CRAFTING THE CURRICULUM

Dimensions and Principles of Curriculum Design
FIVE MAJOR PRINCIPLES FOR ORGANIZING CONTENT IN UNITS (POSNER AND
RUDNITSKY, 1994)
1. World-related sequence – the world is the frame of reference. What relationship
exists among people, objects or events of the world?
a. space – spatial relationship is the basis for the sequence
b. time – time concept (earliest to most recent) is the basis for the sequence
c. physical attributes – physical characteristics (age, shape, size, brightness, etc.)
are the basis for the sequence
2. Concept-related sequence – the relationship reflects how ideas are related
together in a logical manner
a. class relations – discuss the characteristics of the whole group before
discussing the characteristics of each of its members
b. propositional relations – present evidence that support the proposition (which
is a statement that asserts something) before teaching the proposition
3. Inquiry-related sequence – based on the process of generating, discovering and
verifying knowledge, content and experiences; process is sequenced logically and
methodically
4. Learning-related sequence – based on the psychology of learning and how
people learn
a. empirical prerequisites – asserts the importance of teaching the prerequisites
before advancing to the next level
b. familiarity – asserts the importance of prior learning in sequence; teach what is
familiar to the students first
c. difficulty – discuss the easier concepts before the more difficult ones
d. interest – start by teaching concepts/issues that arouse the students' curiosity
CONTINUITY
 characterized by recurring appearances of content
 basic ideas are redeveloped in increasing depth as the learners advance
INTEGRATION
 subject matter content lines are erased
 allows students to engage in activities related to real life concerns
ARTICULATION
 Vertical Articulation – contents are arranged from level to level; content in one
grade level is connected to the next one
 Horizontal Articulation – association or connection exists between elements that
happen at the same time
BALANCE
 characterized by equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other
elements
GUIDELINES IN CURRICULUM DESIGN
 Curriculum design committee should involve all the stakeholders: teachers, parents,
administrators and yes – even the students.
 Review and use as bases the school's vision, mission, goals and objectives.
 Consider the needs and interests of the learners (in particular) and society (in
general).
 Consider the pros and cons in terms of costs, scheduling, class size, facilities, and
personnel required.
 Consider the cognitive, affective, psychomotor skills, concepts and outcomes.
THE SIX FEATURES OF A CURRICULUM

so they must also rely on the resources of their partners in the community (parents. and disregards emotional and psychomotor development. drugs. 3.  As the world changes. School activities revolve around solutions to issues like poverty. but working within the time framework and DepEd's minimum requirements. and adopt a culture of excellence 5.  Problem-Centered Approach – based on the assumption that in the process of living. APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM DESIGN 1. With whom do we teach? Community Partners  Teaching is collaborative. determine if objectives were met (learning outcomes) 6. It conducts cram reviews.    Who teaches? Teacher Good teachers are needed to sort out the information from the data. NGOs and their stakeholders). and learner sets the goal. ensure learners' sustained interest in the subject matter 4. learn. Excellent teachers are needed to sort the wisdom from the knowledge. balance theory and practice. Child-or-Learner-Centered Approach – the curriculum is constructed with the needs. Thus. and how the community views them. 2. purposes and abilities of the learners in mind. It develops an attitude of competition. Values Teacher must: prepare syllabus. explain learning goals. environmental concerns. instructional procedures and content. teachers have the opportunity to change how they view the community. Activities of each learner are tailored according to his/her abilities. etc. construction skills are also given . Example: School X is anchored on the theory of multiple intelligences. and address the varied needs of the students. interests and abilities of the learners. social skills. interests and needs. problem-solving enables learners to be competent at achieving total development as individuals. Skills. Teacher acts as the guide. It has activity centers where the students hone their skills and capacities.  The educator must understand and accept the learners' diversity. children will experience problems. Teachers must receive support for their continuing development so they can keep up with the changing demands of society. No comparison – learner's performance is compared against his/her own set targets. What do the teachers teach? Knowledge. skills and values that should be developed) are the teacher's guide posts  At the end of the teaching act. How much of the teaching was learned? Performance  Objectives of the curriculum (knowledge. interests. Development of business skills. 2. Whom do the teachers teach? Learners  Learners are the most important factors in the learning environment. Case studies and practical work are used as methods of teaching. How do teachers teach? Strategies and Methods  Use methods and materials that align with the objectives of the lesson  Create situations that encourage use of higher order thinking skills  Use information from assessment improve. Example: School Z trains students to solve real-life problems that arise out of the needs. deterioration of positive values.1. Subject-Centered Approach – anchored on the curriculum design which prescribes different and separate subjects into one broad field Example: School Y requires all learners to excel in all academic fields. School puts premium on intellectual development.

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