It is known that application of a manufacturing process to obtain the surface and sub-surface of
desired quality is always a major challenge. In many cases, roughing and semi-finishing
operations are followed by finishing or polishing techniques to make the surface more amenable
to its function. The finishing processes that use mechanical force as the energy source tend to
generate heat and consequently leave behind an affected zone. On the other hand, the electrical
energy-based processes normally show thermal effects on the generated surfaces. The chemical
energy-based processes suffer from low material removal rates. However, the electrochemical
energy-based processes have some advantages over the other processes for the reasons
mentioned below:
 These processes do not depend on the mechanical properties of the material that is being
finished or polished.
 The generated surfaces have superior corrosion resistance, stress relief and are
hygienically clean with no directionality finish or hydrogen embrittlement.
 The electrochemical processes have good compatibility with a wide range of other
processes in which different sources of energy are used. They allow hybridization and
hence their performance enhancement.
The application of ECP has been extended to improve the corrosion resistance of medical
instruments made from martensite chrome steel. They have smoothened a micro-relief by
electrochemical polishing and noted that low roughness values give higher corrosion resistance.

In ECB rotating and non-rotating electrodes have been used for enlargement of pre-drilled holes.
Their comparative experimental research inferred that the non-rotating process yields higher
material removal rate, whereas the rotating configuration of electrode gives constant material
removal rate irrespective of machining time. It has also been shown that rotational speed (11000
rpm) is adequate for achieving competent accuracy and surface finish.

The ECM-abrasive polishing process for mild steel and biomedical titanium orifice ring has been
optimized. Surface roughness of 0.64 mm Rtm with 5.64 V, 7% concentration of electrolyte and
0.61 bar tool-holding pressure has been achieved. While in case of titanium orifice ring surface
finish of 0.09 mm Ra was obtained.
In research paper effect of tool shape and movement in electrochemical abrasive lapping has
been studied theoretically. Analysis has inferred that the diameter of disc-type tool should be
larger than the width of workpiece, whereas in case of ring shaped tool, inner diameter should be
larger than the width of workpiece to get better evenness in the electrochemical and abrasive
lapping actions. Apart from this, it is also found that the ratio of revolving radius of the tool to
diameter of the tool should be as large as possible to improve preciseness. Kurita et al. worked
on ECM lapping to achieve mirror finish of 0.07 mm on a surface, which was previously
machined by EDM and ECM. In ECM lapping, researchers have used ceramic free abrasives in

Most of the models are empirical in nature and include the effect of a limited number of parameters on the response variables. The anode forms a passive film. however. The electrolyte used in this process is a viscous acid. Work material specific changes in removal mechanisms. interelectrode gap. be required to bring these variants into a realistic production environment. applied voltage and the electrode rotation speed. however.  The ECF/ECP processes research pertains to a large variety of work materials with differing finishing characteristics. This film covers the lower peaks. The aim of hybridization of here was to achieve controlled functional surface generation and rapid material removal in single action. the current densities vary for different uncovered peaks based on their heights. where the coupled workpiece and tool acts as anode and cathode. over and above these laws. features of ECP have been studied by unipolar and bipolar current pulse on gold alloy jewelry. Because the process is operated at a constant voltage as per the Ohm’s law. removal occurs because of differential dissolution.  The performance of hybrid ECF techniques has been investigated by many researchers. That is why recently. it is possible to form anode potential that ensures a compromise between the rates of dissolution and passivation. it has been found that the total removal thickness and height of surface profile depend on factors such as the finishing time. . there has been some experiments on pulse ECF process and analysis on anodic smoothing characteristics. Substantial further efforts would. In general. Both the electrodes are immersed in an appropriate electrolyte and a high current with a low DC voltage potential difference is normally applied. PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRO CHEMICAL FINISHING In this process. respectively. PARAMETRIC STUDY The major process parameters in Electro chemical finishing are  current density  electrolyte concentration  stick-out pressure  grit size. have not been clearly understood. Their experimental research shows that bipolar regime is more efficient than unipolar. However.electrolyte that had helped remove oxide layer generated by electrochemical action. the literature related to ECF/ECP shows that  The existing research uses Faraday’s and Ohm’s laws to explain the mechanism of ECF/ECP process. the mechanism is governed by several other factors acting individually or collectively.  The mathematical modeling of the processes is primarily limited to ECF to predict the material removal and surface roughness in the process. The theory of pulse ECP indicates that by varying the amplitude and current pulse duration. whereas the higher peaks remain uncovered. metallic oxide that has a high specific gravity. which have not been completely investigated so far.

The electro-polishing is greatly affected by the occurrence of slight convexity near the border of electrode on the work piece and surface waviness due to hydrodynamic vortex called length scale phenomena. . mechanical polishing is not subjected to this phenomenon. To overcome the above problems. The material removal or surface finishing occurs based on electrochemical and mechanical principles. one of the most successful hybridization of ECF is with the mechanical action. The main disadvantage of the electrochemical finishing process is the relatively low speed of the process. inclusions.This causes a variation in the dissolution at individual peaks as per Faraday’s law. It is evident that the performance of ECF could be improved by the use of one or more of these energy sources. The volume of material removed follows Faraday’s law. They are mechanical. magnetic. It is also observed that machining of materials consisting of hard spots. laser. However. etc. sand and scale is rather difficult. vibration. The different removal rates cause a significant improvement in the surface finish. researchers have used a variety of energy sources to effect material removal. pulse-voltage. Therefore. This category of hybridization is achieved by the use of bonded or free abrasives or burnishing force.