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Adaptive Beamforming Using Lms Algorithm

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eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

**ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMING USING LMS ALGORITHM
**

Revati Joshi1, Ashwinikumar Dhande2

1

**Student, E&Tc Department, Pune Institute of Computer Technology, Maharashtra, India
**

Professor, E&Tc Department, Pune Institute of Computer Technology, Maharashtra, India

2

Abstract

The smart antennas are widely used for wireless communication, because it has a ability to increase the coverage and capacity of

a communication system. Smart antenna performs two main functions such as direction of arrival estimation (DOA) and

beamforming. Using beamforming algorithm . smart antenna is able to form main beam towards desired user and null in the

direction of interfering signals. This paper evaluate the performance of LMS (Least Mean Square) beamforming algorithm in the

form of normalized array factor (NAF) and mean square error(MSE) by varying the number of elements in the array and the

placing between the sensor elements. The simulations are carried out using MATLAB.

**Keywords: DOA (Direction of Arrival), LMS (Least Mean Square), AF (Array Factor).
**

--------------------------------------------------------------------***-----------------------------------------------------------------1. INTRODUCTION

2. BEAMFORMING

**Adaptive beamforming is a technique in which an array of
**

antennas are used to achieve maximum reception in the

direction of desired user while signals of same frequency

from other directions are rejected[1]. This is achieved by

varying the weights of the each of antennas used in the

array. A smart antenna system combines multiple antenna

elements with a signal- processing capability to optimize its

radiation and or reception pattern automatically in response

to the signal environment[2]. Multiple antennas have ability

to enhance the capacity and performance without the need of

of additional power or spectrum. In adaptive beamforming

the optimum weights are iteratively computed using

complex algorithms based upon different criteria. The

criteria for choosing the adaptive beamforming algorithm is

depends on it’s performance and convergence rate.

**In beamforming each user’s signal is multiplied by complex
**

weight that adjust the magnitude and phase of the signal to

and from each antenna[4]. The phases and amplitudes are

adjusted to optimize the received signal. This causes the

output of the arrays of antenna to form transmit or receive in

a particular direction and minimizes the output in other

direction

**Adaptive beamforming algorithm can be classified in to two
**

main categories such as Non blind and blind adaptive

algorithms[3]. Non blind adaptive algorithms require the

statistical knowledge of the transmitted signal in order to

converge to a weight solution. This is achieved by using a

pilot training sequence sent over the channel to receiver to

help to identify the desired user. Whereas ,blind algorithms

do not need any training sequence, hence the term ’blind’.

They attempt to restore some characteristic of the

transmitted signal in order to separate it from the other users

in the surrounding environment.This paper focus on the

implementation of Least Mean Square(LMS) algorithm

which is a type of non blind algorithm.

Fig-1: Adaptive Beamforming

Fig-2: Beamforming block diagram

**3. ARRAY SENSOR SYSTEM.
**

The system consists of ULA with M antenna elements that

are linearly spaced along with equal distance.

Fig 2: System model for uniform linear array of M elements

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 05 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

589

**IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
**

The array factor for uniform linear array is given in eqn1.

2??

?? (

?−1

?

? =0 ?? ?

?? ∅ =

(1)

**The phase shift between inter element is given in eqn2.
**

?=−

2??

?0

???∅0

(2)

**Where, ∅0 is the desired beam direction. At wave length
**

?0 ,the phase shift corresponds to a time delay that will steer

the beam to∅0.

4. BASIC CONCEPT FOR LMS ALGORITHM

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

**Solving eqn6 obtain the value of MSE term
**

?

E[ ?(?) 2]=E[ ?(?) 2-???

w-? ? ??? +? ? ??? w]

(7)

**E[x(n)? ? (?)]=??? is the MXM covariance Matrix of the
**

input data vector.x(n).

E[x(n)? ∗ (?)]=??? is the Mx1 cross correlation vector

between the input data vector ,x(n),and the training

sequence,d(n).

Taking the gradient operator of the mean square error with

respect to the array weights and setting the result equal to

zero.

4.1 Weiner Optimum Solution

∇E[ ?(?) 2]=

?

?? ∗

E[ ?(?) 2]=0

(8)

**Substituting the value of eqn7 in to eqn8 .
**

-2??? +2??? ???? = 0

(9)

**The optimum weight eqn is obtain using eqn10.
**

−1

???? =???

???

**Disadvantages using weiner optimum solution
**

1. If the number of elements in ULA is large ,then it is

complex to invert the MXM covariance matrix ,??? [5].

2. It requires the use of expectation operator in both

??? and??? .

Fig-3: LMS Adaptive Array.

5. LMS ALGORITHM

**The LMS adaptive array is shown in figure 3.
**

By using a feedback loop the weigths, ?1,….,, ?? , are updated

by the time sampled error signal is given in eq n3.

e(n)=d(n)-y(n)

(3)

**Where d(n) is training sequence or replica of the desired
**

signal. And y(n) is the output of the adaptive array described

in eqn4

y(n)=? ? x(n)

(10)

**LMS algorithm is a type of Non-blind algorithm, because it
**

uses the training signal or reference signal. During training

period training signal is transmitted from transmitter to

receiver. It uses a gradient based method of steepest decent.

It follows an iterative procedure that makes successive

corrections to the weight vector in the direction of the

negative of the gradient vector which eventually leads to the

minimum mean square error[6]. LMS algorithm is relatively

simple; it does not require correlation function calculation

and matrix inversions [7].

(4)

Let nw represent the Mx1 weight vector at time sample

n.The weight vector can be updated at time sample n+1

which is given in eqn11.

**Where x(m) is the input signal.
**

The adaptive algorithm adjusts the weight vector to

minimize the mean square error(MSE) of the error

signal,e(n) is given in eqn5.

w(n+1)=w(n)+µ[-∇(J(n))]

(11)

**Where J(n)= E[ ?(?) 2] defines the MSE cost function.
**

E e(n)= E d(n)-y(n)

(5)

Using eqn9,the value of the error signal at time sample n is

given as in eqn12.

**Where E is the expectation operator
**

Substituting eqn3 &4 in to eqn5 and expanding the augment

of the MSE term

E[ ?(?) 2]=E[{d(n)-y(n)}{d(n)-?(?)}∗ ]

∇(J(n))= -2??? +2??? ?(?)

(12)

(6)

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 05 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

590

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

**Substituting eqn12 in to eqn11 result in eqn13
**

w(n+1)=w(n)+2µ[??? − ??? ?(?)]]

(13)

**Where µ is step size parameter. It is a real valued positive
**

constant generally less than one. The initial weight w(0) is

assumed to be zero. The successive corrections of the

weight vector eventually leads to the minimum value of the

mean squared error. The step size varies from 0 to λmax,

whereλ max is the largest Eigen value of the correlation

matrix R[8].

Substituting the value of ??? and??? in to eqn13 result in

eqn14.

w(n+1)=w(n)+2µE[x(n)? ∗ (n)]

(14)

6. SIMULATION RESULTS

For simulation purposes the uniform linear array with M

number of element and input signal is modulated by using

BPSK modulation is considered. simulation of LMS

algorithm is carried out using MATLAB to illustrate how

various parameters such as number of antenna element, inter

element spacing ,number of interferes and variation in SNR

parameter affect the beam formation and convergence of the

algorithm.

**Fig-5: Polar array factor plot when desired user is 30degree
**

and the interfere is -50degree

The optimum complex weights in the case for which the

algorithm converges is as follows.

w1 = 1.

w2 = 0.039512+0.97006i

w3 = -1.0194+0.03523i

w4 = -0.001461-0.98315i

w5 = 0.98244-0.051033i

w6 = 0.018318+1.0197i

w7 = -0.97044+0.012622i

w8 = -0.052976-0.99924i

6.1 General case

Consider that the desired user is arriving at an angle of 30

degree and an interfere user at an angle of -50 degree. The

spacing between the individual element is half wavelength

and the signal to noise ratio(SNR) is 30db.

The array factor for 8 element antenna antenna array is

computed.Figure.4.Shows rectangular array factor plot for

different angle of arrival. Figure.5.Shows polar array factor

plot for different angle of arrival

Fig-5: Magnitude of array weights when no.of array element

is 8.

**Fig-4: Array factor plot when desired user is 30degree and
**

the interfere is -50degree

**Fig-6: Acquisition and tracking of desired signal and actual
**

array output

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 05 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

591

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

**The increasing number of antenna array element produce an
**

increase in systen noise.And overall MSE tends to be almost

the same for the given values of antenna element.

**6.2.2 Effect of the Separation Distance on the Array
**

Factor and MSE.

Figure 9 shows the performnce of LMS algorithm when the

distance between array element d=0.5 and d=1.And desired

user is arriving at an angle 30 degree and interefer is at an

angle of -50 degree.

Fig-7: Mean square error Vs iteration no.

6.2 Special case

6.2.1 Effect of the Number of Array Elements on

the Array Factor and MSE.

Figure 8 shows the array factor plot of LMS algorithm when

number of antenna array element is 8,12,18.And desired

user is arriving at an angle 60 degree and interefer is at an

angle of -50 degree.

The simulation result shows that as the antenna array

element goes on increasing from 8,12 and 18 the beam

width becomes narrow and the number of side lobe goes on

increasing.But level of these side lobes is low compared to

those generated by small number of elements.

**Fig 10: Effect of interelement seperation distance on Array
**

Factor.

The simulation result shows that increasing interelement

distance between array element produce narrow beams,but

this also increases the number of side lobes.when the

seperation distance between array element is equal to wave

length granting lobes are created.

**Fig 8: Effect of no.of array element on Array Factor.
**

Fig 11: Effect of inter element seperation on Mean square

error.

It is also oberved that when distance between array element

is half wave length then granting lobes are avoided.From the

graph of MSE it is oberved that spacing between array

elements equal to half wavelength gives an optimum error in

a particular iteration.

7. CONCLUSIONS

Fig 9: Effect of no.of array element on Mean square error.

**This paper evaluate the performance of LMS algorithm for
**

two different cases such as general case and special case.In

general case the LMS algorithm is compared on the basis of

normalized array factor and Mean square error(MSE).It is

observed that LMS algorithm is converging after 50

Volume: 03 Issue: 05 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

592

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

**iteration.And it has negligible error.In special case the the
**

performance of LMS algorithm is compared on the basis of

observing the effect of varying the number of antenna

elements and distance between array element on the array

factor and Mean square error(MSE).As number of antenna

element increases the beam width of array factor becomes

narrow and number of side lobe increases ,but level of side

lobe is less than those generated by an array of small

number of elements and overall MSE tends to be almost the

same for the given values of antenna element. And spacing

between array element equal to half wavelength ,then MSE

gives an optimum error in a particular direction.

REFERENCES

[1]. D.M.M.Rahaman., Md.M.Hossair, “Least Mean Square

(LMS) For Smart Antenna”, Universal Journal of

Communications and Network”,pp-16-21,2013.

[2]. M.Jain., V.Gupta., “Performance Analysis of MUSIC

LMS Algorithm for Smart Antenna”, International Journal

of Scientific Engineering and Technology,Vol.2,Issue

10,pp1004-1007,2013.

[3]. U.Chalva., Dr.P.V.Humgund., “Performance Study of a

Non-blind Algorithm for Smart Antenna System”,

International Journal of Electronics and Communication

Engineering”, Vol.5,Issue 4,pp.447-455,2012.

[4]. V.Kumar., Dr.Rajouria., “Performance Analysis of LMS

Adaptive Beamforming Algorithm”, International Journal

of Engineering and Communication Technology,Vol.4,Issue

5,July-Sept-2013.

[5]. Douglas,S.C, “Introduction to Adaptive Filters”, CRC

Press LLC,PP-18,1999.

[6]. K.S.Kumar and T.Gunasekaran., “Performance Analysis

of Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms for Microstrip Smart

Antennas”, International Journal of Computing Science and

Communication Technologies, Vol.2,Issue 1,July2009.

[7]. Simon Haykins, “Adaptive Filter Theory”, 3rdedition,

2001.

[8]. K.K.Shetty, “A Novel Algorithm for Uplink

Interference Suppression using Smart Antennas in Mobile

Communications “ Master’s Thesis, Famu-Fsu College of

Engineering, THE Florida state university, February 2004.

Volume: 03 Issue: 05 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

593

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