliph? The answer is absolutely in negative. So in the absence of Caliph, by way making the first method discarded. The possibility to determine the Ahl Al-Hil Wa Al¶ Aqd is way out of the context. As a result, the only way available is through hardship. There are relations between military affairs knowledge, strength and force method to this discussion since it is no doubt that this element is a must to Caliph. This is added by Dr. Khalid Al-Anbariy stating ³It must be also someone who is well experienced and have complete vision regarding military administration, warfare, and border defense, internal security, has authority to sentence punishment to those who are injustice and to capture balance

on the suppressed.´ The person nowadays having this knowledge in hands is a political leader of the modern state and the famous figure is the late Saddam Hussein, the Ex ± Iraqi President and the Libyan Leader Muammar Gadafi. They are not Ulema but they are the Military General and this is what the modern world called as Professional. Economic Policy and Financial Proficiency The Khaleefah adopts the Ahkam Shara¶iah by which the State's budget is set. The Khaleefah decides its sections and the funds required for every field, whether they are related to revenue or expenditure16. The reason why one of the conditions of the candidate of Caliph must be free from slavery is because they cannot run his own affair because he was under his master¶s sovereignty. In the modern perspective, slavery is not the issue, by the term free from slavery for modern perspective it doesn¶t mean that the person were under a master sovereignty. It is more to be look at that the person is free from a burden of debt. He must be able to have good reputation in handling their finance since the Khalifah will deal the financial affair of the state. The economic policy is the objective of the laws which deal with the management of human affairs. The economic policy in Islam is to secure the satisfaction of all basic needs for every individual completely, and to enable him to satisfy his luxuries as much as he can, as a person living in a particular society, which has a certain way of life. By following the example of Caliph Umar ibn Abdul Aziz17 who maintain zero poverty in his administration, it is preferable for a Caliph to have this proficiency.

Article 35(f) of Hizbut-Tahrir Draft Constitution available in µThe System Of Islam (Nizham-ul-Islam) by Taqiuddin An-Nabhani


Look in website



Ulema refer to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shariµa law. While the ulema are well versed in legal jurisprudence being Islamic lawyers, some of them also go on to specialize in other fields, such as philosophy, dialectical theology or Quranic hermeneutics or explanation. The fields studied, and the importance given them, will vary from tradition to tradition, or even from seminary to seminary. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith ( In the modern societies which have different kind of believers live in the state, the arguments of whether Ulama or the Professional which one is the best to become the leader of the state were always been arise. Ulama is also defined as a person who is have a good faith (iman) and believe in Allah and Prophet Muhammad, a person who good knowledge and a person who have the good characteristic (ahlak). The Ulama must have the full knowledge for determining. This opinion is based by suggestion of al-Imam al-Mawardi r.h. state that ³one of the prerequisites for a Caliphate is that he must possess the knowledge that enables him to make ijtihad (derive a rule of divine law from the Koran and Hadith without relying on the views of other scholars) in resolving issues and concluding rulings´.18 Professionals Professional can be defined as a person who has degree in a professional field. In other words, it is a person who has achieved an acclaimed level of proficiency in a calling or trade. They have been formally certified by a professional body of belonging to a specific profession. Normally, a professional refer to white collar working person or a person who performs in a field typically reserved for hobbyists or amateurs.


Dr Mohd Asri Zainul Abiddin translation by Umm Hajjar

Professional is different than ulama. Even though they do not possess any Islamic knowledge or lack of it, they still have other advantages. The fact that they are behind ulama in the field of Islamic knowledge does not stop them from being a leader of a country or Islamic institution. They still can learn from any of the ulama. If this does happen, the professionals can be consider as ustaz as well as long as them possessed the knowledge and able to deliver the understanding of Islamic religion to the Muslim community. Nowadays we can see mostly in Muslim countries, professionals are the one who hold the position of head of government. The nearest example we can see is in Malaysia where the prime minister is Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak who is a professional. There is no problem actually for the professionals to lead the country as long as they are capable to rule the country according to Islamic principles. There may be as situation where the professional as the leaders is lack of Islamic knowledge. If this situation happens, he can always refer to the ulama for a better guideline in order to solve the disputes. However it is important for the professionals to get their self straight. They must deal justly in governing the country. In the other hand, which is ulama who is known for their knowledge in the Islamic religion, they cannot able to rule the government successfully if they have no intention to place justness as its rightful position as commanded by the teachings of Islam. Other than that, the professionals also have the desire and the knowledge to govern the country. The kind of knowledge that we are talking in here is political knowledge which is the essential part in ruling the country. They can still be assisted by the ulama if they lack of knowledge in Islamic fields. Professional is more suitable in the modern era because the situation nowadays is different compared to Islamic politics long time ago. The concept of Islamic political today is much more broad and extensive. If we still stick on the old concepts of Islamic political, it will cause internal conflicts among Muslim community. After all, it doesn¶t matter whether professional or ulama are the leader as long as they have the knowledge and put their mind and heart in the big responsibility in ruling the country. Abdulwahab El-Affendi in his book µWho needs an Islamic State?¶ states:

³By positing an in-built tendency in governments towards tyranny, it was possible to devise governments which would not allow rulers enough freedom to turn into tyrants, a quite successful arrangement. Thus, although former US president Richard Nixon may have had the potential to be as tyrannical as Joseph Stalin, he was prevented from achieving this by a system which restricted his despotic tendencies. A major flaw, therefore, in the traditional Muslim perception of the Righteous Caliphate was the erroneous belief that the rules of government must be designed to fit rulers who were almost saints ± saints do not need the rules anyway´.


In nutshell, from the argument and facts given above, most of them indicate the act of Professionalism. Professionals are the most suitable for the post by reason that Caliph did not have to be a Mujtahid as long as he protect the body of Ulama¶. The most important thing is for them to acquire knowledge in state administration affairs. Moreover, the characteristic shown by the Quraish is more to the professionalism type rather than a theologian. They possess good leadership skills and structure management and most important they maintain their caliber and their aura. Despite the views of Hizbut Tahrir and Syiah regarding Quraish as not wajib for a Caliph which were received many critics, there are no concrete evidence that this condition is not obligatory. It is only non wajib to the rest of Khilafah though, besides the Caliph. However the point is the characteristics are similar to the qualities of a professional.

In modern world many people believe that the rise of Islamic Republic of Iran as the savior of Muslim world. The concept of µwilayatul faqih¶ which means that an Imamah should be headed by Ulema should be rejected. Muslim world should realize that their revolution is rejected and illegitimate according to true Islamic teachings. It indicates that Ulama is not really suitable to the nature of leadership.

Khalifah is the shadow of Allah on earth face while Ulama is the inheritor of Rasulullah. Khalifah in Arabic means successorship, supposing that Caliph is the continuer of Prophet SAW. By virtue of these authentic Hadiths, we should be able to differentiate between the term Khalifah and Ulama. Their standards are greatly different where Caliph is the ³big thing´ and Ulama is just the legal making body. This can be explained thorugh the concept of Siyasah Syariah that talks about state administration, human management and politics, and Syariah that talk only on Islamic Jurisdiction which is a small part in Islamic Polity. To the point of Caliph as the top Mujtahid is supported generally by Khalaf Ulama via reason that Ulama are the person who qualified in Islamic Legal Matters and Studies. By the opinion of Salaf Ulama, there are no specific provision in Al-Quran and As-Sunnah regading this condition. This makes way for the professionals to fill the Khilafah and it is sufficient that the

Caliph acquire administration knowledge and able to gain help from the Fiqh Ulema19. Additionally, the emergence of group of people who succeed in Professional field with the knowledge of Islamic which is called Protaz would be the best candidate of professional. The manhaj that is brought by Rasulullah is far greater than what has been assign to the Ulama. Prophet Muhammad SAW is the role model for human in all aspects. He is not the person µwho just sit in the Musolla holding his tasbih beads, priotizing his book of knowledge, teaching his learned and loyal student, only knows how to write his book¶. Caliph should be outstanding in the field of politics, military and finance. Muawiyah uses psychology method, the political play of lobbying and warfare in his administration. Saddam Hussein is not Ulema but he was the Military General and this is what the modern world called as Professional. Caliph Abdul Aziz has shown that Finance and Economic as the important part in protecting the Ummah. These examples weigh more to professionalism rather than theologian. For that reason, we favour Professionals to be the Caliph and the institution of Khilafah should be rested to the professionals. However I will let the readers to choose either Ulama with Political Skills or Professional with Islamic knowledge is the best of the best. The bottomline is not to judge on appearance, instead to put someone at an appropriate position20


Look Bulghatus Salik; (2/330), Mugnil Muhtaj; (4/130) and al-Iktisam; (2/126).

For example, Khalid Al-Walid was chosen to be the Amir of Jihad because of his prowess in battle despite his characteristic.


REFERENCES Website: How to Appoint a Khalifah page 15-19 Dr Muhammad Asri Zainul Abiddin Ustaz Hazizi: Books: The Translation of the Meanings of Summarized Sahih Muslim, Volume 2, by Al-Hafiz Zakiuddin Abdul-Azim Al-Mundhiri µSistem Politik Islam : Menurut Al-Quran, Sunah dan Pendapat Ulama Salaf¶ by Khalid AlAnbariy and translated into Malay language by Telaga Biru Sdn Bhd. The Ideal Muslim Society by Dr Muhammad Ali Hashimi, International Islamic Publishing House.

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