INDIAN DIARY INDUSTRY

Indian dairy Industry - a profile
Today, India is 'The Oyster' of the global dairy industry. It offers opportunities galore to
entrepreneurs worldwide, who wish to capitalize on one of the world's largest and fastest
growing markets for milk and milk products. A bagful of 'pearls' awaits the international dairy
processor in India. The Indian dairy industry is rapidly growing, trying to keep pace with the
galloping progress around the world. As he expands his overseas operations to India many
profitable options await him. He may transfer technology, sign joint ventures or use India as a
sourcing center for regional exports. The liberalization of the Indian economy beckons to MNC's
and foreign investors alike.
India’s dairy sector is expected to triple its production in the next 10 years in view of expanding
potential for export to Europe and the West. Moreover with WTO regulations expected to come
into force in coming years all the developed countries which are among big exporters today
would have to withdraw the support and subsidy to their domestic milk products sector. Also
India today is the lowest cost producer of per litre of milk in the world, at 27 cents, compared
with the U.S' 63 cents, and Japan’s $2.8 dollars. Also to take advantage of this lowest cost of
milk production and increasing production in the country multinational companies are planning
to expand their activities here. Some of these milk producers have already obtained quality
standard certificates from the authorities. This will help them in marketing their products in
foreign countries in processed form.
The urban market for milk products is expected to grow at an accelerated pace of around 33%
per annum to around Rs.43,500 crores by year 2005. This growth is going to come from the
greater emphasis on the processed foods sector and also by increase in the conversion of milk
into milk products. By 2005, the value of Indian dairy produce is expected to be Rs 10,00,000
million. Presently the market is valued at around Rs7,00,000mn

Background
India with 134mn cows and 125mn buffaloes, has the largest population of cattle in the world.
Total cattle population in the country as on October'00 stood at 313mn. More than fifty percent
of the buffaloes and twenty percent of the cattle in the world are found in India and most of these
are mulch cows and mulch buffaloes.
Indian dairy sector contributes the large share in agricultural gross domestic products. Presently
there are around 70,000 village dairy cooperatives across the country. The co-operative societies
are federated into 170 district milk producers unions, which is turn has 22-state cooperative dairy
federation. Milk production gives employment to more than 72mn dairy farmers. In terms of
total production, India is the leading producer of milk in the world followed by USA. The milk

production in 1999-00 is estimated at 78mn MT as compared to 74.5mn MT in the previous year.
This production is expected to increase to 81mn MT by 2000-01. Of this total produce of 78mn
cows' milk constitute 36mn MT while rest is from other cattle.
While world milk production declined by 2 per cent in the last three years, according to FAO
estimates, Indian production has increased by 4 per cent. The milk production in India accounts
for more than 13% of the total world output and 57% of total Asia's production. The top five
milk producing nations in the world are India ,USA, Russia, Germany and France.

Production of milk in India

1988-89

48.4

1989-90

51.4

1990-91

53.7

1991-92

56.3

1992-93

58.6

1993-94

61.2

1994-95

63.5

1995-96

65

1996-97

68.5

1997-98

70.8

1998-99

74.7

1999-00(E)

78.1

2000-01(T)

81.0

Operation Flood

The transition of the Indian milk industry from a situation of net import to that of surplus has
been led by the efforts of National Dairy Development Board's Operation Flood. programmed
under the aegis of the former Chairman of the board Dr. Kurien.
Launched in 1970, Operation Flood has led to the modernization of India's dairy sector and
created a strong network for procurement processing and distribution of milk by the co-operative
sector. Per capita availability of milk has increased from 132 gm per day in 1950 to over 220 gm
per day in 1998. The main thrust of Operation Flood was to organize dairy cooperatives in the
milk shed areas of the village, and to link them to the four Metro cities, which are the main
markets for milk. The efforts undertaken by NDDB have not only led to enhanced production,
improvement in methods of processing and development of a strong marketing network, but have
also led to the emergence of dairying as an important source of employment and income
generation in the rural areas. It has also led to an improvement in yields, longer lactation periods,
shorter calving intervals, etc through the use of modern breeding techniques. Establishment of
milk collection centers, and chilling centers has enhanced life of raw milk and enabled
minimization of wastage due to spoilage of milk. Operation Flood has been one of the world's
largest dairy development programme and looking at the success achieved in India by adopting
the co-operative route, a few other countries have also replicated the model of India's White
Revolution.

Fresh Milk
Over 50% of the milk produced in India is buffalo milk, and 45% is cow milk. The buffalo milk
contribution to total milk produce is expected to be 54% in 2000. Buffalo milk has 3.6% protein,

7.4% fat, 5.5% milk sugar, 0.8% ash and 82.7% water whereas cow milk has 3.5% protein, 3.7%
fat, 4.9% milk sugar, 0.7% ash and 87% water. While presently (for the year 2000) the price of
Buffalo milk is ruling at $261-313 per MT that of cow is ruling at $170-267 per MT. Fresh
pasteurized milk is available in packaged form. However, a large part of milk consumed in India
is not pasteurized, and is sold in loose form by vendors. Sterilized milk is scarcely available in
India.
Packaged milk can be divided according to fat content as follows,
Whole (full cream) milk - 6% fat
Standardized (toned) milk - 4.5% fat
Doubled toned (low fat) milk - 3% fat
Another category of milk, which has a small market is flavored milk.

The Indian Market - A Pyramid
Milk has been an integral part of Indian food for centuries. The per capita availability of milk in
India has grown from 172 gm per person per day in 1972 to 182gm in 1992 and 203 gm in 199899.This is expected to increase to 212gms for 1999-00. However a large part of the population
cannot afford milk. At this per capita consumption it is below the world average of 285 gm and
even less than 220 gm recommended by the Nutritional Advisory Committee of the Indian
Council of Medical Research.
There are regional disparities in production and consumption also. The per capita availability in
the north is 278 gm, west 174 gm, south 148 gm and in the east only 93 gm per person per day.
This disparity is due to concentration of milk production in some pockets and high cost of
transportation. Also the output of milk in cereal growing areas is much higher than elsewhere
which can be attributed to abundant availability of fodder, crop residues, etc which have a high
food value for milch animals.
In India about 46 per cent of the total milk produced is consumed in liquid form and 47 per cent
is converted into traditional products like cottage butter, ghee, paneer, khoya, curd, malai, etc.
Only 7 per cent of the milk goes into the production of western products like milk powders,
processed butter and processed cheese. The remaining 54% is utilized for conversion to milk
products. Among the milk products manufactured by the organized sector some of the prominent
ones are ghee, butter, cheese, ice creams, milk powders, malted milk food, condensed milk
infants foods etc. Of these ghee alone accounts for 85%.
It is estimated that around 20% of the total milk produced in the country is consumed at
producer-household level and remaining is marketed through various cooperatives, private

dairies and vendors. Also of the total produce more than 50% is procured by cooperatives and
other private dairies.
While for cooperatives of the total milk procured 60% is consumed in fluid form and rest is used
for manufacturing processed value added dairy products; for private dairies only 45% is
marketed in fluid form and rest is processed into value added dairy products like ghee, makhan
etc.
Still, several consumers in urban areas prefer to buy loose milk from vendors due to the strong
perception that loose milk is fresh. Also, the current level of processing and packaging capacity
limits the availability of packaged milk.
The preferred dairy animal in India is buffalo unlike the majority of the world market, which is
dominated by cow milk. As high as 98% of milk is produced in rural India, which caters to 72%
of the total population, whereas the urban sector with 28% population consumes 56% of total
milk produced. Even in urban India, as high as 83% of the consumed milk comes from the
unorganized traditional sector.
Presently only 12% of the milk market is represented by packaged and branded pasteurized milk,
valued at about Rs. 8,000 crores. Quality of milk sold by unorganized sector however is
inconsistent and so is the price across the season in local areas. Also these vendors add water and
caustic soda, which makes the milk unhygienic.

Growing Volumes
The effective milk market is largely confined to urban areas, inhabited by over 25 per cent of the
country's population. An estimated 50 per cent of the total milk produced is consumed here. By
the end of the twentieth century, the urban population is expected to increase by more than 100
million to touch 364 million in 2000 a growth of about 40 per cent. The expected rise in urban
population would be a boon to Indian dairying. Presently, the organized sector both cooperative
and private and the traditional sector cater to this market.
The consumer access has become easier with the information revolution. The number of
households with TV has increased from 23 million in 1989 to 45 million in 1995. About 34 per
cent of these households in urban India have access to satellite television channel.

Potential for further growth
Of the three A's of marketing - availability, acceptability and affordability, Indian dairying is
already endowed with the first two. People in India love to drink milk. Hence no efforts are
needed to make it acceptable. Its availability is not a limitation either, because of the ample scope
for increasing milk production, given the prevailing low yields from dairy cattle. It leaves the
third vital marketing factor affordability. How to make milk affordable for the large majority

the glass bottle for retailing milk has given way to single-use sachets which are more economical. we pack perfume. Penetration of cheese is almost nil in rural areas and negligible in the urban areas. All India penetration of butter/ margarine is only 4%. would have a place in the sun of prosperity for many decades to come. where penetration is higher at 9%. in the market. cheese.with limited purchasing power? That is essence of the challenge.6 million tones which is twice the total production of the past 15 years! Penetration of milk products Western table spreads such as butter. product mix expansion to include UHT milk. India. The one index to the statement is the fact that the projected total milk output over the next 15 years (1995-2010) would exceed 1457. The lower penetration is due to peculiar food habits. Already. The use of these products in the large metros is higher. regular and premium brands.4kg pa as compared to over 20kg in USA. with penetration at 15%. In rural areas. The changing marketing trends will see the shift from generic products to the packaged quasi. The brand image can do wonders to a product's marketing as is evident from the words of Perfume Princess Coco Channel: In the factory. margarine and jams are not very popular in India. The national brands will gradually edge out the regional brands or reduce their presence. butter/ margarine have penetrated in 2. ice creams and spreads.1% of households only. we sell hope! Emerging Dairy Markets  Food service institutional market: It is growing at double the rate of consumer market  Defense market: An important growing market for quality products at reasonable prices  Ingredients market: A boom is forecast in the market of dairy products used as raw material in pharmaceutical and allied industries  Parlor market: The increasing away-from-home consumption trend opens new vistas for ready-to-serve dairy products which would ride piggyback on the fast food revolution sweeping the urban India. This is also largely represented by urban areas. Per capita consumption even among the cheese-consuming households is a poor 2. relatively expensive . One practical way is to pack milk in small quantities of 250 ml or less in polythene sachets. Another viable alternative is to sell small quantities of milk powder in mini-sachets. adequate for two cups of tea or coffee Marketing Strategy for 2000 AD Two key elements of marketing strategy for 2000 AD are: Focus on strong brands and. with her sizable dairy industry growing rapidly and on the path of modernization.

Loose milk has a larger market in India as it is perceived to be fresh by most consumers. i. Similarly. The milk surplus states in India are Uttar Pradesh. it is relatively higher in medium sized towns at 8. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Market Size And Growth Market size for milk (sold in loose/ packaged form) is estimated to be 36mn MT valued at Rs470bn. penetration of ghee is highest in medium sized towns at 37. Within urban areas. Maharashtra. The manufacturing of milk products is concentrated in these milk surplus States. The penetration is higher at 8. North accounts for 57% of ghee consumption and West for 23%. The market is currently growing at round 4% pa in volume terms.2% compared to 31. The relative share of branded products in this category is very low at around 1-2%. Butter. Punjab. Major Players The packaged milk segment is dominated by the dairy cooperatives. Since the early 70's.25 lakh MT in 1999. Andhra Pradesh. In relative terms. condensed milk & cheese stood at 3. Gujarat. About 75% of milk is consumed at the household level which is not a part of commercial dairy industry.3% in all rural areas. The top 6 states viz. Haryana. Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) is the largest player. margarine and cheese products are mainly manufactured by organized sector.7% in a large metros. malted food.5% in rural areas. Punjab. Uttar Pradesh. penetration of ghee is significantly higher in North and West.7% in all urban areas and 21. which are milk surplus regions. Milk production grew by a mere 1% pa between 1947 and 1970. whereas that of malted food is at 65000 MT.products and also non-availability in many parts of the country. The production of milk products.1%. Tamil Nadu and Gujarat together account for 58% of national production. Madhya Pradesh. milk products including infant milk food. All other local dairy cooperatives have . South & East together account for the balance 20%.e. it poses a higher risk of adulteration and contamination.5% compared to 7. under Operation Flood. Rajasthan. Milk powder and condensed milk have not been able to garner any significant consumer acceptance in India as indicated by a very low 4. Production of milk powder including infant milk-food has risen to 2.7% penetration. Rajasthan.1% in urban areas and lower at 3.07 lakh MT in 1999. Cheese and condensed milk production stands at 5000 and 11000 MT respectively in the same year. production growth increased significantly averaging over 5% pa. The all India penetration of ghee is 24. A large part of ghee is made at home and by small/ cottage industry from milk. In reality however.

Also. Aavin in Tamil Nadu. Productivity : To have an exportable surplus in the long-term and also to maintain cost competitiveness. Thailand. Tetra Packs were introduced in India. Hong Kong.g. Concerns in export competitiveness are Quality : Significant investment has to be made in milk procurement. all located close to India. besides reducing costs. once a leading player in the sector has turned bankrupt and is facing liquidation.their local brands (For e. chilling and refrigeration facilities. Dairy Specialties. Locational advantage : India is located amidst major milk deficit countries in Asia and Africa. Packaging Technology Milk was initially sold door-to-door by the local milkman. Other private players include J K Dairy. China. Punjab and Rajasthan sell milk in tetra packs. Due to low labour cost. Tamil Nadu. Malaysia. Singapore. Indiana Dairy. several developments in packaging media have taken place. . etc). Plastic pouches made transportation and storage very convenient. Gokul. Low Cost Of Production : Milk production is scale insensitive and labour intensive. it was sold in glass bottles sealed with foil. However tetra packed milk is costlier by Rs5-7 compared to plastic pouches. When the dairy co-operatives initially started marketing branded milk. Over the years. plastic pouches replaced the bottles. it is imperative to improve productivity of Indian cattle. board and plastic. Tetra Packs are aseptic laminate packs made of aluminum. In the early 80's. that too only if refrigerated. Oman and other gulf countries. The UHT milk market is expected to grow at a rate of more than 10-12% in coming years. Verka in Punjab. equipments. training has to be imparted to improve the quality to bring it up to international standards. cost of production of milk is significantly lower in India. Vijaya in Andhra Pradesh. UAE. Amul too re-launched its Amul Taaza brand of UHT milk. Most of the dairy co-operatives in Andhra Pradesh. Warana in Maharashtra. Milk packed in plastic pouches/bottles have a shelf life of just 1-2 days . Philippines. paper. Major importers of milk and milk products are Bangladesh. Milk stored in tetra packs and treated under Ultra High Temperature (UHT) technique can be stored for four months without refrigeration. Amrut Industries. Japan. etc. In 1996. Saras in Rajasthan. In 1999-00 Nestle launched its UHT milk. Heritage Foods. Export Potential India has the potential to become one of the leading players in milk and milk product exports.

Rs.22 0.10 2.342 Ghee/Butter/Butter oil 7.62 3.01 6.22 Whey 78.97 19.20 2.638.02 Milk cream 332.75 11.084 - - Sweetened condensed milk 41.38.013 - - - - (b) Processed 5.46 3.08 2.97 60.35. rasgolas and other ethnic sweets to the large number of Indians scattered all over the world India's exports of milk products Description (Quantity.27 11.375 22. paneer.04 1.32 282. M T.50 1.19 .73 2.895.1 0.08 431.00 0.019 111.23 28.64 5.There is a vast market for the export of traditional milk products such as ghee.67 1.10 0. million) 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Skimmed milk powder 4. shrikhand.95 Cheese (a) Fresh 0.37 4.375 Milk and Milk Food for babies 8.00 0.00 2.: Value.1 299.84 9.2 4.70 19.39 7.00 0.352.27 2.

78 0. Singapore. Malaysia.4 - 2.72.7 - 52. Indonesia.(c) Other 66. Dairy food processing holds immense potential for high returns.84 4.64 8. The basic infrastructural elements for a successful enterprise are in place. according to various studies on the subject. Growth prospects in the dairy food sector are termed healthy. the following list outlines a few promising opportunities: Biotechnology:  Dairy cattle breeding of the finest buffaloes and hybrid cows  Milk yield increase with recombinant somatotropin  Recombinant chymosin. along with an export potential in the Middle East.  Key elements of free market system  raw material (milk) availability  an established infrastructure of technology  supporting manpower An entrepreneur's participation is likely to provide attractive returns on the investment in a fast growing market such as India. Hong Kong and other countries in the region.6 What does the Indian Dairy Industry has to Offer to Foreign Investors? India is a land of opportunity for investors looking for new and expanding markets. acceptable to vegetarian consumers . Thailand. Among several areas of potential participation by NRIs and foreign investors.55.55 TOTAL - 8. Korea.35 36.69 24.

 Biopreservative ingredients based on dairy fermentation. This area includes grocery stores of European and North American quality. Nisin. flavor preparations. Such products can be manufactured in retail package sizes and could be produced from milk of sheep. Dairy/food processing equipment: Potential exists for manufacturing and marketing of cost competitive food processing machinery of world-class quality. lysine. The manufacturing may be carried out in contract plants in India. Burfi. Peda. pediococcin. Dairy cultures. Food packaging equipment: Opportunities lie in the manufacturing of both machinery and packaging materials that help develop brand loyalty and a clear edge in the marketing of dairy foods. citric acid. a world class cold chain would help in providing quality assurance to the consumers around the region. Feta cheese is used in significant tonnage. An option to market the products in collaboration with local establishments or entrepreneurs can also be explored. in Iran. acidophilin. etc.. Products exhibiting potential include typical indigenous dairy foods either not available in foreign countries or products whose authenticity may be questionable. Rasagollas. India's goat and sheep herds can be utilized for the manufacture of such authentic products.  Products typically foreign to India but indigenous to other countries could also be developed for export. Product development:  Dairy foods can be manufactured and packaged for export to countries where Indian food enjoys basic acceptance. Retailing: There is scope for standardizing and upgrading food retailing in major metropolitan cities to meet the shopping needs of a vast middle class. goats and camel. Gulab jamuns. Sheep milk is traditionally used for authentic Feta cheese. dairy biologics. bulgarican contained in dairy powders. . Distribution channels: For refrigerated and frozen food distribution. enzymes and coloring materials for food processing  Fermentation derived foods and industrial products alcohol. warehousing and distribution. and a host of other Indian sweets have good business prospects. viz. Accordingly. For example. probiotics. Certain products are characteristically produced from milk of a particular species.

These items are utilized as ingredients in foreign countries. for longer shelf life. entrees.milk and sugar boiled down till it thickens. The entrepreneurs need powerful tools to implement their plans. an opportunity should open up for food service and institutional markets. They impart flavor and may be blended with spices. Ghee .catering to the needs of workers at all levels of the dairy industry. Risk factors must be identified and managed by in-depth study of chosen areas Indian (traditional) Milk Products There are a large variety of traditional Indian milk products such as Makkhan -unsalted butter. whey. These markets can be expanded to include value-added ingredients like aseptically packaged cheese sauce and dehydrated cheese powders. and soups. or dicing line. . and aseptic packaged fluid products.Ingredient manufacture: Export markets for commodities like dry milk. In addition. sandwiches. With the globalization of food items. marketing and management topics can be offered to ensure that the manpower continues to acquire the latest know-how of their respective fields. Training centers for continuing education: NRIs could set up technology transfer and updating centers for conducting seminars and workshops . Cheese sauce is useful in kitchens for the preparation of omelet. modified food starch.a sweet mix of boiled milk. Potential areas for state-of-the-art contract-pack units may conceivably specialize in cheese slicing. Appropriate investment and involvement by NRIs can serve as a catalyst for India's dairy food industry leading to exploration of business potential in domestic and export trade. cheese sauce is used as a topping on potatoes and vegetables and may be incorporated in pasta dishes. vegetable oil. cheese packaging. crackers.butter oil prepared by heat clarification.  Cheese powders: Cheese powders are formulated for dusting or smearing of popular snacks like potato chips. ghee and certain cheese varieties are well established. Kheer . butter printing. Technology-driven manufacturing units: These plants would fulfill an essential need by providing a centralized and specialized facility for hire by the units which cannot justify capital investment but do need such services. Here technical. etc. colorings and spices may be added.  Cheese sauce: Canned cheese sauce is made from real cheese to which milk. sugar and rice. Basundi . condensed milk.

Rabri . mainly in Mumbai). which is currently marketed.sweetened cream. Lassi . main ghee brands are Sagar. MilkMan (Britannia).a type of curd. Khoa . With increasing urbanization and changing consumer preferences.curd mixed with water and sugar/ salt. There are several such small shops within the vicinity of residential areas. Channa/Paneer . These products are therefore manufactured and sold by local milk and sweet shops. There are several sweetmeat shops. there is possibility of large scale manufacture of indigenous milk products also. Everyday (Nestle) and Farm Fresh (Wockhardt). Dahi . Aarey (Mafco Ltd). GCMMF has also made a beginning in branding of other traditional milk products with the launch of packaged Paneer under the Amul brand. for a range of ethnic Indian sweets that are proposed to be launched The first new product Amul Mithaee Gulabjamun has already been launched in major Indian market Milk Powder . variety and convenience. Branding Of Traditional Milk Products Among the traditional milk products. Significant research work has been done on dairy equipments under the aegis of NDDB. It has also created a new umbrella brand "Amul Mithaee". Britannia has launched flavored milk in various flavors in tetra packs. Verka ( Punjab Dairy Cooperative). The equipments in milk manufacturing have versatility and can be adapted for several products. Rabri are perishable products with a shelf life of less than a day. Products like Dahi and sweets like Kheer. Consumers while purchasing dairy products look for freshness.evaporated milk. taste and freshness. Mafco Limited sells Lassi under the Aarey brand and flavoured milk under the Energee franchise (in the Western region. Amul (GCMMF). ghee is the only product. Vijaya (AP Dairy Development Cooperative Federation). taste and texture. used as a base to produce sweet meats. in branded form. quality. which have built a strong brand franchise. Consumer loyalty is built by consistent quality.milk mixed with lactic acid to coagulate. equipments used to manufacture yogurt also can be adapted for large scale production of Indian curd products (dahi and lassi). The market for indigenous based milk food products is difficult to estimate as most of these products are manufactured at home or in small cottage industries catering to local areas. For instance. and have several branches located in various parts of a city. Basundi.

For imports less than 10000 MT the basic customs duty has been left unchanged at 15%. In 2000-01 India is expected to export 10000 MT of skimmed milk powder due to rise in international prices to $2300 per MT from last year's levels of $1400 per MT. Condensed Milk The condensed milk market has grown from 9000 MT in 1998 to 11000 MT in 1999. Leading brands in the dairy whitener segment are Nestle's Everyday. Dairy whiteners are popular milk substitute for making tea. Nestle's Milkmaid is the leading brand with more than 55% market share. Skimmed milk powder is preferred by diet conscious consumers. this has led to large scale imports of milk powder both in whole and skimmed form. To protect the domestic sector from these subsidized imports the central government has recently increased the basic import duty on all imports of milk powder more than 10000 MT to 60% from 15%.000 tonnes of milk powder against a total estimated production of 2. The penetration of these products in milk abundant regions is driven by convenience and non perishable nature (longer shelf life) of the product. . GCMMF's Amulya. Dairy sector of advanced nations export milk products with a subsidy of $ 1000 per tonne with a level of subsidy more than 60 % of the price of milk powder produced in India. and also on tightening of supply in EU.Milk powder are mainly of 2 types  Whole milk powder  Skimmed milk powder Whole milk powder contains fat. Dalmia Industry's Sapan. Wockhardt's Farm Fresh and Britannia's MilkMan Dairy Whitener. as distinguished from skimmed milk powder. which accounts for 75% of the annual global Skimmed Milk Powder exports. East Asia and Latin America. The only other competitor is GCMMF's Amul. These expectations are based on the strong demand from Russia. Kwality Dairy India's KreamKountry. Condensed milk is a popular ingredient used in home-made sweets and cakes.40 Lakh MTs. Dairy whiteners contain more fat than skimmed milk powder but less compared to whole milk powder. Amul Full Cream milk powder is a whole milk powder brand. coffee etc. Major Players Milk Powder/Dairy Whiteners : Major skimmed milk brands are Sagar (GCMMF) and Nandini (Karnataka Milk Federation). which is produced by removing fat from milk solids. In 1999-00 India is estimated to have imported about 18.

The Haryana Dairy Development Co-operative Federation Ltd.i) Milk Producers . People rear and breed cattle as a subsidiary occupation. Thereafter its business was taken over by Haryana Dairy Development Cooperative Federation Limited to promote socio-economic interests of milk producers of Haryana State particularly belonging to economically weaker section thereof by purchase and processing milk into milk products and marketing through affiliated milk unions.Haryana Dairy Development Cooperation Federation Limited (VITA) Introduction Haryana is one of the most progressive states of Republic of India. technical. It is ensured that the milk is transported to chilling centres and plants in clean and sterilized milk cans as quickly as possible. Quality .1977. The essence of various programmes launched in the State has been to adopt the Anand pattern of Milk Co-operatives. It was established with the primary aim to promote economic interests of the milk producers of Haryana particularly those belonging to weaker sections of the village community by procuring and processing milk into milk products and marketing thereof by itself or through its unions. It has three tier system comprising milk Producers Societies at the village level. Well-equipped laboratories are functioning in the chilling centres and milk plants to maintain ideal quality standards.1977. Brief History The Haryana Dairy Development Corporation was formed in 1970 which continued active functioning till 31. Its authorized share capital is Rs. The economy of the state is predominantly based on agriculture.03. a commendation we are Proud of.4000 lacs. the Federation undertakes a number of activities such as establishment of milk plants. registered under Haryana Cooperative Societies Act came into existence on April 1.VITA the Hallmark of Quality As part of stringent quality measures. milk required for processing VITA products is procured from Dairy Cooperative Societies only. In furtherance of the above objects. VITA is the endorsement of quality. marketing and financial management as well as makes them quality conscious. through use of modern methods of laboratory testing of various products. marketing of VITA BRAND milk products of the Milk Unions. processing and marketing are controlled by the Milk Producers themselves. all the functions of dairying like milk procurement. Milk Producers Co-operative Union at the district level and the state Milk Federation as an apex body at the State level. In the domain of dairy development it is well known for its productive milch cattle particularly the 'Murrah' Buffaloes and Haryana Cows. It also extends technical guidance to the Unions in all spheres of personnel. Under this system. Dairy Cooperatives in Haryana works as per the following three tier system:. All quality measures as per Standard of Bureau of Indian Standards/Agmark are being applied before the products are marketed.

.  To purchase / erect buildings. to carry out the business and advise / assist the milk unions in such matters.Cooperative Societies at village level ii) Milk Unions at District level iii) State Dairy Federation at state level Objectives  A readymade market to milk producers at their doorstep  To give remunerative prices to the milk producers for milk.  To collect and transport milk efficiently to chilling centres / milk plants.  To process milk and convert the same into milk & milk products.  To procure milk by forming village level milk cooperative societies or through dairy farms.  To make good quality milk & milk products available to the consumers at reasonable price. plant & machinery etc.

Toned Milk. which are being manufactured and sold by 250 no. etc. Ice Cream. cattle feed.  To sell milk & milk products to public through milk booths . Kaju Pinni. of milk booth network. Namkeen lassi. mineral mixture & seeds etc. to village level milk cooperative societies for further sale to producer members. Since 1-4-92 the Federation has leased out the Plants to the Milk Unions. A range of Vita Products is including Pasteurized Full Cream Milk. Standard Milk. Defence Units. Milk Cake. Mithi lassi.  To provide training (by outsourcing) to staff & milk producers for business operation Marketing Network The Haryana Dairy Development Cooperative Federation Ltd. (HDDCF) is engaged in procurement and processing of milk and manufacturing of milk products under the famous market brand "Vita". Dahi. retailers & societies  To provide ghee. To arrange transportation of milk from village cooperative societies to bulk milk coolers / chilling centres and further to milk plants. Districts Jails & 354 no. of milk and milk products distributor. Sweetend Flavoured Milk. In future we are going to install more booths in Haryana/Chandigarh to provide good quality liquid milk & milk products to the general public. The society is managed by the producers themselves . Table Butter Paneer. Dairy Cooperatives in Haryana functioning on three tier system Societies at village level: Milk producers in a village join together to form village Dairy Cooperatives Societies. Double Toned Milk in pouches Ghee. So now Milk Unions process the milk and convert the same into products at Milk Plants taken on lease by them from Federation. Vita products are manufactured from milk procured from Village Level Dairy Cooperative Societies and processed at our own Milk Plants which are ISO and HACCP certified. Institutions.  To process milk at milk plant level and convert the same into milk products and arrange for the storage. Vita milk products are known for their quality and good taste not only in Haryana but entire Northern Region. Earlier Milk Unions were selling milk to the plants run by the Federation. Kheer. milk booths & retailers. The sale of Milk and Milk products is undertaken by milk unions through distributors. Functioning The village level societies collect milk from milk producers and sell it to Milk Union. Chhach. distributors.. The sale of Vita products also contributes to the economic upliftment and welfare of farmers of Haryana who provide us milk through the village level milk cooperative societies.

Paneer. Kaju Pinni Jaljeera. Ballabgarh Sirsa 1979-80 1996-97 6. Ghee. Ambala 1973-74 3.50 Lassi. Powder. Liquid Milk 0. 5. Plants No .JIND  MILK UNION BALLABGARH  MILK UNION ROHTAK  MILK UNION SIRSA. Ghee. Lassi. 1. Dahl.Dahi. Liquid Milk. there are six  MILK UNION AMBALA  MILK UNION KURUKSHETRA KARNAL  MILK UNION HISAR. Mango Drink. These are managed by the representatives of milk producers elected from amongst the chairman of Coop.Milk Unions at District level: The Milk Cooperative Societies of one or more district come together to form Milk Unions. 1. Lassi.. Jind 1970-71 2.Paneer .45 .20 1.25 Liquid Milk. Powder. Paneer. Milk Cake. Kurukshetr a 2013-2014 Total 6. Liquid Milk.10 Lassi. Kheer. Dahi. Ghee . 1. At present.40 Sterilized Flavored Milk. Dahi. Ghee.Table Butter. Dahi. Lassi 1. Kaju Pinni. Paneer.00 . Milk Plants Year of Products establishment Registere d Capacity (LLPD) Liquid Milk. Liquid Milk. 1. Ice Cream. Rohtak 1976-77 4. societies. Paneer. Ghee.

1978 01.Jind The Kurukshetra-Karnal Co-operative Milk Producer Union Ltd.Ballabgarh 5. Name of the Union 1. The Ambala District Co-operative Milk Producer Union Ltd. These societies also supply cattle feed etc. to their members with a view to enhaning milk production.Milk Unions DISTRICT MILK PRODUCERS CO-OPERATIVE UNIONS The Primary Milk Societies (PMS) functioning at the village level join to form a Milk Union for carrying out such activities which are conducive and essential for the socio-economic development of milk producers. Primary Milk Societies are organised at the rate of one society per village. GROWTH AT A GLANCE . The Board of Directors comprising 9 members elected out of the Chairmen of affiliated Primary Milk Societies run the day-to-day administration through Chief Executive Officer.01. No.07. These Unions either process milk at their own level or pass the same to the milk plants of other milk unions for processing. 6 Date of Registratio n 10.1973 01. and increasing quantity of milk production per buffalo or cow and to provide necessary guidance and assistance to its members and supply milk to the Milk Unions. by procuring and processing of milk and marketing of milk products.Rohtak The Hisar-Jind Co-operative Milk Producer Union Ltd.. The efficiency of the movement solely lies in the strength of these Societies.1991 10.Ambala The Rohtak District Co-operative Milk Producer Union Ltd.03.Kurukshetra The Sirsa District Co-operative Milk Producer Union.2003 Societies The Primary Milk Society is the foundation of the Cooperative structure. The Managing Committee of the Society comprises members elected by those members who are eligible to participate and vote in the General Body Meeting. 4.Sirsa The Ballabgarh Co-operative Milk Producer Union.1991 05.04.04. 3.. 2. They also organize new Primary Milk Societies at the village level..07.2003 10. A brief matrix of the Milk Unions is as follows: Sr. The purpose of such a society is to promote the economic interests of its members by improving quality.

Vita Milk Cake. Double Toned Milk. Vita Dahi. Vita Kaju Pinni. Vita Paneer. Vita Mithi Lassi.Functional Societies (Avg. 2710 2885 3166 3350 3906 4127 5028 5980 6167 5194 4728 4160 3395 3230 3239 3202 Vita Products                 VITA A2 DESI COW MILK.) Year 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 Nos. Vita Ghee. Toned Milk. Vita Lassi. Vita Namkeen Lassi. Vita Kheer. . Vita Butter. Standardized Milk. Vita Cow Milk Ghee. Full Cream Milk.

Motives should be distinguished from instincts. Vita Mast Mango. emotions and instincts.      Vita Elaichi Milk. Thus hunger is an instinct whereas desire to purchase pizza is a buying motive. which arouse in the buyers a desire to buy an article. A motive is simply a reason for carrying out a particular behaviour and not an automatic response to a stimulus. CUSTOMER MOTIVE Buying motive is the urge or motive to satisfy a desire or need that makes people buy goods or services. which are inborn in the individual and involuntary. D. According to Prof. Behind every purchase there is a buying motive. Vita Strawberry Milk. feelings. Vita Ice Cream. “Buying Motives are those influences or considerations which provide the impulse to buy. induce action and determine choice in the purchase of goods and services. Vita Ice Cream.” Buying motives are can be divided by the following way: . J. but s/he buys for the aroused desire in him or her. Vita Butter Scotch. whereas instincts are pre-programmed responses. It refers to the thoughts. A buyer does not buy because s/he has been persuaded by the salesman. Duncan.

colour. shape. Emulation or Imitation: . size. For instance. Emotional Product Buying Motive: When a buyer decides to purchase a product without thinking over the matter logically and carefully (i.e.. she is said to have been influenced by emotional product buying motives. A. of the product) or the psychological attraction of the product (i. viz. which prompt (i. Product buying motives may be sub-divided into two groups.e.Product Buying Motives: Product buying motives refer to those influences and reasons. many products are sold by the sellers by appealing to the pride prestige of the buyers. induce) a buyer to choose a particular product in preference to other products. they feel that the possession of the product increases their social prestige or status).e. desire to remove or reduce the danger or damage to life or body of the possessor. which induce a buyer to buy it in preference to other products. price etc. They include the physical attraction of the product (i. etc. the enhancement of the social prestige or status of the purchaser through its possession). Many buyers are proud of possessing some product (i. (1) Emotional product buying motives. dimension.e. In short. 2. Pride or Prestige: Pride is the most common and strongest emotional buying motive. they refer to all those characteristics of a product. Emotional product buying motives include the following: 1..e. diamond merchants sell their products by suggesting to the buyers that the possession of diamonds increases their prestige or social status. performance. (2) Rational product buying motives. without much reasoning).. the design. In fact. package.

etc.e. are bought by people because of their desire for comfort. a housewife may like to have a silk saree for the simple reason that all the neighbouring housewives have silk sarees. customers buy certain things. Men and women buy cosmetics. i. i. In fact.e. For instance.. musical instruments. For instance. Sex appeal or sexual attractions: Sex appeal is one of the important emotional buying motives of the buyers. comfortable living) is one of the important emotional buying motives. Desire for recreation or pleasure: Desire for recreation or pleasure is also one of the emotional buying motives. 6. For instance.. costly dresses. who do not have the facilities to pursue their college education through regular colleges. desire to be distinct from others. Buyers buy and use certain things. washing machines. etc.. is one of the important emotional buying motives. customers buy certain things. are bought by people because of their desire for recreation or pleasure. fans. For instance. sometimes. Ambition: Ambition is one of the emotional buying motives. cushion beds. 3. many products are bought comfort. pursue their education through correspondence courses. etc.e.. because they want to be in possession of things. which are not possessed by others. radios. 7. as they want to be attractive to the members of the opposite sex.Emulation. 4. Hunger and thirst: . because of this emotional motive. it is the ambition that makes many people. sex appeal. For instance. i. the desire to imitate others. Many goods are purchased by the buyers because of their affection or love for others. Desire for distinctiveness or individuality: Desire for distinctiveness. a husband may buy a costly silk saree for his wife or a father buy a costly watch for his son or daughter out of his affection and love.e.. Sometimes. Affection: Affection or love for others is one of the stronger emotional buying motives influencing the purchasing decisions of the buyers. Purchasing and wearing a particular type of dress by some people is because of their desire for distinctiveness or individuality. refrigerators. It is because of this buying motive that. Comfort or desire for comfort: Desire for comfort (i. Ambition refers to the desire to achieve a definite goal. 9. 8. is one of the important emotional buying motives. 5.

Habit: Habit is one of the emotional considerations influencing the purchasing decision of the customers. 4. Utility or versatility: . iron safes or safety lockers are bought by the people because they want to safeguard their cash. Many customers buy a particular thing because of habit. liquors.Hunger and thirst are also one of the important emotional buying motives. tonics. For instance. Foodstuffs. Economy: Economy. Relatively low price: Relatively low price is one of the rational buying motives. B. are bought by the people because of this motive. (i.e.. they want to safeguard their health and protect themselves against diseases. Suitability: Suitability of the products for the needs is one of the rational buying motives. is one of the important rational buying motives.e. goes in for a small dining table that is suitable. Similarly. 3. Rational product buying motives include the following: 1. medicines. saving in operating costs. because they are used to the consumption of the product). For instance. For instance. because of sheer habit. jewelries etc. 2. that fits in well in the small dining room.. Most of the buyers compare the prices of competing products and buy things. vitamin tablets. Rational Product Buying Motives: When a buyer decides to buy a certain thing after careful consideration (i. after thinking over the matter consciously and logically). i. etc. naturally. drinks. etc. 5. Intelligent buyers consider the suitability of the products before buying them.e. i. i. Safety or Security: Desire for safety or security is an important rational buying motive influencing many purchases. a buyer. Hero Honda bikes are preferred by the people because of the economy or saving in the operating cost.e. etc. are bought by the people because of this motive. which are relatively cheaper. 10. i. For instance.e. petrol costs.e. against theft. s/he is said to have been influenced by rational product buying motives. many people purchase cigarettes. who has a small dining room.

etc. which make a buyer. a) Emotional patronage buying motives and b) Rational patronage buying motives. 6. Convenience of the product: The convenience of the product (i. A. are bought by the people because of the convenience provided by them. People. 7. Many products are bought by the people only on the basis of their durability. that can be put to varied uses. Utility of the product is one of the important rational buying motives. often. For instance. patronise a particular shop in preference to other shops while buying a product. Emotional Patronage Buying Motives: . they are those considerations or reasons. gas stoves. which prompt a buyer to buy the product wanted by him from a particular shop in preference to other shops. Many products are bought by the people because they are more convenient to them. purchase things that have utility. Durability of the product: Durability of the product is one of the most important rational buying motives. buyers of wooden furniture go in for teak or rosewood table. Patronage Buying Motives: Patronage buying motives refer to those considerations or reasons. automatic watches. as they are more durable than ordinary wooden furniture. which makes it suitable for a variety of uses. For instance. the convenience the product offers to the buyers) is one of the important rational product buying motives. In other words. Patronage buying motives also may be sub-divided into two groups viz.Versatility or the utility of a product refers to that quality of the product. though they are costlier. i..e.e.

Prestige: Prestige is one of the emotional patronage buying motives of the buyers. he is said to have been influenced by emotional patronage buying motives. Display of goods in the shop: Attractive display of goods in the shop also makes the buyers patronise a particular shop. Some people purchase their requirements from a particular shop because that shop has been recommended to them by others. by their friends and relatives. Rational Patronage Buying Motives: . 4. i. Emotional patronage buying motives include the following: 1. Habit: Habit is also one of the important emotional patronage buying motives. purchases the things required by him from a particular shop) without applying his mind or without reasoning. Imitation: Imitation also is one of the emotional patronage buying motives influencing the purchases of buyers. For instance. Some people make their purchases from a particular shop because of good or attractive appearance of the shop. Appearance of the shop: Appearance of the shop is one of the important emotional patronage buying motives. 5. 6.When a buyer patronises a shop (i. some people consider it a prestige to take coffee from a five-star hotel. Some people make their purchases from a particular shop just because other people make their purchases from that shop.e. Some people make their purchases from a particular shop for the simple reason that they have been habitually making their purchases from that shop.. B. 2. Recommendation of others: Recommendation of others also constitutes one of the important emotional patronage buying motives.e. 3.

many buyers may make their purchases from such a shop. Rational patronage buying motives include the following: 1. often. convenient working hours of the shop also influence the purchases of good many buyers. For instance. people naturally would flock to such a shop. If the employees are efficient and are capable of helping the buyers in making their purchases. Credit facilities offered: The credit facilities offered by a store also influence the buying of some people from a particular shop. 3..e. Services offered: The various sales and after-sale services. after much logical reasoning and careful thinking) he is said to have been influenced by rational patronage buying motives. Many buyers. usually.When a buyer patronises a shop after careful consideration (i. Low price charged by the shop: Price charged by the shop also influences the buyers to patronise a particular shop. influenced by the various services or facilities offered by the shop. if a shop works for a longer period of time every day and even on Sundays. buy their requirements from a nearby shop. etc. If the price charged by a shop for a particular product is relatively cheaper. naturally. as it is convenient to them to make their purchases. As such. 5. home delivery of goods. Similarly. such as acceptance of orders through phone. 4. 6. Wide choice: . it will be very convenient to the buyers. Convenience: Convenient location proximity of a shop is one of the considerations influencing the purchases of many buyers from a particular shop. People who do not have enough money to make cash purchases every time prefer to make their purchases from a shop which offers credit facilities. repair service. Efficiency of salesmen: The efficiency of the salesmen employed by a shop also influences the people in patronising a particular shop. Rational buyers are. 2. many people will make their purchases from that shop. offered by a shop also induce the buyers to buy their requirements from that shop.

Dynamic nature of buying motives: . People generally prefer to make their purchases from a shop. they hesitate to explain the same to the interviewers or give misstatement. Existence of contradictory motives: Sometimes there is a conflict in motives.Wide choice of goods offered by a shop is one of the rational considerations making the buyers patronize a particular shop. wide varieties of goods). He is not in a position to identify the primary motive which influences his purchases. 4. Treatment: The treatment meted out by a shop to the customers is one of the rational considerations influencing the buyers to patronise a particular shop. Reputation of the shop: Reputation of the shop for honest dealings is also one of the rational patronage buying motives. 8. 3. Usually. Consumer's hesitation or misstatement: Sometimes. In such cases it becomes very difficult to tell which particular motive influences the consumer's buying. Usually.e. It leads to miscalculation. 5. which offers wide choice (i. people would like to purchase their requirements from a shop where they get courteous treatment. Difficulty in identifying the buying motive: Sometimes there are more than one motives which prompts a consumer to purchase a particular product. Consumers ignorance: Sometimes the consumers themselves do not understand their inner urges which prompt them to react in a particular way to purchase a product. 7. even they understand their buying motives. 2. Main Difficulties in the Study of Buying Motives of Customer Buying motives of the consumers are studied by different techniques or methods. But no method is free from difficulties The main difficulties that came across in such studies are the following: 1. people would like to make their purchases from a store having reputation for fair dealings.

Consumer's personality: The personality of the consumer is also not always the same. time and circumstances. Taking the above difficulties in view. . The organization should be always on the look out for changing new motives.Buying motives are constantly changing with the changes in income. It undergoes a constant change. Decision making on the basis of such information once for all might not be justified. their reliability is doubtful. fashions. taste. reaching conclusion forming generalization. 6. it should not to understood that the study of buying motives is quite useless. Imperfect techniques: Research techniques have not yet been evolved to provide perfect data to base our conclusions and therefore. collecting the facts and analyzing them. Research Methodology Research is a systematic and continues method of defining a problem. 7. habits. Projective techniques have been developed to make the buying motives understandable.

In it we study the various steps that all generally adopted by a researcher in studying the research problem along with the logic behind them. Objectives of Study  To analyze the behavior of customers towards dairy industry. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research method. It may be understood as a science of study how research is done scientifically.The myriad factors that have a fearing or influence on customer decision are of paramount importance to the organization. In this scenario. Satisfaction level of the subscribers. Sample design. Objective of study. Thus when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of research methods but also consider the logic behind the method we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using this particular method. Data collection. Limitation of study. Problem Statement The study deals with the Understanding Customer Motive Towards Dairy Industry In India.Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the problem. Research design. it is necessary to evaluate the different factors that influence the subscriber. Buying motives of subscribers.  To know the satisfaction level of customers towards dairy industry. So some issues that are needed to be studied are :     Perception of the customers on the advertisements. So we should consider the following steps in research methodology:        Problem statement. Awareness about the products. . Major forces that influence purchase decision. In order to retain its subscribers it is necessary for the organization to study the behavior of the customer and meet their expectations and preferences. Statistical tool.

Scope of Study A study of this kind helps to put theoretical aspects into the project and aims to give information to the organization. measurement and analysis of the data. The design is such studied must be rigid and not flexible and most focus attention on the following:         What is the study about? Why is the study being made? Where will the study be carried out? What type of data is required? Where can be required data be found? What period of time will the study include? What will be sample design? What techniques of data collection will be used? . methods used. perceptions. The research is purely based on the survey conducted in Ambala city. Nature of the study. The number of respondents inferred is 50. Research Design A research is the arrangement of the conditions for the collections and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedures. conclusions and recommendations inferred from findings also aims to enable dairy industry to implement the recommendations made at the end of the study. overall scope of the study would be to enhance the services to the subscribers in the city. it constitutes the blue print of the collections. To know which factor influence the people and they consider while purchasing the milk products.  To know which type of products customers prefer to buy.  To know the development of dairy industry.  To know the interest of people. The study covers information about customer preferences. finding of the investigation. information etc. As search the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data. Infect the research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted.

Sampling area . if “X then Y”. Casual design Casual design may be thought of as understanding a phenomena in terms of conditional statements in terms of. where and how associated with a particular problem. It is used for precise investigation of a problem by developing the working hypothesis and by further testing its result. Data collection . Descriptive research Descriptive research designs helps in providing answers to the questions of who. the size of the sample. Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe “what exist” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation.50. Sample design A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Sample size .e.  How will the data be analyzed? In what style will the report be prepared? Types of Research Design Exploratory Research Exploratory research are also termed as “formulative research” studies. Sample design are determined before data are collected. what.simple random sampling. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. Sampling technique . It refers to the technique or procedure and the researcher would adopt in selecting items of sample. Descriptive Research Design is used in this study.Ambala city. when. Sample design may as well lay down the number of items to be included in the sample i. a descriptive study cannot conclusively ascertain answers why. this type of research is used to measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and assumptions.

Data collection is to gather the data from the population. Books. Secondary data. Limitations .The task of data collection begins after a research problem begins after a research problem has been defined and research design/plan chalked out. Primary data The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happened to be original in character. Methods of collection of primary data are as follows:  Interview. Questionnaire. Websites. Secondary data The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical tool methods of collection of secondary data are as follows:   Journals. The data can be collected of two types:  Primary data.

 Many subscribers do not give the exact picture of their opinion.  The time period for conducted the survey is inadequate as the sample size covers only Ambala city.In every research there are chances of errors and constraints. The interpretation of some responses become difficult and could generate wrong results.  Due to the diversity of the nature of respondents the findings of the survey could not be generalized.  To come with a suitable conclusion and suggestions based on analysis and interpretation of the study. Q1 What is the size of your family? Options Percentage <5 Members 30 5-7 Members 50 .  Some of the respondents give ambiguous replies for certain questionnaire or omitted the responses of some of them. I have found following limitations in my study: Sample size of the subscribers is limited.

>7 Members 20 Total 100 Q2 What is your monthly income? Options Percentage 3000-5000 per month 38 5000-10000 per month 30 .

10000-15000 per month 21 >15000 per month 11 Total 100 Q3 On average how much you spend on milk & milk products? Options Percentage <1500 Rupees 32 .

1500-2000 Rupees 40 2000-2500 Rupees 18 >2500 Rupees 10 Total 100 Q4 Of which company’s products you prefer most? Options Percentage .

Vita Amul Mother Dairy Reliance Refreshnery Total 100 Q5 How often do you purchase Vita milk products? Options Percentage .

Daily 1-2 Days 2-3 Days >3 Days Total 100 Q6 Which mode of payment you adopt to buy Vita products? .

Options Percentage Daily Payment Monthly Credit Monthly Advance Total Q7 What type of Vita milk products do you buy? 100 .

Options Percentage Milk 70 Butter 20 Ghee 6 Milk Cake 4 Total 100 Q8 Where do you usually buy these products? .

Options Percentage Vita Booth 24 Dealer 12 Retailer 64 Total 100 Q9 What is the reason behind your preferences towards Vita milk products? .

Options Percentage Quality Price Brand Reputation Sales Location Total 100 Q10 From which sources you came to know about Vita company? .

V.Options T. Advertisement Hoardings Friends & Relatives Newspaper & Magazines Total Percentage 100 .

Q11 Since how long you are purchasing Vita products? Options Percentage <1 Year 2-3 Years 3-5 Years >5 Years Total 100 .

Q12 How much you consider QUANTITY factor in Vita products? Options Percentage Most 65 Little Bit 30 Least 5 Total 100 .

Q13 How much you consider SALES LOCATION factor in Vita products? Options Percentage Most 70 Little Bit 20 Least 10 Total 100 .

Q14 Do you ever want to purchased other company’s products? Options Percentage Yes 5 No 95 Total 100 .

then what are the reasons for non-availability of Vita products? Options Percentage Closing of Store 35 Absence of Sales Representative 15 Non Availability of Products 50 Total 100 .Q15 If yes.

Q16 Would you recommend others to shop at Vita stores? Options Percentage Yes 97 No 3 Total 100 .