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Related Commercial Resources
CHAPTER 1

HALOCARBON REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
Application................................................................................. 1.1
System Safety.............................................................................. 1.2
Basic Piping Principles ............................................................. 1.2
Refrigerant Line Sizing .............................................................. 1.3
Piping at Multiple Compressors .............................................. 1.20
Piping at Various System Components .................................... 1.21
Discharge (Hot-Gas) Lines ...................................................... 1.24
Defrost Gas Supply Lines......................................................... 1.26

Heat Exchangers and Vessels ...................................................
Refrigeration Accessories ........................................................
Head Pressure Control for Refrigerant Condensers ................
Keeping Liquid from Crankcase During Off Cycles ................
Hot-Gas Bypass Arrangements ................................................
Minimizing Refrigerant Charge in Commercial Systems .........
Refrigerant Retrofitting ............................................................
Temperature Glide....................................................................

Licensed for single user. © 2014 ASHRAE, Inc.

R

EFRIGERATION is the process of moving heat from one location to another by use of refrigerant in a closed cycle. Oil management; gas and liquid separation; subcooling, superheating, desuperheating, and piping of refrigerant liquid, gas, and two-phase flow
are all part of refrigeration. Applications include air conditioning,
commercial refrigeration, and industrial refrigeration. This chapter
focuses on systems that use halocarbons (halogenated hydrocarbons) as refrigerants. The most commonly used halogen refrigerants
are chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F).
Halocarbon refrigerants are classified into four groups: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine;
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which consist of carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine; hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which contain carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine; and hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs),
which are HFC refrigerants derived from an alkene (olefin; i.e., an
unsaturated compound having at least one carbon-to-carbon double
bond). Examples of these refrigerants can be found in Chapter 29 of
the 2013 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals.
Desired characteristics of a halocarbon refrigeration system may
include
• Year-round operation, regardless of outdoor ambient conditions
• Possible wide load variations (0 to 100% capacity) during short periods without serious disruption of the required temperature levels
• Frost control for continuous-performance applications
• Oil management for different refrigerants under varying load and
temperature conditions
• A wide choice of heat exchange methods (e.g., dry expansion, liquid overfeed, or flooded feed of the refrigerants) and use of secondary coolants such as salt brine, alcohol, glycol, and carbon dioxide.
• System efficiency, maintainability, and operating simplicity
• Operating pressures and pressure ratios that might require multistaging, cascading, and so forth
Development of halocarbon refrigerants dates back to the 1920s.
The main refrigerants used then were ammonia (R-717), chloromethane (R-40), and sulfur dioxide (R-764), all of which have some
degree of toxicity and/or flammability. These first-generation
refrigerants were an impediment to Frigidaire’s plans to expand
into refrigeration and air conditioning, so Frigidaire and DuPont collaborated to develop safer refrigerants. In 1928, Thomas Midgley,
Jr., of Frigidaire and his colleagues developed the first commercially
available CFC refrigerant, dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) (Giunta
2006). Chlorinated halocarbon refrigerants represent the second
generation of refrigerants (Calm 2008).
Concern about the use of halocarbon refrigerants began with a
1974 paper by two University of California professors, Frank Rowland and Mario Molina, in which they highlighted the damage

The preparation of this chapter is assigned to TC 10.3, Refrigerant Piping.

1.1
Copyright © 2014, ASHRAE

1.26
1.29
1.33
1.34
1.35
1.36
1.37
1.37

chlorine could cause to the ozone layer in the stratosphere. This publication eventually led to the Montreal Protocol Agreement in 1987
and its subsequent revisions, which restricted the production and use
of chlorinated halocarbon (CFC and HCFC) refrigerants. All CFC
refrigerant production was phased out in the United States at the
beginning of 1996. The development of replacement HFC, thirdgeneration refrigerants ensued following these restrictions (Calm
2008).
Although HFC refrigerants do not contain chlorine and thus have
no effect on stratospheric ozone, they have come under heavy scrutiny because of their global warming potential (GWP): like CFCs
and HFCs, they are greenhouse gases, and can trap radiant energy
(IPPC 1990). HFO refrigerants, however, have significantly lower
GWP values, and are being developed and promoted as alternatives
to HFC refrigerants.
A successful refrigeration system depends on good piping design
and an understanding of the required accessories. This chapter covers the fundamentals of piping and accessories in halocarbon refrigerant systems. Hydrocarbon refrigerant pipe friction data can be
found in petroleum industry handbooks. Use the refrigerant properties and information in Chapters 3, 29, and 30 of the 2013 ASHRAE
Handbook—Fundamentals to calculate friction losses.
For information on refrigeration load, see Chapter 24. For R-502
information, refer to the 1998 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration.

APPLICATION
Beyond the operational system characteristics described previously, political and environmental factors may need to be accounted
for when designing, building, and installing halocarbon refrigeration
systems. Heightened awareness of the impact halocarbon refrigerants have on ozone depletion and/or global warming has led to banning or phaseouts of certain refrigerants. Some end users are
concerned about the future cost and availability of these refrigerants,
and may fear future penalties that may come with owning and operating systems that use halocarbons. Therefore, many owners, engineers, and manufacturers seek to reduce charge and build tighter
systems to reduce the total system charge on site and ensure that less
refrigerant is released into the atmosphere.
However, halocarbon refrigeration systems are still widely used.
Although CFCs have been banned and HCFCs are being phased out
because of their ODP, HFCs, which have a global warming potential
(GWP), are still used in new installations and will continue to be
used as the industries transition to natural or other refrigerants that
may boast a reduced GWP. Table 1 in Chapter 3 lists commonly used
refrigerants and their corresponding GWP values.
Use of indirect and cascade systems to reduce the total amount of
refrigerant has become increasingly popular. These systems also reduce the possibility for leakage because large amounts of interconnecting piping between the compressors and the heat load are

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1.2

2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration
Table 1

Recommended Gas Line Velocities

Suction line
Discharge line

900 to 4000 fpm
2000 to 3500 fpm

replaced mainly with glycol or CO2 piping. (See Chapter 9 for more
information on refrigerant containment, recovery, recycling, and
reclamation.)

Licensed for single user. © 2014 ASHRAE, Inc.

SYSTEM SAFETY
ASHRAE Standard 15 and ASME Standard B31.5 should be
used as guides for safe practice because they are the basis of most
municipal and state codes. However, some ordinances require
heavier piping and other features. The designer should know the specific requirements of the installation site. Only A106 Grade A or B or
A53 Grade A or B should be considered for steel refrigerant piping.
The rated internal working pressure for Type L copper tubing decreases with (1) increasing metal operating temperature, (2) increasing tubing size (OD), and (3) increasing temperature of joining
method. Hot methods used to join drawn pipe (e.g., brazing, welding) produce joints as strong as surrounding pipe, but reduce the
strength of the heated pipe material to that of annealed material. Particular attention should be paid when specifying copper in conjunction with newer, high-pressure refrigerants (e.g., R-404A, R-507A,
R-410A, R-407C) because some of these refrigerants can achieve operating pressures as high as 500 psia and operating temperatures as
high as 300°F at a typical saturated condensing condition of 130°F.
Concentration calculations, based on the amount of refrigerant in
the system and the volume of the space where it is installed, are
needed to identify what safety features are required by the appropriate codes. Whenever allowable concentration limits of the refrigerant may be exceeded in occupied spaces, additional safety measures
(e.g., leak detection, alarming, ventilation, automatic shut-off controls) are typically required. Note that, because halocarbon refrigerants are heavier than air, leak detection sensors should be placed at
lower elevations in the space (typically 12 in. from the floor).

Fig. 1

Flow Rate per Ton of Refrigeration for Refrigerant 22

BASIC PIPING PRINCIPLES
The design and operation of refrigerant piping systems should
(1) ensure proper refrigerant feed to evaporators, (2) provide practical refrigerant line sizes without excessive pressure drop, (3) prevent excessive amounts of lubricating oil from being trapped in any
part of the system, (4) protect the compressor at all times from loss
of lubricating oil, (5) prevent liquid refrigerant or oil slugs from entering the compressor during operating and idle time, and (6) maintain a clean and dry system.

Refrigerant Line Velocities
Economics, pressure drop, noise, and oil entrainment establish
feasible design velocities in refrigerant lines (Table 1).
Higher gas velocities are sometimes found in relatively short suction lines on comfort air-conditioning or other applications where
the operating time is only 2000 to 4000 h per year and where low initial cost of the system may be more significant than low operating
cost. Industrial or commercial refrigeration applications, where
equipment runs almost continuously, should be designed with low
refrigerant velocities for most efficient compressor performance and
low equipment operating costs. An owning and operating cost analysis will reveal the best choice of line sizes. (See Chapter 37 of the
2011 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications for information on
owning and operating costs.) Liquid lines from condensers to receivers should be sized for 100 fpm or less to ensure positive gravity flow
without incurring back-up of liquid flow. Liquid lines from receiver
to evaporator should be sized to maintain velocities below 300 fpm,
thus minimizing or preventing liquid hammer when solenoids or
other electrically operated valves are used.

Fig. 2 Flow Rate per Ton of Refrigeration for Refrigerant 134a

Refrigerant Flow Rates
Refrigerant flow rates for R-22 and R-134a are indicated in Figures 1 and 2. To obtain total system flow rate, select the proper rate
value and multiply by system capacity. Enter curves using saturated refrigerant temperature at the evaporator outlet and actual
liquid temperature entering the liquid feed device (including subcooling in condensers and liquid-suction interchanger, if used).
Because Figures 1 and 2 are based on a saturated evaporator
temperature, they may indicate slightly higher refrigerant flow rates
than are actually in effect when suction vapor is superheated above
the conditions mentioned. Refrigerant flow rates may be reduced
approximately 3% for each 10°F increase in superheat in the
evaporator.
Suction-line superheating downstream of the evaporator from
line heat gain from external sources should not be used to reduce
evaluated mass flow, because it increases volumetric flow rate and
line velocity per unit of evaporator capacity, but not mass flow rate.
It should be considered when evaluating suction-line size for satisfactory oil return up risers.
Suction gas superheating from use of a liquid-suction heat
exchanger has an effect on oil return similar to that of suction-line
superheating. The liquid cooling that results from the heat exchange

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Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems

1.3

Table 2 Approximate Effect of Gas Line Pressure Drops on
R-22 Compressor Capacity and Powera
Capacity, %

Energy, %b

Suction Line
0
2
4

100
96.4
92.9

100
104.8
108.1

Discharge Line
0
2
4

100
99.1
98.2

100
103.0
106.3

Line Loss, °F

aFor

system operating at 40°F saturated evaporator temperature and 100°F saturated
condensing temperature.
percentage rated at hp/ton.

bEnergy

reduces mass flow rate per unit of refrigeration. This can be seen in
Figures 1 and 2 because the reduced temperature of the liquid supplied to the evaporator feed valve has been taken into account
Superheat caused by heat in a space not intended to be cooled is
always detrimental because the volumetric flow rate increases with
no compensating gain in refrigerating effect.

Licensed for single user. © 2014 ASHRAE, Inc.

REFRIGERANT LINE SIZING
In sizing refrigerant lines, cost considerations favor minimizing
line sizes. However, suction and discharge line pressure drops cause
loss of compressor capacity and increased power usage. Excessive
liquid-line pressure drops can cause liquid refrigerant to flash,
resulting in faulty expansion valve operation. Refrigeration systems
are designed so that friction pressure losses do not exceed a pressure
differential equivalent to a corresponding change in the saturation
boiling temperature. The primary measure for determining pressure
drops is a given change in saturation temperature.

Pressure Drop Considerations
Pressure drop in refrigerant lines reduces system efficiency. Correct sizing must be based on minimizing cost and maximizing efficiency. Table 2 shows the approximate effect of refrigerant pressure
drop on an R-22 system operating at a 40°F saturated evaporator
temperature with a 100°F saturated condensing temperature.
Pressure drop calculations are determined as normal pressure loss
associated with a change in saturation temperature of the refrigerant.
Typically, the refrigeration system is sized for pressure losses of 2°F
or less for each segment of the discharge, suction, and liquid lines.
Liquid Lines. Pressure drop should not be so large as to cause
gas formation in the liquid line, insufficient liquid pressure at the
liquid feed device, or both. Systems are normally designed so that
pressure drop in the liquid line from friction is not greater than that
corresponding to about a 1 to 2°F change in saturation temperature.
See Tables 3 to 9 for liquid-line sizing information.
Liquid subcooling is the only method of overcoming liquid line
pressure loss to guarantee liquid at the expansion device in the evaporator. If subcooling is insufficient, flashing occurs in the liquid line
and degrades system efficiency.
Friction pressure drops in the liquid line are caused by accessories such as solenoid valves, filter-driers, and hand valves, as well as
by the actual pipe and fittings between the receiver outlet and the
refrigerant feed device at the evaporator.
Liquid-line risers are a source of pressure loss and add to the total
loss of the liquid line. Loss caused by risers is approximately 0.5 psi
per foot of liquid lift. Total loss is the sum of all friction losses plus
pressure loss from liquid risers.
Example 1 illustrates the process of determining liquid-line size
and checking for total subcooling required.
Example 1. An R-22 refrigeration system using copper pipe operates at
40°F evaporator and 105°F condensing. Capacity is 5 tons, and the

liquid line is 100 ft equivalent length with a riser of 20 ft. Determine the
liquid-line size and total required subcooling.
Solution: From Table 3, the size of the liquid line at 1°F drop is 5/8 in.
OD. Use the equation in Note 3 of Table 3 to compute actual temperature drop. At 5 tons,
= 1.0(5.0/6.7)1.8
Actual temperature drop
Estimated friction loss
= 0.59  3.05
Loss for the riser
= 20  0.5
Total pressure losses
= 10.0 + 1.8
R-22 saturation pressure at 105°F condensing
(see R-22 properties in Chapter 30, 2013
ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals)
Initial pressure at beginning of liquid line
Total liquid line losses
Net pressure at expansion device
The saturation temperature at 199 psig is 101.1°F.
Required subcooling to overcome the liquid losses

=
=
=
=


=

0.59°F
1.8 psi
10 psi
11.8 psi
210.8 psig
210.8 psig
11.8 psi
199 psig

= (105.0 – 101.1)
or 3.9°F

Refrigeration systems that have no liquid risers and have the
evaporator below the condenser/receiver benefit from a gain in pressure caused by liquid weight and can tolerate larger friction losses
without flashing. Regardless of the liquid-line routing when flashing occurs, overall efficiency is reduced, and the system may malfunction.
The velocity of liquid leaving a partially filled vessel (e.g.,
receiver, shell-and-tube condenser) is limited by the height of the
liquid above the point at which the liquid line leaves the vessel,
whether or not the liquid at the surface is subcooled. Because liquid
in the vessel has a very low (or zero) velocity, the velocity V in the
liquid line (usually at the vena contracta) is V 2 = 2gh, where h is
the liquid height in the vessel. Gas pressure does not add to the
velocity unless gas is flowing in the same direction. As a result, both
gas and liquid flow through the line, limiting the rate of liquid flow.
If this factor is not considered, excess operating charges in receivers
and flooding of shell-and-tube condensers may result.
No specific data are available to precisely size a line leaving a
vessel. If the height of liquid above the vena contracta produces the
desired velocity, liquid leaves the vessel at the expected rate. Thus,
if the level in the vessel falls to one pipe diameter above the bottom
of the vessel from which the liquid line leaves, the capacity of copper lines for R-22 at 3 lb/min per ton of refrigeration is approximately as follows:
OD, in.

Tons

1 1/8
1 3/8
1 5/8
2 1/8
2 5/8
3 1/8
4 1/8

14
25
40
80
130
195
410

The whole liquid line need not be as large as the leaving connection. After the vena contracta, the velocity is about 40% less. If the
line continues down from the receiver, the value of h increases. For
a 200 ton capacity with R-22, the line from the bottom of the
receiver should be about 3 1/8 in. After a drop of 1 ft, a reduction to
2 5/8 in. is satisfactory.
Suction Lines. Suction lines are more critical than liquid and
discharge lines from a design and construction standpoint. Refrigerant lines should be sized to (1) provide a minimum pressure drop
at full load, (2) return oil from the evaporator to the compressor
under minimum load conditions, and (3) prevent oil from draining
from an active evaporator into an idle one. A pressure drop in the
suction line reduces a system’s capacity because it forces the compressor to operate at a lower suction pressure to maintain a desired
evaporating temperature in the coil. The suction line is normally

1 16.8 25.2 2.5 23.11 0.2 2.0 36.8 6.3 8.38 0.8 194.50 0.3 1.85 1.3 92.1 4.79 90 1.79 1.6 28.4 80.2 12.0 3.3 21. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration.00 0.6 19.9 204. a smaller size line may be used. Line capacity for other saturation temperatures t and equivalent lengths Le  Table L Actual t0.2 20.7 52.8 9. °F –20 0 20 Corresponding  p.6 1. Refer to refrigerant thermodynamic property tables (Chapter 30 of the 2013 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals) for pressure drop corresponding to t.71 0.06 1.2 4.8 6. 1.com).9 1.8 4.4 39.5 21.2 28.7 18.9 126.5 41.51 0.3 Liquid Lines Line Size Type L Copper.00 1. Flow rates for discharge lines are based on –50°F evaporating temperature.7 102.8 7.6 10.90 0.3 65.4 237.18 140 0.22 — — 0.2 Discharge Lines (t = 2°F)* 0.1 124.1 284.6 17.1 12.9 116.  p = 3.6 2.2 1.2 Notes: 1.15 1.7 38.6 92.0 376.2 5.0 79.0 6. and Liquid Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 22 (Single.9 14.1 163.0 1.7 4. © 2014 ASHRAE.9 21.9 601.1 39.9 4.1 12.2 32.5 8.8 50.7 1. –40 –30 0.2 4. psi/100 ft 1.85 1.1 58. -----------------------  Actual L e Table t  3.5 9.8 10.51 0.0 65.3 52.18 0.6 1. °F Suction Line Discharge Line 80 1.2 37.5 3.20 1.3 4.2 178. Saturation temperature t for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le  Actual L e  Actual capacity1. -----------------------  Actual L e Table t  3.10 130 0.5 0.9 3.3 16.6 5.2 128.1 14.2 13.8 t = Table t  -----------------------  -------------------------------------  Table L e   Table capacity  4. if subcooling is substantial or line is short. Inc.0 32. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration.09 1.6 58.1 17.1 251. where receiver ambient temperature may be higher than refrigerant condensing temperature.5 895.6 59.9 14.8 Saturated Suction Temperature. p = pressure drop from line friction.2 Notes: 1.2 136.0 5.5 20.6 2.8 1.8 20.5 49.3 1101.5 1.2 11.7 23.6 6.61 1.5 20.95 110 0. psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length t = corresponding change in saturation temperature.2 2. °F per 100 ft 2.4 42. Line Size Type L Copper.7 1263.5 3.34 0.4 7.32 0.7 11. OD 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 –90 –80 0. Discharge.75 0.3 24. and Liquid Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 22 (Intermediate.0 2.0 33.4 91.1 32.6 2.1 102.9 23.7 4.5 43. °F –70 –60 –50 0.97 1.1 0.1 9. Table 4 Suction. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.6 23. °F per 100 ft 2.5 13. OD 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 1/2 40 3/4 40 1 40 1 1/4 40 1 1/2 40 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 –40 0.5 75.8 160. Condensing Temperature.0 10.8 76.0 15.8 540.58 0.7 18.8 48.04 120 0.5 109.4 Liquid Lines See Table 3 5.03 0. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.79 — — 0.90 1.85 1.4 61.86 1.9 137.07 0.6 5.1 1.9 Discharge Lines ( t = 1°F.1 Suction Lines (t = 2°F)* Saturated Suction Temperature.2 16.8 192.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.2 3.4 44.4 30.5 40.5 0.03 1.8 13.1 10.4 7.6 229.8 7.4 1.05 psi) Saturated Suction Temperature.7 3.5 0.3 3.5 45.70 1.26 b Line pressure drop p is conservative.4 120.4 65.7 6. fall into this category.7 94.5 12.5 213.91 0.1 33.7 9.0 5.7 7.1 14.5 26.80 .4 85.8 27.7 2.40 0.3 — 0.0 64.8 t = Table t  -----------------------e  -------------------------------------  Table L e   Table capacity  a Sizing shown is recommended where any gas generated in receiver must return up condensate line to condenser without restricting condensate flow.2 56.1 2.7 118.55 Line capacity = Table capacity  ----------------------.9 5.52 1.5 11. psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length t = corresponding change in saturation temperature.6 3.45 1.4 43.2 7.or Low-Stage Duty) Line Size Type L Copper. Condensing Temperature.7 7.5 4.4 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Table 3 Suction.8 209. *See section on Pressure Drop Considerations. Water-cooled condensers.2 37.94 0.5 26.6 99.5 9.0 3.1 3.4 40 2.36 0.8 28.76 0.9 3.9 17.25 0. °F Suction Line Discharge Line –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 1.2 t = 1°F p = 3.1 7.4 3. = 100 fpm 2.7 9.8 28.7 58. Discharge.or High-Stage Applications) Suction Lines ( t = 2°F) Licensed for single user.7 12.95 2.8 115.9 71.2 136.88 100 1.0 4.4 202.55 Line capacity = Table capacity  ----------------------e.94 1.0 36. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.8 6. p = pressure drop from line friction.4 96.6 76.0 305.86 1.3 2.8 3.5 204.2 147.3 53.7 20.9 11.1 82.6 25.46 0.6 192. °F –40 40 0.58 1.05 3.7 15.3 6.5 1.2 70.97 0.0 2.6 0.9 22. OD 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 80 1 1/2 80 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 See notes a and b Vel.0 77.1 3.1 3.4 55.2 54. Saturation temperature t for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le  Actual L   Actual capacity 1.2 10.0 0.0 42.2 33. Line capacity for other saturation temperatures t and equivalent lengths Le  Table L e Actual t0.5 369. Values based on 0°F condensing temperature.80 1. Applications with very little subcooling or very long lines may require a larger line.

00 0.59 1. Inc.94 16.03 7.00 0. the pressure drop equivalent to a given temperature change decreases.40 75.2 2.70 28.22 0.42 7.34 0.00 0.38 9.8 psi.10 97.80 26.00 2.55  Table L Actual  t Line capacity = Table capacity  ----------------------e.34 14.40 174.75 3.00 0. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures. walls.80 25.95 9.00 688. Plan piping for a minimum number of joints using as few elbows and other fittings as possible.43 0.10 45.81 5.68 9.45 2.00 0.86 10.50 168. lowtemperature lines must be sized for a very low pressure drop. Discharge Lines. shown is recommended where any gas generated in receiver must return up condensate line to the condenser without restricting condensate flow.57 1. Therefore.50 18.34 10.62 3.70 148.90 100.13 3.026 1.00 290.88 3. °F 0 20 40 Type L Copper.53 1.80 78.70 82.02 8.80 57.10 108.50 41.00 545.14 11.00 153. the pressure drop equivalent to a 2°F change in saturation temperature is about 0.30 46.30 23.00 44.09 12.40 9.70 35.20 29. OD 0.88 1.40 34.43 1.00 28.00 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 — — Steel IPS SCH 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 80 1 1/2 80 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 4. Pressure drop is normally designed not to exceed the equivalent of a 2°F change in saturation temperature.095 1.00 0. Pressure drop is minimized by generously sizing lines for low friction losses.12 9.91 15. or any internal parts.968 0.14 2.00 0.90 18.60 163.67 5. .84 1.834 0.60 78.20 135.80 0.20 35.40 43.91 19.35 0.80 54.5 Table 5 Suction.00 181. but provide sufficient flexibility to absorb compressor vibration and stresses caused by thermal expansion and contraction.80 119.30 4.00 200.66 40 1. Arrange refrigerant piping so that normal inspection and servicing of the compressor and other equipment is not hindered.94 7.158 1.53 4.79 3. Applications with very little subcooling or very long lines may require a larger line.20 49.00 83. Suction-line piping to the compressor should be arranged so that it will not interfere with removal of the compressor for servicing.43 213.00 44.10 41.54 14.25 3.28 0.00 340.70 141.80 160. Provide adequate clearance between pipe and adjacent walls and hangers or between pipes for insulation installation.90 95.00 518. -----------------------  Actual L e Table  t  3.30 69.00 — — 3.71 1. Pressure loss in hot-gas lines increases the required compressor power per unit of refrigeration and decreases compressor capacity.078 1.00 4. Line Size Type L Copper.10 21.90 30.40 86.00 342.00 187.00 181.00 135.50 0. These can usually be compensated for by oversizing the horizontal and down run lines and components.14 0.94 5.19 1.10 49.41 1.20 13. Water-cooled condensers.40 68.60 12.00 356.80 63.56 15. Table 2 illustrates power losses for an R-22 system at 40°F evaporator and 100°F condensing temperature.00 571.90 0.90 33. or higher equivalent temperature losses.00 462.54 1.10 84.00 280.or High-Stage Applications) Licensed for single user.95 10.70 129.60 23.56 4.90 49.19 2.68 14. OD 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 40 1 1/2 40 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 0 1.43 6.90 54.00 419. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.18 0. and Liquid Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 134a (Single.27 0.27 14.66 1.00 59.97 3.00 175.42 14. °F Suction Line Discharge Line 2.50 55.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.10 18.40 50.84 3. Where pipe size must be reduced to provide sufficient gas velocity to entrain oil up vertical risers at partial loads.00 853. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems 1.50 142. Saturation temperature t for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le  Actual L   Actual capacity1.50 29.51 1.51 9. Discharge. Use sleeves that are sized to allow installation of both pipe and insulation through floors. any suction or hot-gas risers must be sized properly to ensure oil entrainment up the riser so that oil is always returned to the compressor. At suction temperatures lower than 40°F.00 0.00 191.50 28. if subcooling is substantial or line is short.18 17. greater pressure drops are imposed at full load.79 1.23 0. at –40°F suction with R-22. °F per 100 ft Liquid Lines See notes a and b Velocity = 100 fpm t = 1°F p = 2.22 5. with resultant loss in equipment capacity. must be accepted.00 971.902 0.00 236.33 6.00 Notes: 1.961 1.20 26. See Tables 3 to 15 for suction line sizing information.40 69.50 37.00 Suction Lines (t = 2°F) Saturated Suction Temperature.40 26.77 20.90 113. pressure drop p is conservative. °F 10 20 30 Corresponding p.79 1.60 42.40 16.60 0.40 57.00 323. p = 2.00 78.80 101. but still maintaining refrigerant line velocities to entrain and carry oil along at all loading conditions.91 1.00 — — 2. For example.00 0.20 91.60 18. a smaller size line may be used. access plates. fall into this category.64 1.00 0.42 2.98 1.88 5.70 32.032 0. end bells.2 psi/100 ft) Line Size Saturated Suction Temperature.29 0.92 5.60 62.20 70. Location and Arrangement of Piping Refrigerant lines should be as short and direct as possible to minimize tubing and refrigerant requirements and pressure drops.10 15. Recommended sizing tables are based on a 1°F change in saturation temperature per 100 ft.80 30. where receiver ambient temperature may be higher than refrigerant condensing temperature.07 2.00 226. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration.804 0. Condensing Temperature. Line capacity for other saturation temperatures t and equivalent lengths Le 0.93 Discharge Lines (t = 1°F.09 6.10 46.02 7.10 10. For very low pressure drops. psi/100 ft 1.32 4. Do not obstruct the view of the oil-level sight glass or run piping so that it interferes with removing compressor cylinder heads. © 2014 ASHRAE.80 23.60 88. Set these sleeves before pouring concrete or erecting brickwork. or ceilings.com). psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length t = corresponding change in saturation temperature.39 13.882 0. p = pressure drop from line friction.54 1.04 6.35 0.8 t = Table t  -----------------------e  -------------------------------------  Table L e   Table capacity  80 90 100 110 120 130 1.12 2.90 143.156 a Sizing b Line sized to have a pressure drop from friction no greater than the equivalent of about a 2°F change in saturation temperature.17 9.54 6.79 5.00 0.69 9.01 2.

overhanging loads. Tables 10 to 15 show capacities for the same refrigerants based on reduced suction line pressure loss corresponding to 1. it is only possible to mitigate its effects. lose charge. or per combination of straight pipe. In some cases. On single-compressor systems. they should be insulated if necessary to prevent injury from high-temperature surfaces. R-507A. Downstream lines (between the heat reclaim heat exchanger and condenser) do not need to be insulated unless necessary to prevent the refrigerant from condensing prematurely. and Wile (1977). Suction lines should be insulated to prevent sweating and heat gain. When gas pulsations caused by the compressor create vibration and noise. Inc. Discharge gas superheat was 80°F for R-134a and 105°F for R-22. they have a characteristic frequency that is a function of the number of gas discharges by the compressor on each revolution. Piping Insulation All piping joints and fittings should be thoroughly leak-tested before insulation is sealed. In this case. this eliminates the possibility of walls or ceilings acting as sounding boards or diaphragms.000005 ft for copper and 0. This problem is best solved by using flexible piping and isolation hangers where the piping is secured to the structure. per 100 ft of equivalent pipe length. the length is often limited. All joints and fittings should be covered. which have a false appearance of strength. fittings. Refrigerant Line Capacity Tables Tables 3 to 9 show line capacities in tons of refrigeration for R-22. corresponding to a 2°F change in the saturation temperature (t) in the suction line. Flexible metal hose is sometimes used to absorb vibration transmission along smaller pipe sizes. Equivalent Lengths of Valves and Fittings Refrigerant line capacity tables are based on unit pressure drop per 100 ft length of straight pipe. it should be supported by isolation hangers. The following example illustrates the use of various tables and charts to size refrigerant lines. Tables 16 to 18 give equivalent lengths of straight pipe for various fittings and valves. Also.00015 ft for steel pipe. © 2014 ASHRAE. Vibration and Noise in Piping Vibration transmitted through or generated in refrigerant piping and the resulting objectionable noise can be eliminated or minimized by proper piping design and support. Flexible metal hose is not as efficient in absorbing vibration on larger pipes because it is not actually flexible unless the ratio of length to diameter is relatively great.g. in systems that use heat reclaim). When noise is caused by turbulence and isolating the line is not effective enough. A rigid brace on the end of the flexible hose away from the compressor is required to prevent vibration of the hot-gas line beyond the hose. so flexibility is reduced in larger sizes. which can break brazed joints and. and R-407C.com). Tubing roughness height is 0. Although the liquid line ordinarily does not require insulation. and valves with friction drop equivalent to a 100 ft length of straight pipe. Licensed for single user. and doors. The refrigerant line sizing capacity tables are based on the DarcyWeisbach relation and friction factors as computed by the Colebrook function (Colebrook 1938. Vibration and noise from a piping system can also be caused by gas pulsations from the compressor operation or from turbulence in the gas. Timm (1991). When it passes through a warmer area. because on some compressors two pistons operate together. or inside furring. ladders. Two undesirable effects of vibration of refrigerant piping are (1) physical damage to the piping. It is thus impossible to eliminate vibration in piping. and a 1°F change in the discharge line. Noise resulting from gas pulsations is usually objectionable only when the piping system amplifies the pulsation by resonance. When piping is erected where access is difficult after installation. These tables may be used when designing system piping to minimize suction line pressure drop. It is also varied by the angular displacement of the cylinders. or if the heat dissipated is objectionable (e. particularly for small lines. In practice.5°F per 100 ft equivalent length of pipe. The refrigerant cycle for determining capacity is based on saturated gas leaving the evaporator. it should be installed parallel to the crankshaft. This frequency is not necessarily equal to the number of cylinders. based on nominal pipe sizes. See Chapter 10 for additional information. but it is not advisable to do so until the system has been thoroughly leak-tested. it must not touch any part of the building and must be supported only by the hangers (provided to avoid transmitting vibration 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration to the building). Insulation covering lines on which moisture can condense or lines subjected to outdoor conditions must be vapor sealed to prevent any moisture travel through the insulation or condensation in the insulation. indoor hot-gas discharge line insulation does not need a tight vapor seal because moisture condensation is not an issue.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. which increases at high velocities. This noise can sometimes be reduced by installing mufflers. Hotgas discharge lines usually are not insulated. In refrigeration applications. Generally. Capacities in the tables are based on the refrigerant flow that develops a friction loss. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. On a paralleled compressor system. two isolators may be required. When piping passes through walls. windows. The capacities shown for liquid lines are for pressure losses corresponding to 1 and 5°F change in saturation temperature and also for velocity corresponding to 100 fpm. through floors. a harmonic frequency from the different speeds of multiple compressors may be apparent.6 Run piping so that it does not interfere with passages or obstruct headroom. It is usually more apparent in the discharge line than in other parts of the system. Also. Where traffic is heavy. 1939).0 and 0. the liquid line should be insulated to minimize heat gain. discharge lines upstream of the heat reclaim heat exchanger should be insulated. Refer to ASHRAE Standard 15 and other governing local codes for restrictions that may apply. For maximum effectiveness. Many commercially available types are provided with an integral waterproof jacket for this purpose. Protection Against Damage to Piping Protection against damage is necessary. changing to a line of heavier wall or from copper to steel to change the pipe natural frequency may help. Viscosity extrapolations and adjustments for pressures other than 1 atm were based on correlation techniques as presented by Keating and Matula (1969). and (2) transmission of noise through the piping itself and through building construction that may come into direct contact with the piping. one in the horizontal line and the other in the vertical line at the compressor. Line sizing tables can then be used directly. resonance can be reduced by changing the size or length of the resonating line or by installing a properly sized hot-gas muffler in the discharge line immediately after the compressor discharge valve. installing a larger-diameter pipe to reduce gas velocity is sometimes helpful. such as in V-type compressors. provide protection against impact from carelessly handled hand trucks. . R-404A. consequently. For additional charts and discussion of line sizing refer to Atwood (1990).. Vibration effects are evident in all lines directly connected to the compressor or condensing unit. The calculations neglect the presence of oil and assume nonpulsating flow. R-134A. R-410A. pressure drop through valves and fittings is determined by establishing the equivalent straight length of pipe of the same size with the same friction drop. piping vibration can be caused by rigid connection of the refrigerant piping to a reciprocating compressor. and fork trucks. suction and liquid lines can be insulated as a unit on installations where the two lines are clamped together. however.

40 2507.29 12.6 1554.65 1.09 8.662.32 4.67 6853.99 5648.31 1.or High-Stage Applications) Suction Lines ( t = 2°F) Licensed for single user.681.24 Liquid Lines See note a 40 3.75 272.9 6.39 14.40 165.3 66.34 78.73 56.61 0.17 1.75 521.2 71.5 11.76 1.24 385.28 1203. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 80 1 1/2 80 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 8 40 10 40 12 IDb 14 30 16 30 a Sizing Discharge Lines ( t = 1°F.05 3678.42 950.39 18.75 1.89 101.80 19.08 36.92 10.88 299.21 1056.38 189.14 1.18 0.1 12.com).This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.7 t = 5°F Drop p = 17.14 748.71 3.69 657.07 20.65 4.78 18.43 0.96 84.54 16.36 0.07 4845.59 6493.93 2.2 4728.04 87.51 8.50 1569.150 6.7 5159.84 0.35 0.76 163.31 0.68 0.53 20.01 49.2 2148.48 –60 0.53 85.02 38.66 120.18 176. Line capacity for other saturation temperatures t and equivalent lengths Le receiver ambient temperature may be higher 0.79 8.75 1911.81 0.9 261.840 130 0.39 53. Saturation temperature t for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 1.61 460.28 0.43 41.64 0.39 472.38 9.81 13.21 1395.44 4.32 79.34 12.13 1132.1 4.49 71.31 33.4 7. where 2.58 21.97 1.152.21 35.81 493.52 424.46 710. Water-cooled condensers.3 181.73 1733.15 0.99 2. fall Actual L Table  t e   into this category.7 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Table 6 Suction.2 1654.28 34.74 144. Inc.66 181.04 1.78 0.83 6105.50 344.10 6.98 3230.50 121.39 0.4 6.61 1.922 0.9 8.13 6.9 3.27 40 3.52 9.0 43.49 6.04 554.37 592.57 17.15 3485.24 0.19 99.03 364. Discharge.94 49. t = Table t  Actual L e  Actual capacity   -----------------------  ------------------------------------.40 1163.00 183.63 5.5 169.05 621.47 228.49 0.9 796.41 1.41 164.19 457.8 size.31 9.77 2.37 28.74 1076.62 1506.44 0.93 30.97 15.07 23.1 424.4 7938.55 3.33 5.20 313.051 or liquid service.99 15.1 3.17 104. Thermophysical properties and viscosity data based on calculations 80 1. °F –40 –20 0 20 Corresponding  p.3 2.6 1249.7 36.13 3.76 1.55 0.20 1172.09 4.40 245.13 215.87 16.16 0. °F per 100 ft densate flow.67 174.6  t = 1°F Drop  p = 3.62 0.12 2.93 3. psi/100 ft 3.60 Saturated Suction Temperature.57 1.96 5277.18 0.71 164.6 16.6 1328.47 117.55 568.948 7..40 3525.53 1.48 103.36 41.23 14.51 0.06 52.55 psi) 0.88 36.83 5.2 714.39 30.18 2048. L Table capacity Table e    0.96 25.77 13.94 978.31 35.34 24.84 93.99 1270.5 450.41 44.36 1356.8 8. psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length sate line to condenser without restricting cont = corresponding change in saturation temperature.28 613.9 45.4 27.723 Discharge Line 0.11 67.46 152.13 0.70 179.74 69.50 3661.99 2.40 10. see Safety Requirements section.18 2.55 145.14 0.26 7.48 15.94 968.52 264.98 343.79 1.32 293.04 0.  p = 3.86 1.24 0.4 43.59 2171.45 40.32 214.30 1.29 55.77 1037.46 597.09 11.2 416.9 115.99 2178.5 52.13 852.20 10.32 87.05 230.24 4.55 0.36 342.33 56.58 91.09 0.26 0.22 52.37 3.46 11.7 361.87 0.05 57.1 17.34 0.78 3.70 0.38 2.75 3.3 9674.82 2299. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration.98 4. Sucevaporator outlet temperature.06 2.07 0.3 283.66 1266.09 1407.66 129.51 3.3 128.74 33. psi/100 ft 0.09 286. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.82 213.91 1083.44 0.36 73.3 55. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.419.7 453.71 258. °F –40 –20 0 20 Corresponding  p.26 77.05 11.53 1.78 3058.23 1.34 4678. 110 0.8 16. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.7 1.82 86.8 25.14 31. ----------------------- than refrigerant condensing temperature.16 4236.35 0.4 1024.54 3362.52 13.4 871.57 30.84 3954.67 80.98 16.44 –60 shown is recommended where any gas Notes: 1.44 0.34 2600.81 383.00 1.56 1.8 1623.78 738.043 .03 8.66 6.5 19.21 439.37 100.06 37.08 11.35 31.75 1442. b Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe 3.31 104.73 5.6 16.35 26.4 147.3 2.88 1.87 7.79 1.49 17.78 77.57 262.7 83.87 29.96 2.16 177.2 37.101.05 0.4 204.87 197.09 50.80 39.53 9.07 8.09 402.98 26.10 12. tion temperature.97 7. Tons based on standard refrigerant cycle of 105°F liquid and saturated Cond.05 199.5 12.04 4505.40 1.51 4.0 4394.66 728.6 2. generated in receiver must return up condenp = pressure drop from line friction.96 7.16 0.66 9.55 0.92 0.55 12.47 47.62 Saturated Suction Temperature. OD for discharge 100 1.1 261.81 60. Liquid tons based on 20°F evaporator Temp.23 7.28 2.6 4.76 95.61 7.246 from NIST REFPROP program Version 6.0 30.0 2927.1 3.23 3277.26 43.68 339.5 108.22 3.32 320.47 4755.31 2832.5 80.00 1522. and Liquid Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 404A (Single.70 2.12 12.01 354.026 1.963.91 502.6 23.59 5699.48 2.56 21.97 142.33 125.93 2. Line Size Type L Copper.5 11.1 243.92 5.15 0.26 158.45 11.67 11660.55 3.88 182.15 0.9 36.73 1.49 478.86 1.55 3.2 2497.54 2.79 1.01. 90 1.09 0.59 4.87 2244.974 1.477.57 27.23 2.55 3.11 110.58 44.30 3246.11 0.52 258.65 0.2 618.96 1982.85 124.81 468. °F Line 5.3 8.28 0.40 0.89 Velocity = 100 fpm 1.009 1.4 16.01 6.08 0.31 202. © 2014 ASHRAE.24 0.09 2.71 0.10 150.71 45.38 4.51 0.93 59.49 699.93 74.3 122.80 589.72 898. 120 0.04 21.19 517.36 2.95 64.47 0.6 735.04 867.30 27.870 0.98 3.47 0.24 126.27 0.48 7.22 0.24 599. For brazed Type L copper tubing larger than 1 1/8 in.2 4.44 3.75 1.42 1625.60 1.83 325.16 410.20 296.16 14.54 1.35 48.55  Table L Actual  t Line capacity = Table capacity  ----------------------e.2 4.1 28.36 7.14 2.51 436.48 141.49 2.29 59.56 1770.60 15.85 89.2 61.

35 1266.59 73.68 5.12 1174.16 2.6 78.74 385.91 230.40 741.63 1.02 2.93 176.93 2.22 57.04 85.61 10.5 4.57 16.41 14.72 3050.39 117.5 4.54 15.45 160.2 53.74 1.41 3687.055 or liquid service.924 0.14 0.93 33. psi/100 ft 1.09 4.33 294.01 4.71 0.39 0.9 3.0 989.21 Velocity = 100 fpm 1.383.  p = 3.78 1205.27 24.92 2. and Liquid Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 507A (Single.27 0.40 3.9 17.71 353.51 0.40 606.18 0.0 4.85 319.17 72.9 1290.09 3.65 0.4 276.861.32 11.7 36.39 11.70 4.49 2191.96 94.12 122.8 size.36 182.8 410.19 26.06 261.7 690.42 6498. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.87 230.24 2. Liquid tons based on 20°F evaporator Temp.01 2.24 0.28 0.89 18.75 3944.52 179.09 0.40 0. Tons based on standard refrigerant cycle of 105°F liquid and saturated Cond.701 Discharge Line 0.90 101.72 5.38 9.67 10.62 477. Water-cooled condensers.34 31.52 613.91 406.86 1.29 7.5 25.04 31.55 1.26 26.29 163.024 .45 701. psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length sate line to condenser without restricting cont = corresponding change in saturation temperature.65 3.00 15.37 0.13 80.99 6.996.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.69 86.45 3.10 37.66 51.79 4233. Type L Copper.36 56.31 0.8 6.65 17.873 0.42 11.45 13.53 270. © 2014 ASHRAE.48 0.87 174.29 21.39 1760.89 7.51 1.90 16.47 30.66 163.38 59.3 405.29 1057.67 0.16 3.60 464.12 2.76 9.8 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Table 7 Suction.32 0.10 2579.49 Saturated Suction Temperature.36 1520.29 184.9 15.60 410.87 601.34 5.10 1612.93 49.68 69.23 35.32 2.267 from NIST REFPROP program Version 6.20 0.6 80.93 217.34 33.18 0.11 589.57 3. °F –40 –20 0 20 Corresponding p.69 0.44 1273.50 0. Discharge.4 119.36 78.2 1.8 124.17 0.39 14.28 929.99 152.77 1.74 Line Size –60 0.2 11.84 342.5 144.96 1906.55 58.0 9443.15 0.40 1.77 8.53 1.25 143.17 0.12 11.75 36.9 252.06 4766.33 319.09 0. °F Line 5.52 78.6 104.9 351.44 1752. 2.2 2.88 48.01 1595.13 18.1 t = 1°F Drop p = 3.8 163.39 202.65 3.57 2.45 105.20 52.74 2.298..2 44.2 15.19 36.93 735.3 234.44 566.02 2180.08 12. Inc.80 720.14 88.73 1131. fall into this category.45 68.45 29.99 198.10 45.44 0.22 1.90 36.20 2.54 1.13 5684.01 1.0 69.2 7.07 0.48 9.48 214.06 2.04 0.75 183. b Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe 3.35 0.96 7.25 0.23 0.92 1414.00 436.8 59.14 58.88 41.1 3.30 33.94 623.45 0.com).76 6869.55 11.77 6101.4 41.28 12.14 0. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 80 1 1/2 80 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 8 40 10 40 12 IDb 14 30 16 30 a Sizing Discharge Lines ( t = 1°F.32 30. Sucevaporator outlet temperature.944 ities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.04 1.52 4.20 365. Multiply table capac110 0.01 979. generated in receiver must return up condenp = pressure drop from line friction.8 437.80 93.40 658.15 25.76 1.65 13.0 254.98 102.4 5019.79 553.22 3.43 0.41 973. °F per 100 ft densate flow.68 7.1 41.74 3.3 11.4 16.31 7.09 0.61 1.30 28.17 0. Line capacity for other saturation temperatures t and equivalent lengths Le where receiver ambient temperature may be 0.5 29.22 503.3 2857.19 86.27 1377.03 54.04 5.38 1095.163 6.09 20.48 4.36 5.93 476.99 2.4 174.88 91.6 2427.88 1.44 5526.65 0.24 4.52 3. tion temperature.75 1. Table L Table capacity e    0.54 198. °F –40 –20 0 20 Corresponding p.16 0.086.65 0.43 73.02 1.2 8.89 512.0 1513.11 12.63 15.9 64.957.77 1.08 2.27 17.91 5.70 323. For brazed Type L copper tubing larger than 1 1/8 in.79 1.014 1.81 0.18 6.66 1.03 3300.82 758.48 518.55  Table L Actual  t Line capacity = Table capacity  ----------------------e.79 0.32 1169.04 331.80 1.77 348.15 8.2 50.97 303.84 13. see Safety Requirements section.34 1530.18 0.0 847.13 1.76 Liquid Lines See note a 40 3.48 2.6 111.64 5249.8 198.65 psi) 0.005 1.66 290.06 213.41 7.90 127.54 43.74 13.58 140. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration.24 49.63 4.50 149.78 1.65 0.08 8.46 2. psi/100 ft 3.18 124.35 0.28 0.41 10.66 54.00 4509.5 1598.65 3.4 t = 5°F Drop p = 17.64 269.35 2.65 12.90 1.17 8. Thermophysical properties and viscosity data based on calculations 80 1.48 93.69 882.68 5.41 9. t = Table t  Actual L e  Actual capacity   -----------------------  ------------------------------------.51 0.13 1359.2 4.7 7.85 1053. 90 1.09 161.93 3.92 79.9 1586.0 3.75 3274.37 0.5 4270. Saturation temperature t for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 1.19 128.55 121.00 266. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.1 12. OD for discharge 100 1.69 4805.12 0.292.02 7.74 462.11 1447.84 30.40 38.95 129.79 19.36 3334.9 12.17 6.45 7.31 1.70 39.69 245.60 0.60 –60 shown is recommended where any gas Notes: 1.79 2304.63 21.57 28.32 189.70 20.62 14.15 41.40 41.51 2.or High-Stage Applications) Suction Lines ( t = 2°F) Licensed for single user.20 146.6 27.38 2.8 7715.43 17.24 12.8 2087.75 148.70 437.97 3.93 54.3 2.47 0.94 10.74 64.65 2.36 2046.87 866.62 1070.7 440.8 5.975 1. 7.94 473.65 2553.49 6.324.50 44.75 349.39 4.2 601.07 181.74 102.97 2817.97 584.60 0.35 382.09 40 3.7 27.76 3.57 1.6 1206.5 4622.76 2.5 22.14 891.56 45.76 28.96 59. ----------------------- higher than refrigerant condensing temperaActual L Table  t e   ture.18 21.7 8.56 2269.14 15.65 4756. 120 0.3 35.01.00 3488.4 35.61 24.19 1935.91 431.09 49.18 1.34 515.91 Saturated Suction Temperature.39 2.84 110.0 15.55 1.05 0.15 86.19 3265.50 259.99 103.13 168.24 99.96 11.826 130 0.6 0.55 3642.27 3449.27 296.6 777.5 714.43 80.08 0.3 18.70 0.

05 203.68 3867.38 6780.91 33.270.39 30.9 3.64 873.72 1244.70 385.25 184. Tons based on standard refrigerant cycle of 105°F liquid and saturated Cond.80 3277. p = 4.19 6.53 128.98 60.5 t = 5°F Drop p = 23.00 8.97 886.89 2437.184.95 98.17 0.13 2567.8 4383.53 52.95 4.7 498.85 0.71 1046.808 Discharge Line 0.39 1680.41 0.49 2.15 24.8 79.90 776.30 35.170 from NIST REFPROP program Version 6.125.43 67.3 t = 1°F Drop p = 4.65 293.64 12.41 88.33 7067.2 127.67 1376.31 0.220.44 70.52 13.76 1811.85 344.73 99.04 4.85 3875.51 1870.83 3.2 22.3 96.0 1284. °F –40 –20 0 20 Corresponding p.84 4.74 7.28 24.04 1229.4 28.1 276.92 33.31 551.77 216.91 6228. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 80 1 1/2 80 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 8 40 10 40 12 IDb 14 30 16 30 a Sizing –60 0.48 601.32 358.42 0.67 2.45 1292.90 331.05 0.63 63.73 3.64 435.46 960.84 232.91 1216.56 707.82 1733.78 4.26 242. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.48 1628.64 59.4 46.23 6.63 11.46 0.30 2.32 1054.41 61.85 4.20 177.10 1141.7 258.2 4.59 5.75 4.75 4.43 3.88 7.34 10.37 31.4 24.1 4.28 50.02 24.37 350.4 66.19 1022.9 63.59 1.32 5410.90 9.21 21.88 68.01.89 1.73 840.88 36.22 529.41 0.23 349.14 5.44 44. ----------------------- higher than refrigerant condensing temperaActual L Table  t e   ture. psi/100 ft 4.54 94.28 17.70 523.76 312.29 273. psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length sate line to condenser without restricting cont = corresponding change in saturation temperature.435.47 614.08 400.0 33.57 3.86 55.5 7.07 413.30 8.75 psi) Saturated Suction Temperature.2 102.3 1907.0 1090.7 15.81 20.14 9771.6 2313.91 1.95 1.78 7.13 39.99 6.17 0.32 97.31 0.58 13.43 140.829.58 55.0 10.29 58.92 106.6 65.90 115.87 1180.53 11.75 1.76 5.19 88.69 2.01 62.38 11.79 8.35 2.24 33.00 0.88 572. Line capacity for other saturation temperatures t and equivalent lengths Le where receiver ambient temperature may be 0.7 11.74 3.20 Saturated Suction Temperature.0 8308.23 Liquid Lines See note a 40 4. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration.00 18.29 1888.70 167.45 17.28 Discharge Lines (t = 1°F.48 0.05 370.63 437.62 2356.80 14.84 0.67 7.23 8.80 198. °F –40 –20 0 20 Corresponding p.0 793.98 13.77 5873.02 0.32 48.26 759.08 10.27 0.65 1.17 22.98 30.10 17.7 733.4 6.26 0.13 1056.81 100.11 3.83 208.581. Discharge.9 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Table 8 Suction. Table L Table capacity e    0.3 22.27 147.60 16.84 1.29 2. b Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe 3.56 11.01 20.977.67 23. Multiply table capac110 0.08 0.70 647.96 0.69 10.22 1.10 79.14 74.59 185.9 260.9 214.0 94.61 208.19 1130.41 2.53 40.57 161.06 30.7 5137.65 7999.74 27. Sucevaporator outlet temperature.13 0. generated in receiver must return up condenp = pressure drop from line friction.5 630. and Liquid Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 410A (Single.45 62. psi/100 ft 1.05 35.44 2064.6 8.23 85.52 2491.80 2089.20 111.82 166.45 658.16 34.48 3.5 399.13 686.88 4.17 1.75 426.44 304.49 4.88 1.20 208.942.71 715.2 6.0 17. °F Line 5. Thermophysical properties and viscosity data based on calculations 80 1.02 4.22 6. 90 1.49 2510. Liquid tons based on 20°F evaporator Temp.02 548.36 2.104 6.57 301.97 506.39 8.40 9980.92 2615.02 7. tion temperature.36 204.40 5679.46 5466.73 253. OD for discharge 100 1.82 329.889 130 0.51 0.14 9.69 1445.9 7655. Water-cooled condensers.91 2. t = Table t  Actual L e  Actual capacity   -----------------------  ------------------------------------.7 3741.41 24.47 2176..02 4.58 92.6 224.61 475.83 1.59 7.81 50.56 149.89 1779.66 633.8 size.93 1.6 692.1 648.90 302.88 20.37 0.73 5.66 141.8 91.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.83 4185.98 309.096 1.4 49.18 0.24 2268.31 1099.72 22.79 1.73 shown is recommended where any gas Notes: 1.2 2526.8 140.33 65.or High-Stage Applications) Suction Lines (t = 2°F) Licensed for single user.074.20 924.24 67.99 2569.75 1.5 63. see Safety Requirements section.05 3670.0 1398.7 459.4 3. Saturation temperature t for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 1.08 1.74 42.815 0.160 .83 25.com).5 41.44 369.67 2992.53 0.03 7342.98 Velocity = 100 fpm 2.50 0.10 0.59 3.34 26.75 5.74 4.88 4.035 or liquid service.41 124.09 16.3 10.74 5244.9 16.14 405.00 3500.964 ities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.8 66.6 30. fall into this category.19 89.7 6. Inc.85 2.963 1.716.62 0. 120 0.84 4. 2.35 2.27 1.00 266.3 13.12 262.4 17.6 45.7 24.98 1.13 10.86 5.03 22.06 10.2 176.445.68 1.56 91.21 594.0 1087.36 340. 7.76 316.48 3416.13 2.2 2729.19 293.0 3. °F per 100 ft densate flow.90 120.53 27.4 2851.22 173.50 12.68 2673.2 371.7 1564.14 8.93 1.48 119.77 0.02 15.89 53.79 40 –60 4.71 15.72 2.32 0.29 6187.6 14.16 84.69 1. © 2014 ASHRAE.25 1961.46 0.04 291.84 65.16 19.86 15.81 119.18 712.08 5575.35 0.16 0.81 1.23 7593.59 6048.76 3780.4 165.68 143.96 3549.46 14.87 1.22 103.79 57.03 165.27 2.27 42.1 29.75 4.7 9049.80 860.32 15.34 182.33 2.73 0.89 22.21 0.77 99.82 546.26 2137.29 11.26 1.92 5.09 2029.86 16. Line Size Type L Copper.6 42.14 155.71 24.69 0.16 1035.20 2.53 172.889 0.5 0.55  Table L Actual  t Line capacity = Table capacity  ----------------------e.06 33.92 7797.09 12.75 594.21 839.57 91.7 125.032 1. For brazed Type L copper tubing larger than 5/8 in.62 1.2 356.61 17.00 21.98 0.08 3.528.6 15.77 176.88 737.17 27.66 57.94 7820.89 685.62 191.59 12.86 988.647. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.5 1530.75 4.50 147.23 3852.15 2.75 1.66 3.43 20.23 2.57 131.54 284.561.78 72.28 5.79 993.

69 463.54 1.70 1.1 11.56 283.15 2643.74 2217.38 245.99 1350.43 7.49 256.5 53.19 0.65 1.8 3676.9 5.66 43.76 58. Liquid tons based on 20°F evaporator Temp.5 97.58 1383.7 12.0 24.93 471.02 2.88 Velocity = 100 fpm 2.33 39.86 739.5 1978.39 247.54 0.65 576.10 50.7 217.036 1.97 811.86 350.8 7.22 209.40 5209.50 86.60 1. and Liquid Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 407C (Single.37 0.25 95.09 –60 shown is recommended where any gas Notes: 1. For brazed Type L copper tubing larger than 2 1/8 in.74 41.72 1534.14 0.21 443.42 9.95 6600.70 141.97 175.53 12.61 199.92 0.31 568.85 1401.22 11. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.896 130 0.57 1.0 1969.08 0.24 226.3 0.0 25.06 2.49 23.38 2.17 3395. 7.22 2.9 11.36 2102.47 124.9 66.15 743.13 0.35 0. Discharge.74 8.30 0.79 68.83 20.2 2620.76 195.826.48 485.3 41.99 70.4 12.62 1072.14 290.54 961.21 1461.30 50.4 6.4 4.95 2622.82 8.3 0.24 2442.0 1182.28 2.8 35. p = 3.21 0.126.33 1385.70 44.42 4.55 725.182 .10 4066.44 26.93 19.3 3.08 0.6 28.24 274.23 2.1 68.44 22.55 125.66 34.21 100.40 118.81 0.17 0.19 1529.05 81.50 135.66 5.21 7.25 19.88 408. 120 0.62 1458.59 68.0 672.78 5.10 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Table 9 Suction.93 831.44 11.4 48. °F –40 –20 0 20 Corresponding p.25 74.3 907.435 0.5 11.46 505.42 260.42 2.99 205.54 250.26 1638.18 13.62 79.15 153.8 size.98 440.18 441.8 25.05 4.75 0.07 0. tion temperature.7 1131.26 37.72 3902.4 68.44 0.55 2.46 0.18 2.98 2.50 2076.15 15.22 7.97 141. Table capacities are in tons of refrigeration.16 0.61 714.67 3.54 1.17 2317.23 0. t = Table t  Actual L e  Actual capacity   -----------------------  ------------------------------------.18 0.5 717.40 24.29 Discharge Lines (t = 1°F.42 170.7 14.9 6.04 54.0 182.38 4223.2 10.96 1738.27 3.50 519.79 18.04 14.89 1.04 227.91 140.20 65. °F –40 –20 0 20 Corresponding p.23 879.86 1.75 60. 2.109 1.15 1.82 619.60 1790.62 7575.78 0. °F per 100 ft densate flow.11 0.15 37.09 659.63 1.74 2.80 1.3 25.491.45 0.49 3.04 351.54 193.10 3.25 1.79 3.88 5.48 7. fall into this category.4 t = 5°F Drop p = 16.25 302.15 86.50 2.25 81.50 11.39 234.9 181.641.59 25.94 103.47 1.65 12.13 28. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 80 1 1/2 80 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 8 40 10 40 12 IDb 14 30 16 30 a Sizing –60 0.68 16.15 0.68 370.73 3.68 27.42 14.43 42.or High-Stage Applications) Suction Lines (t = 2°F) Licensed for single user.27 0.27 88.50 9.46 35.55 7. °F Line 5.37 48.71 778.17 294.32 156.220.29 201.68 5.1 53.8 4.66 464.36 75.4 6.04 0.40 74.45 4349.48 4.01.40 0.63 417.16 0.3 4343.58 1.59 2923.03 39.7 77.59 14.13 11.82 4824.91 670.22 0.3 6514.52 1.4 t = 1°F Drop p = 3.82 1.89 181.42 27.27 0.79 0.62 2.56 4.07 6.90 15.59 130.7 611.64 36.38 8.5 3.10 17.2 7015.95 525.10 18.7 132.6 118.05 42.90 54.62 630.72 8. psi/100 ft 3.67 2.966 ities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.12 1289.90 16.43 2.4 2.8 18.84 187. generated in receiver must return up condenp = pressure drop from line friction.97 7.4 55.55  Table L Actual  t Line capacity = Table capacity  ----------------------e.05 12.23 14.34 323.96 85.68 0.56 112.45 48.13 8344.17 40 3. Table L Table capacity e    0.88 1674.55 1.14 1225. b Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe 3.37 5.00 42.3 psi) Saturated Suction Temperature.6 286.07 0.7 1.19 687.com).5 44.63 14.97 77.29 Saturated Suction Temperature.40 1.85 7270. Water-cooled condensers.47 1120.932. Saturation temperature t for other capacities and equivalent lengths Le 1.92 7867.5 2288.40 0. Thermophysical properties and viscosity data based on calculations 80 1.23 0.77 6258.49 3542.21 122.93 6.47 11.60 218.46 7.06 1.3 3.65 1406.70 92.03 5467.3 2405.7 1092.08 34.17 44.02 111.93 30.57 3.90 21.0 3.26 0.71 1.84 4.8 414.2 104.31 389.80 707.04 0.83 3359.00 4.099 6. © 2014 ASHRAE.47 907.61 2.41 78.86 742.11 2.54 4.37 20.8 385.15 1606.50 0.9 7599.23 2.23 324. psi/100 ft 0.89 57. Line Size Type L Copper.6 106.34 166. psi per 100 ft of equivalent line length sate line to condenser without restricting cont = corresponding change in saturation temperature. Inc.90 236.44 10.83 2545.74 10.47 123.9 8.64 28.35 46.1 420.0 190.86 4.26 3.02 5264.1 3.1 383.784.43 0.86 15.69 1.79 1.22 272.16 106.02 1.4 25.07 2.45 241.93 499.45 14.83 50.82 0.62 13.21 153.787 0.3 0. see Safety Requirements section.9 1281.14 6941.957 1.19 8.66 115.374.88 128.21 216.8 18.13 86. 90 1.3 18.6 18.77 1.98 0.26 0.91 4.8 267. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.57 42.58 1183.57 445.163 from NIST REFPROP program Version 6.64 4586.73 88.34 20.92 13.36 0.33 842.11 12.24 0. Multiply table capac110 0.33 3.38 26.6 669.74 1. OD for discharge 100 1.44 56.58 2204.16 0.12 2332.12 7. ----------------------- higher than refrigerant condensing temperaActual L Table  t e   ture.872 0.33 2.54 1.85 86.824 Discharge Line 0.19 120.13 2.50 7.305.32 0.334.33 2.3 1622.69 2. Sucevaporator outlet temperature.14 0.66 152.7 82.70 46.3 3.47 184.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.0 3184.54 63.29 4.39 21.64 0.40 42.84 278.30 10.46 5052. Line capacity for other saturation temperatures t and equivalent lengths Le where receiver ambient temperature may be 0.57 408.15 3725.13 4885.033 or liquid service. Tons based on standard refrigerant cycle of 105°F liquid and saturated Cond.06 425.99 10.7 37.46 599.17 Liquid Lines See note a 40 3.65 17.47 23.2 535.38 468.16 1162.38 5.3 303.46 23.18 17.01 33.81 3340..2 171.63 1.

90 17.52 115.40 0.93 31.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.90 29.90 54.24 0.50 26.08 4.90 20.07 31.73 2.21 236.53 13.com).16 3.10 21.50 53.00 86.77 5.37 0.40 58.75 5.77 1.95 121.29 0.30 16.02 47.62 2.94 3.97 1.50 42.20 2.71 7.552 p = 1.42 20.39 18.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.85 94.39 0.31 2.02 1.80 60.70 39.80 14.00 27. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 40 1 1/2 40 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 8 40 10 40 12 ID* Saturated Suction Temperature.48 252.02 p = pressure drop from line friction.17 0.30 0.66 0.30 27.82 168.18 0.22 0.91 4.61 1.36 0.15 155. °F –40 –20 0 20 40 t = 1°F t = 0.44 17. psi per 100 ft equivalent line length t = change in saturation temperature corresponding to pressure drop.45 2. °F 20 30 t = 0.13 0.40 0.86 98.23 18.16 163.26 0.73 7.21 146.05 451.59 1.50 48.79 81.08 0.01 5.10 81.28 3.88 6.35 1.48 0.52 0.84 1.07 344.90 58.20 0.53 639.82 1.00 237.27 0.34 39.42 0.48 0.29 12.18 1.49 1.31 0.00 13.16 0.13 12.43 11.18 0.29 17.22 0.50 74.84 3.88 2.86 4.80 43.73 10.81 1.81 93.38 2.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.16 0.60 89.42 0.00 24.21 0. Line Size Type L Copper.00 172.36 2.64 4.80 32.36 238.74 876.30 41.47 56.31 6.27 115.27 0.67 1.50 19.94 606.25 0.85 10.45 0.30 157.55 13.10 22.38 3.41 10.71 43. Suction Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 134a (Single.25 0.72 0.73 10.27 0. °F per 100 ft 0.35 2.45 2.31 3.11 95.20 61.09 31.88 7.20 0.00 194.58 0.00 209.15 3.31 3.48 3.40 3.33 14.19 0.74 969.00 0.19 0.37 0.91 7.30 0.24 207.25 0.15 0.11 Table 10 Suction Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 22 (Single.16 0.75 683.86 1.17 400.44 4.05 881.51 0.00 0.00 .56 27.40 77.74 15.70 484.38 23.31 20.04 0.19 12.60 23.79 8.00 40 t = 1°F p = 0.75 5.85 0.42 0.77 334.78 2.33 13.20 40.60 97.32 6.30 0.58 0.49 7.84 2.40 4.09 1.727 0.20 38.72 14.35 8.29 488.93 19.10 0.25 65.60 148.30 46.50 20.03 4.53 39.99 8.80 106.12 0.42 0.14 22.93 1.59 1.68 66.39 0.15 0.11 36.50 47.10 20.37 5.40 7.21 3.53 15. OD 1/2 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 40 1 1/2 40 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 0.00 24.61 9.60 0.89 3.48 0.00 64.49 1.5°F p = 0.04 139.22 0.81 15.72 7.86 9.59 1410.46 0.104 p = 0.25 0.21 3.10 102.99 2.30 29.12 0.57 4.15 0.35 16.70 125.56 1.07 0.30 28.74 0.90 38.10 121.95 1. © 2014 ASHRAE.59 335.80 55.393 p = 0.05 76.22 4.16 0.86 0.90 3.97 11.73 7.81 46.02 3.26 63.50 7.20 11.36 3.97 16.27 11.60 1.13 0.32 8.75 0.53 7. °F per 100 ft Table 11 0.19 19.22 19.09 2.51 995.or High-Stage Applications) Licensed for single user.20 25.50 0.00 165.65 40.26 5.13 20.27 0.29 1.67 1.19 10.60 p = pressure drop from line friction.97 0.04 68.11 0.93 98. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems 1.30 0.89 2.96 1.62 1.99 56.84 11.00 83.29 0.12 101.35 15.62 1.87 16.10 30.03 66.09 25.55 6.70 1.813 p = 0.38 27.24 0.74 1.00 7.22 22.60 21.27 2.12 0.20 24.05 0.69 1.00 45.95 1.35 p = 0.09 0.50 0.51 7.00 0.03 5.00 134.72 10.86 2.75 284.38 14.30 37.59 17.54 5.40 67.24 42.88 3.71 686. psi per 100 ft equivalent line length t = change in saturation temperature corresponding to pressure drop.43 4.21 0.79 1402.90 35.49 71.08 1.74 26.10 79.48 5.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.70 82.18 0.00 Saturated Suction Temperature.5°F p = 0.19 0.04 28.93 10.19 622.40 57.71 1243.289 p = 0.17 28.22 0 10 t = 1°F p = 0.78 282.97 1.64 6.70 18.42 3.91 0.20 16.97 13.00 0.96 22.07 0.87 4.25 6.10 16.26 11.38 403.97 0.12 134.96 4.30 0.00 0.or High-Stage Applications) Line Size Type L Copper.84 2.20 11. Inc.31 0.23 0.455 p = 0.23 8.35 0.51 2.20 71.14 221.78 0.99 10.38 236.48 6.00 9.46 3.30 p = 0.37 0.99 1.40 t = 1°F p = 0.12 0.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.37 0.64 1987.23 57.55 2.60 30.77 1.59 1.53 103.09 0.24 0.01 15.85 44.35 0.50 33.92 10.36 0.70 39.98 66.73 108.40 40.75 5.29 0.11 0.50 47.5°F p = 0.406 p = 1.60 129.07 0.13 0.53 0.12 0.94 2.20 0.43 0.21 427.577 p = 0.21 2.20 68.65 1.25 0.86 1.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.83 p = 0.05 9.30 23.30 10.30 44.78 14.03 6.20 49.10 0.19 0.45 5.20 67.25 2.95 28.90 0.5°F p = 0.00 t = 0.36 41.08 0.34 3.80 0.33 0.14 6.50 140.77 2.80 t = 0.70 32.66 2.30 98.71 p = 0.52 1.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.23 0.63 *Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe size.35 0.15 0.80 50.06 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00 108.87 4.89 12.55 8.06 177.33 4.59 1.70 69.80 113.197 p = 0.20 63.34 0.92 6.26 2.10 0.63 0.67 5.69 0.73 147.00 148.26 29.43 30.20 34.14 0.90 4.47 12.45 1.50 91.32 6.81 4.20 86.08 0.

246 1.15 239.29 0.21 0.63 2.92 322.5°F p = 0.27 83.68 7.96 10.15 0.03 0.19 0. *Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe size.08 0.85 1.705 p = 0.17 9.50 201.36 3.11 0.82 124.com).93 244.52 0.04 0.75 528.07 0.02 1.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.65 60.39 241.66 98.36 0.38 344.80 1.24 1064.60 1.64 130.051 0.29 98.40 299.48 102.59 55. 3.37 18.30 13.63 72.or High-Stage Applications) Licensed for single user.17 0.12 90.63 3.05 1119.66 6.14 245.33 0.28 1533.61 6.44 2336.65 86.84 4.33 6.59 0.04 0.28 348.49 0.80 1.58 41.85 9.07 7.61 60.02 0.30 27.32 –40 t = 0.00 139.25 0.22 2. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.77 424.75 233.38 16.27 25.16 0.40 751.90 59.16 0. 4.66 34.58 330.92 24.35 783.08 284.05 1.79 58.71 9.06 0.98 418.91 1.80 350.60 823.02 482.84 1.64 86.98 4.06 0.81 211.70 1.22 1.73 13.91 33.06 0.70 294.20 373.37 0.57 50.07 0.09 131.46 3.98 p = 0.63 41.19 0.08 0.50 9.24 11.11 0.94 0.41 1108.655 t = 1°F p = 1.91 1252.82 62.05 0.17 48.08 57.13 0.02 0.55 1.71 34.48 514.59 50.87 985.76 8.45 12.05 0.94 3.83 1.20 59.22 683. °F 80 90 100 110 120 130 Suction Line 1. Inc.32 8.09 0.52 0.57 5.93 1.31 t = 0.57 24.25 85.55 1.17 0.15 2.99 725.53 8. Line Size Type L Copper.04 0.5°F p = 0.19 1585. °F –20 0 t = 1°F t = 0.74 5.42 0.70 20.61 363.37 64.07 45.15 0.15 0.37 0.09 0.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.5°F p = 0.47 146.35 23.63 1.33 2.19 55.80 1.34 3.08 423.62 1613.50 1.16 9.67 38. t = change in saturation temperature corresponding to pressure drop.51 3302.38 10.20 0.78 329.86 10.50 26.10 0.64 7.40 6.84 14.72 1. © 2014 ASHRAE.01 128.32 16.723 .54 21.67 3.19 0.70 1.17 1.36 0.38 0.40 0.95 103.78 5.99 14.32 0.12 1.63 0.16 207.37 47.94 0.48 0.98 0.65 218.48 15.62 766.25 0.35 0.95 3.02 7.12 0.24 5.08 20.29 182.03 0.23 6.38 4.39 0.98 24.84 0.00 43.63 186.16 0.78 10.70 0.243 Saturated Suction Temperature. Tons based on standard refrigerant cycle of 105°F liquid and saturated evaporator outlet temperature.86 2.77 1. 2.5°F p = 0.5°F p = 0.21 2.07 0.33 16.13 1772.37 5.86 228.90 2295.54 1.30 0.05 1.24 2.82 5.65 2.97 128.64 54.63 Notes: 1.14 602.485 0.49 1.19 0. Liquid tons based on 20°F evaporator temperature.35 20 40 t = 1°F p = 1.29 82.62 0.34 0.60 3.13 0.62 0.17 35.66 20.17 0.25 0.36 78.25 0.51 5.29 0.13 0.42 11.11 0.23 23. Thermophysical properties and viscosity data based on calculations from NIST REFPROP program Version 6.48 4.13 18.95 14.11 0.92 695.78 2.93 4.66 20.150 1.35 0.38 85.41 1082.61 496.47 0.47 170. Condensing Temperature.25 10.99 122.45 111.13 0.54 0.24 0.72 t = 0.68 158.79 1.26 0.03 69.01.93 185.48 40.56 1.75 0.40 0.07 3.69 1.96 28.41 13.27 541.00 0.61 22.49 t = 0.96 5.29 5.78 17.34 580.09 6.35 866.70 2.23 0.14 2.01 30.81 3.30 2.26 3.09 207.10 0.21 0.36 39.06 23.27 0.53 38.19 68.52 4.08 151.64 33.09 14.04 504.45 5.22 0.840 0.84 613.353 p = 0.76 0.42 31.04 39.53 13. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 80 80 80 80 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 ID* 30 30 –60 t = 1°F p = 0.85 62.35 109.83 71.28 116.70 70.32 1621.33 12.02 2284.02 0.33 0.32 1224.17 27.86 36.32 100.31 299.46 0. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.948 0.12 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Table 12 Suction Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 404A (Single.40 16.87 14.08 0.24 0.22 89.57 8.50 5.13 11.74 37.62 142.05 38.67 149.42 25.47 33.71 0.74 17.53 433.48 6.37 227.03 0.40 19.34 0.41 0.39 3.75 19. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.67 3.25 143.09 200.59 1.16 t = 1°F p = 0.50 2.32 0.86 0.16 0.62 166.19 25.97 2.09 2. °F per 100 ft.

50 547.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.83 144.66 250.80 1.70 25.355 t = 0.74 88.16 173.69 21.13 6.28 0.54 5.18 774.51 86.99 41.95 10.5°F p = 0.37 0.90 60.56 1.01 190.08 0.37 185.92 17.16 0.87 18.32 0.82 25.75 0.36 0.40 27.54 16.24 1.43 0.16 0.57 4.06 0.90 22.19 0.168 t = 1°F p = 0.16 7.70 585.38 440.74 6.9 0.93 35.71 70.51 36.13 0.44 16.39 8.10 0.56 231.10 0.73 p = 0.99 202.59 1.58 1237.8 t = 0.31 997. °F 80 90 100 110 120 130 Suction Line 1. t = change in saturation temperature corresponding to pressure drop.09 14.22 98.5°F p =0.48 0.19 0.91 0.23 73.36 2.61 8.29 10.99 3.32 23.37 0.78 9.15 0. 2.96 55.47 0.88 424.31 0.66 2.73 1.41 0.56 611.17 0.17 0.11 0.12 0.32 5.04 10.81 1.25 0.29 14.73 0.21 0.63 739.31 3.13 0.90 0.38 0.51 11.52 0.65 188.78 8.11 0.25 9.02 0.267 1.64 33.51 236. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.66 91.07 0.06 65.37 3.53 59.16 299.54 12.42 0.38 1131.79 0.26 0.61 1.73 3.04 0.73 151.21 354.33 2.335 40 t = 0.51 10.24 11.59 209. Inc.68 6.98 126.34 246.12 3.33 104.90 10.52 349.85 1.03 5.63 5.03 87.20 0.36 113.89 90.28 21.13 1.53 19.23 0.29 5.87 1.04 0.94 168.54 27.24 2.83 14.79 39.38 13.22 0.17 0.43 4.18 14.68 1126.09 7.56 9.69 104.73 0.11 0.73 49.83 1074.46 0.75 535.42 366.98 38.62 124.07 1.74 Notes: 1.365 p = 1.16 2.53 26.53 0.85 50.39 6.06 242.65 0.01 p = 0.20 55.18 215.71 23. 4.163 1.99 160. *Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe size. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.06 0.81 1.66 154.07 1.38 428.38 38.78 129.78 248.43 0.80 8.51 1.13 84.08 0.31 6.06 0.5°F p = 0.49 3.19 0.63 514.35 0. °F per 100 ft.69 13.77 1.65 3.13 0.26 29.24 24.19 0.19 205.94 222.23 2.91 3358. Thermophysical properties and viscosity data based on calculations from NIST REFPROP program Version 6.41 0.26 0.95 1.31 1648.76 7.30 0.826 0.98 41.80 0.20 1092.07 334.10 111.72 119.04 0.505 20 40 t = 1°F p = 1.07 0.34 830.40 40.19 30.48 60.63 3.or High-Stage Applications) Licensed for single user.40 34. Tons based on standard refrigerant cycle of 105°F liquid and saturated evaporator outlet temperature.98 21.16 37.55 0.03 0.62 55.90 9.07 0.5°F p = 0.55 6.56 1.13 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Table 13 Suction Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 507A (Single. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 40 1 1/2 40 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 8 40 10 40 12 ID* 14 30 16 30 60 t = 1°F p = 0.71 502.86 20.03 377.71 1. Liquid tons based on 20°F evaporator temperature.09 1550.58 48.70 3.98 0.34 0.52 13.70 3. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.96 4.88 4.53 5.55 2333.57 17.51 18.57 332.35 0.79 6.37 0.13 0.28 37.41 5.91 99.16 0.71 1.01.678 t = 1°F p = 1.253 Saturated Suction Temperature.92 357.701 .88 5.33 0.58 15.07 24.06 0.69 1630.11 2308.36 0.10 519.70 1.49 7.40 16.5°F p = 0.40 0.09 0.09 0.13 0.43 11.35 23.85 623.33 145.13 0.com).64 758.65 2.45 147.74 0.84 1.95 79.17 0.78 0.23 0.50 1.19 875. © 2014 ASHRAE.22 0.37 10. Condensing Temperature.81 2.52 4.50 693.055 0.95 19.66 1802.20 1.51 71. 3.06 14.50 304.93 34.76 704.60 0.80 140.25 0.19 0.66 8.82 1.27 2.99 2.39 12.03 0.69 39.21 83.02 0.41 61.944 0.29 18.04 35.57 2375.79 210.25 0.89 302.11 42.60 797.92 61.10 2.61 58.87 5.22 71.42 3.37 25.39 0.11 0.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.76 134.94 14.02 327.52 46.39 1602.97 3.52 2.73 130.25 0.07 86.77 32.62 69.05 51.41 3.92 21.505 t = 0.03 1. Line Size Type L Copper.57 1.03 0.04 1273.37 63.54 5.16 2.14 0.46 488.37 63.86 133.19 101.36 287.37 43.29 230.65 0.05 0.83 0.85 3.55 1.30 431.30 0. °F 20 0 t = 1°F t = 0.93 1.70 26.65 1.11 0.90 3.02 4.

37 15.89 2.21 0.30 357.44 0.90 29.25 0.26 150.34 11.48 15.13 114.45 2.15 336.40 34.79 184.60 64.94 10.45 0.85 128.06 8.68 616. Line Size Type L Copper.79 1.03 31. Tons based on standard refrigerant cycle of 105°F liquid and saturated evaporator outlet temperature.89 644.64 0.20 0.62 2087.00 0.12 39. Inc.643 t = 1°F  p = 0.05 0.80 365.56 7.94 47.52 263.64 1333.47 5. Thermophysical properties and viscosity data based on calculations from NIST REFPROP program Version 6.70 428.93 12.08 27.63 1.79 15.09 21.00 2955.29 0.865 t = 1°F  p = 2.58 71.52 152.08 0.56 3894.84 24.02 6.21 0.61 0.66 11.61 1.58 934.02 3.80 1.19 4.20 21.33 353.26 59.88 10.17 0.73 1259.18 608.60 3.90 5.08 218.52 246.24 101.21 t = 1°F  p = 0.02 586.92 1.51 156.08 164.71 238.43 20.15 0.67 1.71 0.14 212.11 5505.36 0.24 32.52 21.38 0.06 0.12 10.14 67.81 1.63 0.28 2.88 100.30 44.889 0.46 0.12 0. *Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe size.80 46.02 0.11 0.57 221.64 504.92 0.72 23.34 0.42 t = 0.56 140.16 16.98 19.69 1.32 0.52 164.42 0.08 0.12 4.23 0.14 0.170 1.43 1847.96 3.80 19.98 4.25 3.5°F  p = 0.15 1.14 0.48 1.55 696.18 271.43 35.22 372.46 41.09 722.35 0.73 t = 0.63 0.42 97.14 171.79 798.63 174.57 1.00 16.95 5.54 23.21 0.03 1921.33 27.45 1.51 912.18 0.27 127.34 49.58 1459.92 11.30 583.48 64.96 9.51 115.73 1.45 12.24 0. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 40 1 1/2 40 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 8 40 10 40 12 ID* 14 30 16 30 –60 –40 Saturated Suction Temperature.62 84.11 2.15 2.81 233.08 24.42 2.318 0.75 71.25 t = 0.04 9.12 102.04 Notes: 1.32 16.82 1279.82 61.22 179.74 7.28 5.20 10.01 1.94 2.04 340.63 107. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.11 12. °F –20 0 t = 1°F t = 0.07 0.57 8.21 73. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature. 3.65 16.96 47.90 67.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.54 96.46 10.99 483.104 1.25 6.16 7.01 3.15 8.56 45.04 0.04 355.10 0.20 0.68 144. © 2014 ASHRAE.22 0.41 0.04 79.30 1306.925  p = 0.62 Condensing Temperature.25 104.60 4.32 44.34 2.39 121.64 1.98 1.49 11.13 122.60 56.21 1322.964 0.81 18.61 59.66 4.04 28.32 0.65 1.32 0.50 382.69 0.82 142.90 1932.14 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Table 14 Suction Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 410A (Single.23 0.60 0.25 25.635 t = 0.66 98.10 0.22 0.09 0.96 1887.91 3942.84 69. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.11 0.98 19.93 434.47 84.50 858.77 236.75 265.62 164.43 2.12 1208.88 28.18 0. 2.39 1811.70 1029.09 2735.87 3.47 491.78 5.53 43.44 282.25 0.17 252.44 1494.34 6.78 71.06 42.59 843.55 516.90 0.29 204.02 42.125 0.08 4.29 175.01.04 0.38 2702.36 2.81 6.44 86.37 46.84 62.26 79.42 13.37 0.16 0. Liquid tons based on 20°F evaporator temperature.38 2.88 3.57 1.035 0.285  p = 0.21 287.94 29.5°F  p = 0.59 11.70 257.69 0.73 685.38 2724.86 4.29 7.82 34.80 1.45 731.76 4.90 6.64 887.463  p = 1.46 0.02 812.56 309.06 972.08 253.20 6.79 1.808 .74 2113.54 0.89 121.16 6.5°F  p = 1.44 2.04 1.93 145.96 6.74 2.5°F  p = 0.44 0.29 0.50 11.15 0.65 1150.62 24.27 2.59 0.92 4.42 0.53 29. 4.99 1.93 385.60 29.22 1.21 9.43 0.30 69.29 0.16 21.66 405. °F 80 90 100 110 120 130 Suction Line 1.38 16.76 1022.59 2784.50 195.43 39.90 1.com).03 100.19 9.94 8.06 0.10 16.85 17.22 7.05 0.31 0.5°F t = 1°F t = 0.23 90.94 1.06 45.29 0.18 1.59 27. 20 40 t = 1°F  p = 1.28 2.48 38.41 0.35 14.37 2.67 0.13 0.92 563.33 0.15 30.09 33.99 3.73 5.01 0. °F per 100 ft.76 407.54 67.95 414.16 114.45 0.66 6.76 596.13 0.92 1.36 48.94 4.5°F  p = 0.02 3826.37 41.63 1.01 499.03 60.55 0. t = change in saturation temperature corresponding to pressure drop.or High-Stage Applications) Licensed for single user.

52 0.05 0.77 80.90 157.45 0.84 3.32 181.35 66.26 38.72 9.32 156.42 7.66 138.36 24.09 0.78 1.58 1557.53 77.56 4.96 73.51 0.98 4.57 1.66 1.18 406.30 0.79 136.19 1.109 t = 1°F  p = 0.25 0.35 t = 0.47 35.06 225.73 3.74 20.82 10.22 0. Line Size Type L Copper. *Pipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe size.60 1.56 3.68 3.97 1.00 37.51 834.17 0. 3.36 14.03 1.18 21.11 141.81 87.56 369.66 1.24 54.31 0.75 3.5°F  p = 0.62 22.27 0.22 13.775  p = 0.25 132.17 0.88 37.77 20.31 25.20 150.20 17. °F –20 0 t = 1°F t = 0.01 61.42 0. Condensing Temperature.38 1307.81 1.68 5.63 558.25 5.91 3.com).40 0.73 97.29 23.31 213.38 99.56 0.03 0.84 17.16 0. 2.52 60.18 0.99 1665.72 110.09 0.07 0.07 0.23 2. °F per 100 ft.10 0.04 0.32 9.10 76.67 13.57 3.66 48.28 8.85 437.86 286.98 892.06 0.21 0.35 35.11 0.30 25.35 0.24 0.40 58.31 477.86 978.22 243.77 19.86 1.94 6.08 0.06 2.93 2.09 14.73 0.74 1.13 0.33 87.05 0.41 117.92 1851.17 228.66 2.74 0.53 1. © 2014 ASHRAE.61 0.16 1.03 41.16 12.34 3.265  p = 0.68 1.824 .86 8.10 0.98 8.83 1.099 1.05 0.896 0.82 18.01.62 108.31 51.87 108.48 0.46 104.75 60.69 0.00 56.18 75.75 54.03 0.83 160.25 8.49 4.83 0.16 0.04 0.10 327.48 0.03 6.06 0.28 0.175 Saturated Suction Temperature.38 0.72 5.49 522.01 38.92 3.47 126.04 43.74 678.58 1693.96 226.70 1.91 220. Liquid tons based on 20°F evaporator temperature.48 2.06 0.36 0.24 29.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.79 0.25 0.68 107. Multiply table capacities by the following factors for other condensing temperatures.39 13.14 0.98 0.20 0.57 19.54 t = 1°F  p = 1.60 5.41 5.43 791.30 26.64 88.15 0.98 1.52 10.35 349.79 1.08 0.74 6.25 1265.60 2. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.32 0.47 5.49 12.02 0.20 0.64 1158.14 361.15 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Table 15 Suction Line Capacities in Tons for Refrigerant 407C (Single.60 817.32 11.64 221.94 15.97 523.18 314.41 588.08 41.20 16.61 9.97 84.34 59.05 0.88 1.09 1.34 230.36 37.10 0.79 4. 4.22 0.48 7.22 231.58 61.03 176.10 251.56 60.63 93.54 0.34 329.37 0.53  p = 0.35 196.12 0.67 42.39 21.18 2.94 0.5°F  p = 0.5°F  p = 0.52 0.20 0.09 0.74 168.05 32.36 3.34 0.33 762.56 1.5°F  p = 0.17 640.63 52.00 21.02 0. t = change in saturation temperature corresponding to pressure drop.61 0.61 8. Inc.05 38.or High-Stage Applications) Licensed for single user.22 3.04 12.67 63.40 0.70 2.90 308.40 62.73 26.17 0.09 96.46 0.49 6.36 0.66 34.22 203.18 0.69 5.38 0.30 0.53 3.5°F t = 1°F t = 0. Values based on 105°F condensing temperature.00 30.64 1080.72 33.45 10.18 3.92 10.08 t = 0.48 0.82 41.04 585.11 0. OD 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 5 1/8 6 1/8 8 1/8 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 1/2 80 3/4 80 1 80 1 1/4 40 1 1/2 40 2 40 2 1/2 40 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 40 8 40 10 40 12 ID* 14 30 16 30 –60 t = 1°F  p = 0.46 t = 0.12 3.35 6.25 0.77 1.89 14.69 748.94 0.85 10.77 4.82 0.26 2.26 452.39 0.60 151.33 0.38 2397.28 0.12 0.97 0.77 9.56 1.71 29.05 0.09 137.90 9.19 0.24 2440.87 1.13 0.82 201.20 1.30 21.90 1155.51 1.91 23.24 5.00 7.00 Notes: 1.48 0.27 0.29 413.42 27.81 30.06 18.11 5.70 37.39 193.28 0.388 20 40 t = 1°F  p = 1. Thermophysical properties and viscosity data based on calculations from NIST REFPROP program Version 6.44 13. Tons based on standard refrigerant cycle of 105°F liquid and saturated evaporator outlet temperature.033 0.90 26.218 –40 t = 0.39 23.64 326.15 0. °F 80 90 100 110 120 130 Suction Line 1.91 1099.84 1.43 9.84 6.65 313.39 0.43 368.07 18.82 52.92 16.41 16.11 0.85 1636.12 4.26 2.32 0.09 0.09 7.14 123.05 0.53 5.84 3.08 520.48 1.98 14.15 0.71 67.19 2.30 40.02 0.71 2.44 2358.05 288.98 689.966 0.24 503.05 3454.163 1.5°F  p = 0.73 2.24 13.06 0.10 2.14 127.03 0.23 89.21 0.

0 23. miscibility is reduced.0 25.0 20.0 26. This reduces the possibility of oil coating the evaporator surface and hindering heat transfer.2 6.0 40.0 62.0 3.0 10.3 8.0 29.8 ft 69. In the evaporator. Oil Management in Refrigerant Lines Oil Circulation.3 1.0 25.0 5.0 4. Determine the line size and pressure drop equivalent (in degrees) for the suction line of a 30 ton R-22 system.1 ton.0 26.0 33.0 50.0 60.2 10.6 2. refrigerant continuously carries oil into the discharge line from the compressor.4 1.0 42. however.0 21.6 6.6 2.0 16.0 81. Flanged.8 0. The concentration of refrigerant in the oil depends on the evaporator temperature and types of refrigerant and oil used.4 1. Oil that leaves the compressor or oil separator reaches the condenser and dissolves in the liquid refrigerant.0 23.5.0 44.1°F or 1.0 60. Table 16 Fitting Losses in Equivalent Feet of Pipe (Screwed.7 0.9 1.8/100)(30/34.1 5.6 6.7 8. OD results in a 2°F loss per 100 ft equivalent length. in. Using automatic capacity control on compressors requires careful analysis and design.0 38.0 12. and some oil separates to form an oil-rich layer near the top of the liquid level in a flooded evaporator. Solution: Add 50% to the straight length of pipe to establish a trial equivalent length.0 12.0 55.3 4.5 5.0 2. Oil that finds its way into the system must be managed.3 2.5 7.0 33.0 7.0 94.0 26.8 = 1. they are not 100% effective.9 6.5 11.0 33.0 30.0 — — — — — — — — 2.3 2.0 68.0 115.0 ft 19. All compressors lose some lubricating oil during normal operation.3 1.03  33.0 78.0 42. Because flooded halocarbon systems can be elaborate. Trial equivalent length is 50  1.7 3. Inc. Coalescing oil separators are far better than separators using only mist pads or baffles.1 3. The compressor can load and unload as it modulates with system load requirements Example 2.2 4. 105°F condensing).3 8.0 34.0 1.0 16.0 40.0 approximately equal to 1.0 13.6 3. 1.7 2.0 13.0 6. systems using halocarbon refrigerants must return this oil at the same rate at which it leaves (Cooper 1971).0 1.0 20.7 4.9 1.2 1.0 50.2 3.0 5.0 50.1)1. Oil separated in the evaporator is returned to the compressor by gravity or by drag forces of the returning gas.0 7.3 2. capacity at 40°F evaporator and 100°F condensing temperature is 1.0 2.1 1.0 23. Suction line is copper tubing.0 — — — — — — — — b R/D 0. 0.5 = 75 ft. Table 3. the oil becomes a gummy mass that prevents refrigerant controls from functioning.0 19.3 8.3 4. the refrigerant evaporates.2 10.0 9. As temperature decreases.6 3. © 2014 ASHRAE. and Brazed Connections) 90° Stda 90° LongRadiusb Smooth Bend Elbows 90° 45° Streeta Stda 45° Streeta 180° Stda Flow Through Branch Nominal Pipe or Tube Size. In general.0 13.0 5.0 10.0 4.com). Flared.5 9.0 25.7 8.9 2.0 60.0 2. direct-expansion and liquid overfeed system evaporators have fewer oil return problems than do flooded system evaporators because refrigerant flows continuously at velocities high enough to sweep oil from the evaporator.0 20.0 40. If the temperature is very low.0 12.0 100. From Table 3 (for 40°F suction.0 2.0 19.0 40.0 8.0 26.5 9.4 4.0 29.0 . 1990). Welded.1 = 34.0 30.0 8. operating at 40°F suction and 100°F condensing temperatures.4 7.0 13.0 23. some designers avoid them.0 1. and the oil must be returned to the compressor.0 5.0 34. Except for most centrifugal compressors and rarely used nonlubricated compressors.9 6.0 6.3 4.0 16.6 7.9 10.5 3.2 10. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. System Capacity Reduction.8 ft t = 2(69.0 30.0 50.3 2.0 42.0 17. Oil mixes well with halocarbon refrigerants at higher temperatures.9 1.0 Smooth Bend Tees Straight-Through Flow No Reduction Reduced 1/4 Reduced 1/2 0.0 35.0 7.6 psi Licensed for single user. long-radius elbows at 3 ft each (Table 16) Total equivalent length = = = 50.0 15.2 4.4 1.0 18. 33.0 18.0 approximately equal to 1. Oil’s effect on pressure drop is large.0 15. 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 a R/D 1. Proper oil management is often key to a properly functioning system. Low-temperature systems using hot-gas defrost can also be designed to sweep oil out of the circuit each time the system defrosts.0 16.6 2.2 10.0 15.0 12.7 2.0 16. with 50 ft of straight pipe and six long-radius elbows. increasing the pressure drop by as much as a factor of 10 (Alofs et al. Flooded evaporators can promote oil contamination of the evaporator charge because they may only return dry refrigerant vapor back to the system.0 50.6 3. The viscosity of the oil/refrigerant solution is determined by the system parameters.16 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration One of the most difficult problems in low-temperature refrigeration systems using halocarbon refrigerants is returning lubrication oil from the evaporator to the compressors.4 1.1 5.1 5.0 10.4 1.3 4. Straight pipe length Six 2 in. and the liquid phase becomes enriched in oil. blocks flow passages.0 21.0 30.0 70. a heat source must distill the refrigerant.1 3.5 3.2 4.1 2.0 13. Because oil inevitably leaves the compressor with the discharge gas.0 5.0 17. and fouls heat transfer surfaces. This trial size is used to evaluate actual equivalent length. Most of this oil can be removed from the stream by an oil separator and returned to the compressor.0 18.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.7 5.0 13.0 25.0 21.6 3. enabling it to pass readily through the liquid line to the evaporator.1 tons capacity in 2 1/8 in.7 5.1 5.0 25.0 30.7 2.0 14. Skimming systems must sample the oil-rich layer floating in the drum.0 38.0 1.6 3.0 85. Referring to Note 4.2 6.

the minimum capacity is the lowest capacity at which the unit can operate. oil can be transported with normal design velocities.5 1.0 163.0 1.8 3.0 6.0 — — 1.0 0.3 2.0 3.0 10.2 8.8 8. If a correctly sized suction riser imposes too great a pressure drop at full load. In addition.0 25.6 7.5 3.5 2.5 0. Because most compressors have multiple capacity-reduction features.0 60.0 45.9 1. Table 19 translates these criteria to minimum refrigeration capacity requirements for oil transport. horizontal lines should be sized to keep total pressure drop within practical limits.0 3.5 7.7 5. When the suction riser is sized to allow oil return at the minimum operating capacity of the system.0 2.0 115.0 15. Assume the minimum system loading is 10 tons at 40°F suction and 105°F condensing temperatures with 15°F superheat. Many refrigeration piping systems contain a suction riser because the evaporator is at a lower level than the compressor.5 11.7 11.4 5.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.0 13.8 2. and 100%. Higher velocities are also necessary if the pipe diameter increases. OD pipe at 40°F suction and 90°F liquid temperature has a minimum capacity of 7.0 108.0 20.0 20.0 15. and multiple compressors connected in parallel can unload to a system capacity of 12. suction risers must be sized for actual gas conditions in the riser.8 4.0 115.0 3.0 17.0 Nominal Pipe or Tube Size.0 60.6 2. Oil Return up Suction Risers: Multistage Systems. The following example demonstrates the use of Table 19 in establishing maximum riser sizes for satisfactory oil transport down to minimum partial loading. d/D Sudden Contraction.0 12.4 1.0 20. For a single compressor with capacity control. pressure drop in this portion of the line may be too great when operating at full load.0 47.0 37. gas velocities required to return oil up through vertical suction risers under all load conditions are difficult to maintain. For oil to flow up along a pipe wall.5 1.2 tons. The minimum conditions for oil transport correlate with buoyancy forces (i.0 3.6 4. Suction risers must be sized for minimum system capacity.8 8.0 96.0 73.5% or lower.2 1. Greater gas velocities are required as temperature drops and the gas becomes less dense.0 163.0 142.9 6.0 16. Solution: From Table 19.8 5.0 18.2 1. Oil circulating in the system can return up gas risers only by being transported by returning gas or by auxiliary means such as a trap and pump.0 29.0 33.6 3. through a considerable range of capacity.0 130.0 20.0 25. System piping must be designed to return oil at the lowest loading.0 12.0 83.8 2.0 12.0 24.0 1.2 11.0 46. and momentum flux of vapor) (Jacobs et al.0 35. Based on Table 19.0 58.0 15.0 9.0 86.6 9.0 6. a 2 1/8 in.2 4.0 13.2 1.0 6.7 1.4 0.0 1.2 5. Table 17 Special Fitting Losses in Equivalent Feet of Pipe Sudden Enlargement.4 0.0 14.0 19. d/D Sharp Edge Pipe Projection 1/4 1/2 3/4 1/4 1/2 3/4 Entrance Exit Entrance Exit 1.0 14. the next smaller line size should be used for marginal suction risers.3 0.0 6.0 2.0 17.6 9.7 5.4 1.0 16.0 29.5 10. pressure drop at full load increases considerably.0 14. When vertical riser sizes are reduced to provide satisfactory minimum gas velocities. using R-22 with a 40 ton compressor with capacity in steps of 25.0 77. As long as horizontal lines are level or pitched in the direction of the compressor.0 66. 50.5 0.0 1.6 2. Oil movement in the suction lines of multistage systems requires the same design approach as that for single-stage systems. OD pipe is suitable. Oil must be returned to the compressor at the operating condition corresponding to the minimum displacement and minimum suction temperature at which the compressor will operate.0 57.0 1. Example 3. gas density. 75.7 1.5 0.6 2. A single compressor can unload down to 25% of full-load capacity.7 5..0 16.0 24. Density of the oil/ refrigerant mixture plays a somewhat lesser role because it is almost constant over a wide range.0 47.1 1.0 8.0 22.9 4. a double suction riser should be used.7 9. and pipe inside diameter.0 — — — — — — — — 0.0 — — — — — 0. Therefore. When corrected to 105°F liquid temperature using the chart at the bottom of Table 19.2 2.8 9. minimum capacity becomes 7.1 8. yet not impose excessive pressure drops in the piping and equipment at full load.5 2.0 — — — — — 0.0 32.0 18.8 5.e.0 142. in.0 27.8 2. © 2014 ASHRAE.0 41.17 Riser Sizing.2 1.1 1. the minimum capacity is the lowest at which the last operating compressor can run.0 — — — — — — — — 0.0 20.0 8. When suction or evaporator pressure regulators are used.8 6.0 13. Oil Return up Suction Risers.0 3.com).0 11. a certain minimum drag of gas flow is required.5 11. 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Note: Enter table for losses at smallest diameter d. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Licensed for single user. at temperatures somewhat lower than –40°F. Inc.0 1.5 tons. For multiple compressors with capacity control.3 6.8 1.8 3. Determine the maximum size suction riser that will transport oil at minimum loading. density difference between liquid and vapor.0 73.0 6.0 15.0 33.2 3.0 — — 0.0 70. 1976).7 0. The principal criteria determining the transport of oil are gas velocity.0 13.0 5.7 4.0 50.8 2.0 27.8 2.3 4. .8 1.6 3.3 0.6 3.0 90.0 86.0 17.0 20. 2 1/8 in.0 96.0 25.3 6. Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems 1.7 1. oil viscosity may be significant.

and the maximum-tominimum ratio becomes much larger.3 2. double suction risers are essential on low-temperature systems that can tolerate very little pressure drop. Traps shown in the suction lines after the evaporator suction outlet are recommended by thermal expansion valve manufacturers to . have same loss as gate valve. should not be greater than the cross-sectional area of a single pipe that would return oil in an upflow riser under maximum load. in. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.. © 2014 ASHRAE. All horizontal runs should be level or pitched toward the compressor to ensure oil return. when fully open. Suction lines should be designed so that oil from an active evaporator does not drain into an idle one. For valve losses of short pattern plug cocks above 6 in. Oil return in this arrangement is accomplished at minimum loads.9 1. Each suction line is brought upward and looped into the top of the common suction line to prevent oil from draining into inactive coils. such as for comfort air conditioning. as shown in both methods.8 2.5 6. Preventing Oil Trapping in Idle Evaporators. Note in Figure 3 that riser lines A and B form an inverted loop and enter the horizontal suction line from the top.18 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Table 18 Valve Losses in Equivalent Feet of Pipe Licensed for single user. When multiple compressors are used. It is good practice to give some pitch to these lines toward the compressor. The line size selected should provide a pressure drop equal to or greater than that shown in the chart.0 5 6 8 10 14 16 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 80 100 120 135 150 165 200 240 Lift Check Globe and vertical lift same as globe valved Fig.7 0. check with manufacturer. the trap can accumulate enough oil during part-load operation to lower the compressor crankcase oil level. Riser B is sized for satisfactory pressure drop through both risers at full load. Saturation Temperature. single suction risers can be sized for oil return at minimum load.0 4.0 22. d For Y pattern globe lift check valve with seat approximately equal to nominal pipe diameter. Riser A is sized to return oil at minimum load possible. The remaining suction line portions are sized to allow a practical pressure drop between the evaporators and compressors because oil is carried along in horizontal lines at relatively low gas velocities. The gas then travels up riser A only with enough velocity to carry oil along with it back into the horizontal suction main. pressure drop in single suction risers designed for oil return at minimum load is rarely serious at full load. Sizing and operation of a double suction riser are as follows: 1. This prevents oil drainage into the risers. Nominal Pipe 60° or Tube Size. which may be idle during part-load operation. Globea Wye 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 17 18 22 29 38 43 55 69 84 100 120 140 170 220 280 320 360 410 460 520 610 8 9 11 15 20 24 30 35 43 50 58 71 88 115 145 165 185 210 240 275 320 45° Wye 6 7 9 12 15 18 24 29 35 41 47 58 70 85 105 130 155 180 200 235 265 Swing Anglea Gateb Checkc 6 7 9 12 15 18 24 29 35 41 47 58 70 85 105 130 155 180 200 235 265 0.0 1. The same purpose can be served by running risers horizontally into the main. or less 0.25 psi/100 ft Double Suction Risers. or flared connections.35 psi/100 ft 0.20 psi/100 ft 0. Often. a These losses do not apply to valves with needlepoint seats. one or more may shut down while another continues to operate. Inc. minimum capacity is usually 25 or 33% of maximum displacement. Drag can be represented by the friction gradient.45 psi/100 ft Above 2 in. If this is not done. b Regular and short pattern plug cock valves. ball check valve. Where single compressors are used with capacity control. but it does not cause excessive pressure drops at full load. Avoid traps. The following sizing data may be used for ensuring oil return up vertical suction lines for refrigerants other than those listed in Tables 19 and 20.0 9. flanged.5 1. °F 0 –50 Line Size 2 in. 0. During part-load operation. The trap’s oil-holding capacity is limited by close-coupling the fittings at the bottom of the risers. With this low ratio. Oil cannot drain into the lowest evaporator because the common suction line drops below the outlet of the lowest evaporator before entering the suction riser. An alternative arrangement is shown in Figure 4D for cases where the compressor is above the evaporators.0 19. gas velocity is not sufficient to return oil through both risers. the risers from them are treated the same as those leading from the evaporators. use values of 60° wye valve for loss. The usual method is to size riser B so that the combined cross-sectional area of A and B is equal to or slightly greater than the cross-sectional area of a single pipe sized for acceptable pressure drop at full load without regard for oil return at minimum load. however. 3. with the compressor located below. Figure 4A shows multiple evaporators on different floor levels with the compressor above. Figure 4C shows multiple evaporators on the same level. c Losses also apply to inline. For systems operating at higher suction temperatures.6 0. 3 Double-Suction Riser Construction Angle lift same as angle valve Note: Losses are for valves in fully open position and with screwed.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. with the compressor above.0 13.0 17. Any system using these risers should include a suction trap (accumulator) and a means of returning oil gradually. 2. but when that is impossible.0 25. The combined cross-sectional area. Figure 3 shows two methods of double suction riser construction. provided that the main is larger in diameter than either riser.0 7.com). welded. A trap is introduced between the two risers. This may make a double suction riser necessary. Figure 5 illustrates typical piping for evaporators above and below a common suction line.0 15.2 4.8 3. Figure 4B shows multiple evaporators stacked on the same level.0 12. and the trap gradually fills up with oil until riser B is sealed off. The suction line from each evaporator drops down into the common suction line so that oil cannot drain into an idle evaporator.

2 32.38 9.61 2.24 2.650 0.0 Licensed for single user.0 180.0 170.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.220 0.671 0.6 21.9 34.0 150.4 10.74 2.35 5.184 0. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Table 19 Minimum Refrigeration Capacity in Tons for Oil Entrainment up Hot-Gas Risers (Type L Copper Tubing) Discharge Saturated Gas Temp.9 51.01 1.6 27.385 0.46 3.0 18.04 Suction Line Piping at Evaporator Coils .6 50.50 5.942 0.414 0.8 44.707 0.8 18.251 0.953 0.666 1.05 1.28 3.884 0. erant °F °F 22 80.85 5.0 40.14 2.222 0.69 8.0 150.9 17..8 63.03 1.4 34.25 9.99 2.1 25.56 4.146 0.42 8.982 1.5 22.8 39.10 2.5 45.5 21.0 100.4 16.05 4.01 2.526 0.83 3.71 4.730 0.235 0.96 2.9 52. in2 1.4 43. °F Refrigerant –40 –20 0 +40 22 134a 0.538 0.0 10.484 0.0 54. 2.1 31.1 39.97 1.695 0.0 170.7 32.7 25.194 0.5 9.07 4.9 54.20 4.364 0.9 16.566 0.6 38.0 140.0 90. 134a 80.658 0.188 0.318 0.791 0.4 41.549 0.460 0.618 0.7 32.0 160.87 2.9 19.57 8.780 3.215 0.Temp.55 1.91 2.610 0. Refrig.9 55.0 130.70 1.534 0. use correction factors in the table at right.540 0.824 0.0 0.4 36.0 45.587 0.0 150.0 57.9 54.68 1.0 160.8 Notes: 1.2 62.6 35.247 0.406 0.76 11.0 110.1 46.05 0.61 1.825 Area. 4 Saturated Suction Temperature.635 0.6 43.994 1.67 3.0 190.223 0.4 40.320 0.61 1.333 0.0 0.8 30.760 0.8 33.72 2.96 11.73 3.24 3.88 2.6 18.3 58.7 10.6 24.394 0.0 23.2 29.3 18.387 0.184 0.8 14.82 11.94 1.72 3.0 180.8 39.0 57.08 1.7 10.516 0.191 0.38 4.5 15.9 59.811 0.970 110.92 5.0 100.02 1.0 17.03 0.04 9.1 9.62 3.05 0.02 4.86 1.88 2.44 15.0 190.176 0.6 48.7 42.2 19.80 1.79 2.378 0.1 22.183 0.1 44.213 11.8 10.01 0.7 22.8 43.05 2.744 0.15 1.0 31.239 0.8 14.558 0. and ISO 32 ester-based oil for R-134a.0 1.235 0.2 14.340 0.5 110.5 52.5 13.5 45.8 22.31 5. 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 0.76 8.451 0.873 0.16 4.0 120.0 90.51 3.8 31.1 26.996 0.2 45.12 8.58 1.094 4.231 0.10 1.97 0.8 37.0 140.926 0.693 0.78 3.95 — 0.183 0.96 1.23 9.96 3.61 4.3 38.56 3.6 28.421 0.1 11.812 9.12 1.4 20.180 0.331 0.3 60.34 3.0 120.0 47.18 3.383 0.0 180.94 2.7 14.825 0.3 30.5 45.0 130.2 16.13 4.88 8. Refrigeration capacity in tons based on saturated suction temperature of 20°F with 15°F superheat at indicated saturated condensing temperature with 15°F subcooling.0 140.372 0.351 0.40 3.35 5.0 200. Fig.346 0.3 29. in.796 0.716 0.659 0. © 2014 ASHRAE.0 110.0 33.21 8.06 1.1 28.65 1.74 4.906 0.6 36.2 37.6 28.830 0.1 27.83 1.00 5.0 140.6 27.com).11 1.3 9.2 23.360 0.206 0.7 16.209 0.62 1.428 0.226 0.79 4.19 2.331 0.07 1.334 0.0 180.433 0.62 8.54 1.44 4.7 10. For other saturated suction temperatures with 15°F superheat.177 0.15 2.0 120.89 5.4 16.85 4.0 200.26 3.5 24.770 6.3 14.9 53.399 0.8 57.257 0.12 10.199 0.39 8.0 210..22 4.62 5.421 0.404 0.538 0.46 3.28 3.76 1.5 26.600 0.3 17.256 1.0 14.9 41.348 0.09 9.19 4.0 120.3 17.6 55.216 0.897 0.512 0.44 8.92 — 0.2 26.956 1.75 1.7 41.44 5.16 3.0 49.861 0.830 1. Inc.4 22.70 3.84 2.31 4.0 210.2 18.8 52.0 150.19 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 Pipe OD.7 23.212 0.225 0.62 2.7 15.6 17.8 15.2 10.0 170.06 5.6 26.242 0.442 0.0 170.326 0.7 33.5 27.581 0.399 0.848 0.960 1.2 43.201 0.535 0. Table computed using ISO 32 mineral oil for R-22.4 13.233 0.

For two compressors in parallel. (7) reverse-cycle operation. Oil can be returned to the compressor directly or through a vessel equipped with a heater to boil off refrigerant and then allow oil to drain to the compressors or other devices used to feed oil to the compressors. the piping be routed to a lower elevation so that a trap is formed to allow drainback of refrigerant and oil from the discharge line when flow rates are . Figure 6 shows a pyramidal or yoke-type suction header to maximize pressure and flow equalization at each of three compressor suction inlets piped in parallel. All suction lines should be brought into a common suction header to return oil to each crankcase as uniformly as possible. one alternative is to have the suction line from evaporators enter at one end of the header instead of using the yoke arrangement. It is recommended that. Chapter 4 has further information on separation and liquid transfer pumps. Suction headers designed to freely pass the gas/oil mixture should have branch suction lines to compressors connected to the side of the header. See the section on Low-Pressure Receiver Sizing in Chapter 4 to find recommended velocities for separation. PIPING AT MULTIPLE COMPRESSORS Multiple compressors operating in parallel must be carefully piped to ensure proper operation. the suction header may be designed to function as a suction trap. Although not as good for equalizing flow and pressure drops to all compressors. The suction header should be large enough to provide a low-velocity region in the header to allow suction gas and oil to separate. The traps serve as drains and help prevent liquid from accumulating under the expansion valve bulbs during compressor off cycles. An oil receiver equipped with a heater effectively evaporates liquid refrigerant accumulated in the suction trap. after leaving the compressor head. A check valve in the discharge line may be necessary to prevent refrigerant and oil from entering the compressor heads by migration. Header design can freely pass the suction gas and oil mixture or provide a suction trap for the oil. Suction Piping Suction piping should be designed so that all compressors run at the same suction pressure and oil is returned in equal proportions.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. The heater mechanism should always be submerged. It also ensures that each compressor receives its share of oil. Branch suction lines to the compressors should not be reduced until the vertical drop is reached. The piping must be arranged to prevent refrigerant liquid and oil from draining back into the heads of idle compressors. The header should be full size based on the largest mass flow of the suction line returning to the Fig.20 Licensed for single user. (3) double suction risers. The oil receiver also provides a reserve supply of oil for compressors where oil in the system outside the compressor varies with system loading. a single feed between the two compressor takeoffs is acceptable. (5) multiple expansion valves. 5 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Typical Piping from Evaporators Located above and below Common Suction Line prevent erratic operation of the thermal expansion valve. Figure 7 shows a recommended hookup of multiple compressors. They are useful only where straight runs or risers are encountered in the suction line leaving the evaporator outlet. Depending on the type and size of compressors. © 2014 ASHRAE. Return mains from the evaporators should not be connected into the suction header to form crosses with the branch suction lines to the compressors. 6 Suction and Hot-Gas Headers for Multiple Compressors compressors. A gravity-feed oil receiver should be elevated to overcome the pressure drop between it and the crankcase. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. A liquid transfer pump or heater may be used. Adequate liquid volume and a means of disposing of it must be provided. The oil receiver should be sized so that a malfunction of the oil control mechanism cannot overfill an idle compressor. and discharge line oil separators. Takeoffs to the compressors should either be the same size as the suction header or be constructed so that oil will not trap in the suction header. (4) long suction lines. Fig. Suction gas flow for individual compressors should be taken off the top of the suction header. Inc. This type of construction is recommended for applications of three or more compressors in parallel. or (8) suction-pressure regulators are used. suction trap (accumulator). Expansion valve bulbs are located on the suction lines between the evaporator and these traps.com). oil receiver. (6) hot-gas defrost. Either crankcase float valves or external float switches and solenoid valves can be used to control the oil flow to each compressor. (2) flooded evaporators. Depending on system size. The suction trap must be sized for effective gas and liquid separation. The header should be run above the level of the compressor suction inlets so oil can drain into the compressors by gravity. The suction header may have to be enlarged to minimize pressure drop and flow turbulence. Discharge Piping The piping arrangement in Figure 6 is suggested for discharge piping. oil may be returned by designing the piping in one or more of the following schemes: • Oil returned with the suction gas to each compressor • Oil contained with a suction trap (accumulator) and returned to the compressors through a controlled means • Oil trapped in a discharge line separator and returned to the compressors through a controlled means (see the section on Discharge Piping) The suction header is a means of distributing suction gas equally to each compressor. Suction traps are recommended wherever (1) parallel compressors.

oil/refrigerant miscibility may be high enough that the oil bleed connection can be anywhere below the liquid level. supplies oil to a device that meters it back into the compressor crankcase to maintain a proper oil level (Figure 7). Where the flooded cooler design requires an external surge drum to separate liquid carryover from suction gas off the tube bundle. the surge drum has the highest concentration of oil. Inc. It should be piped so that oil or liquid refrigerant will not be trapped. for convenient access to compressors. If an oil separator is used in the discharge line. A typical system allows oil to collect in a receiver that.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. When R-22 is used with mineral oil. When an oil separator is used on multiple-compressor arrangements. and possible hammering in the line. The solubility charts in Chapter 12 give specific information. Some compressor designs do not operate correctly with simple equalization of the crankcases. or there may be more than one valved bleed connection at slightly different levels so that the optimum point can be selected during operation. see Chapter 42 of the 2012 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment. This continuous bleed of refrigerant liquid and oil prevents the oil concentration in the cooler from getting too high. PIPING AT VARIOUS SYSTEM COMPONENTS Flooded Fluid Coolers For a description of flooded fluid coolers. The piping should be arranged to absorb vibration. Interconnecting Crankcases When two or more compressors are interconnected. Fig.com). In some cases. This line may be run to provide head room (Figure 8) or run level with tapping on the compressors. This can be done in various ways. or. 8 Interconnecting Piping for Multiple Condensing Units Licensed for single user. 9 Typical Piping at Flooded Fluid Cooler Shell-and-tube flooded coolers designed to minimize liquid entrainment in the suction gas require a continuous liquid bleed line (Figure 9) installed at some point in the cooler shell below the liquid level to remove trapped oil. For these systems. it may suffice as the trap for drainback for the discharge line. With alkyl benzene lubricants. The bleed sometimes drains into the suction line so oil can be returned to the . This becomes more pronounced as evaporating temperature drops. The refrigerant and oil bleed from the cooler by gravity. it may be run at the floor (Figure 8). Refrigerant 22 can have a separate oil-rich phase floating on a refrigerant-rich layer. Here. For refrigerants that are highly miscible with the oil.21 Fig. Oil may be returned to an oil receiver that is the supply for control devices feeding oil back to the compressors. Avoid using a bullheaded tee at the junction of two compressor branches and the main discharge header: this configuration causes increased turbulence. The oil equalizer may be run level with the tapping. 7 Parallel Compressors with Gravity Oil Flow reduced or the compressors are off. in turn. the bleed line is usually taken off the shell just slightly below the liquid level. an oil equalization line should connect all crankcases to maintain uniform oil levels. the refrigerant and oil bleed connection is taken from the surge drum. the connection can be anywhere below the liquid level. © 2014 ASHRAE. Compressor systems that can be equalized should be placed on foundations so that all oil equalizer tapping locations are exactly level. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems 1. equalize the crankcase pressures by installing a gas equalizer line above the oil level. depending on the oil management system design. oil must be piped to return to the compressors. If crankcase floats (as in Figure 7) are not used. The location of the liquid bleed connection on the shell depends on the refrigerant and oil used. Fig. a method must be provided to equalize the crankcases. It should never be run at a level higher than that of the tapping. it may be necessary to design a positive oil float control system for each compressor crankcase. the richest oil concentration may or may not be in the cooler. Both lines should be the same size as the tapping on the largest compressor and should be valved so that any one machine can be taken out for repair. For the oil equalizer line to work properly. increased pressure drop.

see Chapter 23 of the 2012 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment. Each circuit contains its own thermostatic expansion and solenoid valves. the main liquid valve does not open and close instantaneously. If continuous operation is required. With this arrangement. Therefore. the limited size of thermostatic expansion valves may require use of a pilot-operated liquid valve controlled by a small thermostatic expansion valve (Figure 12). direct-acting low-side float valves are impractical for these refrigerants. Direct-Expansion Fluid Chillers For details on these chillers. automatic recycling pumpdown is needed on the lag compressor to prevent leakage through compressor valves. The method shown in Figure 14 provides the superheat needed to operate the thermostatic expansion valve and is effective for heat transfer because leaving air contacts the coldest evaporator surface. Direct-Expansion Air Coils For further information on these coils. The pilot-operated low-side float control (Figure 9) is sometimes selected for flooded systems using halocarbon refrigerants. The equalizing connection and bulb of the pilot thermostatic expansion valve should be treated as a direct-acting thermal expansion valve. even if insulated. The most common ways of arranging DX coils are shown in Figures 13 and 14. and the cooler must starve itself to obtain the superheat necessary to open the valve. © 2014 ASHRAE. This arrangement is advantageous on low-temperature applications. can pick up room heat and give an artificial liquid level in the float chamber. dual chillers may be needed to deoil an oil-laden evaporator. However. Equalizer lines to the float chamber must be amply sized to minimize the effect of heat transmission. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. 12 Direct-Expansion Cooler with Pilot-Operated Control Valve . because distribution problems result when multiple evaporators are used. A better method is to drain the refrigerant/oil bleed into a heated receiver that boils refrigerant off to the suction line and drains oil back to the compressor. 11 Typical Refrigerant Piping in Liquid Chilling Package with Two Completely Separate Circuits Fig. both to minimize the bleedoff needed to keep oil concentration in the cooler low and to reduce system losses from large stills. 10 Two-Circuit Direct-Expansion Cooler Connections (for Single-Compressor System) Fig. When the valve does open. see Chapter 11. High-side float valves are practical only in single-evaporator systems. it allows the cooler level to be adjusted within the instrument without disturbing the piping. Figure 10 shows typical piping connections for a multicircuit direct-expansion (DX) chiller. Figure 11 shows a typical piping arrangement that has been successful in packaged water chillers with DX coolers. Licensed for single user. The float chamber and its equalizing lines must be insulated. A highly efficient discharge gas/oil separator can be used for this purpose. periodic warm-up of the evaporator allows recovery of oil accumulation in the chiller. no heat is available from the high-pressure liquid. Inc. the remote bulb should be positioned between the cooler and the interchanger. if used. The thermostatic expansion valve bulbs should be located between the cooler and the liquid-suction interchanger. Each flooded cooler system must have a way of keeping oil concentration in the evaporator low. A small solenoid valve in the pilot line shuts off the high side from the low during shutdown. Fig. Locating the bulb downstream from the interchanger can cause excessive cycling of the thermostatic expansion valve because the flow of high-pressure liquid through the interchanger ceases when the thermostatic expansion valve closes.22 compressor with the suction gas after the accompanying liquid refrigerant is vaporized in a liquid-suction heat interchanger. On larger systems. The displacer float controlling a pneumatic valve works well for low-side liquid level control. Except for small capacities. 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration consequently. allowing migration to the cold evaporator circuit. At low temperatures. or an oil-free compressor may be used.com). excessive superheat causes it to overfeed until the bulb senses liquid downstream from the interchanger. One solenoid valve can be wired to close at reduced system capacity. see Chapter 43 in the 2012 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment. Float chambers should be located as near the liquid connection on the cooler as possible because a long length of liquid line.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. Refrigerant Feed Devices For further information on refrigerant feed devices. It also prevents liquid from slugging the compressor at start-up.

A small temperature differential is advantageous in low-temperature applications.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. 1. Many coils are supplied with connections at each end of the suction header so that a free-draining connection can be used regardless of which side of the coil is up. Oversized thermostatic expansion valves result in cycling that alternates flooding and starving the coil. Variations in condensing pressure greatly affect the pressure available across the valve. Circulation of refrigerant through the evaporator depends on gravity and a thermosiphon effect. Here. Inc.23 Pumpdown compressor control is desirable on all systems using downfeed or upfeed evaporators. and the vapor flows into the suction line. For information on defrosting. A mixture of liquid refrigerant and vapor returns to the surge tank. Direct-expansion air coils can be located in any position as long as proper refrigerant distribution and continuous oil removal facilities are provided. A liquid refrigerant circulating pump (Figure 17) provides a more positive way of obtaining a high circulation rate. Figure 16 represents a typical arrangement showing a low-side float control.com). the oil return lines in Figure 16 should be installed. the coil design must provide sufficient gas velocity to entrain oil at lowest loadings and to carry it into the suction line. condenser. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Licensed for single user. to protect the compressor against a liquid slugback in cases where liquid can accumulate in the suction header and/or the coil on system off cycles. providing free oil draining. and heat interchanger. suction is taken off the bottom header connection. see Chapter 14. 15 Direct-Expansion Evaporator (Bottom-Feed) . oil return line. free-draining piping with a vertical up-airflow coil. and refrigerant lines. 13 Direct-Expansion Evaporator (Top-Feed. a refrigerant upfeed coil is used with a vertical downflow air arrangement. Reduced compressor capacity further aggravates this problem. which causes periodic flooding of the liquid back to the compressor and wide temperature variations in the air leaving the coil. The refrigerant pressure drops through the system (distributor. Free-Draining) Fig. 14 Direct-Expansion Evaporator (Horizontal Airflow) Flooded evaporators may be desirable when a small temperature differential is required between the refrigerant and the medium being cooled. including liquid lifts) must be properly evaluated to determine the correct pressure drop available across the valve on which to base the selection. Figure 13 shows top-feed. and hence its capacity. This occurs because the valve attempts to throttle at a capacity below its capability. In a flooded evaporator. the other end is then capped.or low-side float control. the coil is kept full of refrigerant when cooling is required. © 2014 ASHRAE. Taking the suction line off the top of the surge tank causes difficulties if no special provisions are made for oil return. coil. where the coil pressure drop represents an appreciable change in evaporating temperature. Pumpdown compressor control is described in the section on Keeping Liquid from Crankcase During Off Cycles. Systems having multiple coils can use solenoid valves located in the liquid line feeding each evaporator or group of evaporators to close them off individually as compressor capacity is reduced. Flooded Evaporators Fig. In Figure 15. In Figure 14. Thermostatic expansion valve operation and application are described in Chapter 11. For this reason. These lines are connected near the bottom of the float chamber and also just Fig. Thermostatic expansion valves should be sized carefully to avoid undersizing at full load and oversizing at partial load. A baffle installed in the surge tank helps prevent foam and liquid from entering the suction line. which illustrates a horizontal-airflow coil. The refrigerant level is generally controlled through a high.

a jet ejector can be used to remove oil from the quiescent float chamber. hot-gas risers must transport oil at all possible loadings. A double hot-gas riser can be used the same way it is used in a suction line. Therefore. Whenever the condenser is located above the compressor. compressor vibration. has excessive pressure drop at maximum load. Also. condensed in the line during off cycles. Fig. For multiple-compressor arrangements. draining back to the head of the compressor. thus preventing gravity drainage of liquid and oil back to the compressor head. The loop in the hot-gas line (Figure 19) serves as a reservoir and traps liquid resulting from condensation in the line during shutdown. In some installations with multiple compressors and with capacity control. Any oil draining back down the riser accumulates in the oil separator. If a low-side float is used. Minimum Gas Velocities for Oil Transport in Risers.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. the lowest possible system loading should be calculated and a riser size selected to give at least the minimum capacity indicated in the table for successful oil transport. sized to transport oil at minimum load. Although a low pressure drop is desired. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. Included in this oil return line is (1) a solenoid valve that is open only while the compressor is running and (2) a metering valve that is adjusted to allow a constant but small-volume return to the suction line. an oil separator in the discharge line just before the riser allows sizing the riser for a low pressure drop. Horizontal lines should be level or pitched downward in the direction of gas flow to facilitate travel of oil through the system and back to the compressor. Single Riser and Oil Separator. Piping to Prevent Liquid and Oil from Draining to Compressor Head. any oil traveling up the pipe wall will not drain back to the compressor head. Its operating principle and sizing technique are described in the section on Double Suction Risers. With large multiple compressors.24 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Fig. Oil can be returned satisfactorily by taking a bleed of refrigerant and oil from the pump discharge (Figure 17) and feeding it to the heated oil receiver. the hot-gas line should be trapped near the compressor before rising to the condenser. For single-compressor applications. When this problem exists. especially if the hot-gas riser is long. DISCHARGE (HOT-GAS) LINES Hot-gas lines should be designed to • Avoid trapping oil at part-load operation • Prevent condensed refrigerant and oil in the line from draining back to the head of the compressor • Have carefully selected connections from a common line to multiple compressors • Avoid developing excessive noise or vibration from hot-gas pulsations. either a double riser or a single riser with an oil separator can be used. On multiple-compressor installations. Figure 18 shows the double riser principle applied to a hot-gas line. Inc.com). They extend to a lower point on the suction line to allow gravity flow. or both Oil Transport up Risers at Normal Loads. Double Hot-Gas Risers. 17 Flooded Evaporator (Forced Circulation) below the liquid level in the surge tank (where an oil-rich liquid refrigerant exists). each discharge line should have a check valve to prevent gas from active compressors from condensing on heads of idle compressors. A small high-pressure float drainer should be installed at the bottom of the trap to drain any significant amount of refrigerant condensate to a low-side component such as a suction accumulator or low-pressure receiver. As an alternative. when using multiple compressors with capacity control. 16 Flooded Evaporator (Gravity Circulation) Fig. © 2014 ASHRAE. This float prevents excessive build-up of liquid in the trap and possible liquid hammer when the compressor is restarted. This minimizes the possibility of refrigerant. 18 Double Hot-Gas Riser Licensed for single user. A liquid-line sight glass may be installed downstream from the metering valve to serve as a convenient check on liquid being returned. separator capacity may dictate the use of individual units for each compressor located between the discharge line and the main discharge header. a vertical hot-gas line. Minimum capacities for oil entrainment in hot-gas line risers are shown in Table 20. a tightly closing check valve should be installed in the hot-gas line of the compressor whenever . oversized hot-gas lines can reduce gas velocities to a point where the refrigerant will not transport oil.

0 40.7 14.04 10.60 7.342 0.1 27.80 6.111 0.15 6.605 0.78 0.4 16.00 3.065 0.328 0.12 7.770 6.07 1.2 15.2 8.117 0.986 0.3 29.80 130 0.067 0.32 1. Hot-Gas (Discharge) Mufflers.4 14.294 0.4 13.60 2.2 16.427 0.28 1. Mufflers can be installed in hot-gas lines to dampen discharge gas pulsations.118 0.296 0.9 21.0 20.94 6.18 1.6 7.295 0.63 1.44 2.7 15.25 1.4 26.6 11. 134a 0.209 0. Values computed using ISO 32 mineral oil for R-22.0 Licensed for single user.117 0.61 3. Refrigeration capacity in tons is based on 90°F liquid temperature and superheat as indicated by listed temperature.9 5.42 3.4 20.092 0.3 17.75 3.9 9.76 3.6 10.08 3.0 0.300 0.7 26.86 3.486 0.8 28.1 28.26 1.72 5.165 0.277 0.0 20.336 0.03 1.2 28.19 4.0 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 1/8 2 5/8 3 1/8 3 5/8 4 1/8 Area.97 8.7 15.379 0.8 12.403 0.166 0.2 24.20 70 1.4 12.237 0.156 0.0 0.99 1.6 22.00 1.072 0.737 0.0 70.1 10.259 0.400 0.084 0.5 26.88 3.4 22.197 0.825 1.981 0.10 3.0 40.60 2.5 25.99 0.488 0. For compressors equipped with water-cooled oil coolers.195 0.37 5.0 –10.484 0..194 0.488 0.152 0. particularly on slow-speed reciprocating compressors.298 0.36 1.94 0.0 80.7 29.1 11.7 19.332 0.0 15.46 2.233 0.17 2.366 0.69 2.0 20.113 0.2 13.301 0.187 0.399 0.1 12.182 0.3 41. A spring-loaded check may incur chatter (vibration).90 5.0 10.066 0.812 9.135 0.94 0.086 0.0 60.95 1. The check valve prevents refrigerant from boiling off in the condenser or receiver and condensing on the compressor heads during off cycles.99 2.0 30.320 0.46 2. Saturated Suction Suction Gas Refrig.4 8.80 0.9 20.94 2.69 2.06 1.207 0.0 40.46 1.13 80 1.15 7.218 0.780 3.67 Notes: 1.128 0.3 16.4 10. erant °F °F 22 –40.11 5.71 1.135 0. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Table 20 1.5 21.119 0.0 –10.194 0.165 0.2 23.61 4.1 18.0 16. a water solenoid and water-regulating valve should be installed in the water line so that the regulating valve maintains adequate cooling during operation.0 5.1 14.6 10.9 11.5 17. Because gas velocity through the muffler is substantially lower than that through the hot-gas line.43 2.0 70.5 10.5 20.206 0.73 5.8 25.50 5.67 6.242 0.512 0.153 0.8 29. R-134a computed using ISO 32 ester-based oil.94 110 0.04 4.4 20.1 13.63 2.2 19.107 0.517 0.256 1.147 0.5 19. use correction factors in table at right.8 33.114 0.74 0.081 0.146 0.6 11.81 3.83 0.5 7.0 40.1 9.26 1.5 33.88 4.17 1.3 24.49 7.44 0.0 50.0 15.167 0.07 3.0 60.07 120 0.45 8.136 0.323 0.98 0. in.44 1. °F 100 0.0 10.91 1.71 0. in2 0.6 16.9 6.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.0 50.81 1.322 0.0 –20.9 8.413 0.205 0.3 40.31 1. reducing vibration and noise.66 0.738 0.510 0.20 5.603 0.com).28 4.3 10. © 2014 ASHRAE. Inc.292 0.480 0.0 50. For other liquid line temperatures.528 0.5 13.212 0.0 50.1 12.0 50.0 90.0 30.7 40.232 0.0 70.0 20. 2.075 0.0 90.87 5.193 0.195 0.258 0.53 1..69 8.97 3.74 1.242 0.0 30.03 1.3 21.496 0.37 2.085 0.0 30.747 0.0 13.108 0.094 4.1 18.244 0.575 0.10 2.0 10.9 13.087 0.0 8.49 1.43 1.362 0.253 0.4 8.53 2.970 –30.49 1.3 33. .172 0.Temp.9 12.311 0.758 0.06 3. 19 Hot-Gas Loop Refrigerant 22 134a Liquid Temperature.20 5. Mufflers should be installed in a horizontal or downflow portion of the hot-gas line immediately after it leaves the compressor.374 0.335 0.2 9.17 1.85 0.21 1.946 1.213 11.21 7.2 19.744 0.6 31.93 1.095 0.01 0.0 0.34 4.68 1.577 0.41 1.6 13.6 20.11 1.47 3.246 0.96 3.608 0.25 4.089 0.4 16.70 1.66 8.8 18. which closes by gravity when the compressor stops running.0 30.59 1.89 0.331 0.942 0.10 1.0 29.348 0.135 0.154 0.98 1.254 0.74 140 0.101 0.161 0.90 1.52 1.88 0.0 30.109 0.465 0.1 21.5 15. the muffler may form an oil trap.00 1.0 10.0 70.92 4.18 1.3 50 1.48 10.26 60 1.268 0.2 8.484 0.103 0.1 20.453 0.115 0.7 10.1 16.64 2.972 1. Temp. This check valve should be a piston type.9 7.8 11.6 6.570 0.963 0.25 Minimum Refrigeration Capacity in Tons for Oil Entrainment up Suction Risers (Type L Copper Tubing) Pipe OD.383 0.400 0.03 2.0 20.5 22.0 24.14 1.748 0.4 10. Fig. The muffler should be installed to allow oil to flow through it and not be trapped.50 1.495 0.63 0. and the solenoid stops flow during the off cycle to prevent localized condensing of the refrigerant.12 1.9 10.13 6.580 0.389 0.296 0.18 6.130 0.3 14.199 0.87 the condenser and the receiver ambient temperature are higher than that of the compressor.87 2.58 1.95 2.0 50.

The velocity determined at saturated conditions gives a conservative line size. In some water-cooled condenser systems. hand expansion valve. • Handle the excess refrigerant charge needed by air-cooled condensers that require flooding to maintain minimum condensing pressures (see the section on Head Pressure Control for Refrigerant Condensers). 22 Parallel Condensers with Through-Type Receiver . If a vent is not used. Their purpose is to • Provide pumpdown storage capacity when another part of the system must be serviced or the system must be shut down for an extended time. liquid must always flow from condenser to receiver. • Receive refrigerant draining from the condenser. • Accommodate a fluctuating charge in the low side on systems where the operating charge in the evaporator varies for different loading conditions. prevent discharge gas from discharging directly into the vent line. The check valve should be selected for minimum opening pressure (i. The effective condensing temperature and average temperature of the gas must be determined. When an evaporator is fed with a thermal expansion valve. 21 Shell-and-Tube Condenser to Receiver Piping (Surge-Type Receiver) Fig. which supports the estimated two times used by practicing engineers. Piping should slope at least 0. 20 Shell-and-Tube Condenser to Receiver Piping (Through-Type Receiver) Fig. This ensures that there will be no liquid back-up into an HEAT EXCHANGERS AND VESSELS Licensed for single user. Engineers use an estimated two times the evaporator load for effective refrigerant flow rate to determine line sizing requirements. the defrost flow rate tends to be higher as the condensing temperature increases. and many engineers use velocity as the criterion for determining line size. the evaporator requires a larger charge because boiling is not as intense.25 in/ft and eliminate any natural liquid traps. or low-pressure float. the condenser also serves as a receiver if the total refrigerant charge does not exceed its storage capacity. to allow the condenser to maintain its usable surface area for condensing. This external vent line can be piped either with or without a check valve in the vent line (see Figures 22 and 23). The parameters associated with sizing the defrost gas line are related to allowable pressure drop and refrigerant flow rate during defrost. piping between condenser and receiver (condensate line) is sized so that liquid flows in one direction and gas flows in the opposite direction. Controlled testing (Stoecker 1984) showed that. check valve in the vent with flow in the direction of the condenser. © 2014 ASHRAE.com).This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. When the piping configuration is unknown. Pressure drop is not as critical during the defrost cycle. During low load. When load increases. allowance must be made to overcome both the pressure drop across this check valve and the refrigerant pressure drop through the condenser.5 psi).e. in small coils with R-22. Sizing the condensate line for 100 fpm liquid velocity is usually adequate to attain this flow. Receivers Refrigerant receivers are vessels used to store excess refrigerant circulated throughout the system. Pressure in the receiver must be lower than that in the condenser outlet. Inc. Connections for Through-Type Receiver. Figure 20 illustrates this configuration. The flow rate is on the order of two to three times the normal evaporator flow rate. this should prevent a gas velocity pressure component from being introduced on top of the liquid in the receiver. the operating charge in the evaporator decreases. Piping between the condenser and the receiver can be equipped with a separate vent (equalizer) line to allow receiver and condenser pressures to equalize. When determining condensate drop leg height. install a Fig. and the receiver must store excess refrigerant. When a throughtype receiver is used.26 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration DEFROST GAS SUPPLY LINES Sizing refrigeration lines to supply defrost gas to one or more evaporators is not an exact science. approximately 0. If there is no check valve.. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. the operating charge in the evaporator varies considerably depending on the loading. The receiver and its associated piping provide free flow of liquid from the condenser to the receiver by equalizing pressures between the two so that the receiver cannot build up a higher pressure than the condenser.

311 1.302 60.200 48.000 118.496 278.900 44.500 57.582 662.350 38.212 240.866 4704 9408 14.400 24.635 555.651 30.311 181.com).962 4 1/8 9000 17.500 13.300 39.931 128.354 20.176 628.065 375 750 1125 356 712 1.776 89.815 4840 9679 14. lb/h Licensed for single user.718 359.300 154.966 692 1385 2077 657 1.100 70.908 343.008 42.932 41.297 38.300 7030 14.200 64.708 31.400 19.199 22.204 36.600 169.591 126.596 11.009 64.251 14 30 — — — — — — 209.786 369.505 44.400 83.233 36.100 10.571 554.200 253.115 18.000 28.791 441.666 227.356 27.981 7272 14.040 220.417 228.241 142.743 85.782 43.832 10 40 59.722 10.951 877.832 142.116 24.227 58.349 5 1/8 14.613 12.896 40.27 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Table 21 R-22 Mass Flow Data.588 419.062 6891 13.400 350.600 41.770 91.300 38.800 7252 14.532 378.769 61.146 54.827 131.905 32.294 56.874 553.374 209.533 18.400 43.900 75. .100 40.100 105.900 11.576 79.355 57.258 14.817 515.800 28.153 19.092 213.468 21.200 15.326 20.586 131.775 159.600 7620 15.700 4930 9850 14.000 29.260 5373 10. lb/h R-404A Mass Flow Data.100 21.455 87.318 76.201 15.100 40.600 89.138 75.489 11.200 171.900 19.948 22.409 54.384 40.320 22.882 29.700 9510 19.486 16 30 — — — — — — 276.046 142.830 23.061 358.248 Steel IPS SCH 3/8 80 110 210 320 150 290 440 213 426 639 225 450 675 214 427 641 142 284 427 1/2 80 180 350 530 240 480 720 355 710 1.291 81.600 13.674 81.508 21.965 85.200 27.600 103. aFor brazed Type L copper tubing for defrost service.702 7642 15.650 6 1/8 20.459 33.464 19.900 12.100 26.222 151. fpm 3000 1000 Velocity.724 47.762 4828 9656 14.120 5101 10.700 58.977 10.594 57.603 90. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1.498 80.905 184.611 101.764 139.300 51.665 28.027 627.758 38.767 56.746 16.900 81.300 61. Pipe Size Copper a R-134a Mass Flow Data.700 37.833 151.195 543.230 22. fpm 3000 442 662 1000 147 2000 294 3000 465 698 221 441 374 747 1121 355 709 1064 236 472 708 558 1116 1674 530 1059 1589 352 705 1057 7/8 360 720 1090 500 1000 1500 734 1467 2201 775 1550 2325 736 1471 2207 490 979 1469 1 1/8 620 1230 1850 850 1700 2550 1251 2502 3752 1321 2643 3964 1254 2509 3763 835 1670 2504 1 3/8 940 1880 2820 1300 2590 3890 1905 3810 5715 2013 4025 6037 1910 3821 5731 1272 2543 3814 1 5/8 1330 2660 3990 1840 3670 5510 2697 5393 8090 2849 5697 8546 2704 5408 8112 1800 3599 5399 2 1/8 2310 4630 6940 3190 6390 9580 4691 9382 14.049 150.925 7254 14.416 94.700 4940 9870 14.800 7234 14.124 50. lb/h R-410A Mass Flow Data.622 292.740 29.347 122.400 162.184 2 1/2 40 3580 7160 10.834 343.100 119.888 59.098 362.900 26.519 5530 11.800 244.200 22.447 60.859 239.021 42.100 71.682 8 40 37.815 32.800 116.155 36. see Safety Requirements section. lb/h R-507A Mass Flow Data.436 8 1/8 35.900 20. © 2014 ASHRAE.800 112.148 71.972 438 875 1312 1 80 540 1080 1610 740 1480 2230 1090 2181 3271 1152 2304 3455 1093 2187 3280 728 1455 2183 1 1/4 80 1120 2240 3360 1540 3090 4630 1945 3889 5833 2054 4108 6162 1950 3900 5850 1298 2596 3893 1 1/2 80 1520 3050 4570 2100 4200 6300 2679 5357 8036 2830 5659 8489 2686 5372 8058 1788 3576 5363 40 2510 5020 7530 3460 6930 10.013 418.073 4955 9911 14.800 29.636 5 40 15.178 38.004 28. fpm 1000 2000 Refrigerant Flow Capacity Data For Defrost Lines Velocity.874 514.385 60.883 37. lb/h R-407C Mass Flow Data.068 237 474 711 3/4 80 320 650 970 450 890 1340 656 1. bPipe inside diameter is same as nominal pipe size.543 21.266 252.748 830.966 27.000 28. fpm 3000 1/2 110 220 330 150 300 660 5/8 170 350 520 240 480 720 354 707 1061 3/4 260 510 770 350 710 1060 528 1056 1584 1000 233 2000 Velocity.400 96.012 9321 18.700 145.900 30. Inc.422 2 3 40 4 40 9520 19.315 1.913 87.879 25.797 119. fpm 3000 1000 2000 Velocity.755 7660 15.309 54.476 584. lb/h Velocity.907 21.600 43. fpm 2000 3000 1000 450 220 2000 440 Velocity.302 3395 6790 10.173 15.083 228.484 3 1/8 5100 10.293 171.106 160.357 Note: Refrigerant flow data based on saturated condensing temperature of 70°F.725 114.400 5087 10.793 87.674 3 5/8 6900 13.372 56.437 342.800 20.800 59.991 418.112 3131 6262 9392 2 5/8 3570 7140 10.897 14.00 176.223 40.155 20.660 35.427 277.670 6 40 21.100 18.100 60.398 33.900 41.100 16.000 27.018 96.783 20.530 239.503 21.588 84.521 138.753 29.785 81.891 20.270 832.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo.379 46.700 233.700 55.689 7474 14.549 239.027 30.283 22.099 225.400 74.323 12 IDb 84.041 152.483 213.261 92.050 12.571 122.641 27.

so that it can remain subcooled. then the liquid 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration level in the one condenser must be high enough to compensate for the pressure drop through the operating condenser. With evaporative condensers (Figure 24). 24 Single-Circuit Evaporative Condenser with Receiver and Liquid Subcooling Coil .28 operating condenser on a multiple-condenser application when one or more of the condensers is idle. even if it results in filling much of one circuit with liquid while gas passes through another. Multiple Condensers. the differences may be small. 1. unless valved off at both inlet and outlet. Fig. the pressure losses through each condenser must be added. Flow rate depends on this temperature difference as well as on the receiver surface area. Air-Cooled Condensers Refrigerant pressure drop through air-cooled condensers must be obtained from the supplier for the particular unit at the specified load. If connected in series. Condenser pressure drop at the greatest expected heat rejection should be obtained from the manufacturer. If the condensate lines do not have enough vertical height for this level difference. liquid will back up into the condenser until pressure drop is the same through both circuits. the receiver may be vented to the condenser inlets (Figure 25). and vent line at the maximum temperature difference between the receiver ambient and the condensing temperature. Multiple condensers with high pressure drops can be connected as shown in Figure 26. pressure loss may be high. (2) capacity control affects all units equally. provided that (1) the ambient at the receiver is equal to or lower than the inlet air temperature to the condenser. In this case. flow paths through the circuits may not be symmetrical. Depending on prevailing local and/or national safety codes. The vent line flow is from receiver to condenser when receiver temperature is higher than condensing temperature. The purpose of a surgetype receiver is to allow liquid to flow to the expansion valve without exposure to refrigerant in the receiver. Condensers are more often arranged in parallel. The minimum value of h can then be calculated to determine whether the available height will allow the surgetype receiver. liquid line. parallel condensers can be connected to allow for capacity reduction to zero on one condenser without causing liquid back-up in active condensers (Figure 26). Figure 23 shows a piping arrangement for parallel condensers with a surge-type receiver. and condenser outlets need not be more than 2 or 3 ft above the liquid line junction. This height provides a liquid pressure to offset the largest condenser pressure loss. When the system is operating at reduced load. (3) all units operate when one operates. a single automatic water valve for the condensers in one refrigeration system should be used. Condensate drop legs should be sized based on 150 fpm velocity.com). Connections for Surge-Type Receiver. Figure 21 shows an example of connections for a surgetype receiver. The receiver volume is available for liquid that is to be removed from the system. The liquid seal prevents gas blowby between condensers. Condensate drop legs must be long enough to allow liquid levels in them to adjust to equalize pressure losses between condensers at all operating conditions. Drop legs should be 6 to 12 in. Figure 22 shows a basic arrangement for parallel condensers with a through-type receiver. When the available level difference between condenser outlets and the liquid-line junction is sufficient. If refrigerant pressure drop is low enough and the arrangement is practical. Flow is from condenser to receiver when air temperature around the receiver is below condensing temperature. the liquid level on the left is about 4 ft higher than that on the right. therefore. and (4) all units are of equal size. the surge-type receiver can be used. Two or more condensers connected in series or in parallel can be used in a single refrigeration system. If fans on one condenser are not operated while the fans on another condenser are. The exact amount can be calculated from pressure loss through each path at all possible operating conditions. Enough surface may be covered to reduce condenser capacity significantly. © 2014 ASHRAE. Vent size can be calculated from this flow rate. a relief device may have to be installed in the discharge piping. If parallel condensers are alike and all are operated. higher than calculated to ensure that liquid outlets drain freely. Large single condensers with multiple coil circuits should be piped as though the independent circuits were parallel condensers. When condensers are water-cooled. The level difference must then be at least equal to the greatest loss through any condenser circuit plus the greatest vent line loss when the receiver ambient is greater than the condensing temperature.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. The main condensate lines should be based on 100 fpm. if the left condenser in Figure 22 has 2 psi more pressure drop than the right condenser. 23 Parallel Condensers with Surge-Type Receiver Fig. Pressure loss through any one of the parallel circuits is always equal to that through any of the others. Small pressure differences are not unusual. Individual valves for each condenser in a single system cannot maintain the same pressure and corresponding pressure drops. The condensate line should be sized so that velocity does not exceed 150 fpm. the liquid line junction should be about 2 or 3 ft below the bottom of the condensers. Inc. For example. Height h must be adequate for a liquid pressure at least as large as the pressure loss through the condenser. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Licensed for single user.

Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems A single condenser with any pressure drop can be connected to a receiver without an equalizer and without trapping height if the condenser outlet and the line from it to the receiver can be sized for sewer flow without a trap or restriction. A single condenser can also be connected with an equalizer line to the hot-gas inlet if the vertical drop leg is sufficient to balance refrigerant pressure drop through the condenser and liquid line to the receiver. therefore. When the units are used to evaporate liquid refrigerant . Usually. 25 Multiple Evaporative Condensers with Equalization to Condenser Inlets Fig. A relatively large liquid leg is required to balance a small temperature difference. Shell-and-Coil or Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers (Figure 28). which forces the compressor to operate at a lower suction pressure. To maximize capacity. a liquid-suction heat exchanger is needed to evaporate the refrigerant. They are used for one or more of the following functions: Fig. using a maximum velocity of 100 fpm. If the receiver cannot be located in an ambient temperature below the inlet air temperature for all operating conditions.29 equivalent differences in saturation pressure of the receiver and the condenser. These units are usually installed so that the suction outlet drains the shell. Subcooling by the liquid leg tends to condense vapor in the receiver to reach a balance between rate of condensation. is required. Several types of liquid-suction heat exchangers are used. Efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle of certain halocarbon refrigerants can be increased when the suction gas is superheated by removing heat from the liquid. The liquid-suction heat exchanger boils liquid refrigerant out of the mixture in the suction line. • Evaporating small amounts of expected liquid refrigerant returning from evaporators in certain applications. If the temperature of the receiver ambient is above the condensing pressure only at part-load conditions. equivalent to the difference in full-load pressure drop. Many heat pumps incorporating reversals of the refrigerant cycle include a suctionline accumulator and liquid-suction heat exchanger arrangement to trap liquid floodbacks and vaporize them slowly between cycle reversals. sufficient extra height of drop leg H is required to overcome the 1. This arrangement is limited by the amount of suction line available. liquid-suction heat exchangers subcool liquid refrigerant and superheat suction gas.com). Liquid leaving the receiver is nonetheless saturated. sacrificing the operating economy of lower part-load head pressure for a lower liquid leg requirement. additional liquid height H. it may be acceptable to back liquid into the condensing surface. If an evaporator design makes a deliberate slight overfeed of refrigerant necessary. either to improve evaporator performance or to return oil out of the evaporator. 26 Multiple Air-Cooled Condensers • Increasing efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. and heat gain from ambient to the receiver. The increase in cycle efficiency for systems operating in the air-conditioning range (down to about 30°F evaporating temperature) usually does not justify their use. The heat exchanger can be located wherever convenient. REFRIGERATION ACCESSORIES Licensed for single user. • Subcooling liquid refrigerant to prevent flash gas at the expansion valve. this method is probably limited to marginal cases. because liquid in a suction line runs along the bottom (Figure 27). at an intermediate saturation pressure. the liquid line should always be on the bottom of the suction line. Exchangers used for this purpose should be placed in a horizontal run near the evaporator. Liquid-suction heat exchangers are most beneficial at low suction temperatures. consult the system supplier for proper piping. The simplest form of heat exchanger is obtained by strapping or soldering the suction and liquid lines together to obtain counterflow and then insulating the lines as a unit. and any subcooling to prevent flashing in the liquid line must be obtained downstream of the receiver. Inc. © 2014 ASHRAE. Liquid-Suction Heat Exchangers Generally.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. This increased efficiency must be evaluated against the effect of pressure drop through the suction side of the exchanger. A flooded water cooler usually incorporates an oil-rich liquid bleed from the shell into the suction line for returning oil. condensers of equal size are used in parallel applications. The heat exchanger should be located near the condenser or receiver to achieve subcooling before pressure drop occurs. Liquid and Suction Line Soldered Together. The receiver must be adequately sized to contain a minimum of the backed-up liquid so that the condenser can be fully drained when full load is required. If unit sizes are unequal. If a low-ambient control system of backing liquid into the condenser is used.

Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Licensed for single user. heat exchangers are recommended to increase cycle efficiency. 28 Shell-and-Finned-Coil Heat Exchanger Fig. Failure of this valve could allow a large flow of liquid to the upper-stage compressor suction. Figure 31 illustrates an open or flash-type cooler. It is. Two-Stage Subcoolers To take full advantage of the two-stage system. One disadvantage is that the pressure of cooled liquid is reduced to interstage pressure. © 2014 ASHRAE. the liquid temperature is usually lower than the temperature of the surroundings. 1. Thus. so that full pressure is available for feeding liquid to the expansion device at the lowtemperature evaporator. the free-draining arrangement is not recommended. Liquid from a flash cooler is saturated. It should have sufficient heat transfer surface to transfer heat from the liquid to the evaporating refrigerant with a small final temperature difference. The tube-intube heat exchanger is not as efficient as the shell-and-finned-coil type. They are very compact. Cold liquid lines should be insulated. and liquid from a cascade condenser usually has little subcooling. In both cases. For refrigeration applications. the refrigerant liquid should be cooled to near the interstage temperature to reduce the amount of flash gas handled by the low-stage compressor. Excessive superheating of the suction gas should be avoided. Refrigerant piping is designed to ensure that this oil passes Fig. Figure 30 shows typical construction with available pipe and fittings. and are lightweight devices. They are good for use as liquid subcoolers. Figure 32 shows the closed or heat exchanger type of subcooler. For air-conditioning applications. as well as for liquid subcooling and removing small amounts of excess liquid in the suction line. The net result is a reduction in total system power requirements. and drain into the compressor. Pressure drop should be small. having little contact with the warm liquid coil. quite suitable for cleaning up small amounts of excessive liquid refrigerant returning in the suction line. any liquid returning in the line is trapped in the shell and held in contact with the warm liquid coil. is required to return oil that collects in the trapped shell. heat exchangers are recommended for liquid subcooling or for clearing up excess liquid in the suction line. 30 Tube-in-Tube Heat Exchanger Fig. where most of it is vaporized. Discharge Line Oil Separators Oil is always in circulation in systems using halocarbon refrigerants. which has the advantage of cooling liquid to the saturation temperature of the interstage pressure. An oil return line. 27 Soldered Tube Heat Exchanger Fig.30 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration returning in the suction line. not vapor.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. Liquid refrigerant can run along the bottom of the heat exchanger shell. Although the liquid temperature is reduced. with a metering valve and solenoid valve (open only when the compressor is running). This prevents a tremendous quantity of liquid from flowing to the upper-stage suction in the event of a valve failure. 31 Flash-Type Cooler . Plate heat exchangers provide highefficiency heat transfer. Plate Heat Exchangers. because expansion devices are usually designed to feed liquid. Inc. By installing the heat exchanger at a slight angle to the horizontal (Figure 29) with gas entering at the bottom and leaving at the top. have low pressure drop. and the expansion device controlling flow to the cooler must be large enough to pass all the liquid refrigerant flow. which could seriously damage the compressor. however. Concentric Tube-in-Tube Heat Exchangers. 29 Shell-and-Finned-Coil Exchanger Installed to Prevent Liquid Floodback Fig. the pressure drops correspondingly. The amount of gain from cooling to near interstage conditions varies among refrigerants. leaving less pressure available for liquid transport. The subcooler liquid control valve should be sized to supply only the quantity of refrigerant required for the subcooling. it is important to avoid heat input and pressure losses that would cause flash gas to form in the liquid line to the expansion device or to recirculating pumps. This is the simplest and least costly type.com).

oil is thrown out at an accelerated rate. and with the shell diameter sized to keep suction gas velocity low enough to allow liquid droplets to separate. which provide ample surge space above the liquid level or contain eliminators to separate gas and liquid. used for a specifically designed oil management system When a solenoid valve is used in the oil return line. A superheat-controlled expansion valve can perform the same function. Inc.31 supplied without an internal float valve.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. © 2014 ASHRAE. Figure 29 illustrates an arrangement that handles moderate liquid floodback. The oil separator can be an integral part of the total system oil management system. does not have sufficient trapping volume for most heat pump applications or hot-gas defrost systems using reversal of the refrigerant cycle. • In multiple compressors operating in parallel. For separators that have internal oil float mechanisms. where refrigerant bleedoff is necessary to remove oil from the evaporator. Depending on system design. or (3) returns it to the receiver or to one of the evaporators. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Licensed for single user. no oil is returned to the compressor. Although well-designed piping systems can handle the oil in most cases. however. During the off cycle. a fine filter. the drain connection from the oil separator can be connected into the suction line. If the valve sticks closed. the separator can be Fig. the lowest-cost separators are usually for L/D ratios between 3/1 and 5/1. hand throttling and solenoid valves. and they do not eliminate the need to design the complete system for oil return to the compressor. . Surge Drums or Accumulators A surge drum is required on the suction side of almost all flooded evaporators to prevent liquid slopover to the compressor. The thermostat sensing element should be located on the oil separator shell below the oil level and set high enough so that the solenoid valve will not open until the separator temperature is higher than the condensing temperature. A horizontal surge drum is sometimes used where headroom is limited. the design is vertical. hot gas will continuously bypass to the compressor crankcase. • Oil separators tend to condense out liquid refrigerant during compressor off cycles and on compressor start-up. the system should be designed with pumpdown control or crankcase heaters to minimize liquid absorption in the crankcase. with a separation height above the liquid level of 24 to 30 in. a discharge-line oil separator can have certain advantages in some applications (see Chapter 11). the compressor must be protected against it. To minimize this problem. the oil separator cools down and acts as a condenser for refrigerant that evaporates in warmer parts of the system. a thermostat may be installed and wired to control the solenoid in the oil return line from the separator. A separate external float trap can then be located in the oil drain line from the separator preceded by a filter. such as • In systems where it is impossible to prevent substantial absorption of refrigerant in the crankcase oil during shutdown periods. Oil separators reduce the amount of bleedoff from the flooded cooler needed for operation. allow enough room to remove the oil float assembly for servicing. and then automatically returns oil to the suction line. The most satisfactory method appears to be a trap arrangement that catches liquid floodback and (1) meters it slowly into the suction line. where the floodback is cleared up with a liquid-suction heat interchanger. Normally. To minimize entrance of condensed refrigerant from the low side. In applying oil separators in refrigeration systems. The filter and traps are also easy to service without stopping the system. (2) evaporates the liquid 100% in the trap itself by using a liquid coil or electric heater. The throttling valve should be adjusted so that flow through this line is only a little greater than would normally be expected to return oil through the suction line. the oil return line from the separator may feed to one of the following locations: • Directly to the compressor crankcase • Directly into the suction line ahead of the compressor • Into an oil reservoir or device used to collect oil. If it sticks open. Although separators may be fabricated with length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios of 1/1 up to 10/1. automatically drain it into the compressor crankcase. Compressor Floodback Protection Certain systems periodically flood the compressor with excessive amounts of liquid refrigerant. on compressor start-up. it is necessary to provide oil bleed. it should be downstream of the oil separator. Because these vessels are also oil traps. The oil separator is usually supplied with the compressor unit assembly directly from the compressor manufacturer. where an oil separator is necessary for proper operation. More often. such as on a roof. where it is advantageous to have as little oil as possible going through the low side. the following potential hazards must be considered: • Oil separators are not 100% efficient. and the separator immediately returns a large portion of this oil to the crankcase. This line should be equipped with a shutoff valve. When periodic floodback through the suction line cannot be controlled. This is true if the condenser is in a warm location. If a discharge line check valve is used. • The float valve is a mechanical device that may stick open or closed. Usually. This device. A cool oil separator may condense discharge gas and. 32 Closed-Type Subcooler 1. Shutoff valves should isolate the filter and trap. the valve should be wired so that it is open when the compressor is running. The drum can be designed with baffles or eliminators to separate liquid from the suction gas. • In screw-type compressor systems. To minimize this possibility. • In systems using flooded evaporators. through the entire system and returns to the compressor as fast as it leaves.com). • In low-temperature systems. When the compressor starts up with a violent foaming action. sufficient separation space is allowed above the liquid level for this purpose. • In direct-expansion systems using coils or tube bundles that require bottom feed for good liquid distribution and where refrigerant carryover from the top of the evaporator is essential for proper oil removal. Exceptions include shell-and-tube coolers and similar shell-type evaporators. disposing of liquid by a combination of boiling off in the exchanger and limited bleedoff into the suction line. and a sight glass. The discharge line pipe size into and out of the oil separator should be the full size determined for the discharge line.

mechanical or electronic indicators. The sight glass is best installed in a vertical section of line. 33 Compressor Floodback Protection Using Accumulator with Controlled Bleed For heavier floodback. as shown in Figure 34. where it is boiled off in a liquid-suction heat exchanger between cycle reversals. With pilot-operated valves. The suction line should be piped at the compressor so that the built-in strainer is accessible for servicing. Both liquid. The liquid-line strainer can be located anywhere in the line between the condenser (or receiver) and the automatic valves. A full-flow drier is always recommended in hermetic compressor systems to keep the system dry and prevent decomposition products from getting into the evaporator in the event of a motor burnout. or to the condenser outlet if no receiver is used (Figure 35). It is especially important on low-temperature systems to prevent ice from forming at expansion devices. Trapped liquid is slowly bled off through a properly sized and controlled drain line into the suction line. If the sight glass is installed too far away from the receiver. Strainers should trap the particle size that could affect valve operation. Common devices used are liquid-line sight glass. With the alternative arrangement shown. preferably near the valves for maximum protection. The strainer should be mounted in a horizontal line. far enough downstream from any valve that the resulting disturbance does not appear in the glass. Strainers Fig. a larger volume is required in the trap. A three-valve bypass is usually used. © 2014 ASHRAE. an external suction-line strainer is recommended in addition to the compressor strainer. a very fine strainer should be installed in the pilot line ahead of the valve. Replaceable-element filter-driers are preferred for large systems because the drying element can be replaced without breaking any refrigerant connections. Reliable moisture indicators can be installed in refrigerant liquid lines to provide a positive indication of when the drier cartridge should be replaced. 34 Drier with Piping Connections Licensed for single user. The drier is usually located in the liquid line near the liquid receiver. the liquid/oil mixture is heated to evaporate the refrigerant. The refrigerant charging connection should be located between the receiver outlet valve and liquid-line drier so that all refrigerant added to the system passes through the drier. In steel piping systems. and metal chips. which is adequate for the usual system with copper piping. the line pressure drop may be sufficient to cause flashing and bubbles in the . Where multiple expansion valves with internal strainers are used at one location. Strainers should be used in both liquid and suction lines to protect automatic valves and the compressor from foreign material. It consists of a suction-line accumulator with enough volume to hold the maximum expected floodback and a large enough diameter to separate liquid from suction gas. Using a permanent refrigerant drier is recommended on all systems and with all refrigerants. Liquid indicators should be located in the liquid line as close as possible to the receiver outlet.com). The arrangement shown in Figure 33 has been used successfully in reverse-cycle heat pump applications using halocarbon refrigerants. Liquid Indicators Every refrigeration system should have a way to check for sufficient refrigerant charge. and the remaining oil is drained into the crankcase or suction line. such as pipe welding scale.32 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Fig. No other strainer is needed in the liquid line if a good filter-drier is used. and an external gage glass with equalizing connections and shutoff valves. oriented so that the screen can be replaced without loose particles falling into the system. to provide a way to isolate the drier for servicing.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. A properly installed sight glass shows bubbling when the charge is insufficient. Filter-driers dry the refrigerant and filter out particles far smaller than those trapped by mesh strainers. It may be mounted horizontally or vertically with the flange at the bottom. rust. but it should never be mounted vertically with the flange on top because any loose material would then fall into the line when the drying element was removed. Refrigeration compressors are usually equipped with a built-in suction strainer. a single main liquid-line strainer will protect all of these.and suction-line strainers should be adequately sized to ensure sufficient foreign material storage capacity without excessive pressure drop. A liquid-line strainer should be installed before each automatic valve to prevent particles from lodging on the valve seats. Refrigerant Driers and Moisture Indicators The effect of moisture in refrigeration systems is discussed in Chapters 6 and 7. Inc.

an indoor water sump with a remote spray pump(s) is required.33 Fig.com). The valve divides water flow between the condenser and the bypass line to maintain the desired condensing pressure. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Licensed for single user. Outlets are arranged to prevent oil from draining below the heater level to avoid heater burnout and to prevent scale and dirt from being returned to the compressor. As head pressure drops. (2) cycling both fan and spray pump motors. In water pump cycling. In colder climates. often no amount of system overcharging will give a solid liquid condition at the sight glass because of pressure drop in the liquid line or lift. the pressure goes up and the pump starts again. (3) throttling the spray water. (5) throttling air via dampers. even if the charge is sufficient for a liquid seal at the receiver outlet. Oil Receivers Oil receivers serve as reservoirs for replenishing crankcase oil pumped by the compressors and provide the means to remove refrigerant dissolved in the oil. the pump stops and the unit becomes an air-cooled condenser. and (6) combinations of these methods. Purge Units Noncondensable gas separation using a purge unit is useful on most large refrigeration systems where suction pressure may fall below atmospheric pressure (see Figure 30 of Chapter 2). (4) bypassing air around duct and dampers. Subcooling is required here. Constant pressure is difficult to maintain with coils of prime surface tubing because as soon as the pump stops. see Chapter 39 of the 2012 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment. An additional sight glass near the evaporator may be needed to check the refrigerant condition at that point. One method of controlling head pressure is using cycle fans and pumps. Sight glasses should be installed full size in the main liquid line. Shortcycling results in excessive deposits of mineral and scale on the tubes. Figure 36 shows an automatic three-way valve arrangement. They are selected for systems having any of the following components: • Flooded or semiflooded evaporators with large refrigerant charges • Two or more compressors operated in parallel • Long suction and discharge lines • Double suction line risers A typical hookup is shown in Figure 33. Moisture-liquid indicators large enough to be installed directly in the liquid line serve the dual purpose of liquid-line sight glass and moisture indicator. When sight glasses are installed near the evaporator. decreasing the life of the water pump. 35 Sight Glass and Charging Valve Locations glass. the glass can then be installed in a bypass or saddle mount that is arranged so that any gas in the liquid line will tend to move to it. • If pressure continues to fall. they are used only where it is necessary to maintain condensing temperatures. The fan cycling sequence is as follows: Upon dropping head pressure • Stop fans. Fig.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. The problem is not as acute with extended-surface coils. Evaporative Condensers Among the methods used for condensing pressure control with evaporative condensers are (1) cycling the spray pump motor. These valves are usually sized to pass the design quantity of water at about a 25 to 30 psi difference between design condensing pressure and valve shutoff pressure. 1. Inc. For further information. . this may not be possible. A sight glass with double ports (for back lighting) and seal caps. a pressure control at the gas inlet starts and stops the pump in response to head pressure changes. The pump sprays water over the condenser coils. on either inlet or discharge. In very large liquid lines. head pressure controls are used both to maintain condensing pressure and to conserve water. start pumps. stop pumps. is preferred. This ensures that the valve will not pass water during off cycles. On cooling tower applications. Water Bypass In cooling tower applications. This maintains a balanced flow of water on the tower and pump. which provide added protection against leakage. Water-Cooled Condensers With water-cooled condensers. Chapter 11 has further information. © 2014 ASHRAE. 36 Head Pressure Control for Condensers Used with Cooling Towers (Water Bypass Modulation) Condenser-Water-Regulating Valves The shutoff pressure of the valve must be set slightly higher than the saturation pressure of the refrigerant at the highest ambient temperature expected when the system is not in operation. a simple bypass with a manual or automatic valve responsive to head pressure change can also be used to maintain condensing pressure. This minimizes water-side scaling. • If pressure continues to rise. This occurs because these coils have insufficient capacity when operating as an air-cooled condenser. HEAD PRESSURE CONTROL FOR REFRIGERANT CONDENSERS For more information on head pressure control. see Chapter 39 of the 2012 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment. Upon rising head pressure • Start fans.

so that the refrigerant solenoid valve closes when the compressor stops. liquid refrigerant can accumulate and condense in the crankcase at a pressure corresponding to the ambient temperature. In extremely cold weather. If the cut-in setting is any higher. crankcase pressure would not rise high enough to reach the cut-in point. and effective automatic pumpdown would not be obtained. regardless of whether the balance of the system is operating. some systems using thermostatic expansion valves). A modulating motor.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. In multiple-fan air-cooled condensers. Consult the manufacturer before using this method. 38 Head Pressure Control for Evaporative Condenser (Air Bypass Modulation) Damper control (Figure 37) may be incorporated in systems requiring more constant head pressures (e. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. • Low-pressure control settings such that the cut-in point corresponds to a saturated refrigerant temperature lower than any expected compressor ambient air temperature. allowing discharge gas to enter the liquid drain line. because not all condensers are properly circuited for it. and (4) fan motor speed control. a positive restriction must be placed parallel with the condenser and the control valve. so refrigerant flow stops when the fan is out of operation. This restricts liquid refrigerant drainage and causes the condenser to flood enough to maintain the condenser and receiver pressure at the control valve setting. One drawback of dampers is formation of ice on dampers and linkages. Any one of the following control methods accomplishes this. . Using ambient temperature change (rather than condensing pressure) to modulate air-cooled condenser capacity prevents rapid cycling of condenser capacity. pressure drop may practically disappear at partial loading. 37 Head Pressure Control for Evaporative Condenser (Air Intake Modulation) The third method holds condensing pressure up by backing liquid refrigerant up in the coil to cut down on effective condensing surface. © 2014 ASHRAE. there is an opportunity to mechanically isolate portions of the condenser to reduce the usable surface area.. acting in response to a modulating pressure control. • Compressor operation through a low-pressure cutout providing for pumpdown whenever this device closes. most of the air is recirculated. because most microchannel condensers are made up of many individual heat exchangers. When head pressure drops below the setting of the modulating control valve. oil safety switch. positions dampers so that the mixture of recirculated and cold inlet air maintains the desired pressure. The first two methods are described in the section on Evaporative Condensers. Air-Cooled Condensers Methods for condensing pressure control with air-cooled condensers include (1) cycling fan motor. • Electrical interlock of the liquid solenoid valve with the evaporator fan. Therefore. However. KEEPING LIQUID FROM CRANKCASE DURING OFF CYCLES Control of reciprocating compressors should prevent excessive accumulation of liquid refrigerant in the crankcase during off cycles. Although the condenser imposes sufficient pressure drop at full load. • Electrical interlock of refrigerant solenoid valve with safety devices (e. • A liquid-line solenoid valve in the main liquid line or in the branch to each evaporator. (2) air throttling or bypassing. (3) coil flooding. A pressure difference must be available across the valve to open it. A disadvantage of this method is that the condensing pressure is not closely controlled. it is common to cycle fans off down to one fan and then to apply air throttling to that section or modulate the fan motor speed. high-pressure cutout. Inc.g.34 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Licensed for single user. condensing pressure control for microchannel condensers are essentially the same as those used for standard air-cooled condensers.com).g. Microchannel Condensers The methods for low-ambient. Then. Fig. Systems using this type of control require extra refrigerant charge. and motor overloads). Figure 38 incorporates an air bypass arrangement for controlling head pressure. This type of control scheme can be used instead of holding back excess refrigerant to flood portions of the condenser. Automatic Pumpdown Control (Direct-Expansion Air-Cooling Systems) The most effective way to keep liquid out of the crankcase during system shutdown is to operate the compressor on automatic pumpdown control.. it opens. The recommended arrangement involves the following devices and provisions: Fig.

(2) not cause excessive superheating of the suction gas. After an adequate delay. Operation with the single pumpout arrangement is as follows. Effect of Short Operating Cycle With reciprocating compressors. Therefore. so that refrigerant flow is stopped when the fan is out of operation • Electrical interlock of refrigerant solenoid valve with safety devices (e. hot gas should not be bypassed until after the last unloading step. a timing relay closes a pair of normally open contacts to start the compressor. Control valves for hot gas should be close to the main discharge line because the line preceding the valve usually fills with liquid when closed. Whenever the temperature control device opens the circuit.35 To prevent overheating. equalizing pressures across the compressor.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. so that the refrigerant flow valve closes when the compressor stops Control for Direct-Expansion Water Chillers Automatic pumpdown control is undesirable for direct-expansion water chillers because freezing is possible if excessive cycling occurs. 1. it may be necessary to further unload the compressor to (1) reduce starting torque requirements so that the compressor can be started both with low-starting-torque prime movers and on lowcurrent taps of reduced voltage starters and (2) allow capacity control down to 0% load conditions without stopping the compressor. it will dangerously overheat the compressor if used for protracted periods of time. the crankcase heater is energized. The condenser head pressure control must be capable of meeting this condition. Controllers used for compressors should not produce short-cycling of the compressor. and (4) maintain an oil return to the compressor. A crankcase oil heater with or without single (nonrecycling) pumpout at the end of each operating cycle does not keep liquid refrigerant out of the crankcase as effectively as automatic pumpdown control. oil leaves the crankcase at an accelerated rate immediately after starting. the bypass is connected into the low side between the expansion valve and entrance to the evaporator. This is usually done by an automatic or manual pressure-reducing valve that establishes a constant pressure on the downstream side. head pressure control requirements increase considerably because the only heat delivered to the condenser is that caused by the motor power delivered to the compressor. with a solenoid valve in the liquid line that closes when the compressor stops. When sizing the valve. to ensure good mixing. Hot-gas bypass for capacity control is an artificial loading device that maintains a minimum evaporating pressure during continuous compressor operation. This arrangement provides good oil return. After a further time delay. Crankcase oil heaters maintain the crankcase oil at a temperature higher than that of other parts of the system.com). Inc. Another thermostatic expansion valve supplies liquid directly to the bypass line for desuperheating. The compressor cannot start again until the temperature control device or manual control switch closes. Four common methods of using hot-gas bypass are shown in Figure 39. oil safety switch. Figure 39C shows the most satisfactory hot-gas bypass arrangement. it is important that a continuous live circuit be available to the heater during the off time. each start should be followed by a long enough operating period to allow the oil level to recover. but many compressors equalize too quickly after stopping automatic pumpdown control. consult a control valve manufacturer to determine the minimum compressor capacity that must be offset. Pressure drop through the distributor tubes must be evaluated to determine how much gas can be bypassed. high-pressure cutout. This control method requires • A liquid-line solenoid valve in the main liquid line or in the branch to each evaporator • Use of a relay or the maintained contact of the compressor motor auxiliary switch to obtain a single pumpout operation before stopping the compressor • A relay or auxiliary starter contact to energize the crankcase heater during the compressor off cycle and deenergize it during the compressor on cycle • Electrical interlock of the refrigerant solenoid valve with the evaporator fan. condensing pressure. In the control sequence. it is the same size as the valve connections. . The hot-gas bypass line should be sized so that its pressure loss is only a small percentage of the pressure drop across the valve. regardless of evaporator load. so that these devices cannot function until they are required. However. Here.. or the manual control switch is opened for shutdown purposes. In using these arrangements. and motor overloads). the unloading bypass valve is energized on demand of the control calling for compressor operation. hot-gas bypass arrangements can be used in ways that will not overheat the compressor. this valve is open only during the starting period and closed after the compressor is up to full speed and full voltage is applied to the motor terminals. and preferably further. and the compressor keeps running until it cuts off on the low-pressure switch. a pair of normally closed timing relay contacts opens. (3) not cause any refrigerant overfeed to the compressor. regardless of the position of the low-pressure switch. In Figure 39D. Solenoid valves should be placed before the constant-pressure bypass valve and before the thermal expansion valve used for liquid injection desuperheating. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems Crankcase Oil Heater (Direct-Expansion Systems) Licensed for single user. The expansion valve bulb should be placed at least 5 ft downstream from the bypass point of entrance. and suction pressure. A crankcase heater is the best solution. deenergizing the bypass valve. Full (100%) Unloading for Capacity Control Where full unloading is required for capacity control. It is always important to install the hot-gas bypass far enough back in the system to maintain sufficient gas velocities in suction risers and other components to ensure oil return at any evaporator loading. the hot-gas bypass enters after the evaporator thermostatic expansion valve bulb.g. When unloading (Figure 39C). Figure 39B shows the use of hot-gas bypass to the exit of the evaporator. refrigerant used. © 2014 ASHRAE. Because the crankcase heater remains energized during the complete off cycle. If a distributor is used. Usually. Hot-gas bypass should (1) give acceptable regulation throughout the range of loads. gas enters between the expansion valve and distributor. minimizing absorption of the refrigerant by the oil. HOT-GAS BYPASS ARRANGEMENTS Most large reciprocating compressors are equipped with unloaders that allow the compressor to start with most of its cylinders unloaded. Refrigerant distributors are commercially available with side inlet connections that can be used for hot-gas bypass duty to a certain extent. Refer to the compressor manufacturer’s literature for guidelines on maximum or minimum cycles for a specified period. Full (100%) Unloading for Starting Starting the compressor without load can be done with a manual or automatic valve in a bypass line between the hot-gas and suction lines at the compressor. Discharge pressure should be kept high enough that the hot-gas bypass valve can deliver gas at the required rate. Figure 39A illustrates the simplest type.

Inc. solenoid. but benefits beyond reduced charge include cheaper installation cost and less physical space required to run the lines. in supermarkets) rely on a network of distribution piping. if a leak does occur. However. some users install compressor systems throughout their facilities instead of centralizing them in a compressor room. In this type of system.36 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Fig. so the chance of refrigerant leaks is dramatically reduced.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. Minimizing the distance between the receiver and the evaporators also reduces the refrigerant charge in the liquid piping. subcooling the liquid can further reduce charge. condenser. Opportunities to reduce charge also exist on the high-pressure side of the system between the compressor and the receiver. systems that use watercooled condensers operate with a lower charge. the consequence are reduced if the system charge has been minimized. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Licensed for single user. Note that using hot-gas defrost with this type of piping scheme is typically not preferred.. but it is probably the most effective because it can restrict the halocarbon refrigerant to a compact unit composed of a compressor.g. For this reason. The other factor affecting the amount of refrigerant in the distribution piping is the equipment location. which can contain a large portion of the entire system charge. because it requires a third branched line that must also be field installed. Because subcooling increases the refrigerant’s quality. © 2014 ASHRAE. charge can be significantly reduced by zoning the loads. 39 Hot-Gas Bypass Arrangements MINIMIZING REFRIGERANT CHARGE IN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS Preventing refrigerant leaks is the most effective way to reduce halocarbons’ environmental effects. There are many ways to reduce charge. For systems that use single circuiting. but most require significant system modifications. If a condensing . along with special noise-reducing enclosures to allow installations in more exposed and occupied areas. One of the best opportunities to reduce refrigerant charge exists in the distribution piping that feeds liquid to the evaporator from the receiver and returns the suction gas to the compressor. Distributed systems typically use quieter scroll compressors. For loads operating at similar evaporator pressures. the required mass flow rate is reduced. charge reduction is usually performed during system remodeling or replacement. This method requires a much more dramatic change to the system. thus allowing use of smaller liquid lines (and thus smaller-volume refrigerant charges) with comparable velocities and pressure drops. Replacing or retrofitting a direct system to an indirect (or secondary) system is another way to reduce refrigerant charge in distribution piping. 1. and evaporator pressure regulating valves must be next to the heat load in these systems. The secondary fluid can then be pumped through air-cooling heat exchangers at the load. Systems serving numerous evaporators across a facility (e. one suction and liquid line can run from the machinery room and branch out closer to the load to feed multiple evaporators (loop piping). In comparison to standard air-cooled condensers. consequently. only a few evaporators are required and the distribution piping is eliminated. so the fact that the refrigerant charge can be reduced is often considered a secondary benefit. and evaporator. In the liquid feed lines. Expansion.com). in which each evaporator (or small group of adjacent evaporators) has its own liquid and suction line piped back to the compressor. Subcooling is typically chosen for its energy benefits and is also often used to protect liquid from flashing before it reaches the expansion valve.

This temperature change behavior during the phase-change process is known as the refrigerant’s temperature glide and is caused by the varying boiling points of the constituent refrigerants within the mixture. It is always important to follow a thorough change-out procedure to ensure that all traces of the existing oil are removed from the system. refrigerant charge can be reduced. so the system’s efficiency can be compared to expectations. and recharging the system with the new oil. a flat-plate condenser can be mounted near the compressors and used to reject heat from the high-pressure side of the system to the water loop. it does so at a constant pressure (ignoring pressure drop) at the refrigerant’s dew-point temperature.g. Because pressure-temperature relationships will be different for the new refrigerant. its temperature drops until it reaches the bubble-point temperature. Conversely. suction filters. the bubble-point temperature must represent the saturation point. and whether the entire TXV should be replaced. Before any work begins. Mineral oils and alkylbenzene oils are often replaced with POE oils to maintain oil miscibility with the new refrigerant. in conjunction with fan controls. variablespeed pumps. it starts at the bubble-point temperature and is not fully evaporated until it reaches the dew-point temperature. the dew-point temperature must represent the saturation point. it is necessary to only charge systems with refrigerant in the liquid state unless the entire cylinder will be immediately used. Because most published capacity data for heat exchangers are based on temperature that is assumed to be constant during phase change. When checking the capacity of existing compressors. however. Traditionally. When calculating temperature differences to check the rated capacity of existing condensers and evaporators. the performance of the system can be evaluated to determine 1. however. converting from the HCFC R-22 to the HFC R-407A). the designer and contractor needs to be aware of how the refrigerant’s temperature glide behaves throughout the system and know how to properly use the bubble. that dewpoint temperatures be used as the reference temperatures at the corresponding evaporating and condensing pressures. When a zeotropic refrigerant starts to condense in the condenser. and/or flow-restricting valves are used to maintain minimum condensing pressures in water-cooled condensers. it is common practice to change out all elastomeric gaskets and seals as part of the retrofit procedure. In systems that require flooding. Finally. Not only should the capacity of the compressor(s) be considered. mean. Inc. Swell characteristics of different elastomers can be referenced from Table 9 in Chapter 29 of the 2013 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals.37 whether it is performing as expected. this approach provides the same benefit as condenser flooding. After the system is up and running with the new refrigerant and oil. The gas can then be superheated. etc. exists in accurately determining the dew-point temperatures. it is always crucial to make the appropriate signage and labeling modifications to prevent anyone from topping off the system with the old refrigerant or oil. such as the overall integrity and functionality of the material. The challenge. Furthermore. The designer should consult with the valve manufacturer to decide what action should be taken. at which point it is fully condensed. more acceptable refrigerants (e. . The draining and recharging steps may need to be repeated more than once to achieve the desired purity for the new oil. the temperature-sensing bulbs and nozzles must be changed out. Microchannel condensers also have lower charges than standard air-cooled condensers but may require long runs of liquid piping in installations with indoor compressors. when the refrigerant starts to boil in the evaporator. when calculating superheating at the evaporator exit. The most glaring concern is the effect of the new refrigerant on system capacity. (Refer to Chapter 2 of the 2013 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals for more information on zeotropic refrigerants. A typical procedure includes (among other tasks) draining the existing oil. changing out liquid driers. when calculating subcooling at the condenser exit. microchannel condensers allow for reduced refrigerant charge because of their smaller internal volume. if a leak occurs and the system is repaired. The liquid can then be subcooled. entire banks of some microchannel condensers can be isolated using solenoid valves if the outlet piping is correctly trapped. zeotropic refrigerants. Elastomeric gasket and seal materials in the system will also react differently to new refrigerants and oils. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems water source is available. valves. Refrigerant manufacturers publish pressure-temperature charts that allow the bubble. Beyond this. Thermal expansion valves (TXV) require attention in any retrofit. REFRIGERANT RETROFITTING Because of the halocarbon phaseout. For this reason. At the very least. the mean temperatures should be used along with any derating factors provided by the manufacturer. © 2014 ASHRAE. bypass lines. in low ambient conditions. 95% or higher purity is required. using mean temperatures yields a slightly smaller capacity than they actually have because ANSI/AHRI Standard 540-2004 requires. Blended refrigerants essentially separate (fractionate) during phase changes. For this reason.com). testing is necessary to know exactly how gaskets and seals will react to mixtures of different refrigerants and oils and what factors other than swell may come into play. Changing out the system’s lubricating oil is also often required during a retrofit. but requires less refrigerant. the contractor must be prepared to adjust all the pressure controls and/or modify controller set points throughout the system. Any available energy data should also be recorded. so leaky condensers and evaporators create concern: refrigerant composition changes can occur in the system. Licensed for single user. mean. So. and dew-point temperatures at the evaporator and condenser to accurately calculate subcooling and superheating. supplemental derating factors must be used. and dew-point temperatures to be easily referenced given a specific pressure. TEMPERATURE GLIDE It is not uncommon to retrofit existing systems from single-component (azeotropic) refrigerants to blended. often. Because condenser flooding is no longer required. when rating compressor capacities.). Alternatively.This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. leading to unpredictable system operation. As the refrigerant continues to condense.. Refrigerant and oil levels should also be monitored until the correct levels are achieved. and filters should be changed until the system is clean. Equipment and component manufacturers often can provide the needed derating factors to adjust capacities appropriately. the designer must know what temperatures to use to properly size equipment. however. and oil filters. Such conversions require planning and preparation. but also the capacity of every other component in the system (condensers. Typically. evaporators. Simply adding half of the glide to the mean temperature may not be accurate: it is difficult to determine what the actual mean temperature really must be for effective evaporator or condenser operation. it is a good idea to record how the system is performing: data such as highand low-side pressures and temperatures help to suggest how the system should operate after the retrofit.) In these scenarios. many users are retrofitting existing systems to use newer. the superheats need to be adjusted. the refrigerant composition should be checked for significant changes before topping off the system.

and outlook. Safety standard for refrigeration systems. 1984.. W.D.L. Jr.:24-33. Arlington. 1990.L. Wile. ASHRAE Transactions 96:1. West Conshohocken. E. ANSI/AHRI Standard 540-2004. Inc.J. Standard specification for seamless copper water tube.J. IPCC. Alofs.. 1939. ASHRAE Symposium Bulletin PH71(2):6-10. International Journal of Refrigeration 7(4):225-228. AHRI. ASME. F. Heating.A.L. 1977. New York. Standard B88M. M. considerations. 2013. Correlation and prediction of viscosity and thermal conductivity of vapor refrigerants.A. 1990. Timm. Colebrook. and R. 1990. Cambridge University Press Jacobs. © 2014 ASHRAE.com).F. 2005. Related Commercial Resources . ASHRAE Transactions 81(2):318-329.5-2006. Kazem. C. ASHRAE. Stoecker. and the invention of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants: It ain’t necessarily so. ASHRAE Transactions 97(1):194-203.J. An improved method for calculating refrigerant line pressure drops. W. Jr. Refrigerant line sizing. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2013. F. Performance rating of positive displacement refrigerant compressors and compressor units. J. D. 2006. Bulletin for the History of Chemistry 31(2):66-74. Matula. Sauer. and N. and Refrigeration Institute. Publication Date: 6/1/2014 1. Influence of oil on pressure drop in refrigerant compressor suction lines.C. T. ASHRAE Transactions 75(1). PA. Giunta. First Assessment Report (FAR) Overview Chapter. Thomas Midgley. 2008. 2004. D. Macken. ASTM. Keating. 1971. 1991. VA. 1969. Oil transport by refrigerant vapor.M. The next generation of refrigerants—Historical review.D.38 2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration REFERENCES Licensed for single user. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. and H. M. 1976. Ecolibrium Nov. Selecting the size of pipes carrying hot gas to defrosted evaporators. 1938. Journal of the Institute of Engineers 11. Atwood. ASHRAE Journal 32(4):62-66.F. AirConditioning. ANSI/ ASME Standard B31. Influence of oil-refrigerant relationships on oil return. D.M. Cooper. Scheideman. Calm. Turbulent flow in pipes. 2006. Refrigeration piping and heat transfer components. ASHRAE. Pipe sizing and pressure drop calculations for HFC-134a. American Society for Testing and Materials. M..This file is licensed to ENG (eng@yahoo. Hasan.C.