CBSE - Class 9 - CH2 - Is Matter Around Us Pure

Q1: On the basis of composition, how matter is classified?
Answer:

Pure Subtance

Mixture

Q2(NCERT): What is meant by a pure substance?
Answer: A sample of matter containing only one substance is called a pure substance. In other words all constituents of the substance are same in their chemical
nature.

Q3: What are the characteristics exhibited by a pure substance?
Answer:
1.

A pure substance contains only one kind of atoms or molecules.

2.

It is perfectly homogenous

3.

It has definite composition which does not vary with time.

4.

It has definite melting point, boiling point, density etc.

Q4: What are different categories of pure substance?
Answer:

Elements

Compounds

Q5: Name two properties of a substance to check its purity?
Answer: A pure substance has a fixed melting point or boiling point at constant pressure. The purity of a substance can be tested by checking its melting point or
boiling point. If a substance is impure i.e. it contains traces of another substance, the melting and boiling point of that substance will change.
Q6: Define mixture.
Answer: If two or more substances (elements or compounds) are mixed together in any proportion, do not undergo any chemical change but retain their properties,
the resulting substance is called mixture.
Q7: What are the kinds of mixture?
Answer:

Homogenous mixture

Hetrogenous mixture

Q8: What are the characteristics of mixture?
Answer:
1. Variable composition: The constituents of a mixture are present in any ratio. Example: A mixture of sand and salt can be in a ratio of 1:2 or 1:3 by weight.
2. Only Physical change: The mixture is a result of physical change. The constituents of a mixture do not bind each other by chemical bonds. Example: In air the
main constituents, i.e., oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, do not bind each other with chemical bonds.
3. No specific properties: The properties of a mixture are the average of the properties of its constituents. Example: The properties of air are average common
properties of nitrogen and oxygen.
4. Homogeneity: Most of the mixtures are heterogeneous, i.e., their constituents are not spread evenly throughout. However, some mixtures are homogeneous
i.e. constituents are uniformly spread out. Example: In the mixture of iron and sulphur, at some places iron is more and at some places sulphur is more.
5. Separation Methods: In general, the constituents of mixture can be separated by applying suitable physical methods. E.g. Iron can be separated from the

Q10: Identity which of the following is homogenous mixture or heterogeneous one. an alloy is considered as a mixture because it shows the properties of its constituents and can have variable composition. 4. alloys are examples of homogenous mixture. Q15: What is a compound? Give an example. 4.g. Rock. fine sand) in water i. But still. Non-metals. Dust in water Sand + Iron Fillings. water solution. Chalk in water f. Hydrogen in Palladium d. milk i. heat energy is neither absorbed nor evolved. Mercury in amalgamated Zinc Answer: Type of Mixture 1. no energy is released or absorbed during the formation of a mixture. All solutions are homogenous mixture. Water and Oil (N2 + O2 ) c. Air b. Constituents have uniform composition throughout the mixture. gas in gas. Q 9: List the points of differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. Particles may be visible to unaided eye. Mixture of Iron filling and Sulphur. Ethyl Alcohol in Water g. All suspensions are heterogeneous mixture. Constituents have non-uniform composition throughout mixture. Energy changes: In general. Solid in liquid Air Aerated water Hydrogen in palladium Ethyl alcohol + Water Mercury in amalgamated Zinc Sugar in water 7.) a. 6. Also identify the type of constituents in mixture (e. brass 5. 3. saturated sugar.g. 2. Q12: Alloys cannot be separated by physical means. Q14: How elements are further classified? Answer: Metals. Sand + iron fillings j. Liquid in solid Heterogeneous Mixture Water + Oil. 2. Why? Answer: Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of metals and cannot be separated into their components by physical methods.mixture of iron and sulphur with the help of a magnet. blood. silver is an element which is made up of only silver atoms. For example. Dust (e. Q13: What are elements? Answer: Elements are substances that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances. So an element is made up of only one kind of atoms. Sand + ammonium chloride h. though it is considered mixture. Heterogeneous Mixture 1. metalloids. Gas in gas 2. Particles Not visible to unaided eye. Gas in solid 4. Sand + ammonium chloride Q11: What are the constituents of brass? Answer: Brass is an alloy and is a mixture of Zinc(30%) and Copper (70%). Milk Chalk in water. Air.g. Solid in solid Alloys e. gas in liquid. Example: On mixing iron and sulphur. Gas in liquid 3. Aerated Water (CO2 + H2O) e. Alloys e. Answer: Homogenous Mixture 1.g. Eiements are the building blocks of all matter. . oil and water. 3. gas in solid etc. brass h. Liquid in liquid Homogenous Mixture 6.

Q17: What is a solution? What are the properties of a solution? Answer: A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called a solution. whereas the substance in which the solute is dissolved is called solvent. 3. A true solution is clear and transparent ( A few may be coloured one but clear.(dissolving. The particles of a solution are smaller than 1 nm in diameter. The components of a mixture can be separated The constituents of a compound cannot by simple physical means.g. they cannot be seen by naked eyes. A mixture has no definite melting or boiling points and density. The solute particles cannot be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration. which combine chemically in a fixed ratio of 1:8 by weight. Compounds It is made up of two or more elements that are chemically combined. So. Copper Sulphate solution) 4. Also mention the physical state of solute and solvent. 2. It is made up of two elements hydrogen and oxygen. 6. the solute and solvent molecules cannot be distinguished even under a microscope. . heating. they do not scatter a beam of light passing through the solution. Q19: Identify solute and solvent in the following solutions. A compound has definite melting and boiling points and density. It possesses properties entirely different from the properties of hydrogen and oxygen. a solution is stable. sugar is the solute and water is solvent. (a) Sugar in water (b) Urea in water (c) Ammonium chloride in water (d) Ethyl alcohol in water (e) Carbon Di-Oxide in water (soda water) Answer: Solvent Solution Sugar in water Urea in water Ammonium Chloride in water Ethyl Alcohol in water Carbon Di-Oxide in water Solute Name Physical State Name Water Liquid Water Liquid Sugar Urea Ammonium Chloride Ethyl Alcohol Carbon Di-Oxide Solid Solid Water Liquid Water Liquid Water Liquid Physical State Solid Liquid Gas Q20: What is meant by Solubility? Answer: The maximum amount of the solid that can be dissolved in a given amount of the solvent (water) is termed its solubility at that temperature. A solution is a homogeneous mixture i. 5. For example when sugar is dissolved in water to obtain sugar solution. Q18: What is meant by solute and solvent? Answer: A solution is obtained when a substance is dissolved in another substance. They are homogeneous and exhibit definite physical and chemical properties E. The properties of a compound are entirely different from those of its constituents. A mixture retains the properties of the components. be separated by physical means.g water is a compound.Answer: A Compound is u substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio by weight. 5. 2. 4. and some are homogeneous. A mixture is heterogeneous. The solute particles do not settle down when left undisturbed. The substance which is dissolved to obtain a solution is called solute. Properties of a solution 1.e. the path of light is not visible in a solution. Answer: Sno. that is. and filtration) A compound is always homogeneous. 1. magnetic separation. So. Q16: State the differences between compounds and mixtures. e. Because of very small particle size. 3. Mixtures It is made up of two or more pure substances that are mixed physically.

This is a physical process because no energy changes occur. 2. The components of air can be separated by a physical method such as fractional distillation of liquid air. e. forms a non-aqueous solution. sugar dissolves faster on stirring with a spoon. Then. why does excess of bubbles come out? Answer: A cola (or carbonated) beverage is produced by dissolving carbon dioxide in the drink solution under pressure. Q22: Why do fish go in deep waters during day light? Answer: During day time. For example. 3.  Pressure: It is applicable to gas-in-liquid solutions. (non-aqueous mean without water). aerated drinks contain carbon dioxide gas under pressure. and it comes out in as bubbles from the solution. if solute is dissolved in solvent like benzene. Therefore. For example. Air does not have a fixed composition. sugar solution i.g. Q30: What is an unsaturated solution? Answer: A solution in which some more solute can be dissolved at any fixed temperature is called an unsaturated solution. greater is the solubility. saline glucouse solution is given to patients suffering from dehydration.g. For example.g. alcohol. solubility decreases with increase in temperature. . In saturated solution. ether. reactant molecules must come close together. Liquid air does not have a definite boiling point. solute and solvent may be present in the form of ions or molecules or both. However for solutions of gases-in-water type. the shallow water is warmer and hence it has less dissolved oxygen. Q31(NCERT): What is saturated solution? Explain with an example. To carry out reactions. E. Q27: When we open the cap of a cola drink (or any carbonated beverage).Numerically. e. more carbon dioxide dissolves at the higher pressure. Therefore fish tend to go in deep water during day time. Answer: A solution in which no more solute can be dissolved at any fixed temperature is called a saturated solution.  Mechanical Stirring: Mechanical stirring increases solubility. In solutions. how solutions are classified? Answer:  Unsaturated solution  Saturated solution  Super saturated solution Q25: What are aqueous solutions? Answer: Solutions in which water is the solvent are called aqueous solutions. solubility increases with temperature. if 500 g of a solvent can dissolve a maximum of 150 g of a particular solute at 40°C. Solubility is the maximum weight of a solute that can be dissolved in 100g of a solvent at a given temperature and pressure.  Size of Solute Particles: Smaller the particle size of solute. it is the number of grams of a solute that dissolves in 100g of a solvent to form a saturated solution at a given temperature and pressure. For a reaction to take place. Answer: Air is a mixture for of the following reasons: 1. acetone etc. Q26: What are non-aqueous solutions? Answer: The solution obtained by dissolving solute in any liquid other than water is called non-aqueous solution.e. dissolved and undisolved solutes are in equilibrium with each other. e. Q29: What are the advantages of preparing solutions? Answer: In a solution. by removing the cap of the bottle. carbon disulphide. the solution obtained by dissolving 150 g of that solute in 500 g of that solvent at 300 K is said to be a saturated solution at 300 K. We can prepare air artificially by mixing the various components of air in the same proportions in which they occur at a place. 2. Q21: What factors affect the solubility of solvent and solute? Answer:  Temperature: For majority of solutions of solid-in-liquid and liquid-in-liquid types. An increase in pressure increases the solubility of a gas. When this pressure is suddenly released. Q23: Based on the type of solvent.g. how solutions are classified? Answer:  Aqueous solution  Non-aqueous solution Q24: Based on the amount of solute in the given solution. carbon dioxide is less soluble. sugar dissolved in water. Q28: Why air is a mixture not a compound? Give reasons. Any more solute added will settle down at the bottom of the container as a precipitate. As dissolving medium like medicines.g. Solutions are obtained for the following reasons: 1. reactions take place faster because reactants are in ionic or molecular form an dare close to each other. Its composition varies from place to place. e. Certain medicines can only be administered to patients in solution form only. 4. Increase in pressure increases the solubility of gases. it is easier to dissolve powdered sugar than granules of sugar.

Particles scatter a beam of light passing through it so path is visible. 2. The Tyndall effect is observed in this mixture. Particle Size: Colloid particle size lies between 1nm (10-9 m) to 100 nm (10-7 m) 3. Q35(NCERT): Explain with an example what is a colloid? Answer: A colloid is intermediate between suspension and solution. Answer: A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which very fine particles (about 10 -5m size) of solid are dispersed in any medium (liquid or gas). that is. Tyndall effect: Colloid exhibit Tyndall effect. When a light is passed through sol kept in dark room. the colloidal particles in a colloid are seen to be moving in a random fashion. blood. smoke coming out of a chimney.e. jelly. Particle Size: solute particles are of size of order 10-5 m ( larger than 100 nano-m) Visibility: The particles can be seen with unaided eye or under simple microscope. Separation by filtration: Larger particles of suspension can be filtered out from fluid medium. 5. the solute particles are visible to the naked eye. a colloid is quite stable. Stability: They do not settle down when left undisturbed. and remain suspended throughout the bulk of the medium. Appearance Solution Sol(Colloid) Suspension less than 1 nm 1 nm to 100 nm More than 100 n-m Transparent Translucent Opaque .Q32: What is supersaturated solution? Answer: Any solution containing more solute than required to prepare a saturated solution at any fixed temperature is called supersaturated solution. But. solution and suspension different from each other? Answer: Property 1. Electrophoresis: Man colloidal particles may have electrical charge (+ve or -ve) on them. 2. In suspension. Heterogeneous nature: Suspension is a cloudy heterogeneous mixture. it will remain in supersaturated state so long it is left undisturbed.g. Separation of colloidal particles by filtration: Colloidal particles cannot be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration. Heterogeneous nature: Colloid or Sol is heterogeneous in nature i. the path of light beam is visible. 4. chalk-water mixture. it can be seen only with a powerful microscope. 4. Q34: What are the properties of suspensions? Answer: Following are the properties or important features of suspensions: 1. cloud etc. Sedimentation: The larger particles have tendency to settle down while the very fine particles remain suspended in the medium. slight rise or fall of temperature) will turn it into a saturated solution. It is due to scattering of light by colloidal particles and this effect is called Tyndall effect. 3. Q38(NCERT/CBSE 2011): How are sol. fog. 6. The continuous medium in a sol is called the dispersion medium and the particles form the dispersed phase or colloidal particles. called Brownian motion. 7. Brownian Motion: When seen under microscope.e. coarse lime particles in water are examples of suspension. A Colloidal solution is also called a sol. 5. colloid particles move towards opposite charged electrodes. This process is called electrophoresis. Q33(NCERT): What are suspensions? Explain with an example. A homogenous-looking heterogeneous mixture in which particles have size between 1 nm to 100nm (1 nano-m = 10-9 m) and are dispersed in a continuous medium is called a colloid. A slight disturbance (e. Supersaturated solution is a meta-stable state i. Muddy pond water. toothpaste. Q36: What are the physical states of dispersed phase and dispersion medium of a cloud? Answer: Dispersed phase: Liquid Dispersion medium: Gas Q36: What are the physical states of dispersed phase and dispersion medium of a fog? Answer: Dispersed phase: Liquid (water droplets) Dispersion medium: Gas (air) Q37: What are the properties of a colloid? Answer: Properties of a colloid are: 1. When an electric current passes through a sol. Particle Size (1 nano-m = 10-9 m) 2. Examples of colloids are: milk. a special technique of separation known as centrifugation.

Percentage by volume 1. True solutions DO NOT show Tyndall effect. i. Particles Visibility 4.Property 3. Concentration of solution = Amount of solute/Amount of solution Q41: What are the various methods to express concentration of a solution? Answer: There are many ways to express strength of a solution. Scattering of light or Tyndall Effect is exhibited by Colloidal and Suspension particles. Percentage by mass 2.e.’’ "Explain how this occurs Answer: (a) The phenomenon by which colloidal particles scatter light is called Tyndall effect. The particles of a colloids scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible. . Scattering of Light Q39(CBSE Solution Not visible even under powerful microscope Homogeneous Sol(Colloid) Visible under powerful microscope Visible to the naked eye Heterogeneous diffuses rapidly diffuses slowly Heterogeneous diffusion does not occur It scatters light Does not scatter light It scatters light Suspension 2010): (a) What is Tyndall effect? Doe true solution exhibit Tyndall effect. Tyndall Effect (credits: wikipedia) (b) ‘‘Tyndall effect can be observed when sunlight passes through the canopy of dense forest. Diffusion of particles 6. Percentage by mass: It is defined as number of parts by mass of the solute dissolved per hundred parts by mass of the solution. i. the seattering of light by smoke or dust particles (colloid) produce a rich red sunset. Similarly.e. Nature 5. the colloidal misty air particles scatter the sunlight. Red Sunset (b) When sunlight passes through a canopy of forest. A fee are: 1. or we see a rich red sunset. Watch the following you tube video explaining about Tyndall effect: Q40: What do you mean by strength of the solution? Answer: The amount of solute dissolved in a unit quantity (mass or volume) of a solution is called the concentration or strength of the solution.

⇒ 25 = m × 100/200g ⇒ m = 25 × 200/100 = 50g ∴ mass of solute = 50g mass of solvent (water) = M . Answer: Given mass of solution(M) = 200g Concentration of solution = 25% Since. Magnetic Separation Method 4. While mass by volume percentage strength of a solution is temperature dependent. Percentage by volume: It is defined as the number of parts by volume of the solute dissolved in hundred parts by volume of the solution. 36 g of sodium chloride is dissolved in 100 g of water at 293K. Mass by Mass percentage of solution = mass of solute(m) × 100 / mass of solution(M). Answer: Concentration of a solution (mass %) = mass of solute × 100 / mass of solution.m = 200g . Find its concentration at this temperature.50g = 150g Q44: A solution contains 40 mL of ethyl alcohol mixed with 100mL of water.57% Q45: What are different ways to separate solid mixtures? Answers: 1. the strength of a solution can be expressed as Note Mass percentage concentration of solution is independent of temperature. Q42(NCERT): To make a saturated solution. for liquid in liquid solutions. Sublimation . since volume changes with temperature. What is the concentration of the solution in terms of volume by volume percentage? Answer: Volume of solute (ethyl alcohol) = 40mL Volume of solvent (water) = 100 mL Total volume of the solution = 40 + 100 = 140 mL Volume by Vol. mass of solute (NaCl) = 36g mass of solvent (Water) = 100g mass of solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent = 100 + 36 = 136g mass by % concentration = 36 × 100 / 136 = 26. Similarly. Hand Picking 2.47% Q43: Calculate the mass of glucouse and mass of water required to make 200g of 25% solution of glucouse. Sieving 3.2. Percentage = Volume of solute × 100 / volume of solution ⇒ v/v % = 40 × 100 /140 = 28.

Q49: (a) When it is useful to apply sedimentation and decantation? (b) Give an example where these methods are used? (c) Explain the process. 2. To obtain a pure sample of a substance. Answer: When the sizes of the components of a mixture are big enough. they can be separated with the help of sieve. particles of smaller size pass through the mesh while the bigger particles of the other component remain above the mesh.Sieve credits:wikipedia Q46: Describe sieving method. Q48: What are the reasons for separating the constituents of a mixture? Answer: 1. . To obtain useful constituent from a mixture. 3. sieving of sand at construction site etc. gram can be separated wheat. Q47: Winnowing works on what property? Answer: Winnowing is based on the property that grains are heavier than husk and hay. A sieve is a simple mechanical device in which a mesh is attached to a frame. E. To remove any harmful or undesirable constituent.g. When the mixture is placed on the mesh and is stirred.

g. (b) e. Examples are: . The settling down of heavier particles is called sedimentation. We can transfer the clear water in the upper layer (supernatent) carefully to another beaker without disturbing the solid partciles. rice grains being heavy settle down while the dust remains floating on the water. (c) The particles of sand particles settle down to the bottom of the beaker. When water is added. Sedimentation works on the property that heavy particles settle down due to gravity. Another example is to remove dust from rice. sand in muddy water can be separated using sedimentation and decantation technique. Answer: Centrifugation works on the principle that that the denser particles are forced to the bottom and the lighter particles stay at the top when spun rapidly. This is called decantation.Answer: (a) Sedimentation and Decantation are used to separate coarse particles of a solid which is insoluble in the liquid. Separating solid-liquid mixtures Q 50: What principle is applied in centrifugation? Give examples where this method is applied to separate mixtures.

Separating cream from milk (cream comes as top layer) 2. Q52(NCERT): Name the technique to separate (i) butter from curd (ii) salt from sea-water (iii) camphor from salt Answer: (i) butter from curd : centrifugation (ii) salt from sea-water: evaporation followed by crystallization. (g) Tea leaves from tea. then mix in water and evaporate the decanted solution Ammonium chloride sublimes. In some cases e. (e) Butter from curd. (b) Ammonium chloride from a mixture containing sodium chloride and ammonium chloride. it can be separated from the mixture of salt and sand by sublimation method. It is used to separate the coloured components (dyes) in black ink. Salt can be separated through the process of evaporation. (h) Iron pins from sand.g. sugar crystal cannot be obtained by simple evaporation technique because sugar gets charred on heating to dryness. Used in diagnostic laboratories for blood and urine tests.1. . 4. It works on the principle of adsorption. 3. (f) Oil from water. Used in washing machines to squeeze out water from wet clothes. When there is requirement to obtain solid without impurity. In such cases. then mix in water and evaporate the decanted solution Answer: (d) to heat the sample. (c) Small pieces of metal in the engine oil of a car. Used in preparing lactic cultures to prepare cheese (paneer) from milk in dairies. impure solids are obtained by evaporation and are further purified by crystallization. (iii) camphor from salt: sublimation Q53: What is Chromatography? Answer: Chromatography is a technique used to separate those solutes of a mixture which are soluble in the same solvent. Separating liquid-liquid mixtures Q56(NCERT): Which separation techniques will you apply for the separation of the following?(a) Sodium chloride from its solution in water. Q54: A good method to separate alum (phitkari) from impure samples is (a) Filtration (b) Sedimentaion (c) Crystallization (d) Sublimation Answer: (c) Crystallization Q55: A boy buys common salt from the market which is contaminated with Ammonium Chloride (NH 4Cl) and sand. e. Q51: How crystallization is better than evaporation? Answer: The process of evaporation gives residue which may contain impurities.g. (d) Different pigments from an extract of flower petals. salt obtained from sea is further purified by this method. crystallization technique is applied. The procedure he should adopt to obtain pure NaCl is the following : (a) to mix the sample in water and evaporate the solution (b) to mix the sample in water and evaporate the decanted solution (c) to mix the sample in acetone and evaporate the decanted solution (d) to heat the sample. In general practice. crystallization method is preferred. Sand can be separated from the mixture of sand and salt by dissolving salt in water and then by filtration.

(Chromatography) (e) Butter from curd. Neon. (Centrifugation) (f) Oil from water. Radon. nitrogen and oxygen. Identify what are mixtures and/or compounds before and after the reaction. nitric oxide. Helium. It will increase the rate of solubility.(Sedimentation →Loading →Filtration) (Note: for item 'j' Fine mud particles suspended in water. Answer: Before heating.alloy mixture Q64: Sasha heats a container carrying Nitrogen and Oxygen.) Q60: Name the elements are in liquid state at room temperature. Chlorine. Crushed cubes will have larger area of solute and solute size is smaller. (Separating Funnel) (g) Tea leaves from tea. (Evaporation) (b) Ammonium chloride from a mixture containing sodium chloride and ammonium chloride.e. (b) a liquid non-metal (c) a metal which can be cut with a knife (d) a non-metal which is good conductor of electricity. It cannot be obtained in other simple substances by its chemical decomposition. a new compound is formed i. (Winnowing) (j) Fine mud particles suspended in water. Answer: (a) Mercury (b) Bromine (c) Sodium (d) Graphite (e) Gallium and Cesium (f) Metals are the best conductors of heat. Q62: Who gave the first explanatory definition of 'element'? Answer: French scientist Lavoisier (1743-94).(Filtration) (d) Different pigments from an extract of flower petals. Argon. Fluorine.. it gives Nitric oxide. sugar cubes are dissolved into water while in beaker B. Answer: Mercury and bromine.compound (iii) sugar . Answer: (a) Sodium chloride from its solution in water. (i) blood (ii) common salt (iii) sugar (iv) brass Answer: (i) blood . Xenon. crushed cubes are taken.colloid (ii) common salt . the container has mixtures of nitrogen and oxygen. (j) Fine mud particles suspended in water. In which beaker the rate of dissolution is faster? Answer: Beaker B. "Element is the basic form of a substance or a basic unit of substance. (e) an element which melts when kept on the palm. Q59: How many elements are there which are in gaseous state at room temperature? Answer: Eleven(Hydrogen.(i) Wheat grains from husk. Q65: In beaker A. (f) the best conductor of heat. (Sublimation) (c) Small pieces of metal in the engine oil of a car.compound (iv) brass ." Q63: Identify the following as mixture or compound. Q61: Who used the term 'element' first time? Answer: Robert Boyle was the first scientist to use the term element in 1661. This type of zig-zag motion of colloidal particles is called Brownian movement. Krypton. Q66(CBSE 2010): (A) Identify solute and solvent in the following solutions : (i) aerated drinks (ii) tincture of iodine (iii) lemon water . (Magnetic Separation) (i) Wheat grains from husk. Answer: The colloidal particles move at random in a zigzag motion in all directions. After heating at very high temperature. After heating. (Filtration) (h) Iron pins from sand. Q58(CBSE 2010): Name the following : (a) a lustrous liquid metal. Refer to diagram 'Water purification system in water works' in NCERT book). Q57: Define Brownian movement in colloids. It is caused due to the collision of the colloidal particles with the molecules of the dispersion medium.

unsaturated or supersaturated. the solutes are soluble or insoluble. (Similarity) Both depends on temperature. (ii) separation using separating funnel. miscible or immiscible. It is expressed as grams/litre or moles/litre.g. Solubility is the ability of a solute to dissolve in a solvent at given temperature and pressure. e. benzene and water . (ii) Separation using separating funnel: Immiscible liquids separate out in layers depending on their densities. Solvent: Water (B) (i) Centrifugation Principle: The denser particles are forced to the bottom and the lighter particles stay at the top when spun rapidly. alcohol and water (ii) Liquids partially miscible: dissolve in each other to a limit. e. molarity etc. (i) centrifugation method.g. Therefore. Solvent=Water (ii) tincture of iodine: Solute= Iodine. Q68: What is an emulsion? Give examples Answer: Emulsion is a colloidal solution where both dispersed phase and dispersed medium are liquids. a solution can be saturated. Q67: Why solutions do not exhibit Tyndall effect? Answer: The solution particles are too small (< 1nm) to scatter the light. Answer: (A) (i) aerated drinks: Solute = Carbon Dioxide. 2. 3. Concentration is expressed as percent by weight or volume. face cream Q69: What are the differences and similarities between concentration and solubility? Answer: 1. Solvent = Alcohol (iii) lemon water: Solute: Sugar. true solution does not exhibit Tyndall effect. While solubility is the maximum amount of the solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of the solvent. ether and water (iii) Liquids practically immiscible: e. mole fraction. Concentration is amount of solute dissolved in a unit quantity (mass or volume) of a solution. 4. Based on concentration. Based on solubility.(B) State the principle of each of the following methods of separation of mixtures. Examples are: Milk. Citric Acid. Q70: Give examples of liquids that are (i) completely miscible (ii) partially miscible (iii) practically immiscible Answer: (i) Liquids completely miscible: mix in all proportions.g.