Eko Widodo

Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

◦ The sum total of all the chemical
reactions that go on in living cells
◦ Includes all the reactions by which the
body obtains & spends energy from
food

Metabolic reactions take place inside cells,
especially liver cells

Anabolism is the building up of body

compounds and requires energy.
Catabolism is the breakdown of body
compounds and releases energy.

→ glucose  From fats → glycerol & FA  From proteins → AA  From CHO  4 basic units used in metabolic pathway  Alcohol can disrupt normal metabolic pathways (Highlight 7) .

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 ATP – adenosine triphosphate ◦ High-energy storage compound ◦ Captures some energy released during breakdown of glucose. glycerol. fatty acids. and amino acids .

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 Hydrolysis of ATP occurs simultaneously with reactions that will use that energy ◦ Coupled reactions ◦ Energy released from breakdown of one compound used to create bond in formation of another .

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   Co-enzymes are organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate their activity. Enzymes & co-enzymes are helpers in metabolic reactions. Some B vit serve as coenzymes to enzymes that release energy from glucose. glycerol. . FA & AA.

◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Glucose: 6 C Glycerol: 3 C FA: even number of C (commonly 16 or 18) AA: 2. the body separates atoms of basic units. with N attached While each starts down a different path – 2 byproducts are common ◦ pyruvate & acetyl-coA  Eventually all enter the TCA cycle & electron transport chain . 3 or more C. During catabolism. Basic units enter metabolic pathways.

  Glucose splitting 6-C Glucose → two 3-C compounds → Pyruvate Glucose anaerobic Pyruvate .

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 If cell needs energy (& O2 is available). it removes COOH group from pyruvate to produce 2 C compounds that bonds with CoA to form Acetyl CoA aerobic  Pyruvate anaerobic Pyruvate Lactate  Acetyl CoA Absence of sufficient O2 (or mitochondria) pyruvate is converted to lactic acid Lactate recycled to glucose in liver by Cori cycle .

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  3-C glycerol is easily converted to pyruvate Also easily converted to glucose Glucose Glycerol Pyruvate .

2-C units split off & combine with CoA to form Acetyl CoA. acetyl CoA molecules combine to create TG. . If cell doesn’t need energy.   FA are taken apart in 2-C units through fatty acid oxidation.

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PROTEIN AND AMINO ACID METABOLISM ENVIRONMENT ORGANISM Biosynthesis Ingested protein 2 1 Protein 3 a AMINO ACIDS c b c Purines Pyrimidines Porphyrins Degradation (required) Carbon skeletons Nitrogen (ketogenic) Urea acetoacetate acetyl CoA (glucogenic) Used for energy pyruvate α-ketoglutarate succinyl-CoA fumarate oxaloacetate .

 Deaminated first (lose N)  Catabolized in a variety of ways: ◦ Pyruvate  glucose ◦ Acetyl CoA  more energy or body fat ◦ Directly into TCA Cycle  generate energy .

” Synthesized at rates inadequate to support growth of children.Amino Acid Requirements of Humans -------------------------------------------------------------------Nutritionally Essential Nutritionally Nonessential -------------------------------------------------------------------Argininea Alanine Histidine Asparagine Isoleucine Aspartate Leucine Cysteine Lysine Glutamate Methionine Glutamine Phenylalanine Glycine Threonine Proline Tryptophan Serine Valine Tyrosine --------------------------------------------------------------------a “ Nutritionally semiessential. .

NITROGEN BALANCE Nitrogen balance = nitrogen ingested .nitrogen excreted (primarily as protein) (primarily as urea) Nitrogen balance = 0 (nitrogen equilibrium) protein synthesis = protein degradation Positive nitrogen balance protein synthesis > protein degradation Negative nitrogen balance protein synthesis < protein degradation .

. ◦ Ammonia is converted to urea—a much less toxic compound—in the liver. ◦ Urea is excreted through the kidneys to rid the body of unused nitrogen. Amino Acids ◦ Deamination results in two products:  Keto acid  Ammonia ◦ Transamination is the transfer of the amino group from an amino acid to a keto acid.

UREA CYCLE mitochondria cytosol Function: detoxification of ammonia (prevents hyperammonemia) .

or acetoacetate .FATE OF THE CARBON SKELETONS Carbon skeletons are used for energy. Glucogenic: TCA cycle intermediates or pyruvate (gluconeogensis) Ketogenic: acetyl CoA. acetoacetyl CoA.

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◦ Protein is made from amino acids. In Summary ◦ Glucose and fatty acids are primarily used for energy. amino acids to a lesser extent. ◦ All energy-yielding nutrients consumed in excess can contribute to fat storage. ◦ Glucose can be made into nonessential amino acids if nitrogen is present. . ◦ Glucose is made from all carbohydrates. most amino acids and the glycerol portion of fat.

. Coenzymes made from B vitamins take H & electrons & transfers them to ETC.TCA Cycle – tricarboxylic acid cycle (aka Kreb’s cycle)    Oxaloacetate picks up acetyl CoA & drops off 2-C & returns to pick up another acetyl CoA. As acetyl CoA breaks to CO2. H atoms with their electrons are removed.

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 In ETC. energy is captured in bonds of ATP molecules. . where it can be used for energy.  ATP leaves mitochondria & enters cytoplasm.Electron Transport Chain (ETC)  Consist of a series of proteins that serve as electron carriers. These carriers are inside inner membrane of mitochondria.

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◦ One 16 carbon FA yield 129 ATP when oxidized completely. so the more ATP generated the more Kcal collected. ◦ One glucose molecule yield 36-38 ATP when oxidized completely. . Each ATP holds energy & Kcal measures energy.

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Fat cells enlarge & multiply regardless of whether the excess comes from protein. there is a gain in weight. . CHO or fat. Most direct & efficient pathway to body fat is dietary fat.   When energy intake exceeds energy output.

least preferred .  Body needs energy all the time Relies on energy stores between meals ◦ glycogen ◦ fatty acids ◦ lean mass tissue ..

◦ Ketosis causes a suppression of the appetite. Fasting—Inadequate Energy ◦ Glucose needed for the brain ◦ Protein meets glucose needs ◦ The shift to ketosis  Ketones are produces when glucose is not available. ◦ Slowing of metabolism .

anxiety. and body temperature  Impaired vision  Organ failure  Decreased immunity  Depression. Fasting—Inadequate Energy ◦ Symptoms of starvation  Muscle wasting  Decreased heart rate. metabolic rate. and food-related dreams . respiratory rate.

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Buatlah resume: 1. Diagram metabolisme protein dan berikan penjelasannya 2. Diagram metabolisme karbohidrat (glikolisis) dan berikan penjelasannya .