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GEOMETRY POINTERS
Euclidean geometry axioms
As we have noted above, there is a set of the axioms – properties, that are considered in geometry as main ones
and are adopted without a proof . Now, after introducing some initial notions and definitions we can consider
the following sufficient set of the axioms, usually used in plane geometry.
Axiom of belonging. Through any two points in a plane it is possible to draw a straight line, and besides only
one.
Axiom of ordering. Among any three points placed in a straight line, there is no more than one point placed
between the two others.
Axiom of congruence ( equality ) of segments and angles. If two segments (angles) are congruent to the third
one, then they are congruent to each other.
Axiom of parallel straight lines. Through any point placed outside of a straight line it is possible to draw
another straight line, parallel to the given line, and besides only one.
Axiom of continuity ( Archimedean axiom ). Let AB and CD be two some segments; then there is a finite set
of such points A1 , A2 , … , An , placed in the straight line AB, that segments AA1 , A1A2 , … , An - 1An are
congruent to segment CD, and point B is placed between A and An .
We emphasize, that replacing one of these axioms by another, turns this axiom into a theorem, requiring a
proof. So, instead of the axiom of parallel straight lines we can use as an axiom the property of triangle angles
(“the sum of triangle angles is equal to 180 deg”). But then we should to prove the property of parallel lines.

Straight line
A general equation of straight line:
Ах + Ву + С = 0 ,
where А and В aren't equal to zero simultaneously.
Math III

-1-

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AcademicAcademic-Clinic.com
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DLSUCET, PSHS-NCE, and other entrance tests.
Coefficients А and В are coordinates of normal vector of the straight line ( i.e. vector, perpendicular to the
straight line ). At А = 0 straight line is parallel to the axis ОХ , at В = 0 straight line is parallel to the axis ОY .
At В 0 we receive an equation of straight line with a slope:

An equation of the straight line, going through the point ( х0 , у 0 ) and not parallel to the axis OY :
у – у 0 = m ( x – х0 ) ,
where m is a slope, equal to tangent of an angle between the straight line and the positive direction of the axis
ОХ .

At А 0, В 0 and С 0 we receive an equation of straight line in segments on axes:

where a = – C / A, b = – C / B. This line goes through the points ( a, 0 ) and ( 0, b ), i.e. it cuts off segments a
and b long on the coordinate axes.
An equation of straight line going through two different points ( х1, у 1 ) and ( х2, у 2 ):

Math III

-2-

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The more.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. is a distance between them. DLSUCET. the straight line KM. and Fig. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. and other entrance tests. PSHS-NCE.com/academic.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. A length of perpendicular segment. Conquer UPCAT. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. is perpendicular to all others. For UPCAT. CD. the merrier. which are called two-by-two: Math III -3- Feel free to pass this on to your friends. The designation: AB|| CD. ACET. if their directions are the same and 180 deg. All points of one line are equidistant from another line. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. news and other college entrance exam information. eight angles are formed (Fig. All straight lines.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. All perpendiculars (AB. visit the Academic-Clinic website.clinic Twitter: http://twitter.13). ACET. USTET. Inversely.11 ) are called parallel straight lines. Parallel straight lines Two straight lines AB and CD ( Fig.12) to the one straight line KM are parallel between themselves. At intersecting two parallel straight lines by the third line. but please don’t post it online. An angle between two parallel rays is equal to zero. parallel to one straight line are parallel between themselves. which is perpendicular to one of parallel straight lines.com Facebook: http://www. tricks.facebook. It’s adopted that an angle between parallel straight lines is equal to zero. EF. DLSUCET and USTET tips. concluded between two parallel straight lines. Good luck! . if the directions are opposite. if they lie in the same plane and don’t intersect however long they may be continued.

The more. 2 and 6. or sum of them is 180 deg. these angles are equal two-by-two: ( 1 = 5. 4 and 6 ). they are equal two-by-two. they are equal two-by-two.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. Angles with correspondingly parallel sides either are equal one to another.com/academic. 2) alternate interior angles ( 4 and 5.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. 4 = 8 ). DLSUCET and USTET tips.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. 2 and 8 ). Fig. 2 and 7 ). 3) alternate exterior angles ( 1 and 8. ACET. 4) one-sided interior angles (3 and 5. tricks. DLSUCET. visit the Academic-Clinic website. but please don’t post it online. 4 + 6 = 180 deg). a sum of them two-by-two is equal to180 deg ( 1 + 7 = 180 deg. ACET. Fig. Math III -4- Feel free to pass this on to your friends. 2 = 6. the merrier.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips.15 ). Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. Angles with correspondingly perpendicular sides are also either equal one to another ( if both of them are acute or both are obtuse ). 3 and 6 ). and other entrance tests.com Facebook: http://www. or sum of them is 180 deg ( 3 + 4 = 180 deg. PSHS-NCE. Good luck! .14 ). For UPCAT. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. 1) corresponding angles (1 and 5. 3 and 7. USTET. 4 and 8 ). Conquer UPCAT. 1 = 2. a sum of them two-by-two is equal to180 deg ( 3 + 5 = 180 deg. 3 = 7. news and other college entrance exam information. 2 + 8 = 180 deg). 5) one-sided exterior angles ( 1 and 7.facebook. ( if both of them are acute or both are obtuse. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall.

com Facebook: http://www. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. Math III -5- Feel free to pass this on to your friends. DLSUCET. PSHS-NCE. Good luck! . but please don’t post it online. USTET.AcademicAcademic-Clinic.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. the angle sides are divided into the proportional segments: Angles Angle is a geometric figure ( Fig.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. news and other college entrance exam information. going out of the same point O (a vertex of an angle).16 ).facebook. The more. and other entrance tests. For UPCAT. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. formed by two rays OA and OB ( sides of an angle ). DLSUCET and USTET tips. visit the Academic-Clinic website.com/academic. tricks. Conquer UPCAT. Thales' theorem. ACET.1 ). ACET. the merrier. At intersecting sides of an angle by parallel lines ( Fig.

an angle greater than 90 deg ( Fig. DLSUCET and USTET tips. An angle is signed by the symbol and three letters. Signs of angles. About a radian measure see below in the point “A length of arc” and also in the section “Trigonometry”. the merrier. One degree is divided by 60 minutes ( a designation is ‘ or min ).3 ). forming a right angle.facebook. visit the Academic-Clinic website. one minute – correspondingly by 60 seconds ( a designation is “ or sec ). ACET. If the straight lines AB and MK are perpendicular. if a rotation is executed opposite a clockwise. PSHS-NCE. ACET. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. this is signed as: AB MK. but please don’t post it online. Here a unit of measurement is a degree ( its designation is ° or deg ) – a turn of a ray by the 1/360 part of the one complete revolution.com/academic. and other entrance tests. So. is called an acute angle.2 ) is called a right or direct angle. if the ray OA displaces to the ray OB as shown on Fig. An angle of 90 deg ( Fig. tricks. are called mutually perpendicular lines. For example. and negative – otherwise. An angle is considered as positive.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. marking ends of rays and a vertex of an angle: AOB (moreover. Conquer UPCAT. a vertex letter is placed in the middle). that transfers a ray OA to the position OB. USTET. an angle lesser than 90 deg ( Fig.5 AOB = – 90 deg. A measure of an angle is a value of a turn around a vertex O. For UPCAT. A degree measure. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. Good luck! .com Facebook: http://www. but on Fig.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. news and other college entrance exam information. is called an obtuse angle. DLSUCET. Math III -6- Feel free to pass this on to your friends.2. the complete revolution of a ray is equal to 360 deg. then AOB = + 90 deg. Straight lines. The more. Two units of angles measures are widely used: a radian and a degree. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page.clinic Twitter: http://twitter.4 ).

Fig. Conquer UPCAT. Vertically opposite (vertical) angles ( Fig.com Facebook: http://www. other two sides OA and OC form a continuation one to another.9) are continuations one of the other. that sides of one angle are continuations of the other: AOB and COD ( and also AOC and DOB ) are vertical angles.10) are mutually perpendicular lines. having the common vertex O and the common side OB. Bisectors of vertical angles (OM and ON. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. visit the Academic-Clinic website.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. news and other college entrance exam information.7) – such two angles with a common vertex. but please don’t post it online. a sum of supplementary (adjacent) angles is equal to 180 deg. DLSUCET and USTET tips. ACET. Good luck! . DLSUCET.com/academic.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. The property of an angle bisector: any point of an angle bisector is placed by the same distance from the angle sides. PSHS-NCE. For UPCAT. and other entrance tests. tricks. USTET. Bisectors of supplementary angles (OM and ON.facebook. Fig. So. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. ACET.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. Supplementary (adjacent) angles ( Fig. Math III -7- Feel free to pass this on to your friends.6 ) – angles AOB and COB. the merrier. dividing the angle in two (Fig.8). A bisector of an angle is a ray. The more.

21 ). then this triangle is a right-angled triangle. the merrier. DLSUCET.clinic Twitter: http://twitter.facebook. Conquer UPCAT. DLSUCET and USTET tips. Good luck! .com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic.20 ). sides a. if one of the angles is obtuse ( B. called a hypotenuse. Sides of triangle are signed often by small letters.com Facebook: http://www. Fig. opposite to a right angle. visit the Academic-Clinic website. USTET. Fig. news and other college entrance exam information. but please don’t post it online. then this triangle is an obtuse-angled triangle.com/academic. then this triangle is an acute-angled triangle. The more. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. Triangle Triangle is a polygon with three sides (or three angles). If all the three angles are acute ( Fig. b.22 ). side c. and other entrance tests.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. PSHS-NCE. ACET. corresponding to designations of opposite vertices. are called legs. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. ACET. forming a right angle.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. tricks. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. Math III -8- Feel free to pass this on to your friends. For UPCAT. if one of the angles is right ( C. signed by capital letters.

that each angle in an equilateral triangle is equal to 60 deg. ACET.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. In particular. and other entrance tests. The more. if the two of its sides are equal (a = c). and inversely. For UPCAT.com Facebook: http://www. but please don’t post it online. Main properties of triangles. A triangle ABC is an isosceles triangle (Fig.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. In general case ( a b c ) we have a scalene triangle. In any triangle: 1.24). An angle. the merrier. 25). 2. news and other college entrance exam information.facebook. the third side is called a base of triangle. Any side of a triangle is less than a sum of two other sides and more than their difference ( a < b + c. c < a + b. A sum of triangle angles is equal to 180 deg. all angles in an equilateral triangle are also equal. we receive an exterior angle BCD. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. Angles.com/academic. b < a + c. 4. lying opposite the greatest side. not supplementary with it: BCD = A + B. if all of its sides are equal (a = b = c). a > b – c. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. are also equal. b > a – c. and inversely. DLSUCET and USTET tips. 5. c > a – b ).23). Good luck! . tricks. is also the greatest angle. Conquer UPCAT. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. ACET. 3. Continuing one of the triangle sides (AC . these equal sides are called lateral sides. An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to a sum of interior angles. USTET. DLSUCET. Math III -9- Feel free to pass this on to your friends. From the two last properties it follows. Fig. PSHS-NCE. visit the Academic-Clinic website. A triangle ABC is an equilateral triangle (Fig. lying opposite the equal sides.

We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. 5) a leg and an opposite acute angle of one of triangles are equal to a leg and an opposite acute angle of another. adjacent to them.26) is placed inside of the triangle. DLSUCET and USTET tips. tricks. 4) a leg and an adjacent acute angle of one of triangles are equal to a leg and an adjacent acute angle of another.10 - Feel free to pass this on to your friends. but please don’t post it online. ACET. An orthocenter of an acute-angled triangle (point O. c) three sides. Fig. USTET. PSHS-NCE. Two triangles are congruent. the merrier.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. an orthocenter of a right-angled triangle coincides with a vertex of the right angle. Three heights of triangle always intersect in one point. Conquer UPCAT. if one of the following conditions is valid: 1) their legs are equal. Math III . b) two angles and a side. This side is called a base of triangle in this case.com/academic. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. news and other college entrance exam information.com Facebook: http://www.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. and other entrance tests. Altitude (height) of a triangle is a perpendicular. Good luck! . Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. 2) a leg and a hypotenuse of one of triangles are equal to a leg and a hypotenuse of another. visit the Academic-Clinic website. For UPCAT. DLSUCET.27) – outside of the triangle.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. called an orthocenter of a triangle. ACET. Remarkable lines and points of triangle.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. The more. 3) a hypotenuse and an acute angle of one of triangles are equal to a hypotenuse and an acute angle of another. if they have accordingly equal: a) two sides and an angle between them.facebook. Theorems about congruence of triangles. and an orthocenter of an obtuse-angled triangle (point O. Two right-angled triangles are congruent. dropped from any vertex to an opposite side (or to its continuation). Theorems about congruence of right-angled triangles. Fig.

considering from a vertex.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. news and other college entrance exam information.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. ACET. but please don’t post it online. DLSUCET. Three bisectors of a triangle (AD. Fig. CF. visit the Academic-Clinic website. BE. Three medians of triangle ( AD. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. from a vertex to a point of intersection with an opposite side. which is a center of gravity of this triangle. Good luck! .com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. which is a center of an inscribed circle (see the section “Inscribed and circumscribed polygons”). Bisector is a segment of the angle bisector. Median is a segment. The more. PSHS-NCE. Math III .com Facebook: http://www. tricks.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. ACET. Conquer UPCAT. joining any vertex of triangle and a midpoint of the opposite side.com/academic.facebook. For UPCAT. BE. DLSUCET and USTET tips. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. and other entrance tests.29) intersect in the one point (always lied inside of triangle). USTET. This point divides each median by ratio 2:1. CF. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. Fig.28 ) intersect in one point O (always lied inside of a triangle). the merrier.11 - Feel free to pass this on to your friends.

for instance. but please don’t post it online. news and other college entrance exam information.12 - Feel free to pass this on to your friends. in an obtuse-angled triangle . ACET.com/academic. visit the Academic-Clinic website. DLSUCET.in the middle of the hypotenuse. Good luck! . A proof of Pythagorean theorem is clear from Fig. Consider a right-angled triangle ABC with legs a. N. M. A bisector divides an opposite side into two parts.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. a center of gravity. For UPCAT. the merrier. tricks. and other entrance tests.outside of the triangle.com Facebook: http://www. USTET. proportional to the adjacent sides. DLSUCET and USTET tips. An orthocenter. each drawn through the middle of its side ( points K. Pythagorean theorem. circumscribed around the triangle ( circumcircle ).30 ). a center of an inscribed circle and a center of a circumcircle coincide only in an equilateral triangle. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. In an acute-angled triangle this point lies inside of the triangle. b and a hypotenuse c.30 ). Fig. intersect in one point O. Conquer UPCAT. in a right-angled triangle .29 AE : CE = AB : BC . on Fig. Midperpendicular is a perpendicular.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. PSHS-NCE. Fig.31.facebook. which is a center of circle. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. ACET. drawn from a middle point of a segment (side). In a right-angled triangle a square of the hypotenuse length is equal to a sum of squares of legs lengths. The more.Three midperpendiculars of a triangle ( ABC. Math III .

ACET.13 - Feel free to pass this on to your friends.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. For UPCAT. c² + 2 ab = ( a + b )².clinic Twitter: http://twitter. The more. we have: c² = a² + b². Good luck! . and other entrance tests. DLSUCET. Relation of sides’ lengths for arbitrary triangle. Now it is clear. the side length of which is equal to a + b . to receive the square CDEF. that an area of the square CDEF is equal to ( a + b )².com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic.com/academic. but please don’t post it online. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. visit the Academic-Clinic website. Then continue sides of the right-angled triangle ABC so. ACET. DLSUCET and USTET tips.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. the merrier. In general case ( for any triangle ) we have: Math III . On the other hand. and finally. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. this area is equal to a sum of areas of four right-angled triangles and a square AKMB. Build the square AKMB. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. USTET.com Facebook: http://www. news and other college entrance exam information. hence. that is c² + 4 ( ab / 2 ) = c² + 2 ab . using hypotenuse AB as its side. tricks. Conquer UPCAT. PSHS-NCE.facebook.

14 - Feel free to pass this on to your friends. B= D ).32 ). DLSUCET. tricks. A sum of squares of diagonals is equal to a sum of squares of four sides: AC² + BD² = AB² + BC² + CD² + AD² . the merrier. ACET. news and other college entrance exam information.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. 2. Properties of a parallelogram. but please don’t post it online. visit the Academic-Clinic website. Fig. The more. 3.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. Conquer UPCAT. a distance between them is called a height ( BE. and other entrance tests. Diagonals of a parallelogram are divided in their intersection point into two ( AO = OC. For UPCAT. Math III . USTET. Opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal ( A= C.facebook. BO = OD ). Fig. Good luck! . Parallelogram and trapezoid Parallelogram ( ABCD. Signs of a parallelogram. where C – an angle between sides a and b . c² = a² + b² – 2ab · cos C. AD = BC ). 4. PSHS-NCE. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal ( AB = CD.clinic Twitter: http://twitter.com Facebook: http://www. ACET. DLSUCET and USTET tips. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. Any two opposite sides of a parallelogram are called bases.32 ) is a quadrangle. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us.com/academic. 1.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. opposite sides of which are two-by-two parallel. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page.

Math III . if one of the following conditions takes place: 1. For UPCAT. Two opposite sides are equal and parallel ( AB = CD. Rectangle.facebook. Good luck! .AcademicAcademic-Clinic. Sides of rectangle are its heights simultaneously. ACET. 4. AB || CD ). but please don’t post it online. 3. If one of angles of parallelogram is right.15 - Feel free to pass this on to your friends. A square of a diagonal length is equal to a sum of squares of its sides’ lengths ( see above Pythagorean theorem ): AC² = AD² + DC². This parallelogram is called a rectangle ( Fig.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips.com/academic. then this parallelogram is called a rhombus ( Fig. 2. ACET. USTET.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. If all sides of parallelogram are equal. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. DLSUCET and USTET tips. Conquer UPCAT. and other entrance tests. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. A quadrangle is a parallelogram. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. visit the Academic-Clinic website.com Facebook: http://www. Diagonals of a rectangle are equal: AC = BD. DLSUCET. B= D ). tricks. then all angles are right (why ?).34 ) .com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. PSHS-NCE. Main properties of a rectangle. the merrier. BO = OD ). news and other college entrance exam information. AD = BC ). Opposite angles are equal two-by-two ( A= C. The more. Rhombus. Diagonals are divided in their intersection point into two ( AO = OC.33 ). Opposite sides are equal two-by-two ( AB = CD.

tricks. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. For UPCAT. is called a midline of a trapezoid. and other entrance tests. so. visit the Academic-Clinic website. ABD = CBD etc. news and other college entrance exam information.facebook. DLSUCET and USTET tips. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. two opposite sides of which are parallel (Fig. BD ) and divide its angles into two ( DCA = Square is a parallelogram with right angles and equal sides ( Fig. but please don’t post it online. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. ). DLSUCET. Conquer UPCAT. the two others ( AB and CD ) – lateral sides. USTET. Here AD || BC.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips.16 - Feel free to pass this on to your friends.36). A midline of a trapezoid is equal to a half-sum of bases: Math III . joining midpoints E and F of the lateral sides.35 ).com Facebook: http://www. ACET.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. A square is a particular case of a rectangle and a rhombus simultaneously. The segment EF. Good luck! . Trapezoid is a quadrangle.clinic Twitter: http://twitter.com/academic. ACET.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. The more. it has all their above mentioned properties. Diagonals of a rhombus are mutually perpendicular ( AC BCA. Parallel sides are called bases of a trapezoid. the merrier. A distance between bases (BM) is a height. PSHS-NCE.

h – a height. The more. A cube: Math III . perimeters and areas of upper and lower bases of truncated prism and pyramid.com/academic. tricks. In an isosceles trapezoid angles by each base. r – a radius of a base. ACET. diameters. D – a diameter of a ball. are equal ( A = D. the merrier. A right prism: Slat = ph . d – a diameter of a base. visit the Academic-Clinic website. c – dimensions of a right angled parallelepiped. DLSUCET and USTET tips.This property follows from the previous part. when one of its bases transforms to a point. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in the discussions on our wall. as triangle can be considered as a limit case (“degeneration”) of a trapezoid. news and other college entrance exam information. A right angled parallelepiped: V = abc . ACET.clinic Twitter: http://twitter. R – a radius of a ball. and parallel to them: EF || AD and EF || BC. Conquer UPCAT.AcademicAcademic-Clinic. A parallelogram can be considered as a particular case of trapezoid. and other entrance tests. Midline of a triangle is a segment. Volumes and areas of body surfaces Designations: V – a volume. USTET. b.com The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond… Website: http://academic-clinic. PSHS-NCE. Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at Academic-Clinic’s Facebook Page. S – a base area.com/acadclinic College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. A prism ( right and oblique ) and a parallelepiped: V = Sh . a. A trapezoid with equal lateral sides ( AB = CD ) is called an isoscelestrapezoid. For UPCAT. B = C ). A – an apothem of a regular pyramid and a regular truncated pyramid.17 - Feel free to pass this on to your friends. DLSUCET. P = 2 ( ab + bc + ab ) . Good luck! . but please don’t post it online. Slat – a lateral surface area. A midline of a triangle is equal to half of its base and parallel to it. indices 1 and 2 are related to radii. L – a generatrix of a cone.com Facebook: http://www. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join us. P – a full surface area.facebook. joining midpoints of lateral sides of a triangle. p – a perimeter or a circumference of a base.

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