Crafting the Curriculum

Dimensions and Principles of
Curriculum Design

Amelie Anne B. Santos, CPE 205 (Curriculum Development, Evaluation and Implementation)

FIVE MAJOR PRINCIPLES
FOR ORGANIZING
CONTENT IN UNITS
(POSNER AND
RUDNITSKY, 1994)

what
relationship exists
among people,
objects or events
of the world?

1. World-related sequence –

a. Space .

time .b.

physical attributes .c.

the relationship reflects how ideas are related together in a logical manner 2. concept-related sequence – .

a. class relations

b. propositional relations

based on the
process of
generating,
discovering and
verifying
knowledge,
content and

.

learning-related sequence – based on the psychology of learning and how people learn .4.

empirical prerequisites .a.

b. familiarity .

c. difficulty Dissect a cat Dissect a cadaver .

interest .d.

CONTINUITY .

     Recurring appearances of content Reinforces learning Ensures permanency of learning and skills development “Spiral curriculum” .Gerome Bruner Basic ideas are redeveloped in increasing depth as the learners advance .

.

INTEGRATION .

Life is a series of emerging themes.    “Everything is integrated and interconnected.” Different areas of study are interconnected Subject matter content lines are erased Allows students to engage in activities related to real life concerns .

Ask the students to create a media project to present their findings. .Example: A discussion on how the environment affects animals' (humans included) appearance could be a successful integration of social studies and science.

ARTICULATION .

.Vertical Articulation – contents are arranged from level to level. content in one grade level is connected to the next one Example: Algebra teacher may start discussing some Geometry concepts towards the end of the school year.

.Horizontal Articulation – association or connection exists between elements that happen at the same time Example: A physics class may require concurrent enrollment in calculus.

BALANCE .

time.  Equitable assignment of content. experiences and other elements Making this possible requires continuous fine-tuning and review .

Guidelines in Curriculum Design .

 Curriculum design committee should involve all the stakeholders: teachers. administrators and yes – even the students. parents. .

. goals and objectives should be reviewed and used as bases for curriculum design. mission. The school's vision.

 Consider the needs and interests of the learners (in particular) and society (in general). .

facilities. Consider the pros and cons in terms of costs. and personnel required. scheduling. class size. .

affective. . concepts and outcomes. The curriculum design should consider cognitive. psychomotor skills.

Santos. CPE 205 (Curriculum Development.Crafting the Curriculum Approaches to Curriculum Design Amelie Anne B. Evaluation and Implementation) .

The Six Features of a Curriculum .

Excellent teachers are needed to sort the wisdom from the knowledge. Good teachers are needed to sort out the information from the data. .1. who teaches? Quality education would not exist without quality teachers.

Teachers must receive support for their continuing development so they can keep up with the changing demands of society.1. . who teaches? Institutions must recruit teachers who are excellent and have relevant preparation.

They are the most important factors in the learning environment. .2. whom do the teachers teach? Learners are front and center in the educative process.

2. whom do the teachers teach? The educator must understand and accept this diversity. and address the varied needs of the students. .

Values “To help the learners cope with rapid changes.3. Skills.” . to understand and to succeed in the new work in the workplace. what do the teachers teach? Knowledge. we must design a curriculum oriented to tomorrow.

3. what do the teachers teach? In ten years. what the students are learning now will be obsolete. Half of what they need to know has not yet been fully developed. .

instructional procedures and content Balance theory and practice Ensure learners' sustained interest in the subject matter .3. what do the teachers teach? Teacher must: Prepare syllabus Explain learning goals.

how do teachers teach? Use methods and materials that align with the objectives of the lesson Create situations that encourage use of higher order thinking skills Use information from assessment improve. learn. and adopt a culture of excellence .4.

skills and values that should be developed) are the teacher's guide posts At the end of the teaching act. how much of the teaching was learned? Objectives of the curriculum (knowledge.5. determine if objectives were met (learning outcomes) .

how much of the teaching was learned? Learning outcomes indicate performance of teacher AND student Performance feature determines whether the curriculum has succeeded or not .5.

6. NGOs and their stakeholders. Teachers must partner with parents. . with whom do we teach? Community Partners Teaching is collaborative.

 . teachers have the opportunity to change how they view the community. and how the community views them.  As the world changes.6. with whom do we teach? Teachers must also rely on the resources of their partners in the community.

Approaches to Curriculum Design .

Child or Learner-Centered Approach .

skills. purposes and abilities of the learners in mind. It is also built upon the learner's knowledge.   Based on the philosophy that the child is the center of the educational process The curriculum is constructed with the needs. . learnings and potentials. interests.

The recognition of the need for using and exploring many media for self-discovery and self-direction is embraced. 2.Considerations 1. . The whole activity is divided into units of work. A new freedom of action is provided. 4. 3. A new respect for the child is fundamental.

. It has activity centers where the students hone their skills and capacities.Example School X is anchored on the theory of multiple intelligences. Activities of each learner are tailored according to his/her abilities. interests and needs.

Teacher acts as the guide.Example Each child is important and each capacity is respected. Learner's performance is compared against his/her own set targets. Learner sets the goal. . No comparison. but working within the time framework and DepEd's minimum requirements.

SUbject-Centered Approach .

 Anchored on the curriculum design which prescribes different and separate subjects into one broad field .

4. 2. The primary focus is the subject matter.Considerations 1. The emphasis is on bits and pieces of information which are detached from life. Learning should only take place inside the classroom. . The continuing pursuit of learning outside the school is not emphasized. The subject matter serves as a means of identifying problems in living. 3.

Everyone must master the subject matter.Example School Y requires all learners to excel in all academic fields. Each child must be excellent in all fields of discipline. Develops an attitude of competition. .

Success = mastery . and disregards emotional and psychomotor development.Example School conducts cram reviews. School puts premium on intellectual development.

problem-Centered Approach .

  Based on the assumption that in the process of living. . Thus. children will experience problems. problem-solving enables learners to be competent at achieving total development as individuals.

The learners are capable of directing and guiding themselves in resolving problems. 2. thus they become independent learners. The learners are prepared to assume their civic responsibilities through direct participation in different activities. 3. The learners are considered problem-solvers. The curriculum leads the learners in the recognition of concerns and problems and in seeking solutions. .Considerations 1.

School activities revolve around solutions to issues like poverty. drugs.Example School Z trains students to solve reallife problems that arise out of the needs. environmental concerns. . interests and abilities of the learners. etc. deterioration of positive values.

. More and more training centers are using this approach. Development of business skills. social skills. construction skills are also given emphasis.Example Case studies and practical work are used as methods of teaching.

most administrators meld the three  .The three design approaches are quite distinct from each other.  However.