In recent years, the impacts of industrial products
and their raw materials on the environment in all
phases of production, use and waste disposal have
drawn attention from the standpoint of global
environment and depletion of natural resources.
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) is highlighted as one
of the tools to evaluate quantitative impacts on
the environment, and its effectiveness has been
Compared with other plastics, PVC products are
less dependent on oil, which is a fossil fuel, and are
chemically stable, therefore PVC is a plastic which
has suitable characteristics for production of durable
In this chapter, the features of PVC and PVC
products will be explained based on LCA and physical
properties of PVC to help gain understanding on the
serviceability of PVC and PVC products.


1. Effect of PVC and PVC Products
on the Global Environment

Upon considering the global warming issue, the
magnitude of CO2 emission for the material we
use throughout its lifecycle, from production to
consumption and disposal, is an important index. PVC
is proven as a material with minimal environmental
load in terms of CO2 emission, when compared with
metal or glass products of the same application

■ Contributes to energy saving
PVC is an energy efficient plastic which saves
significant amounts of energy in the production stage
as compared with other plastics (Fig.5-2).
PVC window profiles have three times the heat
insulation efficiency of aluminum profiles, and are
compatible with the Next Generation Energy Saving
Standard. They cut down energy consumption for
heating and air conditioning (Fig.5-3).

■ Contributes to saving natural resources

57% of PVC is made up of chlorine, which is derived
from natural salt that is abundant on earth. Therefore
PVC contributes significantly to saving oil, which is a
limited natural resource, in contrast to other plastics
whose composition depends entirely on oil.

Plastics are often perceived as symbols of
throwaway or single use. However, in reality plastics
are durable materials which do not rust or corrode.
PVC is an exceptionally durable plastic, used in water

Fig. 5-1 CO2 emissions upon production

■ Contributes to prevention of global warming

■ Contributes by producing long life products

<Water pipes>


(15 cm diameter,
per 1 km length)





The energy consumption upon production of raw
materials and fabrication of plastics is considerably
small; therefore the total energy requirement for
production of end products is significantly smaller as
compared with other materials.
Of all plastics, PVC has excellent environmental
features such as low CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions
in the production phase, which contributes to the
prevention of global warming and saves resources and


<Agricultural green houses>
(per 1 km2)







Source: Prepared from the survey report by Chem Systems

Fig. 5-2 Energy consumption up to the production stage of plastics


16.38 16.53 17.26
15.70 16.25



Expanded PS








Source: Prepared from "A report on LCI data for petrochemical products", PWMI

A house with plastic window frames and plastic siding


Fig.4 PVC & aluminum hybrid profiles (double glazing) 53. *2 low-e : low emissivity High 0 Low Heat insulation 20 40 60 80 100 ( % )*1 Aluminum profiles (single glazing) 100 Aluminum profiles (double glazing) 71.5-5). 5-4 Service life of plastics > 15 years 2 . Japan supply and sewage pipes.7 Source: Prepared from "A document by the energy saving construction materials promotion center" within the Federation of Construction Material Industries. about 68% of end-of-life agricultural films (agrofilms) were recycled and used for flooring. which can be used for over 50 years. for heat loss from openings (e. in 2005 (Fig. 5-3 Rate of heat loss *1 The heat loss through single glazing aluminum profiles is defined as 100 for comparison.g. HDPE LDPE PS ABS PP 0 20 40 60 80 100(%) Source: Prepared from “A plastics demand structure survey report”by the MITI Fig.5 Double profiles (aluminum profile + PVC inner window (single glazing) (low-e*2 double glazing) 35. and it is most advanced in mechanical recycling. etc. etc. windows and entrances) of housing have been defined. triggered by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol which required 6% reduction of CO2 emission from the level in 1990. It has the longest history of recycling among plastics. 60~70 thousand tons (annual discharge quantity) 61 .5-4). Much of PVC products are used in durable applications.15 years < 2 years Other PVC ■ Contributes to recycling PVC is a material suitable for recycling. More than half of all PVC products are long life products with service lives of over 15 years. Reduction standards.7 PVC & aluminum hybrid profiles (low-e double glazing) 35. For example.. 5-5 Recycling of agro-films recycled About 68% The Next Generation Energy-Saving Standard : The revision of the Japanese Housing Energy Efficiency took place in 1999.7 PVC profiles (low-e double glazing) 35.Fig. which ultimately contributes to society (Fig.

5-6 LCI data for production of general purpose plastics <Energy consumption for plastics production> (Mcal/kg) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 16. use and waste disposal.941 g/kg respectively. it evaluates from a comprehensive viewpoint.849 10.5-6).857 Mcal/kg. meaning that it takes half the load to the environment. and there is no remarkable difference between each plastics.379 HDPE 1. Rather than focusing on the environmental load alone.849 Mcal/kg.546 1. July 1997 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) : Method to evaluate the magnitude of resources consumption and impacts on the environment for a material or product throughout its whole 62 life cycle (production. PVC is an excellent material with the least energy load (upper graph of Fig. waste disposal and recycling) by overall analysis.CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS 2.862 PS 1.989 5.5 0 1.0 1.532 10.205 2.534 2.941 2.257 16.301 4. requires 4. LCA for PVC and PVC Products LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) is a quantitative and objective method to evaluate environmental loads (consumption of resource energy. As for resource energy however. NO X and SOX emissions from PVC are 2.6% of the sum needed for lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE) (16. of which more than half of its weight is composed of chlorine. Fig.421 LDPE 2.416 PET for bottles Source: “Survey report for LCI data of petrochemical products” by PWMI.052 PET for bottles (CO2=kg/kg NOX/SOX=g/kg) <Environmental load of plastics production> 3.627 6. It is important to collect and provide proper LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) data for correct LCA evaluations.301~10. (1) LCI Data for PVC According to the LCI data worked out by the Plastics Waste Management Institute (PWMI) for general purpose plastics. through all phases of a product including resource extraction. As for the environmental load of PVC.352 10.689 15. which amounts to 65. which amounts to less than half the resource energy needed for other plastics.706 2.015 2. which is widely used as packaging.131 g/kg and 1. CO2 emission from PVC is 1. PVC.430 1. . emission of environmental load substances and wastes).717 2.756 PP 2. the process energy from extraction of oil to plastic production is 4.850 Mcal/kg. The sum of process energy and resource energy for PVC is 10. use.0 2.5-6). which are the lowest of all other plastics (lower graph of Fig.131 Expanded PS PVC 3.710 10.632 1.231 2.663 2.857 5.233 8.430 kg/kg.623 Resource energy Process energy 17.992 LDPE HDPE PP PS Expanded PS PVC 6. which is higher than that of polyolefin and lower than that of PS.5 2. the plastics mainly composed of hydrocarbons from oil require 8.0 0.850 5.381 14.407 10.882 1. It has been highlighted as a guideline provider for material selection and green procurement.710 Mcal/kg.871 3.540 1.989~6.5 CO2 NOX SOX 3.250 10.356 1.147 6.5 2.843 4.532 Mcal/kg).699 16. production.

Therefore the environmental load from pipes is the smallest (upper graph of Fig.water pipes (small diameter pipes for water supply): 81.7% of polyethylene pipes. and 2. water Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) : Accumulated set of quantitative data of resources and energy consumption and emission in terms of various environmental load items pipes (medium diameter pipes for water supply): 33. sewage pipes: 30. According to the results of LCI data research by Japan PVC Environmental Affairs Council (JPEC).252 0.006 Mcal/kg for flat plates. pipes and agro-films are typical PVC products. in comparison to extrusion (lower graph of Fig.711 2. Flat plates.water pipes (small diameter pipes for water supply): 57.8% of ductile iron pipes. water pipes (medium diameter pipes for municipal water supply): 28. the environmental load differs for processes that require steam (i. use.959 Agro-films (calendered) (CO2 = kg/kg NOX/SO X = g/kg) <Environmental load from PVC products> 6 CO2 5 NOX 4 SO X 3 5.7% of ductile iron pipes. the environmental loads of PVC products are reported to be lower than those made from other materials .304 Agro-films (calendered) Source: "Report on Investigation of LCI Data Concerning PVC Products" October 1999. use of heavy oil) such as calendering.5-8 ).597 2. Results of comparison between PVC products and non-PVC products of the same applications revealed that the total energy consumption (sum of material energy and processing energy) of PVC products is lower. 63 .855 9.580 Rigid PVC pipes (extruded) 10.662 2. agro-films: 73. JPEC Energy consumption from plastic processing originates from electric power requirements.784 2 1 0 1.7% of polyolefin films (Upper graphs per product in Fig.957 Rigid PVC pipes (extruded) 5.485 2.5-7 LCI data for representative PVC products <Energy consumption for PVC products> Processing energy Material energy (Mcal/kg) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 11.e.211 2. Fig. for each phase of the life cycle (production. Resource energy : Evaluation in terms of calorific values of each hydrocarbon sources used as raw materials. Provides basic data for life cycle assessments (LCA). waste disposal) for a product. Similarly.(2) LCI data for PVC products the processing energy is 2. In the case of PVC products.077 Rigid PVC flat plates (extruded) 1.006 10.154 1.5-7). sewage pipes: 25.2% of polyethylene films (Lower graphs per product in Fig. 0.248 2.591 10. agro-films: 51.252 Mcal/kg for agrofilms.580 Mcal/kg for pipes. Energy consumptions of PVC products amount to the following percentages of products made by other materials .5-7).9% of ductile iron pipes.275 Rigid PVC flat plates (extruded) 13.9% of polyethylene pipes.4% of ductile iron pipes.5-8).

8%) 5.000 100.603 8.000 800 600 400 200 0 600 0 Polyethylene pipes 900 (thousand MJ) 1.4%) Ductile iron pipes <Agro-film> (per 1 km2) Total energy consumption 6. per 1 km) (kg) 50.000 374 (comparison with ductile iron pipes 33.000 4.800 1.000 PVC pipe 25.400 1.000 0 PVC pipes Ductile iron pipes 177.000 (comparison with PE films 73.420 (comparison with PE pipe 81.000 Ductile iron pipes CO2 emission 27.000 0 300.000 PVC pipes 0 Ductile iron pipes (kg) 350.962 PVC Polyolefin CO2 emission 346.7%) 6.000 10.000 30.2%) PVC Polyolefin Source: Summarized and prepared based on the survey report by Chem Systems 64 .200 (comparison with PE pipes 57.300 Environmental load Energy Environmental load Total energy consumption 40.000 15.200 1.163 (kg) 30.000 150.102 200 Environmental load Environmental load (kg) 1.200 PVC pipes CO2 emission 1.600 1.000 Energy 546 (comparison with ductile iron pipes 30.7%) 40 1. per 1 km) 11.000 1.7%) 10.9%) 600 300 0 20.500 800 400 20 0 Total energy consumption 1. per 1 km) 100 Energy 80 60 Total energy consumption 97 (thousand MJ) 1.9%) 0 PVC pipes 1.000 56 Energy (thousand MJ) <Medium diameter pipes for water supply> (150 mmφ.824 (comparison with ductile iron pipes 28.400 (comparison with ductile iron pipe 25.000 250.000 Polyethylene pipes <Sewage pipes> (250 mmφ.000 CO2 emission 44.000 2.173 20.000 7.000 8. 5-8 Comparison of LCI data between PVC products and non-PVC products <Small diameter pipes for water supply> (50 mmφ.000 (comparison with PE films 51.000 50.000 200.000 1.797 PVC pipes (thousand MJ) 10.CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS Fig.

3×104 896. per 1 km) ● Example: pipes for water supply (medium diameter.00 kg/m) (1.000 346.22 kg/m) Energy consumption (MJ) 5.6×104 9.4×104 110.2×104 CO2 (kg) 7.80 kg/m) Energy consumption (MJ) 37.2×104 54.000 NOX (kg) 75 126 NOX (kg) 690 520 SOX (kg) 111 144 SOX (kg) 860 330 65 .6×104 179.420 NOX (kg) 8 SOX (kg) 11 Medium diameter (150 mmφ) PVC pipes ductile iron pipes (6.80 kg/m) Energy consumption (MJ) Energy consumption (MJ) PVC (123 t/km2 ) polyolefin (96 t/km2 ) 660.70 kg/m) (23.7×104 CO2 (kg) 11.●SUMMARY : Comparison of LCI data (PVC products versus non-PVC products) 1) Comparison of environmental loads up to production with other various general purpose plastics 2) LCI data for water pipes.400 44.300 CO2 (kg) 177.173 3 NOX (kg) 51 77 2 SOX (kg) 76 89 ● Example: sewage pipes (per 1 km) ● Example: agro-films (per 1 km2 ) Medium diameter (250 mmφ) PVC pipes ductile iron pipes (9.824 27.80 kg/m) (38.163 1. per 1 km) Small diameter (50mmφ) PVC pipe PE pipe (1. sewage pipe and agro-film ● Example: pipes for water supply (small diameter.7×104 CO2 (kg) 1.

Similarly.483 NOX 0. end-of-life PVC agro-films. and therefore makes up for the substantial load resulting from virgin material production. with little environmental load. and the environmental load amounts to 20~50% (Fig. Environmental load resulting from production of virgin resin represents the largest proportion. comparing environmental loads.485 0 Energy CO2 1. which among flexible PVC waste has an advanced track record upon collection and recycling.131 1. For example.CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS Mechanical recycling : Method of recycling where plastic wastes undergo treatment such as crushing and sorting.440 SOX (2) flooring intermediate layer (Energy = Mcal/kg.86 Recycled 10 8 6 4 2. PVC is the most versatile upon mechanical recycling. and recycling of plastic products are far greater than those from transportation or landfill. Mechanical recycling is the most advanced recycling method for PVC products. Therefore PVC is a material that can be mechanically recycled with ease. CO2 = kg/kg.516 NOX SOX (3) agro-films (Energy = Mcal/kg.5-9(3)). NOX and SOX emissions amount to about 20% respectively. environmental loads resulting from production. These are reused as raw materials. . 1. Likewise. Fig. The production energy required for production of such recycled intermediate layer amounts to about 30% of the energy required for manufacture using virgin PVC.85 Recycled 10 8 6 4 2 0 properties or loss of functionality due to mixture of foreign matters. CO2 emission from recycled pipes made from rigid PVC waste amounts to fewer than 40% of that required for pipes made from virgin PVC.655 0. are reused as material to be molded into new applications.5-9(1)). 5-9 Environmental load of virgin PVC/recycled material 8 Virgin Recycled 7. recycled PVC can be manufactured with less environmental load. NOX/ SOX = g/kg) Both rigid and flexible PVC waste has been widely recycled from the early days.154 1. NOX and SOX emissions are about 20% as compared to using virgin PVC (depending on the composition of each resin) (Fig. Compared with other materials.39 2 1.517 0 Energy CO2 0.5-9(2)).50 Mcal/kg. NOX/ SOX = g/kg) (1) pipes 12 Virgin 10. Specialist recyclers collect PVC waste and distribute them crushed for rigid PVC waste and in the form of sheets or pellets for flexible PVC wastes. which amounts to 20% of the energy required for production of pipes made from virgin (new) PVC.60 2. NOX/ SOX = g/kg) (3) LCI data for mechanical recycling 12 Virgin 10. yielding comparable qualities (Fig.957 0. Mechanical recycling eliminates the environmental load for final treatment such as incineration or landfill. As you can see. the production energy of recycled pipes made from rigid PVC waste is 2.287 SOX Source: Survey data by VEC Virgin material : Colloquial term for materials manufactured entirely from unused raw materials. processing.071 0.941 0. and then recycled back into materials for plastic products.853 2.304 NOX 0.50 2 2.322 Energy CO2 1. Furthermore. PVC shows less degradation of physical 66 (Energy = Mcal/kg.430 0. Its production energy is less than 20% and CO2 .06 6 4 2. in other words made without using any recycled materials. CO2 = kg/kg. Generally. CO2 = kg/kg.499 0.703 1. The intermediate layer used in PVC flooring is manufactured from flexible PVC sheet waste.

050 0.77∼0.77∼0.3 2.125 ― ― 〃 21.25∼0.3∼0.35 1.7 〃 0. films pipes.5 Coefficient of linear expansion 10-6cm/cm/ ℃ D696 50∼100 70∼250 ― Heat distortion temperature ℃ (bending load 18. machine parts films bottles (2) Characteristics of PVC products Fig. The type and composition of additives used at the time of molding can yield different properties such as moldability. Characteristics and Property Modification of PVC (1) PVC and PVC products PVC is an amorphous thermoplastic with significant polarity within the polymer molecular structure. valves. Therefore various molding processes can be employed for PVC: Calendering process (compression molding) Extrusion molding Injection molding Inflation molding Blow molding rigid/flexible sheets.7 g/cm2 .6 kg/cm2) D648 60∼76 ― ― 〃 57∼82 ― ― D257 >1016 1011∼1015 1011∼1014             (bending load 4.74 0.008∼0.0∼2. window profiles. Generally.59 Tensile break strength kg/cm2     Mechanical properties PVC polymer and (vinyl acetate) copolymer Melting point ℃ Tg (amorphous) Specific volume cm3/g D638 415∼527 105∼246 70∼246 Tensile elongation at break % 〃 40∼80 200∼450 200∼400 Tensile yield strength kg/cm2 〃 415∼457 ― ― Tensile modulus kg/cm2 〃 24. At temperatures over its softening point.035 Specific gravity D792 1. food wraps fittings.010∼0.86∼0. pigments. drain spouts. Plasticizers in particular can change the moldability and property of products considerably.2∼2.3 0.3.812 562∼1.30∼1. and other characteristics of the molded product. 5-10 Properties of PVC products Moldability Test items Rigid Flexible (without filler) Flexible (with filler) ― 72∼105 75∼105 75∼105 Compression molding temperature ℃ ― 140∼205 140∼176 140∼176 Compression molding pressure kg/cm2 ― 53∼140 35∼140 35∼140 Injection molding temperature ℃ ― 149∼213 160∼196 160∼196 Injection molding pressure kg/cm2 ― 703∼2. since hydrogen and chlorine atoms are connected to the main chain made up of carbon atoms. ancillary materials (called additives) such as thermal stabilizers. It is possible to manufacture products with various physical properties from rigid to flexible.5∼5. due to countless micro voids within the particles. and fillers are added before the molding processes.100∼35. the stress-strain behavior of PVC has little temperature dependence.200 D256A 2.5-10 shows the general properties of rigid/ flexible PVC products.200 ― ― Compressive strength kg/cm2 D695 562∼914 63∼120 70∼127 Bending strength kg/cm2 D790 703∼1.58 1.600∼42. The apparent density is 0.002∼0.35 0. by adding plasticizers at the ratio of 0~120 parts by weight to 100 parts of PVC resin.0∼2.006 0. lubricants.3∼1.5 0.4~0. PVC itself comes in the form of white fine powder with the average particle size of 100~150 µm.63 0. Fig.2∼12 Young's modulus in flexure kg/cm2 (23 ℃) Izod impact strength cm・kg/cm with notch (3 mm thickness test piece) Shore hardness Thermal properties ASTM test method D2240/D2583 ― ― Variable according to type and amount of plasticizer 65∼85 50∼100 50∼100 (Shore D) (Shore A) (Shore A) Thermal conductivity 10-4 cal・cm/sec/cm2/ ℃ C177 3.6 kg/cm2) Volume resistance Ω-cm        (humidity50%、temperature23 ℃) Voltage resistance (short time test) 3∼4(continued to 3∼4 next page) 67 .3 Molding shrinkage (linear shrinkage) cm/cm ― 0. respectively.3∼0.0 Specific heat cal/ ℃/g ― 0.16∼1.758 70∼140 Compression ratio ― 2.

3 mm thickness) % D570 0. elastomer texture of rubber or leather-like texture can be obtained 68 advantages and disadvantages of PVC in terms of physical properties can be summarized as follows.55 ― ― Light transmissibility % ― 76∼82 ― ― Chemical properties Optical properties Arc resistance sec Haze % ― 8∼18 ― ― Water absorption (24 hour.75 0.3∼4.5∼4.0 1 MHz 〃 2. aliphatic hydrocarbon or oil/fat.14 0.5 0.0∼8. Disadvantages can be improved by polymer alloy which will be mentioned at (5) Property modification of PVC products.1 3.0 4.35 0. swells in aromatic hydrocarbons Source: Various annual editions of the Modern Plastics Encyclopedia (3) Advantages and disadvantages of PVC products PVC is a general purpose plastic whose products strike an excellent cost-performance balance.10∼1.15∼0.16 0.007∼0.8∼3. not suitable for injection molding of large-sized products .006∼0.0 Sunlight influence  ― Weak acid influence D543 None None None Strong acid influence 〃 None-slight None-slight None-slight Weak alkali influence 〃 None None None Strong alkali influence 〃 Organic solvent influence 〃 Generally changes Changes according to stabilizer None-slight None None None not soluble in alcohol.05 1 KHz 〃 0. V/mil) Dielectric constant Power factor 1 MHz 〃 0. The <Advantages> Superior mechanical properties Superior creep resistance Flexibility can be changed at ease using plasticizers Superior chemical resistance Transparence Superior adhesion properties and printability Fire resistant properties Good electrical properties For flexible PVC products.0∼6.0∼9.009∼0.8 4.16 16 11 11 Electrical properties        (humidity50%、temperature23 ℃) Voltage resistance (short time test)        (thickness 3 mm.0 3∼4 3∼4 Specific heat cal/ ℃/g ― 0.017 0.52∼1.0 1 KHz 〃 3.3∼0.2∼4.0 5.08∼0.019 0.Mechanic Bending strength kg/cm2 Young's modulus in flexure kg/cm2 (23 ℃) D790 703∼1.125 〃 21.5 3. <Disadvantages> Lack impact strength at low temperatures Slightly low heat distortion temperature (maximum temperature upon use) Leaching of plasticizers in the case of flexible PVC products High viscoelasticity.5∼5.09∼0.50∼1.3∼0.04∼0.10 D492 60∼80 ― ― Refractive index nD20 D542 1.5 Coefficient of linear expansion 10-6cm/cm/ ℃ D696 50∼100 70∼250 ― Heat distortion temperature ℃ (bending load 18.4 0.020 0.0∼3.0∼5.04∼0.09∼0.07∼0.25∼0.100∼35. either soluble or swells in ketone and ester.5 60 Hz 〃 0.2∼12 CHAPTER 5 Izod : SERVICEABILITY OF (3 mm thickness test piece) Thermal properties Shore hardness D2240/D2583 ― ― ― ― Variable according to type and amount of plasticizer 65∼85 50∼100 50∼100 (Shore D) (Shore A) (Shore A) Thermal conductivity 10-4 cal・cm/sec/cm2/ ℃ C177 3.15 0.6 kg/cm2) Volume resistance Ω-cm ― >10 15 10 ∼10 10 ∼1014 D149 350∼500 300∼400 250∼300 60 Hz D150 3.6 kg/cm2) D648 60∼76 ― ― 〃 57∼82 ― D257             (bending load 4.200 withPVC notch AND PVC PRODUCTS impact strength cm・kg/cm D256A 2.0 5.

while flexible PVC products are soft and tough. 46 (5).1 PC 2.5∼4.5-11. As shown in Fig. 5-12 Tensile strength of various plastics 34∼62 PVC (rigid)) PVC (flexible) 6.9∼25 34∼82 PS (general purpose) 34∼59 ABS PE (high density) 22∼38 PP 29∼38 0 20 40 60 Tensile strength (MPa) 80 100 Source: “Plastic materials guidebook. The tensile modulus is also known as the Young's Modulus.5-12 shows the comparison of tensile strength of PVC products with other plastics.4∼3. new edition” by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. PP. phenol resin Break below yielding point Break around yielding point Rigid PVC .1 LDPE 0. The tensile strength is expressed in terms of the maximum stress per unit area of the cross section when the test piece breaks by applied loads to both ends of the test piece. (an index to show the magnitude of force at break. It is like the equivalent of the spring constant) Fig. 5-13 Young's modulus of various plastics PVC (rigid) 2.5-13 shows the comparison of tensile modulus of PVC products with other plastics. which is expressed in terms of the ratio between the tensile stress per unit area of the cross section and the elongation in the direction of the tensile stress. rigid PVC products are hard and robust.(4) Physical properties of PVC products among the molecular chains. LDPE high and the curve is flat high Yielding point is high HDPE.2 PS (impact resistant) ABS 2.1 1.1∼0.5 0 1 2 3 Modulus (103 MPa) 4 5 Source: Prepared from the "Dictionary of practical plastic terms" edited by Osaka City Industry Research Institute 69 . PC D Soft and resistant E Hard and resistant medium medium~high high high High-polymer soft gel General purpose PS.3 PP 1.3∼2. 90 (1995) ■ Specific mechanical properties The mechanical properties of PVC product in specific are as follows: Tensile strength Fig.1∼1. AS resin Source: "Plastics" . ABS Polyamide. Ltd (1993) Tensile modulus Fig.1∼3. 5-11 Classification of plastics by type of S-S curve Type Features Tensile Tensile modulus strength Elongation Examples Others A Soft and weak low low medium B Hard and brittle high medium~high low C Hard and robust high high medium low medium high Yielding point is low. Plastics possessing large tensile modulus have small stress-strain.7 HDPE 0. Plastics can be categorized according to the tensile stress-strain curve (S-S curve) as one of the indexes for mechanical strength. when a test piece is pulled apart.7∼4. ① mechanical properties PVC is a polar polymer and its mechanical properties are excellent due to strong interaction Fig.6 Polyamide (nylon 6) 1.4∼1. when both ends of the test piece are pulled apart) Fig.1 PS (general purpose) 2. Flexible PVC . (an index to show the magnitude of elongation.

0〕 Fatigue strength Fig.CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS Bending strength Fig. 5-14 Bending strength of various plastics Rigid PVC 69∼114 PS 34∼72 ABS 25∼93 9. (an index to show the magnitude of force at break of a cubic test piece. 5-15 Compressive strength of various plastics Compressive strength Fig.12 〔11.. 5-16 Fatigue strength of various plastics Plastics Fatigue strength at 107 times application of external stress kg/mm2 〔MPa〕 PVC 1. resistance to crushing force) Rigid PVC 55∼89 PS (general purpose) 82∼89 ABS (general purpose ) 45∼52 HDPE (high density) 19∼25 PP 38∼55 PC 69∼78 0 50 100 Compressive strength (MPa) Source: "Plastics guidebook" by the Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute and others Fig. etc. and used for industrial hoses.7 〔17〕 PS 1. where the test piece is supported at two points apart and a vertical stress load is applied at the center. 24 (1970) . automobile parts. 5-17 Creep properties of various thermoplastics 7 6 Creep strain (%) PVC is used for municipal water supply/sewage pipes.0〕 PE 1.3 PE 76∼89 PC 0 50 100 150 Bending strength (MPa) 200 Source: "Plastic materials guidebook. It is expressed in terms of the maximum stress at break per unit area of the cross section. since its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and tensile modulus are better than those of other general purpose olefin plastics.e. It is expressed in terms of the maximum stress at which the test piece would not break after applying repeated stress for 107 (10 million) times. spouts.2 〔11. When plastics are used for construction or industrial applications.5-16 shows the fatigue strength of PVC products in comparison with other plastics.5-14 shows the bending strength of PVC products in comparison with other plastics. when the test piece is bent) Fig.12 〔11. (the maximum stress. i.0〕 PP ABS 1. Fig. and are robust and durable. When plasticizers are added. 70 150 5 10 20 30 40 PE 4 PP 3 2 1 PVC 1 2 3 Stress (kg/mm2) 4 Source: "Plastics" 21(6). It is expressed in terms of the maximum stress upon break of the test piece. gaskets. Ltd. Under normal 1. PVC shows rubberlike elasticity with high tensile strength and fatigue strength.8〕 Source: "Plastics almanac" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. cold flow is an especially important point to be considered. ② Creep properties Plastic products show creep phenomenon. Fig. when a vertical stress is applied to the test piece sandwiched by two pieces of the test panel.5-15 shows the compressive strength of PVC products in comparison with other plastics..02 〔10. frames. which the test piece can endure after repeated application of an external force). and electric cable covering in the place of natural synthetic rubber. The phenomenon is also known as cold flow. new edition" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. Ltd. where product is deformed in room temperature as time elapses when an external force is applied continuously. (an index to show the magnitude of force at break.

drainage/sewage pipes. rigid PVC products show very little creep and are superior in comparison with other plastic products such as PE or PP. ducts. This is a major advantage of PVC. PVC products without any plasticizers are called rigid PVC products. PP.g. flexible PVC products are obtainable. The softness of the flexible PVC products is obtained as a result of plasticizers coming between molecules to separate them. 2nd edition Vol.5-18 shows the correlation between plasticizer concentration and tensile strength and tensile elongation of the molded product. the softness of the flexible PVC products is enhanced. 5-18 Effect of plasticizers (tensile strength. therefore in room temperature it comes in a molded form. synthetic leather and surfaces. Heibergen (Marcel Dekker Inc. Nass. plastic valves/flanges. Since rubber-like elasticity or pliable texture of leather is obtainable. 71 . while PVC products that include plasticizers are called flexible PVC products. Some of the engineering plastics and specialty resins are susceptible to acid or alkali. (kg/cm2) 800 Elongation ③ Plasticizing effects Nylon 66 PC Polyester (chemical resistant) PE Polyfluorocarbon Polymethyl methacrylate PP PS PU PVC (flexible) PVC (rigid) ABS Epoxy resin 7 6 6 5 10 4 5 2 8 4 6 4 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 7 1 4 10 10 7 10 10 6 9 10 8 7 3 7 7 10 10 9 10 10 6 10 10 9 9 2 6 6 8 10 4 8 4 4 6 9 4 2 NOTE : The 1~10 scale has been set by empirical means. therefore used for chemical storage tanks. 1: Polyester adipate 2: DEHP 3: DEHA Organic solvents ④ Chemical resistance Tensile strength PVC is a polar polymer with strong intermolecular forces. reducing intermolecular forces. and plant piping. elongation) 600 1 2 3 400 200 0 0 10 (%) 400 20 30 3 200 2 0 40 0 1 10 20 30 Plasticizer concentration (%) 40 Source: Encyclopedia of PVC. Source: "Plastic almanac" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. Fig. panels. PVC is used in various interior and exterior construction materials (e. when plasticizer is added upon fabrication. flexible PVC is used for packaging. Therefore. Higher value shows higher effectiveness. as shown in Fig.) Fig. and some plastics have excellent chemical resistance properties. automobile parts.5-19 shows the chemical resistance of PVC in comparison with other plastics. as with other general-purpose olefin plastics such as PE.5-17. Charles A. PVC has excellent chemical resistance. On the other hand. window frames and decks) and electric or machine parts. 5-19 Chemical resistance of various plastics and relative indexes Plastics Alkalis Acids Oxidizing agents Relative resistance Salts Since the main chain of the polymer is comprised of single bonds of carbon atoms. p. PVC has excellent chemical resistance together with mechanical properties. such as polyfluorocarbons. It can be seen that as the concentration of plasticizer increases. resulting in a soft state that is easier to stretch. Fig.environmental conditions.. Fig. or PS. hoses.494 Leonard I. Ltd.1.

corrugated panels. Rigid PVC products which have high transparency are used in construction materials such as daylighting. 5-21 Adhesion property and printability of various plastics Adhesion propertiesPrintability Structure Properties Polar/Amorphous PVC is an amorphous polymer.5 Source: "Plastic films: processing and applications" by Gihodoh Shuppan Co. displays.. agro-films. Gloss is expressed in terms of gloss value. The haze value is used to measure the transparency of plastic products. In contrast. Fig. therefore its products are basically transparent.5∼2 80 Rigid PVC 1∼2 79. Non-polar/Amorphous ⑤ Transparency Thermoplastics Thermosets Thermoplastics Thermosets PVC Good PS Good Polycarbonate Good Polymethyl methacrylate Good Polyester (PET) Good Polyamide (Nylon) Good PU Epoxy resin Good Good HDPE Poor LDPE Poor PP Poor Polyimid Silicon resin Poor Poor Source: Prepared by VEC 72 . Fig. unless the product surface is treated and effectiveness of such surface treatment is comparatively low. synthetic leather. PVC is also used as adhesive/paint by mixing with water or solvent. transparent partitions for clean rooms.5-21 shows the adhesion and printing properties of major plastics. Non-transparent PVC products are thus since they are manufactured using compounding agents that are non-compatible. Generally. and films for photo albums. This value is a percentage value calculated by dividing the diffused light transmittance of the test piece with the total light transmittance. wrap films. 5-20 Haze value and gloss value of various films Haze value Gloss value (%) (%) Films High-pressure process PE (inflation molding) 5∼15 65 High-pressure process PE (T-die extrusion) 2∼10 ― Medium-low pressure process PE (inflation molding) 15∼75 22 Medium-low pressure process PE (T-die extrusion) 2∼10 65 Non-drawn PP (T-die extrusion) 2∼3 70∼75 Biaxial drawn PP 1. The smaller the haze value the higher the transparency. and stone or wood grain printed films. flooring. Fig.CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS ⑥ Adhesion properties and printability Adhesion properties and the printability of plastic are also due to the molecular structure of polymers. and transparent bags. Examples of flexible PVC products requiring transparency are wrap films. or industrial flat plates. polar and amorphous structures offer better properties. and higher gloss values indicate higher gloss.5-20 shows the haze value and gloss value of PVC films compared with other films made of generous purpose plastics. and is used for the decoration or designoriented products such as wall covering. It is also possible to manufacture PVC products with superior gloss. PVC has excellent adhesion properties and printability. Ltd. which usually shows the amount of reflected light from the test piece compared to amount of reflected light from glass (amount from glass defined as 100%). Fig. the non-polar and crystalline structure inherently causes difficulty in adhesion and printing.

Fire resistant properties can also be given to olefin plastics such as PE and PP by crosslinking treatment or by adding large quantities of fire retardants.4 Source: M.24. In contrast. 1989 fire resistant. cable coverings.5-23.0 PVC 45∼49 PC 26∼28 Nylon 66 24∼29 PET 20. When PVC products are burned. 1976 Rubber Ceramics Thermoplastics Thermosets Various plastics PVC PP PS PE 0 10 20 30 40 Dielectric strength (kV/mm) 50 60 Source: "Plastic utilization: 3rd edition". the volume resistivity of PVC products is slightly lower than those of olefin resin products. 5-23 Volume resistivity of various materials 10 ∼10 20 1016∼1020 1017∼1019 1014∼1016 1014∼1015 1013∼1015 (rigid) 1015∼1019 (flexible) PE PP PS Tetrafluoroethylene PVC Methacrylate PU Nylon Polyester Neoprene Epoxy resin 16 Oxygen index Polytetrafluoroetylene 95.. household electrical appliances. Apart from its excellent electrical insulating Fig. "Introduction to plastics: fully revised edition" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. but Fig. but the oxygen index can be used for the evaluation with a comparatively high precision and reproducibility of the results. Since the oxygen concentration in the air is 21%. or interior housing materials. but it would be difficult for these plastics to compete with the versatility of flexible PVC whose softness can be controlled with ease and can be easily materialrecycled. hydrogen chloride gas resulting from thermal cracking stops the continuous combustion reaction and prevents burning progress by warding off the PVC product surface from oxygen in the air.⑦ Fire retarding property One of the major drawbacks of plastics which are entirely derived from petroleum is their flammability. since more than 50% of its component is derived from salt. parting strips. wire coverings. p. In both cases. It represents the minimum oxygen concentration required for the test piece to continue burning in mixed gas of oxygen and nitrogen. Ltd.29. p. Since PVC is highly ⑧ Electrical characteristics The electrical characteristics of PVC such as electrical insulating properties or dielectric constant are excellent." Macromol. and cable coverings. and protecting tubes for power and telecommunications cables. a plastic with an oxygen index greater than 22 has selfextinguishing property. It is also used in industrial facilities such as tanks. the only exception among the general-purpose plastics. Vol. 5-22 Oxygen index of various plastics 1013∼1014 1012∼1014 1011∼1013 108∼1014 Source: "Plastics almanac" by Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. As shown in Fig. while a plastic with oxygen index smaller than 21 is flammable. PVC is a fire resistant plastic. the fire retarding property is higher. The dielectric strength is expressed in terms of the magnitude of voltage withstood without destruction of the test piece when a specified amount of voltage is charged for a specified period of time. 5-24 Dielectric strength of various materials Materials Value (Ω-cm) Materials Materials Self-extinguishing plastics Fig. To express electrical insulating properties. Symp. Ltd 73 .M. such as wallcovering and flooring.3 PP PE 17.6∼18. it is widely used in exterior construction materials such as window profiles. corrugated boards. The volume resistivity is expressed in terms of electrical resistance calculated per unit volume of the test piece..4 17. Hirschier "Macromol.422. since higher fire resistant properties are required for electrical components. Chem. ducts. siding boards. PVC is used widely in a variety of applications such as electric cables for residential buildings. switch boxes. When the value is higher. greater value means better electrical characteristics. volume resistivity or dielectric strength is widely used as an index.133~153. vehicles. or for sign boards. There may be many ways of evaluating the fire retarding properties. insulating tapes.0 PS 17.

carbon single bonds in the main chain.56 2.2 1.90∼0.22∼4.5-27 and Fig. which is slightly lower than that of rigid PVC.07 1. Fig. PVC products have the disadvantage of having low heat distortion temperature (softening temperature) compared with other plastics of the similar molecular structure.1∼2.6 kg/cm2) Plastics PVC PS (general purpose) PS (impact resistant) ABS HDPE LDPE PP PC Heat distortion temp.3 − 2.93 0. As this main chain is highly flexible. Fig. The heat distortion temperature is the temperature when the test piece placed in the heat medium with bending load applied reaches specified deflection as temperature rises.2 127.2 Source: report by Japan Society for Testing Plastics.   ⑨ Specific gravity (density) The true specific gravity of PVC is about 1.4. high frequency welding (gluing) is possible. welded PVC products are used for bags for medical applications.CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS properties.33 4.37 2.94∼2.10 1. as with PET. As for flexible PVC products. or revetment materials for rivers and gulfs. 1972 74 .. PVC also features large dielectric losses.3 range depending on the amount of plasticizer used.S.56 2.54∼2. air inflated toys and flexible containers. This could be a disadvantage depending on the application. 5-25 Dielectric constant of various plastics Plastics ℃ PE PVC PS PE -12 25 25 25 Frequency (Hz) 1×103 1×106 1×108 2.54∼2.13∼1. files.04∼1. covers. Fig.55 3.8949. which is comparatively heavy among plastics.35 2.15 2.12∼4.98 Source: "Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia" by J. Due to this feature. 5-27 Heat distortion temperature of various plastics (Load 18.97 0. and pouches of various size and shape would be easier by such welding process.91 1.    (℃) 54∼80 <104 <99 104∼106 43∼49 32∼41 57∼64 130∼138 Source: "Practical dictionary of plastic terminology" edited by the Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute Fig. Salamone. p.0 156. Ltd (1970) ⑩ Heat distortion temperature (softening temperature) The molecular structure of PVC is comprised of continuous carbon .38∼1.3 92. making secondary processing easier. it is used in water sealing sheets for agricultural water reservoir or swimming pools.2 Source: "Polymer dictionary" by Taiseisha Co.0 2.55 3. Fig.99∼1.3 3. Vicat softening temperature is defined as the temperature where the needle shaped penetrator sinks into the test piece to a specified depth as temperature of the heating medium rises and specified vertical load is set to the test piece. For example. 5-28 Vicat softening temperature of various plastics (1 kg load) Plastics Measured value   (℃) PS ABS PVC PC PE PP 102.5-28 show the thermal deformation temperature and the softening temperature (called the“Vicat softening temperature”) of major plastics.5-23 shows the dielectric constant (which correlates to dielectric losses) of PVC in comparison to those of other plastics.94∼0. Production of wide films/sheets as well as bags.1~1.45 0. CRC Press (1996) Fig. 5-26 Specific gravity of various plastics Plastics Specific gravity LDPE HDPE PP PS PVC ABS Polyester PC Nylon 66 Teflon 0.3 152.39 1.35∼1.91∼0. the specific gravity falls within the 1. By taking advantage of the fact that PVC does not float in water.5 102.

or when large amounts of plasticizers are used. There are many ways to measure impact strength. Fig. representing low impact strength.281 (1971) Plasticizers may sometimes bleed or be volatilized from the surface of the PVC product after years of use.5-30 shows the relation between the temperature and the impact strength of major plastics.f. 2. Higher values show higher impact strength.5-31 shows the result of accelerated tests on the volatilization of plasticizers. Plasticizers may also migrate to other materials which come in contact with PVC products. Fig.⑪ Impact strength The glass transition temperature (second order transition point) of PVC is over 70℃ . Fig. Fig. and these are disadvantages of flexible PVC products. 5-31 Volatilization of phthalate plasticizers Weight loss of test sheet upon heating (wt. which is higher than room temperature. Test sheets using plasticizers are heated in an oven.5-29 shows the results of energies absorbed by test pieces when they are fixed and hammered to break (impact failure). 5-30 Impact strength and temperature for various plastics 140 High pressure PE not broken PP Rigid PVC PS ABS PC 0 5 10 15 20 25 Notched impact strength αk (kg・cm/cm2 ≒ kJ/m2) 120 30 HDPE LDPE 100 (kg・cm/cm2≒kJ/m2) Low pressure PE Charpy impact (kg・cm/cm2 ≒ kJ/m2) Fig. Fig. Having poor impact resistance especially at low temperature range is one of the disadvantages of PVC.%) ⑫ Bleeding and volatilization of plasticizers 80 20 DOP (DEHP) DHP 15 DnOP 10 5 0 DIDP 15 60 135 240 Heating time (hrs) Oven temp. 28 (1971) Source: K. Heat loss (weight loss) due to volatilization of plasticizers is shown on the graph. Oberbach: Z. Such cases can be seen when plasticizers of low-molecular weights or low compatibility (low miscibility) are used. 165℃ Source: "Revised practical manual for plastics and rubber additives" by Kagaku Kogyosha 75 . Werkstofftechnik.5-29 Impact strength of various plastics 80 60 40 Rigid PVC 20 0 PS -50 -30 -10 0 10 20 40 60 Temperature (℃) Source: "Plastics" 22(5).

Other than the polymer alloy technique. modifications on heat resistance etc. chlorinated polyethylene or EVA. casings). 19(12). By polymer alloy techniques. When the PVC products receive impact. surface protecting films. edited by Takashi Inoue. 26 (1979) . Since PVC has high polarity and high compatibility with a variety of other high-performance plastics. industrial boards. 5-32 Property modification of PVC by polymer alloy EVA Thermoplastic polyurethane Processability. it is possible to mix these to form polymer alloys with ease. are mixed with PVC. these micro particles in the molecular structure absorb the impact energy and prevent damages to the PVC product. c sti ce ela istan tance h Hig e res resis ez on Fre rasi Ab Chlorinated polyethylene e. Cost TPEE Thermoplastic polyester elastomer ib lex y. acrylic rubber. 5-33 Effect of blending impact modifiers 150 Izod impact strength (kg・cm・cm-1) Generally. in order to improve the impact resistance of PVC products. Fig. can be made possible by selecting plasticizers with high molecular weight. F t i . Heat resistance.CHAPTER 5 : SERVICEABILITY OF PVC AND PVC PRODUCTS (5) Property modification of PVC products of rigid PVC products can be modified. El ast High elasticity. ssa Oil eze bili res res ty i ista sta nc nce e .5-32 shows the outline of property modification through polymer alloy. Impact resistance PVC ility CPE Fire retardance pa Pro ct res ista ce ssa nc e bili ty Im Processability Heat resistance Impact resistance TPU W Co eathe Acrylonitrile st. c tan sis ity e r ct bil pa sa Im oces Pr High fluidity. caps. Sufficient impact resistance for practical use can be obtained by blending 5~20 weight parts of these impact modifiers to 100 weight parts of PVC. PVC whose impact resistance is modified is used in a wide range of applications including exterior construction materials (window frames. the disadvantages Fig. Abrasion resistance. ABS (20℃) MBS EVA CPE 100 EVA (Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) MBS (Methacrylate butadiene styrene) CPE (Chlorinated polyethylene) 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 Amount of impact modifier (phr) 25 Source: “ PVC and polymers” by Mitsui Polychemical. or electrical parts (connectors). Flexibility Impact resistance Freeze resistance NBR Processability Anti migration Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer ABS Acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene MBS Methacrylate butadiene styrene Acrylic resin Source: “ Polymer alloy utilization”. rigid PVC packaging (blister packs. MBS. The impact modifier in the form of micro particles is dispersed within the molecular structure of PVC. icit y. ra butadiene rubber Pro bili Fre ce ty. Kogyo Chosakai (1992) ① Impact resistance 76 Fig. impact modifiers (toughening agents) which have rubber-like properties such as ABS. impact resistant water pipes. siding).

5-36 shows an example where a polyester plasticizer with the molecular weight of 1.500 is used to replace DOP. On the other hand. Fig. 0 20 40 60 Heating time (min) 80 * PVC 100 parts. fire resistance. Artificial leather and gaskets manufactured with volatilization preventive 100 Sekisui PVC-HA 31K 90 80 70 60 HA 100 PVC 0 50 50 Blending ratio (%) 0 100 Source: Extracted from a catalogue by Sekisui Chemical Co. such as hot water supply pipes or electric cable protecting tubes. (℃ at 18. heat distortion temperature or softening temperature of PVC products. Some of the non-migrating type plasticizers are used for medical bags/tubes or industrial hoses. Ltd. 77 .. plasticizer free flexible PVC products are manufactured as in the case of graft polymerized EVA (ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer) and PVC. plasticizer 50 parts. respectively.5-34 and Fig. also known as chlorinated PVC or CPVC.5 parts 1 P DO ester 3 Poly rts Polyester 50 pa 6 4 2 0 s art p 50 D Po OP lye 37.5-35 show the improvement of the softening temperature by blending ABS as an example. plasticizers with high molecular weight or high compatibility with PVC is adopted. volatilization or migration of plasticizers to other materials from soft PVC products. Fig. electrical insulating properties and chemical resistance are further improved. On the other hand. by blending the high-polymer plasticizer.5 p 7. α -methylstyrene copolymers. and instrument panels of vehicles.8%. and the improvement of thermal deformation temperature by blending after- 110 100 90 80 PVC 100 "Ther-alloy" 0 80 60 40 20 40 60 PVC/ "Ther-alloy" (phr) 20 80 Source: Extracted from a technical document by Kaneka Corporation ③ Prevention of plasticizer bleed and volatilization In order to prevent bleeding. PVC with enhanced heat resistance is used for heat resistant rigid PVC pipes.5 kg/cm2) Fig. soft PVC products with modified heat resistance are used for heat resistant cable covering and others. heat resistant resins such as ABS resins. but that of CPVC is 60~70%. or a terpolymer composed of ethylene-vinyl acetate-carbon monoxide. Test pieces are placed in an oven of 160℃ and rates of weight loss are measured to represent volatilization of plasticizers as time elapses. which is a general-purpose plasticizer with the molecular weight of 390. the heat distortion resistance. The chlorine content of regular PVC is 56. 160℃ geer oven Source: "Revised practical manual for plastic and rubber additives" by Kagaku Kogyosha After-chlorinated PVC : It is a thermoplastic manufactured by further reacting PVC with chlorine. or after-chlorinated PVC is usually blended.5 + pa rts Vicat(℃) "Ther-alloy" A-15 Volatile loss Condition for vicat softening temperature: 1 kg load Heat distortion temp.② Heat distortion temperature (softening temperature) In order to enhance the heat resistance. 5-35 Effects of blending after-chlorinated PVC Fig. ste 5 p r 1 arts 2. PVC including non-migrating or non-bleeding plasticizers at high temperatures is used for electric/ electronic parts and heat resistant cables. 5-34 Effect of blending heat resistant ABS 120 chlorinated PVC. Fig. As a result. 5-36 Effect of polyester plasticizer for prevention of volatile loss (%) 10 P DO 8 s+ s art art 5 p r 25 p 2 P e DO lyest Po arts + 2.