Journal of Food Engineering 78 (2007) 1471–1475

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Research note

Convective drying characteristics of azarole red (Crataegus
monogyna Jacq.) and yellow (Crataegus aronia Bosc.) fruits
Turhan Koyuncu *, Yunus Pinar, Fuat Lule
University of Ondokuz Mayıs, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, 55139 Samsun, Turkey
Received 6 May 2005; received in revised form 9 August 2005; accepted 30 September 2005
Available online 20 February 2006

Abstract
In this research, drying characteristics and energy requirement for drying of two different genotypes (Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and
Crataegus aronia Bosc.) of azarole (Crataegus azarolus L.) red and yellow fruits were reported. Azarole fruits were dehydrated in a computer connected convective hot air dryer. Freshly harvested two different genotypes of azarole fruits were dried at 60 and 70 °C temperatures and drying air velocity was selected as 0.25 m/s for both temperatures. Azarole fruits were dehydrated from the initial moisture
content of 211% and 273% (percentage dry basis) to a final moisture content of 8–9% for red and yellow fruits, respectively. During
experiments, drying product were weighted automatically by the balance per 10 min. Data were transferred to the computer and processed by a software. The results indicated that drying air temperature significantly influenced the total drying time and total energy
requirement for drying of both genotype azarole fruits. The minimum specific energy consumption for drying of red and yellow fruits
were determined as 42.80 kWh/kg and 27.68 kWh/kg for 70 °C, respectively. In order to reduce drying energy consumption, it can be
recommended that the drying temperature must not be less than 70 °C for this application.
Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Azarole fruits; Drying kinetics; Energy requirement for drying of azarole fruits; Convective hot air dryer; Drying temperatures; Drying air
velocity

1. Introduction
The drying or dehydration is the oldest method in food
conservation, and its object is to remove by evaporation
most of the water present in the product. The reduction
of moisture content inhibits or decrease microbial and
enzymatic activity, which otherwise would produce food
damage. Besides, dehydration makes food product handling easier owing to the volumetric shrinkage and weight
losses products undergo during process (Ochoa, Kesseler,
Pirone, Marquez, & De Michelis, 2002). Natural open-air
sun drying is practiced widely in hot climates and tropical
countries. Considerable savings can be obtained with this
type of drying, since the source of energy is free and renew-

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 362 3121919; fax: +90 362 4576034.
E-mail address: tkoyuncu@omu.edu.tr (T. Koyuncu).

0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.09.036

able. However, this technique is extremely weather, dependent and has the problems of contamination, infestation,
microbial attack, etc. In addition, the required drying time
for a given load is approximately 2–4 times longer than
greenhouse, cabinet and convective hot air type dryers
(Koyuncu & Pınar, 2001; Koyuncu & Sessiz, 2002; Tog˘rul
& Dursun, 2003).
Azarole (Crataegus azarolus L.) tree is a deciduous tree
growing up to 3–4 m high and cultivated for centuries in
the Mediterranean area. It is in flower in April and May.
The plant can grow in light, medium and heavy soils. It
requires moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. Its
fruits are very variable in size and colour, it is up to
25 mm in diameter. There are 1–3 large seeds in the centre
of the fruit. Fruit weight 2.16–7.58 g, flesh/pit ratio 2.55–
6.86, pit weight 0.77–1.16 g. The fruits contain 15.9 g total
sugar, 1.38 mg total acidity, 27.58 mg vitamin C, 11.0 mg
Ca, 9.80 mg P, 1.16 mg Fe, 158 mg K, 7.10 mg Mg,

RS232 connection.10 296 2422 8186 3.12 19. 2003. The geometric mean diameter (Fd). m/s weight of dry matter in product. The dryer equipped with an electric heater (air heating duct). Therefore. In different several literatures. Scossa. The products were placed on the cromium mesh as a thin layer and at the density of 8. kJ/(kg K) total drying time. 0. (1) to (3) (Demir & Kalyoncu.01 mm sensitive digital caliper Table 1 Physical properties of azarole fruits Width of fruit (mm) Length of fruit (mm) Number of fruit/kg Number of fruit/m2 Weight of fruit (g)/m2 Average weight of each fruit (g) Geometric mean diameter of fruit (mm) Sphericity of fruit Surface area of fruit (mm2) Fruit Fl/Fw Fp ¼ 1=3 ðF l F 2w Þ Azarole red fruits Azarole yellow fruits 19. 2 mg Na. 2004.00 19.35 0. dirt. it is possible to see a little part of information about nutritional and physical properties.69 kg/m2 for red and yellow fruits. it is not easy to see enough information regarding the production and consumption in the literature even if many studies made about azarole fruits. The drying air at the inlet of the dryer was . To establish the physical properties of the fresh fruits. Koyuncu et al. sphericity (Fp) and surface area (Fs) were calculated from Eqs.1472 T. Bignami. 2004). kg/m3 0.. respectively.12 g carbohydrate for 100 g fruits.20 and 9. a 0.16 mg Cu. no report concerning the drying kinetics. 2003.) and azarole yellow fruits (Crataegus aronia Bosc. length and weight were measured by the help of a 0.01 g sensitive balance. food consumption and food processing ways. corrosion resistant chromium mesh.99 1256 1. % drying air speed. temperature adjuster. mm length of fruit. 2003. / Journal of Food Engineering 78 (2007) 1471–1475 Nomenclature A c Dt Ekg Et Fd Fl drying air flow surface area. drying air inlet and outlet channels as well as thermostat. Karadeniz. corrosion resistant cromium sheet. and a 0. kg initial weight of undried product.83 264 2556 9687 3. The fruits were cleaned in an air screen to remove all foreign material such as dust. mm the moisture content on dry basis expressed as percentage. kWh geometric mean diameter.95 g protein and 13. However.01 0. h energy requirement for drying 1 kg of product.79 19. air speed adjuster (regulator of variable transformer). & Bertazza. 2003. marmalade and syrup in Turkey. 1997). a PC. K air density. m2 specific heat of air under adiabatic conditions. kWh/kg total energy requirement for a charge of the dryer. ingredients and characteristics of azarole fruits (Asma & Birhanlı. temperature indicators 2. drying characteristics and heat energy requirement of azarole fruits during our literature survey. glass wood insulator.24 mg Mn. Karadeniz. mm2 width of fruit. Paolocci. it is possible to use different methods such as traditional method. centrifugal fan (blower).97 1176 1. pieces of branches and leaves. kg temperature differences. Fruits and flowers are also used for medicinal purposes (Asma & Birhanlı.) were dehydrated in a computer connected convective hot air dryer at various temperatures and selected most suitable velocity to determine the drying characteristics and energy requirement for drying in this experimental investigation. approximately 20% samples were randomly taken out and width. Freshly harvested azarole fruits that physical properties given in Table 1 were dried in a computer connected convective hot air dryer. 1).) such as azarole red fruits (Crataegus monogyna Jacq. for the present. Materials and methods F d ¼ ðF l F 2w Þ1=3 Ripe azarole red and yellow fruits grown in Malatya Region of Turkey were harvested manually and used for the investigation.01 g sensitive Precisa BJ 600 D digital balance. Azarole fruits are extensively used especially in rural areas of Turkey for different aims.96 20. The fruits are not only consumed fresh and dried but also used to produce jam. 2003). However. mm Fp Fs Fw PMdb v Wd W0 DT q sphericity surface area.04 ð1Þ ¼ Fd Fl Fl ðPF 2w F 2l Þ ¼ PF 2d Fs ¼ 6ð2F l  F w Þ ð2Þ ð3Þ Wattmeter and free wheels (Fig.38 20. specially designed Balint data processing software. cold storage and drying depending on the technical opportunities. In order to store azarole fruits. Yesilada et al. 0. Bignami et al. two different genotypes of azarole fruits (Crataegus azarolus L..

This air was heated by the heater and directed to the drying chamber. 1999. / Journal of Food Engineering 78 (2007) 1471–1475 1473 Fig.25 m/s increase the drying time and energy requirement. Loon. several digital devices such as Wattmeter. During drying time. & ¨ stu¨n. Schematic presentation of the computer connected convective hot air dryer. U the drying chamber was selected less than 1 m long. hot-wire anemometer having in the measurement sensitive of 0. Besides. 2000). total drying time. Especially. The second drying stage is also called the falling drying rate period. 20 °C (±1) and 60% (±3) relative humidity.1 m/s. Koyuncu. the experimental drying studies we conducted showed us that the maximum length of the drying chamber must be approximately 1 m depending on the drying air temperature distribution during the length of the dryer. The first is called constant drying rate period. The end of the constant drying rate period is marked by a decrease in the rate of moisture migration from within the product below that sufficient to replenish the moisture being evaporated from the surface. This air was heated by the electric heater. and kept until reaching constant weight (AOAC. the preliminary studies we conducted showed that the temperature less than 60 °C and the air speed more than 0. 2003. extremely for these fruits. van Seres. the electric current of the heater and the rotation of the fan were adjusted manually. Moisture content of the fruits were determined by using an air oven set at 105 °C. Both the external factors and the internal mechanisms controlling the drying processes in the two main rate regimes are important in determining the overall drying rate of products (Ekechukwu. Tosun. Serdar. During the first period. When the length of the drying chamber was constructed more than 1 m. the mass of the fruit samples were weighted automatically by the balance per 10 min and all test were replicated three times. Meerdink. at harvest were found approximately 211% and 273% for azarole red and yellow fruits. The system was also controlled by the thermostat automatically. Therefore. (5) and (6)) (Holman. For safe long-term storage. relative humidity and drying air temperatures at different points. Koyuncu et al. the duration of each of the drying regimes depends on the initial moisture content and the safe storage moisture content. Thus.. For these reasons. Gigler. The moisture content (percentage dry basis) of fresh fruits. air speed. & Tosun. Testo AG 309 type relative humidity. for fruits and most vegetables. For that reason. temperature sensors and thermocouple were connected to the drying system. & Coumans. respectively (Eq. (4)) (Ekechukwu. the drying would take place within both the constant and falling rate periods that can be seen easily. two periods can be distinguished. 2004). the fresh products with moisture content of 211% and 273% was dehydrated until the moisture content of 8–9% in the dryer. total energy requirement for drying of one charge of the dryer and energy needed for drying 1 kg of wet product were determined for different temperatures and for various azarole fruit genotypes (Eqs. In addition. The rate of moisture removal during this period is mainly dependent on the surrounding conditions and only affected slightly by the nature of the product. To measure the power consumption. The falling drying rate period is dependent essentially on the rate of diffusion of moisture from within the product to the surface and also on moisture removal from the surface. Results and discussion During a drying process. two different temperatures such as 60 and 70 °C and a selected air velocity of 0. the . 1999). For agricultural products.T. Ochoa et al. 2002).25 m/s were used for experimentation. the moisture content should preferably be less than 10%. In order to produce different temperatures and air velocities. During experiments. 1. 1984.   W0Wd PM db ¼  100 ð4Þ Wd Et ¼ AvqcDTDt ð5Þ Et W0 ð6Þ Ekg ¼ 3. important temperature differences and relative humidity were found between the beginning and the end of the drying chamber (Koyuncu. 1994). The dryer was installed in conditions that were a relative humidity of 60% (±3) and a temperature of 20 °C (±1). the surface of the product behaves as a surface of the water.

The moisture content rapidly reduces and then slowly decreases with rising of the drying time. 0 Red-60°C Red-70°C Yellow-60°C Yellow-70°C Fig. respectively. 2–5). 5. Koyuncu et al. 7 and 8. .50 h) was also found at 60 °C temperature for red fruits. 60 40 Red-60°C Red-70°C Yellow-60°C Yellow-70°C Fig. The moisture content of the products as a function of drying time are presented in Figs. 2–5 for 60 and 70 °C.8995 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Drying time (min) Fig.65e-0. As seen from these figures.92e-0. 3. 1500.14e-0. 8 were obtained from value of Fig. Moisture content as a function of drying time for azarole red fruits and temperature of 60 °C. respectively. 160 200 140 y =151. all lines have two stages. / Journal of Food Engineering 78 (2007) 1471–1475 changing of the moisture content of azarole fruits must have two periods depending on the drying time.0003x 150 Total drying time (h) Moisture content dry basis (%) 250 2 R =0. Moisture content dry basis (%) 1474 300 250 200 y = 173. Moisture content as a function of drying time for azarole yellow fruits and temperature of 60 °C.0008x R 2 = 0. Constant and falling rate periods are changing as a function of drying time depending on the drying temperatures. There is a strict correlation between these two figures. Total energy requirement for a charge of the dryer at different temperatures. 4. The least drying time (59.0011x R 2 = 0. The lines of falling rate periods of these experiments are also extend from the end of the constant rate period lines to the maximum drying time (Figs. 0 100 20 Drying time (min) 150 120 250 y = 297. Moisture content as a function of drying time for azarole red fruits and temperature of 70 °C. The total energy consumption for a charge of the dryer and energy needed for drying 1 kg of fruits can be seen from Figs. 7 30 Total energy needed (kWh) 300 Moisture content dry basis (%) 80 0 Fig. This is because of the fact that the values of Fig.0008x R 2 = 0. 1750 and 1500 min for drying temperature of 60 and 70 °C and for red and yellow fruits. Total drying time of azarole red and yellow fruits at different temperatures. 6).60 h) was obtained at 70 °C for yellow fruits. 2. The highest drying time (141. 6.9586 200 150 100 50 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Drying time (min) Fig. Moisture content as a function of drying time for azarole red fruits and temperature of 70 °C.9383 100 50 0 1000 2000 3000 Drying time (min) 4000 5000 Fig.T.77e -0. it is obvious from the figures that drying temperature has an important role on the total drying time (Fig. The lines of constant rate periods extend from beginning of the drying time to the drying time of approximately 2000. In addition. 7.9607 100 50 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Moisture content dry basis (%) 250 200 y = 182.

). Tu¨rkiye.M.. I. 61–62... P. A. 8. interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha.. (2003).. The main conclusion of this study is that azarole red and yellow fruits must be dried at temperature of 70 °C and air velocity of 0. 08–12 Eylu¨l. Some nutritional. it can be said from the figures that 70 °C temperature must be selected for drying freshly harvested azarole fruits. 77(4). 165–168. 58(1). 14th Ed. Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokineses: interleukin-1 alpha. T. & Dursun. Malatya c¸evresinde dog˘al olarak yetisßen alıc¸larda seleksiyon c¸alısßmaları (in Turkish). 335–341.. Drying Technology. 58. T. 59–73. Ekechukwu. Experimental methods for engineers. Yesilada. Inc. Marquez. 40. Acta Horticulture (ISHS).) fruits. T. Tosun. G. _ H. V. K.. Sezik. G. (2001). B. Koyuncu.. Holman. I. Drying characteristics of willow chips and stems. 35. (1994). F. Drying kinetics and color Koyuncu. & Honda. A. & Coumans. W. pp. (2003). / Journal of Food Engineering 78 (2007) 1471–1475 1475 References 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Red-60°C Red-70°C Yellow-60°C Yellow-70°C Fig.12 kWh/kg) is also needed at 60 °C for red fruits.013. Birhanlı. P. Loon.. Pirone. S ß anlıurfa. Kesseler. T. A. (1999). (2004).. O. 53–60. A. 21(7). Ordu Ziraat Karadeniz.25 m/s to minimize the energy consumption for drying of azarole red and yellow fruits. (2003). C. _ (2004). 95–100. Review of solar-energy drying systems I: an overview of drying principles and theory. Ordu.. M. Paolocci. 22. Meerdink.. (2003).. & De Michelis. AOAC (1984). (2002). Ochoa. T. J. N. T. 1369–1381. Y.. Ulusal Bahc¸e Bitkileri Kongresi.. Ustun. pp. N. 597. dryer). 13–15 Eylu¨l. 62. Scossa. Energy requirement for drying 1 kg of product at different temperatures. G. E. & Tosun. 23–32. New York: McGraw-Hill. Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. van Seres. J. (2000). I. B.. Journal of Food Engineering. W. 391–400.M. (2003).. physical properties. Tarımsal Mekanizasyon 20 Ulusal Kongresi. R. (6)). As it is understood from these figures. Koyuncu et al. USA. 400–406.. requirement for dehydration of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill. Bignami. . Tu¨rkiye 4. O. & Bertazza. (1997). Asma. O. 4. I. It is found from the results of the experimental investigation that the drying air temperature has an important role on the total drying time. Arlington: Virginia. Ono. Conclusions Two genotypes of freshly harvested azarole fruits were successfully dried in a computer connected convective hot air dryer at different temperatures of 60 and 70 °C and air speed of 0..68 kWh/kg) is needed for drying of 1 kg fruits at temperature of 70 °C for yellow fruits. As a result.. 60. T. ¨ . Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Research. Energy Conversion and Management. by calculation (Eq. Shrinkage during convective drying of whole rose hip (Rosa rubiginosa L.T. E. Lebensmittel–Wissenschaft und Technologie.. S ß ifalı Meyveler (in Turkish). retention of dehydrated rosehips. Modeling of drying kinetics of single apricot. Y.U _ &U ¨ stu¨n. Koyuncu.Specific energy requirement (kWh/kg) T. K. 34–36. Pınar. Tog˘rul. Kırmızı biber ic¸in bir gu¨nesßli kurutucu tasarımı (Design of a solar dryer for red pepper).. pomological and Demir. The maximum energy (62. C. Journal of Food Engineering. (2002). K. U. S...U Faku¨ltesi Bahc¸e Bitkileri Bo¨lu¨mu¨. Preliminary evaluation of nutritional and medicinal components of crataegus azarolus fruits. 593–613. & Sessiz. Ziraat Fak Dergisi. M. Serdar. A. Drying kinetics and energy Koyuncu. Antalya. G. O. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Y. Journal of Food Engineering. Gigler. the minimum heat energy (27.25 m/s. P. Takaishi. J. Gu¨nesß enerjili kurutucular u¨zerine karsßılasßtırmalı bir arasßtırma (A comparative study on solar energy ¨ . 17(2).. & Kalyoncu. It is also seen from the results that the drying air temperature significantly affects the energy needed for drying of azarole fruits.