REPORT ON CNC MACHINES

MAYANK JAIN

| ELEX INTERNATIONAL |

CNC Machine

Mayank Jain
130106095

Preface
I have made this report file on the topic CNC Machine. I have tried my best to elucidate all the
relevant detail to the topic to be included in the report. While in the beginning I have tried to give
a general view about this topic.
My efforts and wholehearted co-corporation of each and every one has ended on a successful
note. I express my sincere gratitude to M/s ELEX INTERNATIONAL who assisting me
throughout the preparation of this topic. I thank them for providing me the reinforcement,
confidence and most importantly the track for the topic whenever I needed it.

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Mayank Jain 130106095 CONTENTS S. Control panel of CNC 7. plastics and aluminum. Discussion & Safety Precautions 13. CNC Router 8. In industry. and then it is processed by the computer and manufactured using the CNC machine. Introduction In Industry it is not efficient or profitable to make everyday products by hand. Meaning of CNC 3. CNC machine – Input-Process-Output 6. This is a small CNC machine and can be used to machine woods. CNC Machine & Safety 9. Introduction 2. Program #CNC 12. First a design is drawn using design software. Use of typical CNC machine 4. CNC machines can be extremely large. Reference 15.No Name of the Chapter 1. Appendix – 1 11. Recommendation 14. Advantages & Disadvantages Of CNC 10. Parts of CNC machine 5. On a CNC machine it is possible to make hundreds or even thousands of the same items in a day. Page | 2 .

Mayank Jain 130106095 Page | 3 .

The computer changes the design into a special code (numerical) that controls the way the CNC cuts and shapes the material 2. This means a computer converts the design into numbers which the computer uses to control the cutting and shaping of the material. USE OF TYPICAL CNC MACHINE 1.Mayank Jain 130106095 MEANING OF ‘CNC’ CNC means Computer Numerical Control. This must be done carefully so that it does not come off the block during machining. Page | 4 . The design is loaded into the computer which is attached to the CNC machine. The material to be shaped is taped on to a block with double sided tape.

the vice moves up. 4. 5. It must be tightened up carefully. It protects the machine operator in case the material is pulled out of the vice by the power of the cutter. For safety reasons. right and left according to the design. When the machine starts working. The block is then placed in the vice. if the guard is not in position the motor will not start. Page | 5 . If it is not secure when the machine starts to cut the material it can come away from the vice. down. inside the CNC. The CNC is turned on and the shape is cut from the material. When the cutter has stopped the shaped material can be removed from the vice. The guard is placed in position.Mayank Jain 130106095 3.

CHUCK: This holds the material that is to be shaped. MOTOR: The motor is enclosed inside the machine.Mayank Jain 130106095 PARTS OF CNC MACHINE VICE: This holds the material to be cut or shaped. The guard completely encloses the dangerous areas of the CNC. Usually a CNC is bolted down so that it cannot move through the vibration of the machine when it is working. The material must be placed in it very carefully so that when the CNC is working the material is not thrown out at high speed. When the CNC is machining the material small pieces can be 'shoot' off the material at high speed. LATHE BED: The base of the machine. Page | 6 . GUARD: The guard protects the person using the CNC. This could be dangerous if a piece hit the person operating the machine. Normally the vice will be like a clamp that holds the material in the correct position. Material must be held securely otherwise it may 'fly' out of the vice when the CNC begins to machine. CUTTING TOOL: This is usually made from high quality steel and it is the part that actually cuts the material to be shaped. This is the part that rotates the chuck at high speed.

(Horizontally. This converts the signals from the computer to a form that the CNC machine understands. CNC (Computer Numerical Control) Machine: The signals from the interface control the motors on the CNC machine. However. The signals determine the way the vice moves. Y and Z. The signals also control the speed of the cutting tool.OUTPUT A CNC production facility needs three pieces of equipment: A Computer: The computer is used to draw the design. the design is only a picture and the CNC machine cannot use this to manufacture the product. An Interface: A computer cannot be directly connected to a CNC machine. vertically and depth). Page | 7 .Mayank Jain 130106095 CNC MACHINE: INPUT . The computer is connected to an interface. The vice moves in three directions X. The computer software must also convert the drawing into numbers (coordinates) that the CNC machine can use when it starts to cut and shape the material.PROCESS . The signals are in the form of digital signals when they are sent to the CNC machine.

SPEED AND FEED: On some CNC machines it is possible to manually vary the speed and feed of the cutter. most CNC machines have a range of controls for manual use. This ‘zeros’ the cutter. It is rare for a CNC machine to be used manually as simple operations are best carried out on cheap/basic/manual machines. The ‘X’ and ‘Y’ buttons control the movement of the cutter along the horizontal surfaces. the reset button is pressed by the machine operator. Page | 8 . 0 on the X. The ‘Z’ buttons control depth and up / down movement. And Z axis. When a CNC machine is used manually it is been used well below its capability and specification. MANUAL CONTROL: The cutter can be controlled manually although this is rarely needed. When the CNC machine is turned on.Mayank Jain 130106095 CONTROL PANEL OF CNC A CNC machine is normally controlled by a computer and software. the reset button moves the cutter to the corner of the machine. it is possible that the CNC machine will start cutting the material in the wrong place or even miss cutting the material and plunge into the work table. In simple terms. moving the cutter to coordinates 0. 0. RESET BUTTON: The most important control button is usually the reset button. When pressed these stop the machine very quickly. If the reset button is not pressed. STOP BUTTON: Most control panels have stop buttons. above the work table. However.

THE IMPORTANT PARTS Page | 9 .Mayank Jain 130106095 CNC ROUTER .

Also. A single phase electrical supply can be ‘plugged’ into any available socket. transparent safety door. Page | 10 . Single phase CNC machines can be moved more easily because they are simply unplugged and relocated.Mayank Jain 130106095 CNC MACHINES AND SAFETY CNC machines are very safe to use as they are designed to be as safe as possible. The CNC Router shown above has an outlet for an extraction unit. 1. have built in extraction. 5. Older machines such as manually operated milling machines and centre lathes have three phase supplies. dust cannot escape into the atmosphere. the best CNC machines automatically lock the guard in position whilst the cutter is shaping material. 4. used for shaping materials such as woods and plastics. 3. The CNC router above has a single phase electrical supply. The guard can only be opened if the cutter has stopped. 6. Three phase machines are specially wired by an electrician into the electrical supply and cannot be unplugged. Most modern CNC machines are designed so that the cutting tool will not start unless the guard is in position. If an extraction unit is attached the dust is removed automatically. This means that the operated cannot be hurt by 'flying' pieces of sharp/hot material. 2. The electrical supply for the machine comes through a residual circuit breaker (RCB). Most CNC machines work behind a guard or even a closed. One of the main advantages of CNC machines is that they are much safer than manually operated machines. CNC routers. Dust can be very dangerous if inhaled and can also cause eye irritation. If an electrical fault develops the RCB will cut off electrical power immediately. It is essential that pupils / students / machine operators receive ‘quality’ instruction before attempting to use any CNC equipment. Most manually operated machine routers have very limited extraction systems which leave some dust in the air. As the router is fully enclosed.

centre lathes.. The software is similar to a computer game. Which need skilled engineers? 4. 3. CNC machines can be programmed by advanced design software such as Pro-E. Commonsense applies to the use of all machines including CNC machines. In years gone by..Mayank Jain 130106095 7. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINES CNC (Computer Numerical Control machines) are widely used in manufacturing industry. 3. Investment in CNC machines can lead to unemployment.. operated by a trained engineer have. enough to supervise several machines. Traditional machines such as vertical millers. CNC machines can be updated by improving the software used to drive the machines 5. Less skilled/trained people can operate CNC’s unlike manual lathes / milling machines etc. although costs are slowly coming down. Training in the use of CNC’s is available through the use of ‘virtual software’. engineers needed years of training to operate centre lathes. This is software that allows the operator to practice using the CNC machine on the screen of a computer. 2. been replaced by computer control machines. Basic safety training regarding working in a workshop and with other machines applies to CNC machines as well. 4. Less workers are required to operate CNC machines compared to manually operated machines. 365 days a year and only need to be switched off for occasional maintenance. in many cases. The CNC machine operator only needs basic training and skills. Pupils / students no longer develop the detailed skills required by engineers of the past. CNC machines can be used continuously 24 hours a day. Each manufactured product will be exactly the same. CNC machines are more expensive than manually operated machines. routers etc. 2.. milling machines and other manually operated machines. CNC machines are programmed with design which can then be manufactured hundreds or even thousands of times. 6. shaping machines. ADVANTAGES 1. Modern design software allows the designer to simulate the manufacture of DISADVANTAGES 1. 7. These include mathematical and engineering skills. This means many of the old skills are been lost. Page | 11 . Many countries no longer teach pupils / students how to use manually operated lathes / milling machines etc.

incremental dimensions G92 .Pause (for operator intervention) G08 .Preset position G70 .x-y plane for circular interpolation G18 .1 .tool length compensation.tool length compensation. cut cycle in z-axis G77 .drilling cycle G82 .Spindle speed limit G93 .Linear move G02 .absolute dimension program G91 . This saves time and money.multiple threading cycle G80 .reaming cycle G85 .cutter compensation cancel G41 .face turning cycle G25 .Dwell G05 .Coordinate system setting G94 .set inch based units or finishing cycle G71 .cutter compensation to the right G43 .Stop on input G33-35 .Acceleration G09 .withdraw the tool to the starting point or feed per minute G99 .thread cutting functions G35 . Appendix-1 In this appendix we provide a list of G and M-codes for the reader to have an idea of the kind of functionality that can be realized using these codes.Spline interpolation Page | 12 .disable 360 deg arcs G75 .Rotational speed rpm G98 . These codes were originally designed to be read from paper tapes and are designed to direct tool motion with simple commands.taping cycle G85 .fixed cycles specified by machine tool manufacturers G81 .Surface cutting speed G97 .wait for input to go low G36 .fixed cycle cancel G81-89 .wait for input to go high G40 .boring cycle with dwell G90 .straight drilling cycle with dwell G83 . There is no need to make a prototype or a model. A basic list of ‘G’ operation codes is given below.wait for input to go low G26 .Feed rate in ipr G96 .z-x plane for circular interpolation G19 . positive G44 .Rapid move (not cutting) G01 .turning cycle or inch data specification G21 .boring cycle G86 .wait for input to go high G28 .peck drilling cycle G84 .pattern repeating G75.drilling cycle G83 . These direct motion of the tool.thread cutting cycle or metric data specification G24 .boring with spindle off and dwell cycle G89 .Feed rate in ipm G95 .1 .withdraw the tool to a safe plane or feed per revolution G101 .Mayank Jain 130106095 his/her idea.enable 360 degree arcs G76 .Counterclockwise circular motion G04 .return to reference point G29 .Deceleration G17 .y-z plane for circular interpolation G20 . G00 .Clockwise circular motion G03 .cutter compensation to the left G42 . One person can supervise many CNC machines as once they are programmed they can usually be left to work by themselves. 8.return from reference point G31 .cut-in cycle in x-axis G78 . negative G50 .set metric units or stock removal G74.deep hole drilling.

g.put stepper motors on low power standby M47 .subroutine end M20 .mist with coolant M08 .end of tape (rewind) M35 .end of program M03 .tailstock back M20 .return from subprogram. AC power outlet) M09 .set output #1 off M26 .optional stop using stop button M02 .program stop M01 . M00 .puff blowing on M72 . jump instruction Page | 13 .indicate finishing cycle G72 .coolant off M09 .set output #2 on M38 .subprogram call M99 .turn off accessory or tool change M17 .Chain to next program M25 .set output #2 off M36 .close chuck M26 .turn on accessory (e.3D circular interpolation clockwise M-Codes control machine functions. or a fixed number of times M71 .Mayank Jain 130106095 G72 .compensate for sharp external curves M98 .spindle on CW M04 .spindle on CCW M05 .flood with coolant M08 .spindle off M06 .turn off accessory M10 .tool change M07 .puff blowing off M96 .set output #1 on M30 .compensate for rounded external curves M97 .restart a program continuously.turn on accessory M11 .

move z-axis home FANUC Series Oi-MD JYOTI VMC-850 |G54:.open chuck M101 .Mayank Jain 130106095 M21 .Write current position to data file M25 .move x-axis home M102 .tailstock forward M22 .move y-axis home M103 .G-CODE 90-ABSOLUTE VALUE| #PROGRAM % 00007 G54 G91G28Z0 G90 Page | 14 .G-CODE 54-COORDINATE|G90:.

60Y-6.S700M3 11.5750M3 Facing Program – Cutter Diameter 80mm M8 X265Y38Z10 Z2 G1Z-1.Mayank Jain 130106095 N1T1 M6 G43H1D31G0X-265Y38Z50.0R2.369F800 Y-32 X-270 Z-2.6F500 X-12F800 X-12F1500 X-249.1 M3S750 X250F850 Y-38 X-265 G0Z50 M05 || G54 G90 N1T2 M6 G90G00G40G54 G43H2D36G0X-169.85Z10 G98G83Z-48.Q15F100 Page | 15 .60Y6.1mm Drilling M8 X-169.85Z50.

605 G80 M05 || G54G90 N1T3 M06 G90G00G40G54 G43H3D3G0X-169.205 X-169.605Y6.605 G80 M05 || Page | 16 .S650M3 16mm Drilling M8 X-169.S700M3 11.Mayank Jain 130106095 X-86.1mm Drilling M08 X-169.605Y6.205 X-169.250 X-169.85Z10 G98G81Z-20R2.605Y6.F132 X-86.85Z50.85Z50.8R2F45 X-86.85Z10 G98G81Z-11.605 G80 M05 || G54G90 N1T2 M06 G90G00G40M54 G43H2D36G0X-169.605Y-6.

905 G80 Z300 X5 Y155 M30 HS [TPS1] % #Program 2 Setting :-1 Page | 17 .Mayank Jain 130106095 G54G90 N1T4 M06 G90G00G40G54 G43H4D40G0X-127.905Y-32.905Y-32.5Z10 G98G81Z-25R2F100 X127.S700M3 12mm Drilling M8 X-127.5Z50.

G1Z0F500 X-90F750 X310.892Y-188.86 Y-57.291 X101.5 Y-70.S700M3 M8 X-155Y-10Z50.5 Facing Program Cutter Diameter 80mm Page | 18 . Z2.886 X189.5 X52.77 X145.Mayank Jain 130106095 % O0900G80G49G40 G54 G91G28Z0 G90 M01 N1T1 M6 G90G00G40G54 G43H1D33G0X-155Y-10Z50.345F1000 Y-58.509 Y-93.164 X269.

345F1000 Y-58.164 X269.509 Y-93.291 X101. Z2. G1Z-1F500 X-90F750 X310.109 X-79Y-90.86 Y-57.345F1000 Y-58.5 Y-99. G1Z-2F500 X-90F750 X310.S700M3 M8 X-155Y-10Z50.109 X-79Y-90.056 G0Z50.5 Y-70.77 X145.665 X-171.377Y-49.886 X189. G54 G90 G90G00G40G54 G43H1D33G0X-155Y-10Z50.S700M3 M8 X-155Y-10Z50.535 Y-53.501 X110Y-190 X7.509 Y-93.892Y-188.056 G0Z50.Mayank Jain 130106095 Y-99. Z2.164 X269.886 Page | 19 .377Y-49. G54 G90 G90G00G40G54 G43H1D33G0X-155Y-10Z50.5 X52.665 X-171.501 X110Y-190 X7.535 Y-53.

164 X269. Z2.109 X-79Y-90.377Y-49.056 G0Z50.892Y-188. M05 Facing Program End G54 G90 N1T9 M6 G90G00G40G54 G43H9D31G0X-70.86 Y-57.109 X-79Y-90.5 X52.77 X145.535 Y-53.291 X101.77 X145.S1600M3 Drilling Program 30mm Diameter Page | 20 .S700M3 M8 X-155Y-10Z50.892Y-188.5F500 X-90F750 X310.535 Y-53.Z50.5 Y-70.5 Y-99.377Y-49.056 G0Z50.886 X189.5 Y-99.Mayank Jain 130106095 X189.86 Y-57.501 X110Y-190 X7.501 X110Y-190 X7.5 Y-70.509 Y-93. G1Z-2. G54 G90 G90G00G40G54 G43H1D33G0X-155Y-10Z50.Y-27.291 X101.345F1700 Y-58.5 X52.665 X-171.665 X-171.

G98G83Z-41R2.Y-27.Z50.Z10.Q20.F140 X70.Z10.Y-27.Q15. G80 G0Z350 Y205 M30 [BP-S1] % Power-Flat Machine Discussion Problems faced using CNC Machine  There some G-CODE in which should be correctly key in so that the cutting process will be running smoothly.  Its quit complicating to find over the origin of X and Y axis once placed into machine.Mayank Jain 130106095 M8 X-70.Y-27. G80 G0Z50.F140 X70. M05 G55 G90 G90G00G40G55 G43H9D31G0X-70. G98G83Z-41R2.S1600M3 M8 X-70. Page | 21 .

Adjust the coordinate of X by bringing the milling cutter towards the work piece then take the reading. the safety is mainly advised so that any mistakes happen. the student can make over their simulation process first before cutting take place so that they will get a clear view of the project they going to do. Place the matrix card on the pocket of workshop uniform when handling with machines. Cutting tool should be in correct size. Take the reading. The steps 10 for Y coordinate. Safety Precaution     When the student at the workshop. Gloves are advised to be wear before holding and after all work done it should be removed.  Bring the pointer to the work piece on the coordinate of Z. It’s make the student to be more safe even independent too. They should wear workshop uniform and safety boots which given by the polytechnic.Mayank Jain 130106095   Must be careful while using the hand wheel.  Measure the size using Vernier caliper before plug into the machine. Page | 22 . To the given question if there’s was given its cutting tool size. If no then chose a suitable size of cutting tool size. Suitable Solution Based on the Problems Raised  In this.

Mayank Jain 130106095 INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION FLOWCHART Page | 23 .

tooling. It's impossible to get good surface finish if chips are being re-cut over and over again. the less likelihood of vibration there will be. which is a harmonic effect that will be very visible in your surface finish. the coolant cools the work piece. Good chip clearing is essential to both surface finish and tool life. clumped up chips can jam the cutter to the point where it breaks.Mayank Jain 130106095 RECOMMENDATION Getting the appropriate feeds and speeds for the work piece material. and cutting conditions is the most important first step. as a work piece that heats up is a work piece that is moving due to thermal expansion. In the worst case vibration will turn into chatter. the more solid we can make our work holding. Getting the right speeds and feeds is just as important to obtain a good surface finish. Another advantage of coolant is that it lubricates the tool/work piece interface. Sometimes this is helpful to accuracy. Page | 24 . If chip clearance is minimal. Make sure the work piece is supported and clamped over as much area as possible surrounding the cut while still leaving room for the cutter to get in there and do its job. Clearly. Aside from cooling the tool. Flood coolant or an air blast should be used to clear the chips at all times. The primary impact of work holding on surface finish is vibration. Consistent speeds and feeds will make a huge difference on the surface finish.

S. 2000. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Product Design and Manufacturing Minicurriculum. Mikell P. Edition. V.S. Schmidt. Wiley 2011.Mayank Jain 130106095 REFERENCE Kalpak Jain. 6 Oct. 4thEdition. K. Groover. ------------****---------- Page | 25 . Principles of Modern Manufacturing. 4th. Youssefi. 2004. Prentice Hall.. “Automation of Manufacturing Process”. “Computer Numerical Control (CNC)”. Ryan “CNC WORK” 20 Aug 2009. and R. Module-5 “CNC Machine V2” IIT Kharagpur.