Virgin Coconut Oil Fresh-Dry Process

:
Wet Milling Route
By:

Bautista, Katherine P.
Canlas, Jhonel Jay P.
Dimal, Janry M.
Te, Cristy Louie M.

A Plant Design Submitted to the School of Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
BS in Chemical Engineering
(CHFK583/C21: Plant Design)

Mapúa Institute of Technology
March 2005

APPROVAL SHEET

This is to certify that we have supervised the preparation of and read the thesis /
practicum or research report prepared by Jhonel Jay P. Canlas, Cristy Louie M. Te,
Katherine P. Bautista, and Janry M. Dimal entitled Virgin Coconut Oil Fresh-Dry
Process: Wet Milling Route and that the said thesis / practicum or research report has
been submitted for final examination by the Oral Examination Committee.

Engr. Winston B. Flora

Ms. Isabelita Quintero

Course Adviser

Adviser

As members of the Oral Examination Committee, we certify that we have examined this
thesis / practicum or research report, presented before the committee on Month
Date,Year, and hereby recommend that it to be accepted as fulfillment of the thesis /
practicum or research report requirement for the degree in Chemical Engineering and
Chemistry (Plant Design).

Engr. Winston B. Flora

Firstname M. Lastname

Panelist

Panelist

This thesis / practicum or research report is hereby approved and accepted by the
School/Department as fulfillment of the thesis / practicum or research report requirement
for the degree in Chemical Engineering and Chemistry (Plant Design).

Luz L. Lozano
Dean/Chair, School/Department

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Approval Sheet……………………………………………………………………………...
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………...
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………….
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………..
Project Summary……………………………………………………………………………
Company Logo……………………………………………………………………………...
Logo Description…………………………………………………………………………...
Core Values…………………………………………………………………………………
Chapter I. INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study…………………………………………………………...
Overview of the Process……………………………………………………………
Chapter II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Virgin Coconut Oil…………………………………………………………………
Coconut Flour………………………………………………………………………
Chapter III. MARKET STUDY
Market Strategy…………………………………………………………………….
Raw Materials………………………………………………………………………
Chapter IV. TECHNICAL STUDY
Detailed Material Balance………………………………………………………….
Overall Material Balance…………………………………………………………..
Detailed Energy Balance……………………………………………………………
Detailed Energy Computation………………………………………………………
Equipment Specification……………………………………………………………
Equipment Optimization……………………………………………………………
Equipment Lay-out…………………………………………………………………
Plant Lay-out………………………………………………………………………..
Plant Location………………………………………………………………………
Gantt Chart………………………………………………………………………….
Organizational Chart………………………………………………………………..
Chapter V. FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY
Data Input…………………………………………………………………………
Inventory of Raw Materials………………………………………………………..
Inventory of Finished Goods……………………………………………………….
Inventory of Packaging Materials………………………………………………….
Office Equipment…………………………………………………………………..
Office Supplies……………………………………………………………………..
Pre-operating Salaries and Wages………………………………………………….
Salaries and Wages…………………………………………………………………
Land Development Cost……………………………………………………………
Energy Cost and Water projection………………………………………………….
Depreciation………………………………………………………………………...
Cost of Sales………………………………………………………………………..
Schedule of Amortization…………………………………………………………..

ROI and Payback Period…………………………………………………………… Balance Sheet………………………………………………………………………. Cash Flow Statement……………………………………………………………….Operating Expense…………………………………………………………………. Product Prices……………………………………………………………………… Conversion of Price………………………………………………………………… Equipment and Machineries……………………………………………………….. Total Project Cost…………………………………………………………………. Breakeven Selling Price……………………………………………………………. Income Statement…………………………………………………………………... Equipment Expansion and Power Consumption…………………………………… Inventory of Wastes………………………………………………………………... Appendices Environmental Impact Assessment………………………………………………… Waste Water Treatment Plant……………………………………………………… Material Safety Data Sheet………………………………………………………… Swot Analysis……………………………………………………………………… Reference………………………………………………………………………………….. Cost of Additional Equipment……………………………………………………. SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT Social Impact………………………………………………………………………..... Repair and Maintenance…………………………………………………………… Individual Cost of Sales……………………………………………………………. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………... Cost of Raw Materials…………………………………………………………….. Chapter VII. Basis for Individual Production Cost……………………………………………….. Chapter VI.. Economic Impact………………………………………………………………….. . Recommendation………………………………………………………………….

and Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA). To the Te Family for welcoming us in the adobe during our overnight works and receiving us with almost hospitality. Winston B. Geralyn Vallecera’s group for preparing our Wastewater Treatment Plant.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My deepest ‘thank you’ LORD for all the gifts you have given to us and for directing our path to the following persons who have been instrumental in the completion of our plant design. Isabelita Quintero. Ding Princena and Mr. Flora. To the staff of Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). Leodie de Leon for the improvement of the set of equipment in this study. To Engr. To Ms. for the preparation of our EIA. To the group of Ms. National Statistics Office (NSO). For this achievement. I give back all the glory and praises to the omnipotent Father Almighty. our adviser. our course adviser. . To Mr. for helping us and giving her knowledge. time and effort to correct our report. Department of Science and Technology (DOST). To Ms. who inspires us to be a good and successful Chemical Engineer and also for his wise counsels and suggestions in carrying out this study.

the technical study including the whole process of the production. First is the quick drying of fresh coconut meat. "Coconut milk" is expressed first by pressing. environmental impact and production quality. projection of usage of different manufacturing utilities and projection of the profits of the company by scaling up the production by 5 per cent per year within ten years. and the oil is then pressed out via mechanical means. With this method the oil is extracted from fresh coconut meat without drying first. minimal heat is used to quick dry the coconut meat. we also include marketing strategies of the product. In this study. Moreover. the feasibility study. Methods. Using this method. However. include boiling. and residual coconut flakes respectively. We are using the method Fresh-Dry Process – Wet Milling Route of producing virgin coconut oil. fermentation. out the oil. . Fermentation Process. refrigeration. The coconut water will treat as a waste and were going to sell our coconut shell. These processes differ on the oil recovery. the study concentrates only in the production of virgin coconut oil as its major product and coconut flour as its by-product. There are currently two main processes of manufacturing Virgin Coconut Oil. Fresh-dry process – Desiccated Coconut Route. and coconut flakes that can be produced by further processing coconut water. The oil is then further separated from the water. Traditional Wet Process or Modified kitchen Method. enzymes and mechanical centrifuge. and the optimization of equipment. which is then used to press.ABSTRACT Virgin Coconut Oil can only be achieved by using fresh coconut meat or what is called non-copra. And second is the wet milling. and Bawalan-Masa Process. producing of virgin coconut oil has a number of processes. Fresh-dry process – Grated Coconut Route. Other by-products are vinegar. which can be used to separate the oil from the water. Chemicals and high heating are not used in further refining. These are Fresh-dry process – Wet Milling Process. Centrifuge Process. Low Pressure Oil Extraction or Intermediate Moisture Content Method.

The company carries the first name of all the proponent of this study namely Cristy. VISION • The company shall be the local premier in the production of Virgin Coconut Oil having an optimum quality by adopting the most efficient production technique. Jhonel and Janry. Since this project was only for partial completion our company name was yet to finalized and modify by such proponents. MISSION • The company will service the growing demand for Virgin Coconut Oil in the World. • The company shall be known not only for the country but also for the whole world in producing and exporting a high quality of Virgin Coconut Oil. • The company shall provide high quality and competitively priced Virgin Coconut Oil to consumers. NAME OF ENTERPRISE • The company shall be named CKJJ Company. but proven and reliable technology . Katherine. • The company will alleviate the need for exporting for foreign countries. • The company shall use an advance.PROJECT SUMMARY NAME OF PRODUCT • The company will be fostering Virgin Coconut Oil as the name of its product.

COMPANY LOGO .

The logo of the Company adopted the planet earth and the icons. This symbolizes the company vision of manufacturing a high quality product which is competent enough not only for the local but also on the world market.LOGO DESCRIPTION The Company logo was designed on the basis of the combined ideas of each member of the group from the local to international symbols. The Red Color symbolizes charm and good luck for the company as Chinese believes said. The Green symbolized for prosperity of the company and diamond behind all the figure symbolize that all symbolized figure will have cooperation for the common mission and vision of this company that will help for better economy for our country. . The square symbolized the worker unity as well as the owner of the company for fulfilling the mission vision of the company.

 CUSTOMER The service of understanding and anticipating our consumer’s needs and demands would provide their own satisfaction .  PEOPLE We are proud to say that our employees and workers are our main asset in producing a high quality product.  BRAND The name of our brand implies the level of its attainment and popularity in the industry.  PERFORMANCE We are unified team working goal of producing a premium price but high quality product.CORE VALUES:  QUALITY Integrity and Good Reputation of our company would always rely on the quality of product we produce.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY • OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS USED .

chemically free and additive-free product from fresh coconut meat or its derivative (coconut milk and coconut milk residue).1% moisture content. (b) must contain not higher than 0. and hazard that it can give. it’s benefits for us. 1 Technology Profile: Virgin coconut Oil and Coconut Flour Production (PCA) . and (f) contains 40% mg tocopherol (vitamin E) per kilogram of VCNO. drying and extracting the oil using a screw type press to produce virgin coconut oil. Traditional Wet Process or Modified kitchen Method. It is cholesterol and aflatoxinfree and contains high amount of lauric acid and 1% fatty acid rendering the products to be shelf stable for 2 years at normal Philippine ambient condition and very ideal ingridient in herbal soap and aroma therapy industry. Moreover. water white in color. grinding. the production of virgin coconut has a number of processes. These are Fresh-dry process – Wet Milling Process. composition and properties.• BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Over the years. Centrifuge Process. our group concentrated on the production of virgin coconut oil via Fresh-Dry Process – Wet Milling Route.1% free fatty acid. (d) has a maximum peroxide value of 0. contains natural vitamin E and with very low free fatty acid content (even without refining) and low peroxide value. (e) has a lauric fatty acid content of 46-53%. splitting and slicing. These processes differ on the oil recovery. This process involves de-shelling. It is produced at temperature below 100ºC. It is the purest form of coconut oil. and Bawalan-Masa Process. Fermentation Process. washing. Fresh-dry process – Grated Coconut Route. Virgin Coconut Oil is widely used and yet we do not know its manufacturing process. environmental impact and production quality. In this study.5 mg per kilogram of oil. Low Pressure Oil Extraction or Intermediate Moisture Content Method.1 Ideal virgin coconut oil must possess the following characteristics: (a) has a water white color. (c) must have a maximum of 0. Virgin coconut oil (VCNO) may be defined as the naturally processed. Fresh-dry process – Desiccated Coconut Route. which has not undergone any further chemical processing after extraction.

there is an accumulation of coconut husks. the husks may be sold to this industry. de-shelling is sometimes carried out manually with a hatchet. . locally and international. husking therefore becomes mandatory. The coconut husks are left with the farmer. Copra derived oil and commercial coconut oil sold as cooking oil do not contain natural vitamin E since this is removed when the oil is subjected to high temperature and the various chemical processes. Manual de-husking of coconut could be done at the rate of 225 to 250 nuts/hr. Today. In the places where there is a coir fiber industry. Since dehusked coconut is an important article of commerce locally. For some instances (small-scale producer). certain steps are necessary before drying the coconut kernel. • OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS USED De-shelling De-shelling is the removal of the hard coconut shell without breaking the soft coconut kernel inside. During de-shelling the hard shells are collected and transported to the shell storage area by conveyors or manually by slotted bamboo containers from time to time. Most often the husks are not sold but are used as fuel for drying copra. The production rates of either method are comparable to 200 to 300 nuts/hr fro mechanical de-shelling and 225 to 250 nuts/hr for manual de-shelling. This is a labor intensive and delicate operation done either mechanically or manually. If little or no copra is made.VCNO is different from the copra-derived coconut oil. which has to undergo chemical refining. bleaching and deodorization processes to make it suitable for human consumption. These shells are either used as fuel for boilers or for charcoal manufacturing. there is a growing demand for VCNO due to increasing interest and applications of this product to different industries. Manual de-shelling of coconut is a labor intensive operation producing 200-300 nuts/hr. Since the coconut meat is found well inside the nut and is firmly attached to the shell.

Drying This process is the main energy consumer due to the requirement of hot air. After nut splitting. These cups of coconut meat are then dried further. The washed meat then undergoes inspection before stabilization. The most commonly used dryer is the continuous multistage band Proctor-Schwartz dryer.Splitting and Slicing After the coconut is dehusked. which involves shredding of coconut meat in to thinner and smaller meat. . The coconut water is drained off leaving the cups ready for the drying stage. Several types of dryers are used for this process. Some farmers also practice nut splitting using a heavy machete even without dehusking the coconut. During the drying process. the halved nuts are dried under direct sunlight. the hard but brittle shell is exposed and can be split open into two halves using a machete. A stainless steel perforated conveyor carries the meat through different zones of drying and cooling. The cups of meat are then further dried into copra. During the drying process the meat becomes detached or is scooped out from the shell with a scooping knife. With meat still attached to the shell and the shell to the husk. The meat is still attached to the shell. Size reduction of coconut meat in a mechanical shredder process it into different types of cuts. On the average. Washing Using a screw conveyor fitted with nozzles. This is done to reduce the size and maximize the surface area of the coconut meat for easy drying and oil extraction. the meat shrinks and is easily detached or scooped out from the shell. about 800 L/1000 nuts of wash water is required for a batch operation while a much higher amount of 2500 L/1000nuts nuts is needed for spray washing. These dryers normally incorporate advanced features like two-stage drying and a final cooling stage. Grinding Grinding is a fully mechanized process. the water is allowed to drain off.

The usual type of filter used is filter press. The force applied by the expeller to the coconut meat provides a squeezing effect. Packaging The product (VCNO) will be contained in a sealed 55-gallon (208. The size was set to 55-gallon or 208. Expelling Expelling involves the extraction of oil in the coconut meat by application of force from an expeller.The first stage is drying at 120ºC to 110ºC. it will be package in a kacha sack. Filtration Filtration process separates foots and oil using a membrane that allows only the passage of oil leaving foots on the other side of the filter membrane. Settling In this process foots mixed in the oil are let to stand and settle at the bottom of the settling tank making the filtration easier. It will contain 25 kg of coconut flour per kacha sack. which force the oil out of the meat.18 L for easy delivery of product since we are going to export our product. The final stage uses air 35ºC to 45ºC to cool the product prior to grading. For the coconut flour. . Plastic salvage drum container has been chosen because of its stability and durability to VCNO. The oil extracted still contains foots which has to be filtered out.18 L) plastic salvage drum container.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE • VIRGIN COCONUT OIL • COCONUT FLOUR .

which has not undergone any chemical processing after extraction. IBS. the moisture content of the resulting oil needs to be 0. It is the purest form of coconut oil. otherwise the oil can become rancid. Virgin coconut oil can only be achieved by using fresh coconut meat or what is called non-copra and is produced using a variety of methods. good quality virgin oil is produced at the lowest temperature possible and will vary depending on the method used.• VIRGIN COCONUT OIL A. chemically free and additive-free product from fresh coconut meat or its derivative (coconut milk and coconut meat residue). SIGNIFICANCE OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL What is Virgin Coconut Oil?2 Virgin Coconut Oil or VCNO is the naturally processed. water white in color. Advantages  Good for weight control  Treatment for constipation  Good for immune system  Contains lauric acid content which is beneficial in attacking viruses. contains natural vitamin E and with very low free fatty acid content and peroxide value.1% or less. It has a mild to intense fresh coconut scent depending on the type of process used for production. bacteria. Generally. other pathogens and for pregnant and lactating women  Good for digestive disorders such as Crohn’s disease. Whichever method is used to produce the oil. Colits  Powerful agent in killing intestinal parasites  It is great as a carrier for massage oil  Highly valued as an ingredient in natural soap and skin care products  Good for skin conditioning 2 Technology Profile: Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Flour Production (PCA) .

Among the vegetable oils traded in the world. and reduce your intake if there are side effects. Spread it out over the course of the day. increasing numbers of literatures are appearing regarding the antiviral. The lauric fatty acid content of any coconut oil is highly dependent on the variety of coconut and not on the process used.Disadvantages Disadvantages of VCNO take place when the body is used to a low-fat diet regimen. Like any food. C12) with lauric acid (C12) and its monoglycerine from monolaurin being mentioned as the most potent against lipid coated microorganisms which are not normally cured by ordinary antibiotics. The most common side affect is diarrhea. it is probably best not to start with that amount. coconut oil is the richest source of MCFA (64%) and lauric acid (48-53%). anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties of Medium Chain Fatty Acid (C8. Since lauric acid is antibacterial and anti-viral. or take it all at once. some people could possibly have allergic reactions to VCNO as well. there could also be "die-off" effects from the VCNO as these organisms are eliminated from the body. C10. is recommended as the daily dosage by some researchers. In the study done by the PCA Zamboanga 3 Technology Profile: Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Flour Production (PCA) . Lauric Fatty Acid fact Lauric fatty acid in VCNO does not decrease even if it is processed at high temperature. although it has traditionally nourished millions if not billions of people throughout Asia for thousands of years. Factors that differentiate Virgin Coconut Oil from other coconut oil  Color  Fragrance  Taste  Vitamin E contents Important component of coconut oil3 Lauric fatty acid (C12) because since 1984. While 3 Tbsp. anti-microbial.

and deodorization process to make it suitable for human consumption. Crohn’s disease.1 % maximum  Peroxide Value – 1 and below  Contaminants – free from iron. IBS colits)  Powerful killing agent in intestinal parasites  Can be an ingredient for natural soap and skin care products  Massage oil 4 Technology Profile: Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Flour Production (PCA) . USES OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL Different uses of VCNO  Use for skin conditioning  Dietary supplement and weight control  Treatment of some body disorder and illness (constipation. diarrhea. it was found out that hybrid coconut contains higher lauric fatty acids compared to local tall varieties. copper. What is the difference between Virgin Coconut Oil and Derived Cooking Oil? Copra derived coconut oil has to undergo chemical refining. It is yellow or pale yellow in color and does not contain Vitamin E since this is removed when the oil is subjected to high temperature and the various chemical processes.07 – 0. lead.Research Center. bleaching. and arsenic B.5 % maximum (as lauric)  Moisture – 0. Characteristics of VCNO4  Color – Water White  Free Fatty Acid – 0.

C.) of dried milled coconut meat Advantages & Limitations:  Produces full protein. medium fat coconut flour without testa as a coproduct  Long shelf-life of oil – 1 year and above  About 90% of available oil in the fresh meat is recovered  Uses a mechanical type of equipment to produce the oil  High investment cost.05-0.08%  M.08%  M.05-0.C.1%  Color – Water White  Oil Recovery – up to 600 kgs. DIFFERENT PROCESS IN MAKING VIRGIN COCONUT OIL5 Comparative Analysis of Different Processes for Producing Virgin Coconut Oil 1. – 0. Fresh-Dry Process (Wet Milling Route) Quality & Recovery:  FFA – 0.1%  Color – Water White  Oil Recovery – up to 580 kgs. – 0. Fresh-Dry Process (Desiccated Coconut Route) Quality & Recovery:  FFA – 0.07-0.) of desiccated coconut Advantages & Limitations:  Produces full protein. Per ton (1000 kgs. medium fat coconut flour with testa as a co-product  Long shelf-life of oil about 1 year and above  About 92. Per ton (1000 kgs. medium scale plant operation 5 Technology Profile: Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Flour Production (PCA) .C.5% of available oil in the fresh meat is recovered  Uses a mechanical type of equipment to produce the oil  Can be done under small to medium scale plant operation 2.07-0.

3.) of fresh grated coconut meat Advantages & Limitations:  Produces full protein. Low Pressure Extraction Method Quality & Recovery:  FFA – 0.1%  Color – Water White  Oil Recovery – up to 300 kgs. Per ton (1000 kgs. medium fat coconut flour without testa as a coproduct  Long shelf-life of oil – 1 year and above  About 88% of available oil in the fresh meat is recovered  Uses a mechanical type of equipment to produce the oil  Can be done under small scale plant operation 4.07-0.2%  M.05-0.C.2%  Color – Water White  Oil Recovery – up to 25 kgs.1-0. Traditional Wet or Modified Kitchen Process .C. Fresh-Dry Process (Grated Coconut Route) Quality & Recovery:  FFA – 0. – 0. – 0. of grated coconut meat Advantages & Limitations:  Uses manually operated equipment to produce the oil  66-70% of available oil in the fresh meat is recovered  Produces a semi-dry coconut residue that has to be further dried or processed to have market value  Shelf-life of oil is very short if not immediately dried after extraction 5. Per 100 kgs.08%  M.17%-0.

07-0. Per 100 kgs.14%  Color – Water White to Yellow depending on the heating process  Oil Recovery – up to 19 kgs.33%  M. – 0. Bawalan-Masa Process Quality & Recovery:  FFA – 0.Quality & Recovery:  FFA – 0.C.C.17%  Color – Water White  Oil Recovery – up to 26 kgs. of grated coconut meat Advantages & Limitations:  Can be produced on a home scale operation using ordinary kitchen utensils or on medium scale operation using semi-mechanized equipment  Roughly 66% of available oil in the fresh meat is recovered  Disposal of fermented skim milk could be a big problem if done on medium scale plant operation 7.07-0.08% .05-0.2%  M.15-0.28-0. Fermentation Process Quality & Recovery:  FFA – 0. Per 100 kgs. – 0. of grated coconut meat Advantages & Limitations:  Very low investment cost  Can be produces on a home scale operation using ordinary kitchen utensils  About 52% of available oil in the fresh meat is recovered  Produces a wet coconut residue that has to be further dried or processed to have a market value  Produces a by-product (proteinaceous residue which does not have commercial value at present)  Oil gets rancid after 5 days if it is not properly heated to dryness 6.

The coconut flour from sapal contains 60% total dietary fiber. It is low in fat and energy. based on the blood glucose response relative to white bread. – 0.) of wet residue Advantages & Limitations:  Further recovery of high value oil from residue makes coconut milk processing more profitable  Long shelf-life of oil – 1 year and above  Produces low fat high fiber coconut flour as a by-product  Requires mechanical type of equipment to produce the oil  Production process has to be attached or integrated to an existing coconut milk processing plant • COCONUT FLOUR6 A.07-0.C. per ton (1000 kgs. The high insoluble fiber content of coconut flour makes it ideal for the prevention of constipation. cakes and other baked products. Foods with low glycemic index slow down the release of glucose and therefore needs only enough insulin in order to breakdown the glucose into energy.12%  Color – Water White  Oil Recovery – up to 170 kgs. Increasing levels of coconut flour in the bakery product resulted in the low glycemic index of food. Food rich in dietary fiber like coconut flour has low glycemic index. Glycemic index is the classification of food. colon cancer. 56% of which is insoluble fiber while the rest is soluble fiber. and high in fiber. M. Dietary fiber has protective effect against cardiovascular diseases. SIGNIFICANCE OF COCONUT FLOUR Coconut flour is a good source of dietary fiber. It is cream in color and is ideal for making cookies.html .ph/htm/cocoflou.gov. The coconut flour can take a fraction of the total flour ingredient or a replacement of all-purpose flour to as much as 38%.fnri. and diabetes. This has great significance in the proper control and management 6 http://www.dost.

9 ± 1.12 mmol/g. the defatted coconut flour (11. Physico-Chemical and Functional Properties of Coconut Flour The physical. It is concluded that coconut flour is a good source of dietary fiber and has potential health benefits. The coconut flour has a L-value (color) similar to commercially available high fiber flours.P<0.05) and was significantly different from the short chain fatty acid pattern of other local dietary fiber sources. chemical and functional properties of coconut flour were compared with other indigenous flours and commercially available high-fiber flour products. solubility and pasting properties of the coconut flour were found significantly different from those of various types of flours available in the market. To optimize the functionality of the coconut flour-supplemented foods the public is reminded to consider the fat content of coconut flour.73 ± 0. as well as considering the coconut flour as part flour ingredient or substitute for all-purpose flour in bakery products.00 mg/100g and was significantly greater than the other local fiber sources. The result of this study will serve as basis for functional product development.47 ± 0. fat absorption capacity. Compressed bulk density. banana and cassava flours produced short chain fatty acid after fermentation Butyric acid (1.05) and acetic acid (1.01mmol/g.7% fat) contains 11. Results showed that the dietary fiber content of coconut flour was 60. The experimental flour has poor gelation and foaming capacity but has slightly higher emulsifying capacity than other high-fiber flour. Food products . On the dry weight basis. The water absorption capacity of coconut flour was significantly higher compared with other types of flours and was slightly affected by the change in pH and ionic strength of the sample. The study can be a basis in the development of coconut flour as a functional food.6% protein and 65.07 mmol/g fiber isolate) produced from coconut flour was significantly greater than propionic (0. Fiber isolates from coconut. particularly products with low fat and high dietary fiber content. The fermentability characteristics of the above test foods were also determined by in vitro fermentation using human fecal inoculum.3% total dietary fiber.4 ± 0.of diabetes melitus and in the maintenance of weight.P<0.

snack foods. aside from its nutritional contribution.    For Baked products  Partial additive/replacement of flour  Filler  Bulking agent  Fortification with dietary fiber  As survival rations Snack foods  Partial additive/replacement of flour  Filler  Fortification with dietary fiber Meat products  Extenders  Emulsifying agent  Fortification with dietary fiber .  For baked products. USES OF COCONUT FLOUR Different uses of Coco Flour  Coconut flour at low-fat content has a bland flavor which can be used in the preparation of low-fat. stimulated meat products and in the production of functional foods.developed with coconut flour may provide health benefits like lowering of blood cholesterol or preventing cancer. B. high-fiber baked products. coco flour can be incorporated at 5 to 38% as additive/replacement for all-purpose flour. steamed products.

CHAPTER III MARKET STUDY • MARKET STRATEGY • RAW MATERIALS .

 Distribution: Our plant is located near shoreline of the province of Davao. With this. • RAW MATERIALS COCONUT (Cocos nucifera Lin)7 Origin The coconut tree stems from the Southeast Asian peninsular. and Philippines. We adopted these names as the product of the Philippines for the “VergePhil” and made in the Philippines for “FlourPhil”. The commercial includes the benefits and uses of our products. but is cultivated in tropical regions all around the world. our products shall be delivered to the consumers through our distributors.uni-graz. the consumers shall have opportunity to choose of what they want.html?Coco_nuc. Our products shall be adopting the brand name “VergePhil” and “FlourPhil”. It is easier to transport and distribute domestically to our distributors to different distribution points. one practice is branding of product. Older books often speculate about a Polynesian or even 7 http://webdb. We promote our products via paper advertisements and television commercial.• MARKET STRATEGY SALES PLAN AND STRATEGY  Brand Name: As the part of the tradition for introduction of new product in the market is concern. since it is always available and we can maximize their service for promotions.html .  Pricing: Our product shall be offering the products in a lower price than those already in the market with the ensured quality and quantity in every package. This strategy might lead to a healthy competition with our competitors.  Promotions: Our products are new in the market that is why we promote and advertise it. which stands for Virgin Coconut Oil and Flour respectively. With this.at/~katzer/engl/generic_frame.

Under the exocarp is a spongy. the following layer is the solid endosperm. 40 to 55%) and myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid. which is 4 . The kernel is hollow and 95% full of clear coconut milk (liquid endosperm). There are many varieties. but several other fatty acids are found at concentrations of 5 to 10%: The two short-chain acids caprylic (octanoic) and capric (decanoic) acid (which are responsible for the smell of overaged coconut oil). as might be inferred by its high melting point of over 32 °C. which is of a yellow-green to yellow-brown color and is watertight. mostly of triglycerides of saturated fatty acids. 15 to 20%) dominate. 0.6 cm in thickness.American origin of coconut. Coconut oil is composed. however. but recent developments have shown this view almost certainly wrong. this is curious. It also is of great economic value. i. In all probablility. once dried. from dwarfs to the familiar tall growing types that reach 50'80'. emigrants from these countries then introduced the coconut tree to almost everywhere in the tropics of Asia and Ozeania. This layer corresponds to the flesh (pulp) of other fruit. since the closest relatives of the coconut palm are of American distribution. very hard endocarp. fibrous husk (coir) or mesocarp. Each leaf is 15'-17' long. The fibrous husk is removed from the hard nut with a spike. Description This beautiful palm embodies the romance of the tropics.2 cm in thickness. germ pores set in pits. an oily layer 1 . The outer layer of the coconut is a brown. the coconut tree was first cultivated by peoples of India or Southeast Asia. A longitudinal section through a coconut reveals the following structure: the coconut is enclosed in a leathery. Main constituents Khopra (desiccated coconut) contains about 60 to 70% coconut oil. approx.e. Removal of the coir reveals the familiar coconut. There is no proof of coconuts having grown in America before the arrival of the Spaniards. the blunt end of which has three "eyes". the long-chain . mats and the like. yields copra. Moving inwards. glossy outer skin (exocarp). triangular stone. which is a rounded. which is protected by a brown seed coat and.5 cm thick. Lauric (dodecanoic acid. All have graceful gray trunks topped by a crown of pinately compound yellow-green leaves. The fibers are processed to produce carpeting. The seed coat contains antioxidants that protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen so preventing it from becoming rancid (oxidative rancidity).

ranging in chain length from 8 to 14. coconuts palms are now to be found on tropical beaches worldwide. saline soils. for virtually frost-free areas only. Arecaceae). which is the only unsaturated fatty acid found at significant amounts. 4-nonanolide (pentyloxolan-2-one). 5-decanolide (5-pentyloxan-2-one) is the most important single compound. Culture Light: Bright sunny locations.palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid) and oleic acid. Location Coconuts are the stone fruits of the coconut palm of the palm family (Palmae. Growth is slow at first but picks up as the palm matures. it requires abundant sun light and regular rainfalls over the year. the iodine index is very low (typically. will sprout in 2-3 months. Cocos can tolerate frost and freezing of only briefest duration .even then leaves will discolor and the plant is left susceptible to fungus diseases. The typical coconut flavour is caused by several δ-lactones of aliphatic hydroxycarboxylic acids. which flourish best in tropical coastal regions (salt spray). but likes moisture if well drained. Hardiness: Zone 10 . half buried in moist soil (half of the coconut is exposed) -. Moisture: Can withstand drought.if kept moist. The native habitat of the coconut palm is not known with certainty because coconuts can float for considerable distances in seawater without losing their ability to germinate. below 10). which is not found in coconuts. Consequently. . Ecology The coconut palm thrives on sandy.11. Synthetic coconut flavourings often contain an homologous γ-lactone. Propagation: Plant fresh coconuts (with husks) on their side. As a result.

they may also be transported conventionally. .25°C) and well ventilated hold is used. coconuts should be treated as refrigerated cargo.0 (mean of 27 cases = 6. RF Humidity/Moisture Coconuts require particular temperature. Do not stow coconuts near heat sources. humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (storage climate conditions). provided that a cool (5 . For this reason. humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (storage climate conditions).3-8. leak and consequently arrive at the port of destination without coconut milk.0).7°C) with 4-12 consecutive frost free months. as they would otherwise burst. Coconuts should not be exposed to direct solar radiation. Designation Temperature range 0°C Favorable travel temperature 0°C 0 . coconut has been reported from stations with an annual precipitation of 7-42 dm (mean of 35 cases = 20. each with at least 60 mm rainfall.Ranging from Subtropical Dry to Wet through Tropical Very Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones.2°C In order to ensure ideal transport conditions. Risk factors and loss prevention RF Temperature Coconuts require particular temperature. annual temperature of 21-30°C (mean of 35 cases = 25.5). If appropriately equipped means of transport are available. and pH of 4. precise details should always be obtained from the consignor as to the travel temperature to be maintained.

Mold penetrates the shell making the flesh inedible. Passive behavior Coconuts are sensitive to cargoes with an unpleasant and/or pungent odor. The holds/containers must accordingly be clean and in a thoroughly .48% Maximum equilibrium moisture content 75% If the coconuts are not completely dry. nor close to other moisture-sensitive cargoes. Designation Humidity/water content 80% Relative humidity 90% Water content 42 . which leads to self-heating due to increased respiration and promotes mold growth. pleasant odor. because the nuts release water vapor and May self-heat. Passive behavior Coconuts are sensitive to dust. fats and oils.A. they must be kept away from moisturesensitive cargoes. Take particular care not to stow them close to dry sugar. rain and condensation water (ship or container sweat) promote hydrolytic/enzymatic fat cleavage. RF Odor Active behavior Coconuts have a slight. dirt. Seawater (especially splashes during lighter age). Excessive moisture content of the nuts and the consequent heat result in germination. RF Contamination Active behavior Coconuts may produce dust.

108 253.846 Davao Del Sur 92.738 Davao Del Sur 639.183.202 3.204 368.224 Compostella Valley 51.449 37.353 255.842 45.082 50.767 Davao Del Sur 6.244 32.643 155.hygienic condition before loading.965 Davao City 230.210 Coconut: Number of Bearing Trees Coconut: Volume of Production in Metric Tons 2000 2001 2002 DAVAO REGION 2.921 Davao Del Norte 230.770 Davao City 3.379 971.492 Davao Del Norte 2.500 18.017 783.237 2.453 Davao Del Norte 35.391.128 156.001.726 .318.105.240.240.744.137 100.410 35.095.458.004.560 8.040.681 376.572 92.946 Compostella Valley 326.001 3.800 21.790 38.827 Davao City 35.464.263 2.544 236.761 186.697.561.247 291.316.959 Davao Oriental 154.560 Davao Oriental 21.103 1.330 40. Coconut: Area planted in hectares 2000 2001 2002 DAVAO REGION 369.100.799 Compostella Valley 4.540.907.324.950 3.527 4.362.595 Davao Oriental 1.408 153.425.006.400 6.139 2000 2001 2002 DAVAO REGION 37.244 706.036 4.497 35.927 2.

CHAPTER IV TECHNICAL STUDY • DETAILED MATERIAL BALANCE • OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE • DETAILED ENERGY BALANCE • DETAILED ENERGY COMPUTATION • EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION • EQUIPMENT OPTIMIZATION • EQUIPMENT LAY-OUT • PLANT LAY-OUT • PLANT LOCATION • GANTT CHART • ORGANIZATIONAL CHART .

19 TOTAL FILTRATION TOTAL Filter Cake (8%) TOTAL 0.34 Clarified VCNO (92%) 3.86 .FOR VIRGIN COCONUT FLOUR Coconut Oil with Fine Foots (98.5%) 4.

86 6.68 34.03 8.34 0.08 .19 Oil(with Coarse Foots) Filter cake Water (Dryer) Loses >Milling and Grinding >Expelling TOTAL 0.06 0.• OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE OVERALLMATERIAL BALANCE INPUT Number of Nuts Dehusked Nuts Water for Washing TOTAL 30.000 nuts 26.34 5.76 MT 35.08 MT Virgin Coconut Oil Coconut Shell Coconut Water Used Water (Washing) Coconut Flakes OUTPUT 3.20 62.77 0.62 2.32 MT 62.

734 0.824 * For Meat.8164 5.438 H2O 550 1 30.326 H2O 688 1 3.264 Heat Input (kcal) 35.386 Meat 6.10% of oil Equipment: Continuous Tunnel Dryer Type: Conveyor Countercurrent Steam Heated Air Material of Construction: Stainless 304* * For properties.507 * Cp.953.5523 185.844 Heat Requirement in the Dryer (kJ) 22.43+0.521.5520 32. Perry .101 0.meat = 0. major constituents are w ater and lauric acid Hvaporization at 80oC Heat Input (kcal) 5.000027T(oC) in cal/g-oC * Meat is 48% moisture * Oil is 35.306.• DETAILED ENERGY BALANCE FOR VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ENERGY BALANCE AT THE DRYER INPUT (30oC) OUTPUT (80oC) Mass (kg) CP (kcal/kg-K) Q (kcal) Mass (kg) CP (kcal/kg-K) Q (kcal) Meat 11. see T 28-11.5% of meat * Lauric Acid is 47.254 551.

= ------------------------------------.81 m/s2 x 2 m ------.5384 kW Washer to Grinder: Power to transport = mgd 12762 kg x 9.3560 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 1.= 0.81 m/s2 x 5 m ------.0308 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 2.81 m/s2 x 2 m ------.= 2.= ---------------------------------------.= ----------------------------------------.3560 kW + 0.= ------------------------------------.4008 kW .7884 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 0.0746 kW Grinder to Dryer: Power to transport = mgd 12421 kg x 9.DETAILED ENERGY COMPUTATION OVERALL ENERGY REQUIREMENT (VCNO) COMPUTATION: De-sheller to Splitter and Slicer: Power to transport = mgd 20734 kg x 9.= 0.7884 kW + 0.24 kW = 3.5 hp (0.72885 kW Splitter and Slicer to Washer: Power to transport = mgd 12055 kg x 9.0380 kW + 0.37 = 2.= 1.8346 kW + 2.7457 kW/hp) = 1.75 kW = 1.81 m/s2 x 2 m ------.8346 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 0.

81 m/s2 x 2 m ------.0875 kW + 1.49 kW = 1.81 m/s2 x 2 m ------.= ------------------------------------.= 0.= ------------------------------------------.2742 kW Filter Press to Packaging: Power to transport = mgd 3860 kg x 9.81 m/s2 x 5 m ------.5775 kW Expeller to Settling Tank: Power to transport = mgd 4260 kg x 9.= ------------------------------------.= 0.81 m/s2 x 2 m ------.2742 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 0.2523 kW + 1.2784 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 0.= 1.0875 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 1.49 kW = 2.2523 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 0.2784 kW + 14.= ------------------------------------.90kW = 15.1784 kW Settling Tank to Filter Press: Power to transport = mgd 4190 kg x 9.= 0.Dryer to Expeller: Power to transport = mgd 6651 kg x 9.7423 kW .

1436 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 0.OVERALL ENERGY REQUIREMENT (COCO FLOUR) COMPUTATION: Expeller to Pulverizer: Power to transport = mgd 2190 kg x 9.= 0.1407 kW + 0.81 m/s2 x 2 m ------.1407 kW t 300 s Power equipment = 0.81 m/s2 x 2 m ------.= ------------------------------------.1436 kW Pulverizer to Packaging: Power to transport = mgd 2151 kg x 9.1436 kW + 10 kW = 10.5107 kW .= 0.= ------------------------------------.37 kW = 0.

500 0.370 .000 1.250 ** ** 0.75 2.508 0.500 0.49 0.• EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION VIRGIN COCONUT OIL & COCONUT FLOUR DIMENSION (m) Equipment DESHELLER SPLITTER/SLICER WASHER GRINDER DRYER EXPELLER SETTLING TANK FILTER PRESS PULVERIZER Capacity 300 nuts/h 250nuts/h 800 kg/hr 320 kg/hr 1 m^3/hr 320 kg/hr 3 2.762 2.910 0.90 ** 1.800 0.49 14.24 0.600 0.457 0.37 0.41m feed 3 2.37 1.125 1.000 0.169 0.356 0.900 Length Width Power (kW) 0.000 1.020 1.356 0.304 0.910 ** 3.508 1.457 3.626 0.457 ** 0.750 0.510 1.16 m feed 300 kg/hr Diameter Height ** ** ** ** ** ** 1.

1407 0.4900 14.0308 1.2742 0.9000 0.0746 2.0000 0.2742 1.2523 0.5775 15.4008 2.0000 1.1436 0.1436 0.7884 0.7500 2.7288 1.7423 10.5384 3.3700 1.2784 0.0875 0.3729 0.1784 0.8346 2.5107 .3700 Power equipment (kW) 1.4900 10.2400 0.OVERALL ENERGY REQUIREMENT Power to transport (kW) Desheller to splitter and slicer Splitter and Slicer to Washer Washer to Grinder Grinder to Dryer Dryer to Expeller Expeller to Settling Tank Settling Tank to Settling Tank to Filter Press Filter Press to Packaging Expeller to Pulverizer Pulverizer to Packaging 1.3560 0.

17 1313 4.70 1759 7.79 1519 6.86 1847 6.00 1313 5.76 YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAPACITY 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 WASHING (SCREW TYPE) INPUT UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 502 0.66 554 0.69 581 0.76 641 0.EQUIPMENT OPTIMIZATION Basis: 24 hours operation 24 batch per day DESHELLER INPUT UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 1250 4.73 611 0.08 1595 6.93 779 0.63 527 0.25 1378 5.58 1759 5.88 742 0.84 707 0.32 1675 5.59 1447 4.16 1939 6.04 1847 7.51 1447 5.39 1939 7.38 1378 4.46 YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAPACITY 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAPACITY 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 SPLITTING/SLICING INPUT UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 1250 5.80 673 0.82 1519 5.97 UNIT ACTUAL 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 UNIT ACTUAL 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 UNIT ACTUAL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .06 1595 5.38 1675 6.

71 0.YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAPACITY 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 INPUT 532 558 586 616 646 679 713 748 786 825 GRINDER UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 1.91 0.87 0.23 2.11 1.58 0.58 UNIT ACTUAL 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 UNIT ACTUAL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 UNIT ACTUAL 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAPACITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 INPUT 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DRYER UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 0.34 .05 1.74 1.95 1.28 1.46 2.02 2.74 0.82 YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAPACITY 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 INPUT 277 291 306 321 337 354 371 390 409 430 EXPELLER UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 0.67 0.00 1.64 0.78 0.55 0.83 1.12 2.92 2.34 2.61 0.22 1.16 1.53 0.66 1.

41 2.42 6 2.39 123 0.41 2.99 5 2.41 2.32 101 0.41 SETTLING TANK INPUT UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 4 1.34 106 0.66 7 2.30 6 2.09 5 2.18 2.16 2.41 2.65 2.30 96 0.41 2.41 2.98 2.07 UNIT ACTUAL 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 CAPACITY 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 GRINDER ( FOR FLOUR) INPUT UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 91 0.16 2.16 2.54 6 2.41 2.80 5 1.79 2.41 129 0.16 2.53 2.41 2.16 2.16 2.35 111 0.37 117 0.47 UNIT ACTUAL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 .80 UNIT ACTUAL 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAPACITY 2.16 2.16 2.YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CAPACITY 2.29 2.93 3.08 2.19 6 2.41 2.45 142 0.16 2.89 5 1.43 135 0.41 2.16 INPUT 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 FILTRATION UNIT (COMPUTATIONAL) 1.

5. Its strategic location. the Network Bank and farming businesses will likewise be portraying key roles to attract businessmen to come over and engage/invest in commercial activities. 4.155 Cities: Davao City . Being the second smallest town in Davao Oriental in terms of land area did not deter San Isidro from playing a vital role in the development of the province. The abundance of its valuable natural resources. 3. The existence of South Davao Corporation (SODACO). Its being an Agrarian Reform Community (ARC) World Bank-assisted area. albeit considered at a snail’s pace. Farming serves as the people’s predominant source of income due to the town’s basic agricultural features. Its being a pilot municipality for the Comprehensive Integrated Delivery 0f Social Services (CIDSS). and 7.7882 hectares. Its being a Provincial Agro-Industrial Center (PAIC) satellite municipality. The main plan for the place is geared towards maximum utilization of its rich natural resources.64% or more than half of the Municipality’s total land area. South Davao Corporation (SODACO). San Isidro’s progress. 2. The presence of potential tourist attractions. The municipality has potential irrigable areas totaling 81. which is equivalent to 61. can be attributed to the following salient factors: 1. General information about Davao Oriental Province: Capital: Mati Area: 6377 sq km Population: 33.348.25 hectares located in barangays Bitaogan and San Roque. 6.• PLANT LOCATION San Isidro is blessed with an agricultural area of 16.

CHAPTER V FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY .

CHAPTER VI SOCIO-ECONOMI IMPACT • SOCIAL IMPACT • ECONOMIC IMPACT .

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- As long as the plant operates continuously.] - There will be an increase for the industry of industry within the vicinity of the plant. - Our employees shall be engaged in different socio – civic activities like livelihood programs. Likewise. etc. a new player in the VCNO industry. both social and economic shall be benefited not only its proprietor but also its employees. . • ECONOMIC IMPACT - There will be a source of living for the people for those who shall be employed in the company and working for the company.SOCIO – ECONOMIC IMPACT Upon completion of the plant and operation of the company. • SOCIAL IMPACT - There will be more interactions among people from all walks of life. the plant shall contribute for the betterment of the national economy.

CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION • CONCLUSION • RECOMMENDATION .

• CONCLUSION Putting up new set of equipment like those that are more industrialized is undeniably more expensive than those set of equipment that are used from the previous study. In using these new set of equipments. Building up a new industrial plant will offer new jobs to the unemployed citizens of Davao Oriental because our company will need operators that are competent enough to handle our equipments. . our production could cope up with the rapidly increasing demand of Virgin coconut Oil. Our company will help to increase the income of Davao Oriental by the benefits that they will get from our company like the employment and the taxes. But this did not led to negative income for the first year.

 For the re-study of this.  Improve the study by producing new-finished goods that will use the pressed meal and the shell. Try to improve this study by adding some equipment (like putting up its own distillation column) to decrease its costs. use the current price of electricity in the computation of the entire energy consumption for the credibility of the study.• RECOMMENDATION  Large amount of distilled water will be utilized in the study. like processing it into flour and activated charcoal.  Try to minimize the number of equipment by putting up equipment that could do all the process just in one. . instead of selling it.  Further study on how the transferring of one material to another equipment and improvement of plant lay out and some technical study.

APPENDICES • SWOT ANALYSIS • MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET • WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT .

carbon dioxide Unsuitable Extinguishing Media: Water jet. and flush spills away from fires. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES Suitable Extinguishing Media: Dry powder. but use water to cool fire exposed containers. FIRST AID MEASURES Effects and symptoms: Ingestion: Not considered dangerous Inhalation: Not considered dangerous Skin contact: Non-irritating Eye contact: May cause irritation First Aid Measures: Ingestion: Not a direct hazard Inhalation: No vapors appear at normal working temperature Skin contact: Not a direct hazard Eye contact: Flush with water for about 15 minutes. 4. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES . foam. If irritation continues see a doctor. Protection of Firefighters: Wear NIOSH approved self-contained breathing apparatus and other protective clothing to prevent contact with skin and eyes. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Environmental Hazards: None expected if handled and used properly Human Health Hazards: None expected if handled and used properly 3. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Product Name: Virgin Coconut Oil 2. 5.• MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET FOR VIRGIN COCONUT OIL 1. Unusual Fire and Explosions Hazards: Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions. dispersed vapors.

Keep away from sources of ignition. Avoid contact with eyes. dark glass. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION . EXPOSURE CONTROL/ PERSONAL PROTECTION Ventilation: Efficient mechanical exhaust system is recommended. Suitable packing materials: Coated steel drums. 8. and air) Materials to avoid: Strong oxidizing agents Hazardous decomposition products: Only through Thermal decomposition products: H2O and CO2 10. HANDLING AND STORAGE Handling: Handle with care and avoid spillage on the floor (slippage). Keep away from heat.Personal Precautions: Watch out for slippery conditions when spillage. Respiratory protection: No special measures at normal room temperature Hand Protection: Impervious gloves Eye Protection: Usage of safety goggles/ goggles is recommended Skin protection: Impervious apron is recommended. Non-suitable packing materials: Direct contact with iron. 6. Ventilate area and wash spill site after material pickup is complete. bronze. Storage: Store in a cool dry place. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY Conditions to avoid: Oxidation promoting conditions (Heat. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Appearance Form: Oily. dark plastic containers. or copper.value: Insoluble in water 9. 7. Wear Protective equipment. Measures for safety handling: Consider normal working hygiene. sunlight. Environmental Precautions: Keep away from drains and ground water. Methods of Cleaning-Up: Absorb with non-combustible absorbant and place in closed containers for disposal. water white liquid or semisolid at room temperature Smell: Characteristic Information related to safety  Melting Point: 75-81°F  Boiling Point: NA  Cloud Point: NA  Ignition Temperature: NA  Auto inflammability: Not possible  Explosive properties: Not possible  Limits of flammability: NA  pH.

The above information does not claim characteristics of the product in term of legal claims of performance / guarantee.The product is considered non-toxic Acute Toxicity:  Oral (LD 50): Not tested on animals  Inhalation (LC 50): Not to expected  Skin irritation: No skin irritation  Eye irritation: Slightly irritant  Sensitation: NA  Chronic Toxicity: Not to be expected 11. The materials not considered Hazardous Waste. OTHER INFORMATION This information is given in good faith and based on our current knowledge of the product. . DISPOSAL CONSIDERATION Product: Dispose in accordance with local regulations. Contaminated packaging: Suitable waste-disposal site approved by local authorities. does not contain heavy metals and substances classified as dangerous for the environment 12. TRANSPORT INFORMATION This product is not a hazardous material. 14. This information only describes safety measures and no liability may arise from the used or application of the product described herein. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION  Elimination (persistency and degradability): Readily biodegaradable  Bioaccumulative potential: NA  Ecotoxicity: NA According to chemical composition. Symbol and phrases according to health hazards: None Dangerous substances to label: None 15. 13. REGULATORY INFORMATION According to our information this product is not dangerous material.

• ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Project Description a. Unfortunately. Uses: • • • Virgin coconut oil is an excellent superfatting agent in soaps. solvents or refinement procedures. Project Rationale Virgin coconut oil. Beware of oils that look cloudy when completely liquid and oils that smell of burnt rubber or rancid coconuts. bleached and deodorized coconut oil in that it is extracted from freshly cut coconuts. not dried copra. The exact method of extraction may differ among the various virgin coconut oils available on the market. as it has come to be known. there is no set standard yet for producing Virgin Coconut Oil and therefore. and ends with the least amount of moisture possible. only an oil that starts with freshly harvested. body butters and lip balms. It has not been subjected to high temperatures. creams. healthy coconuts. however. will result in a high quality Virgin Coconut Oil. purchasing it can be tricky for the consumer. differs from regular refined. . Use it as a carrier for essential oils or oils such as neem to help deliver the oils under the skin. It is wonderful base oil for lotions.

Project Location DAVAO ORIENTAL . Use it as non-greasy. non-staining massage oil.• • Use it as a hair oil treatment to condition and increase manageability and sheen. b.

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It is an important source of durian (they say abouth this fruit: Smell like hell . On its south is the Philippine Sea. especially at the coastal towns Commerce and Industry: Davao Oriental´s economy is agricultural-based. Although fish is bountiful throughout the year. Its major crops are coconut.Davao Oriental has several major fishing grounds. corn. the best season for fishing is from March to September. It is endowed with navigable rivers that end at the heads of the numerous bays dotting the irregular coastline. which is processed into preserves and sweets.The 250 hectare Mensi Plantation in Buso. and fruits. . vegetables.446 sq km ca.The province has a short dry season and a pronounced rainy season. The rest of the area is an uneven distribution of plateaus. Mati grows citrus. The Pacific Cordillera´s vast timberlands support logging and wood processing but rapid forest depletion has become a serious environmental concern. 450 000 none 11 B. It is located east of Davao Province but extends to form a penisula separating Davao Gulf on the west from the Pacific Ocean on the east. Maya. The land: The eastern coast of the province is dominated by the Pacific Cordilleras.Capital: Area: Population: Cities: Number of Towns: Mati 516. Maximum rainfall is from November to January. It is bounded on the north by Agusan del Sur and Surigao del Sur.taste like heaven). DAVAO ORIENTAL Davao Oriental is in southeastern Mindanao. Baculin and Cateel. swamps and lowlands. rice. grapes and mangoes. including Davao Gulf and the bays of Pujada.

93. POWER SUPPLY The eleven (11) Municipalities are energized thru the Davao Oriental Electric Cooperative (DORECO) as provided by the National Power Corporation via the Mindanao Grid. 548.600 Has.062. DORECO is adopting the following power rate schedule: Residential P2.466 Has.7846/kw DAVAO ORIENTAL Total Land Area A&D Timberland: 516.24 linear meters WATER SUPPLY Davao Oriental is blessed with good source of water supply coming from the underground surface.280 kms.846 315.008.52 linear meters 118.573 kms.ROAD NETWORK National Road Provincial Road Municipal Road Barangay Road 392. .7646/kw Industrial P2. 19% 26% 4% 51% BRIDGES Concrete Bailey Timber Steel Bridge 2.7246/kw Commercial P2. 1. 200.54 linear meters 578.00 linear meters 585.070 kms. springs and rivers which could guarantee its continuous supply to its growing population each year.84 kms.

380 Has. NAME OF MUNICIPALITY: MATI Income Classification: No. 16.15 has 1. 171.935 Has. 25. Madunga Clay Loam. 2001) Economic Facts and Figures: Total Land Area: Coconut Area: Forest Area: Mineral Land Area: Industrial Land Area: Commercial Land Area: 79.433 Has. Matina Clay Loam.051.69 has 198. Malalag Loam.770 Has. 3.189 Has. Camansa Sandy Clay Loam & Tugbok Clay Population: 105.756 Has. Bolinao Clay.54 has 18. 11.058.452 has 39. San Manuel Silty Clay Loam. Hydrosol.571 Has.Existing Land Use (2003) Built Up : Protection Land : Mining Area : Non-Forest Agricultural : Forest Plantation : Production Forest : Pasture: 3. 138.109 has 26. of Barangays : 1st Class 26 Distance from: Mati to Davao City: Climate: 165.99 has .293 (May 1.60 km Type II Soil Classification: Cabangan Clay Loam.463.908 (2000) Households: 21.

Fresh-dry process – Desiccated Coconut Route. VCNO is different from the copra derived coconut oil which has to undergo chemical refining. Fresh-dry process – Grated Coconut Route.945 km Provincial Road: 189.77 (1-15 kwh) Industrial Rate: P15/kwh (demand energyP2. environmental impact and production quality.824 km Municipal Road: 7.4276/kwh (Energy charge) Irrigation System Airport Seaport Pasture/Range Area: 2. Project Information The production of virgin coconut has a number of processes. Low Pressure Oil Extraction or Intermediate Moisture Content Method.47 (1-15 kwh) Commercial Rate: P41.693 has Swamplands Available for Development: 500 has c.93 has Existing Infrastructure Facilities: Road Network: National Road: 126. II & III water systems Power Supply: Davao Oriental Electric Cooperative (DORECO) Residential Rate: P41.500 km Water Supply: Level I.688 km Barangay Road: 7. Centrifuge Process. bleaching and deodorization processes to make it suitable for human consumption. These processes differ on the oil recovery.Crop Land Area: 1. These are Fresh-dry process – Wet Milling Process. Traditional Wet Process or Modified kitchen Method.310. and Bawalan-Masa Process. Fermentation Process. Copra derived oil and commercial coconut oil sold as cooking oil do not .

18 kg oil with coarse foots 296.35 kg coconut shell 8678.58 kg used H2O (washing) Overall 368.06 kg losses (expeller) Balance 2068.39 kg filter cake 3655.44 kg VCNO .69 kg H2O 5658. d.27 kg coconut H2O 26760 kg dehusked coconut 5786.83 kg H2O (dryer) 188.69 kg coconut flakes 60.contain natural vitamin E since this is removed when the oil is subjected to high temperature and the various chemical processes. Project description OVER-ALL MATERIAL BALANCE FOR VIRGIN COCONUT OIL 6026.89 kg losses (grinder) Material 6027.

DETAILED MATERIAL BALANCE
Basis: 30,000 dehusked nuts/day
Wt. Of dehusked nuts = 26760 kg nuts

Coconut shell = 6026.35 kg

DESHELLING
26760 kg dehusked

coco meat = 12055.38 kg

meat = 45.05%

coconut H2O = 8678.27 kg

shell = 22.52%
coco H2O = 32.43%

Meat

= 12055.38 kg

SPLITTING &
SLICING

meat = 12055.38 kg

coco H2O = 8678.27 kg
20733.65kg

8678.27 kg coconut H2O

H2O = 6027.69 kg

WASHING
Meat = 12055.38 kg

meat = 12055.38 kg
H2O = 241.11 kg
H2O = 5786.58 kg

For every 1 kg of meat, 20 g of water adhere

GRINDING
Meat

= 12055.38 kg

H2O

= 241.11 kg

meat = 11693.72 kg
H2O = 233.88 kg
11927.6 kg
Losses (3%)
Meat = 361.66 kg
H2O = 7.23 kg
368.89 kg

H2O = 5658.83 kg

DRYING
Meat = 11693.72 kg

**meat = 6080.73 kg (97%)

H2O = 233.88 kg

H2O = 188.04 kg (3%)

11927.6 kg

**Moisture Free

Proximate Composition
Fresh Coconut Meat
Moisture

48.0%

Oil

35.5%

Protein

4.3%

Crude Fiber

2.1%

Ash

1.1%

Carbohydrates

9.0%

Losses = 188.06 kg
(3% of the feed)

EXPELLING
Meat = 6080.73 kg (97%)

coconut oil w/ foots = 4012.01 kg

Oil = 4151.31 kg (68.27%)
Foot = 1929.42 kg (31.73%)
H2O = 188.04 kg (3%)

(64% of the feed)
coconut flakes = 2068.69 kg
(33% of the feed)

6268.77 kg

coconut oil w/ foots = 4012.01 kg

SETTLING

coconut oil with fine
foots = 3951.83 kg (98.5%)

coconut oil with coarse
foots = 60.18 kg (1.5%)

FILTRATION

5%) foots = 3951.000 = 10.000 dehusked nuts/day Average weight: 0.63%) 200 nuts 32.39 kg coconut shell = --------------------.44 kg VCNO = 3655.25 kg (18.0 kg coconut meat = ---------------------.83 kg VCNO = 3655.x 35.39 kg (7.x 35.5%) PACKAGING VCNO = 3655.44 kg Computations: Basis: 30.892 kg/nuts Weight of dehusked nut = 26760 kg dehusked nuts Deshelling: 86.coconut oil w/ fine filter cake = 296.x 35.16%) 200 nuts Washing: .500 kg (33.75 kg (48.21%) 200 nuts 60 kg coconut water = --------------------.000 = 15051.44 kg (92.000 = 5668.

83 kg Meat = 11693. 20 g of water will adhere.233.233228 kg Drying: Water evaporated = 11693.39 kg VCNO = 0.33(6268.38 kg) = 6027.83 kg Coconut oil with coarse foots = 0.88 kg (0.985(4012.83 kg) = 3655.075(3951.48) + 233.77 kg) = 4012.69 kg Water adhere = 0.83 kg) = 296.64(6268.88 kg (0.73 kg Water = 233.03(6268.88 kg .Water input = 0.01 kg) = 60.6614 kg Water = 0.196) = 188.77 kg) = 188.72 kg (0.72 kg (0.01 kg Losses = 0.06 kg Settling: Coconut oil with fine foots = 0.5824 kg Grinding: Losses: 3% Meat = 0.01 kg) = 3951.18 kg Filtration: Filter cake = 0.11693.38 kg) = 361.5(12055.015(4012.69 kg – 241.1076 kg) = 7.1076 kg *for every 1 kg meat.04 kg Expelling: Coconut flakes = 0.03(12055.38 kg) = 241.69 kg Coconut oil with foots = 0.44 kg .72 kg .925(3951. Water output = 6027.03(241.1076 kg = 5786.77 kg) = 2068.48) = 6080.196) = 5658.020 kg (12055.

771 x 10-7 kw-h P5.86 mL x ----------.x -------------.6 = 39993070.x ------------.x 21090.44 kg x ----------. drainage and introduction of new plant and animal species.6 kg 1m3 1L bottle number of bottles = 4218139.7 bottles = P2024707.059. if not necessarily the species composition.65 BASELINE INFORMATION Human activities in food production take many forms: vegetative clearing.= 21090.VCNO: 1m3 1000L 1000mL Volume = 3655.48kJ x ------------. . although destructive for the species living there. will be restored.= 4218139.x -------. may create less forest impact than selective logging over extensive areas.7 bottles 200mL P120 200mL Revenue = -------------.x --------------------------. For example. Temporal impact depends on the frequency of disturbance and the permanency of the effects: a single cutting of tropical forest will be followed by secondary regrowth so that in about 200 years the original biomass. Their effects depend on the extent of the exploitation. clearing an isolated patch of forest.86 mL 866.2 250mL bottle Energy: 1000J 2.x ---------1kJ 1J kw-h = P62. soil tillage.

SOME INTERACTIONS AMONG POPULATION GROWTH. VIRGIN COCONUT PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS .

Compaction of soil resulting from the use of farm machinery changes soil structure and reduces water and root penetration as well as root growth and density. including co-adaptation with insect pests and diseases. Pest and disease resistance. Shifting cultivation when the fallow period is not long enough for restoration of vegetative cover and soil fertility causes chronic degradation. and then leaving it fallow until the land regains its fertility. especially landraces. a traditional method of land use still widespread in areas of low population density and infertile soils. whereupon the cycle is repeated. resource mining and deforestation. the natural regrowth of trees and other biomass is sufficient to meet the demand for fuel wood. crops are stunted and the sparse cover leaves the soil with insufficient protection to resist erosion. As a result. Such dynamic forms of conservation allow continued adaptation of plant varieties. Depletion of soil fertility and the accumulation of substances that inhibit plant growth are the main consequences of the chemical degradation of soil. but when shifting cultivation is intensified it affects an area’s biological diversity by consuming a larger land area and reducing the time available for regeneration. supporting the people.to five-year period. . sedimentation. clearance of mangroves. With a low population pressure. landfills. tolerance to drought and other desirable traits are among the important benefits of genetic diversity in crops. Shifting cultivation. it also affects microbial activity and increases root diseases. cultivating the land for a two.         Water erosion can occur as an insidious loss of a few millimetres of topsoil each year. in order to identify valuable characteristics of use to agriculture. Many land-based sources of pollution arising from human activities have an adverse impact on the regenerative capacity of aquatic resources in near-shore and coastal areas. urban and agricultural pollution. In recent years efforts have been made to collect and document genetic characteristics of wild and domesticated species. damming and diversion of rivers. Food production has had several important but opposing effects on biological diversity: it reduces the extent of natural areas and the diversity of ecosystems and wild species they contain. Leaching and removal of plant nutrients by crops gradually lowers the fertility status of certain soils. The prime cause of the reduction in fish abundance is due to the loss of habitat combined with industrial. Fisheries play a significant role in food supply. income and wealth. involves clearing an area of its natural vegetation. The evidence points to a continued increase of erosion on cultivated lands despite the availability of technology to limit its impact. Degradation of aquatic environments can affect fishery resources both in inland waters as large as river or lake basins and in coastal waters or enclosed and semi-enclosed seas.

on fish resources and habitats) are also paramount at the watershed level. green manuring. climate and land-use conditions or practices. As water flows from the watershed regions to the sea. rotation. regulate supply and maintain riparian habitat for fish and other animals. By contrast. fishing. However. fertilizer and pesticide residues. deep ploughing. the introduction of . Soil conservation  Although the effects of erosion on crop yields are important at plot level. it is used and reused many times. social and financial) into useful products and services in a way that is economically viable but that minimizes the impact on the environment. social or economic trade-offs. Achieving these goals requires a different approach to food production than has been used in the past. Water resources   Sustainable water use requires that adequate flows. Efficiency of resource use is the conversion of scarce resources (natural. resilience and efficient energy use. changing in quality and amount. preservation of foodstuffs and in some cases to generate energy. strip or multiple cropping. Agricultural or forestry activities in upstream areas can have a negative impact on users downstream if runoff contaminates the water with sediment. social and economic viability. mulching and fertilization. lake and wetland systems. Many techniques have been employed to suit prevailing soil.g. food preparation. the offsite effects (e. This same water is used for growing crops. but important benefits can be realized by concentrating on practices that build on ecological characteristics such as diversity.IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATION Options for reducing environmental impacts  Sustainable food-production systems must meet three goals: • • •  increased production and productivity. These include reduced tillage. river. reduced impacts from pollution and resource degradation. Nearly all technical options for increasing food production have environmental. areas that keep their natural forest cover and wetlands function efficiently to maintain water quality. especially during critical lowflow periods. be maintained to protect stream. contour ploughing.

A number of actions can help promote environmentally sound production methods and change land-use practices: • • • • • use of indigenous terminology in advice to farmers. greater investment in human capital and rural infrastructure including the improved use of information and communication technology and training and empowering agricultural advisers to work with farmers to apply environmentally sound production methods and to promote private-sector development. provision of an adequate operational budget for agricultural education. research and extension. ongoing assessment. food production will still involve negative environmental impacts for the foreseeable future. The political and administrative framework within which food production can increase without leading to widespread environmental damage should have at least four main elements: • • • •  initiation of dynamic. organization of workshops to identify constraints and strengthen the flow of information between farmers and administrators. ongoing dialogue with farmers about the use of their lands. soil moisture. . environmentally sound agriculture will not advance evenly. future strategies must have a dual objective: to accommodate longterm transformation of food production into sustainable and environmentally sound resource use. water and biological diversity and controlling pollution.more sustainable. access to capital. or unemployment. to improve food security so that national investment in food and agriculture can be directed most efficiently. carefully crafted social and economic policies to improve the capacity of food producers in the poorer areas to manage efficiently their soil fertility. Thus. monitoring and evaluation of environmental impacts characteristics to district and national planning units). In addition to the usual elements of conserving land. success will depend on first addressing major social or economic constraints such as the equitable distribution of productive resources.   Environmental conservation and enhancement plans are essential to building a lasting national food security system. pest populations and biological diversity through holistic management systems. such plans should be integrated with efforts to reduce the loss of high-potential arable land to other uses. In many cases. curriculum development to train agricultural extension staff in integrated production systems and in environmentally sound land-use practices. participatory land-use planning processes that identify and mitigate the risks of natural-resource degradation and other environmental impacts. and to mitigate any harmful short-term effects.

improving infrastructure to support farm enterprises so that quality seed. strengthening on-farm plant genetic resources management and improving landraces through breeding are effective strategies both for improving the livelihoods of farmers and for preventing land degradation. In marginal areas. In addition to the absence of important data and information. there are many examples where existing data are not used because they are not shared. C. assessing food production potential in and around cities. productive enterprises by concentrating food production in areas with high potential. Assessing and monitoring environmental impacts   Efficient use of data and information can be critical in avoiding and mitigating harmful environmental effects. Environmental Management Plan . Increased efforts are also needed for on-farm conservation of landraces or traditional crop varieties and should be reflected in agricultural development strategies. and developing policies that support best land-use practices and equitable distribution of resources. fertilizer and equipment can be efficiently deployed for food production. refraining from adopting narrowly based policies oriented towards commodity production. supporting rural enterprise zones and promoting incomediversification schemes such as agro-industry. but gaps and poor accessibility are major constraints. bio-energy and aquaculture. users are unaware that they exist. The ways in which governments can work with the private sector and with NGOs to increase the quantity and quality of food include: • • • • • supporting environmentally based practices through incentives that promote the efficient use of inputs and promote environmental awareness through education and training. Adequate management measures are required to protect the wild relatives of crop species and wild food plants in protected and other areas. and initiating pilot efforts to produce more food near to where it will be consumed. Continued efforts are needed to conserve natural ecosystems that provide the habitat for wild plant and animal species that are potential sources of future food. and strengthening and equipping extension staff to promote environmental management practices among food producers and other resourcemanagement groups. assisting in transforming smallholder agriculture into competitive. where many small-scale farmers live. or they are not organized in a manner that easily allows analysis. pharmaceuticals or other products.

at the moment the site is not under any form of environmental protection. The land is in an Environmentally sensitive area but. equipment and management practices. Davao City. WASTE . Davao City. The site itself is in places overgrown but it does have a large amount of potential. the desired Biodiversity outcomes for the City over the next five years are: • • • Increased biodiversity.to enhance the City’s biodiversity. BIODIVERSITY .to efficiently manage our water resources and improve water quality in catchments in Mati.to effectively manage energy use and reduce green house gas emissions in the City. WATER . none is presently being sought. The desired waste management outcomes for the City over the next five years are: • • • Minimizing waste produced in the City Increasing waste recycling/re-use Maximizing the diversion of special hazardous waste from landfill to appropriate disposal. ENERGY . The desired water management outcomes for the site over the next five years are: • • • Improved water resource management Minimized use of mains water and use of water from alternative sources to mains water Reduced pollution of waterways and water bodies in the City.This is the environmental management plan for the production of virgin coconut oil in Mati.to effectively manage waste in the City and minimize the amount of waste produced. . A broad range of available habitats for indigenous species including aquatic habitats Improved management of natural habitats and biodiversity. Increased use of renewable energy sources that are renewable and less greenhouse gas intensive More extensive use of energy efficient designs. The desired energy and greenhouse emission outcomes for the City over the next five years are: • • • Minimized energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. The site already has a number of interesting species.

In other cases. PHOTOS Figure 1 When you purchase this Virgin Coconut Oil. The de-husking of fresh coconuts (above) . marketing(4) and support services. Governments have a special role to play in assisting and promoting rational development in these areas.MONITORING PLAN Appropriate planning and implementation frameworks are required to facilitate and diffuse science and technology and to put policy into action. more efficient transportation infrastructure and the removal of obstacles that impede efficient market mechanisms. In some countries this will require diversification through creation of employment in other economic sectors. in areas such as processing. income and employment opportunities should be promoted within the agricultural sector itself. you are also supporting poor farmers in the depressed coconut industry in the Philippines.

in preparation to make Tropical Traditions Virgin Coconut Oil. .Figure 2 Transporting organic coconuts far away from the pollution of any city or roads in the rural mountain areas in Davao Philippines.

REFERENCES: Technology Profile: Virgin coconut Oil and Coconut Flour Production (PCA) http://www.gov.html?Coco_nuc.ph/htm/cocoflou.html .dost.html http://webdb.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/generic_frame.fnri.