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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

**Electrical Power and Energy Systems
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

**Intelligent control of a grid-connected wind-photovoltaic hybrid power
**

systems

Chih-Ming Hong, Chiung-Hsing Chen ⇑

Department of Electronic Communication Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan, ROC

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 18 July 2013

Received in revised form 21 September

2013

Accepted 12 October 2013

Keywords:

Photovoltaic (PV)

Wind turbine

Hybrid power system

Radial basis function network-sliding model

(RBFNSM)

General Regression Neural Network (GRNN)

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT)

a b s t r a c t

A grid-connected wind-photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power system is proposed, and the steady-state model

analysis and the control strategy of the system are presented in this paper. The system consists of the PV

power, wind power, and an intelligent power controller. The General Regression Neural Network (GRNN)

algorithm applied to PV generation system which has non-linear characteristic and analyzed performance. A high-performance on-line training radial basis function network-sliding mode (RBFNSM) algorithm is designed to derive the turbine speed to extract maximum power from the wind. To achieve a fast

and stable response for the power control, the intelligent controller consists of a RBFNSM and a GRNN for

maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control. The pitch angle of wind turbine is controlled by RBFNSM,

and the PV system uses GRNN, where the output signal is used to control the boost converters to achieve

the MPPT. The simulation results conﬁrm that the proposed hybrid generation system can provide high

efﬁciency with the use of MPPT.

Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Today renewable power systems are becoming more and more

popular, with the increase of energy demand and the concern of

environmental pollution around the world. Wind energy and photovoltaic energy have complementary characters. Combining wind

energy and photovoltaic in one system (hybrid system) increases

the reliability of this system and reduces the storage batteries

[1]. The major advantage of the system is that it meets the basic

power requirements of non-electriﬁed remote areas, where grid

power has not yet reached. The power generated from both wind

and solar components is stored in a battery bank for use whenever

required. A hybrid renewable energy system utilizes two or more

energy production methods, usually solar and wind power. The

main advantage of solar/wind hybrid system is that when solar

and wind power production is used together, the reliability of

the system is enhanced. Additionally, the size of battery storage

can be reduced slightly as there is less reliance on one method of

power production. Often, when there is no sun, there is plenty of

wind. Wind speeds are often low in periods (summer, eventually)

when the sun resources are at their best. On the other hand, the

wind is often stronger in seasons (the winter, in many cases) when

there are less sun resources. Even during the same day, in many re-

**⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 7 3617141x3318; fax: +886 7 3650833.
**

E-mail address: chiung@webmail.nkmu.edu.tw (C.-H. Chen).

0142-0615/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.10.024

**gions worldwide or in some periods of the year, there are different
**

and opposite patterns in terms of wind and solar resources. And

those different patterns can make the hybrid systems the best option in electricity production. A hybrid wind–solar electric system

demands a higher initial investment than single larger systems:

large wind and solar PV systems are proportionally cheaper than

smaller systems.

For PV power generation, it usually consists of an array of PV

panels and a power converter. By regulating the converter, the

maximum power point of PV panels can be tracked. Over the years,

different MPPT techniques have been proposed for PV power generation. These methods mainly include the perturbation and observation method (P&O) [2], the power matching, the incremental

conductance, the hill-climbing search, the power differential feedback control, the curve ﬁtting, the dc-link capacitor droop control,

the intelligent control, and some other special control methods.

Among them, the P&O method is adopted by most researchers because of its simplicity and system independence. Novel methods

are developed with higher accuracy but complex process, such as

optimum gradient method, fuzzy logic control (FLC) and neural

networks (NN). These technique could also be costly, difﬁcult to

implement, and may not be stable enough. General Regression

Neural Network (GRNN) has been applied in a number of applications for system control and identiﬁcation. This algorithm has a

number of advantages over competing algorithm. GRNN is nonparametric and a one-pass learning algorithm with a highly paral-

C. 2. 1. In other words. GRNN is simpler than other existing algorithms. where a wind turbine system model was developed and compared with a real system. WT1 Wind Turbine 4kW ð1Þ where q and A are air density and the area swept by blades.-H.8kW 555 Fig. the dynamic performance of a stand-alone wind–solar system with battery storage was analyzed. bÞV 3x 2 k¼ xr r Vx 2. Methodologies for optimal design or unit sizing of stand-alone or grid-connected hybrid systems have been proposed using steady-state analysis [5–7]. the output mechanical power available from a wind turbine could be expressed as Pm ¼ 1 qAC p ðk. Proposed hybrid micro-grid power system. Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) not only has the ability of parallel computing. n is the ideality factor of p–n junction.4kW ð2Þ where r is wind turbine blade radius.38 1023 J/K). The proposed wind and PV hybrid system is shown in Fig. K is Boltzmann constant (1. Since the wind power and PV power can compensate each other to some extent during the day and night. the TSR direction control method is limited by the difﬁculty in wind speed and turbine speed measurements [3]. 2. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it is very simple to implement. It makes no assumptions concerning the form of the underlying distribution. For a variable speed wind turbine. . IPVO is the reverse saturation current (A). Among previously developed wind turbine MPPT strategies. ð3Þ ð4Þ where Rs and Rsh are series and shunt resistances (X). TSR control regulates the wind turbine rotor speed to maintain an optimal TSR. In [4]. C. where the steady-state performance of a grid-connected wind and PV system with battery storage was analyzed. System component characteristic PV1 Photovoltaic 4. PV generation systems. neither the trial-and-error process nor prior knowledge about the parameters is required. Chen / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 55 (2014) 554–561 lel structure.1. load disturbances and uncertainty of system. Previous research has focused on three types of maximum wind power extraction methods. There are some works on hybrid systems. 3 shows the circuit equivalent of a PV cell. the development of the wind-PV hybrid power generation is attractive. and tracks this curve through its control mechanisms. Vx is the wind velocity (m/s). the output power of the wind turbine can be regulated by pitch angle control. it has two branches-namely. For the stand-alone off-grid system. The equivalent equation of the PV cell is as follows [6]: V PV ¼ Iph nKT ln þ1 q IPV qðV PV þ IPV Rs Þ V PV þ Rs IPV 1 IPV ¼ Iph IPVO exp nKT Rsh WT2 Wind Turbine 2kW Grid Load Fig. Sliding mode variable structure control is a special discontinuous nonlinear control strategy. and grid. namely tip speed ratio (TSR) control. it is necessary to install the power electronic devices between the wind turbine generator (WTG) and the grid where the frequency is constant. 2 shows the groups of C p k curves of the wind turbine used in this study at different pitch angles [9]. A variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbine is considered in this paper. PV cell conventional model Fig.2. Fig. 1. and xr is the turbine speed. Wind turbine In order to capture the maximal wind energy. which has strong robustness against parameter variations. Dynamic models of the main components were developed using MATLAB/Simulink. the hybrid generation system can easily be set up in remote and isolated areas where a connection to the utility network is either impossible or unduly expensive. Hong. Iph is photocurrent of the PV Cell (A). a RBFNSM-based with TSR MPPT strategy is proposed for wind turbine generator. q is the electronic charge (1. the interface between the hybrid generation system and the power grid has to be specially designed which involves costly hardware and complex control. PSF control requires the knowledge of the wind turbine’s maximum power curve. In this paper. The input of a wind turbine is the wind and the output is the mechanical power turning the generator rotor [8]. For wind-PV hybrid power generation. where the pitch angle controller plays an important role. respectively. C p k characteristics of the WECS at different pitch angles. the wind power generation and the PV power generation.-M. and T is temperature of cell (K). respectively. and Cp is called the power coefﬁcient.602 1019 C). and is given as a nonlinear function of the tip speed ratio (TSR) k deﬁned by 2. Bus PV2 Photovoltaic 2. consisting of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). load. with the advantage of rapidness and easy realization. learning and fault tolerance but also be able to approximate any complicated nonlinearity inﬁnitely. It is noted from the ﬁgure that Cp can be changed by adjusting the pitch angle (b). Cp is a function of k and the blade pitch angle b. power signal feedback (PSF) control and hill-climb searching (HCS) control. For the grid-connected system. Combining neural network with sliding mode variable control not only has strong robustness which can resist system perturbation and outer interference but also be able to eliminate the buffeting.

General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) 3. expðD2j =2r2 Þ becomes one and the point of evaluation is represented best by this training sample. Hence.12]. For Dj = 0. For a bigger smoothness parameter. Eq. x12 ¼ IPV and x13 ¼ Temperature.-M. The data available from measurements of an operating system is generally never en- The distance Dj between the training sample and the point of prediction. In this paper. generally performed by a microcontroller to track the maximum power continuously. Xj. The signals of the pattern neuron i. Each sample from the training data inﬂuences every point that is being predicted by GRNN. It periodically increases or decreases the PV cell’s voltage as mentioned before to seek the maximum power point. as it is named in [11]. we could assume that series resistance Rs is close to zero and shunt resistance Rsh is close to inﬁnite. The proposed PV systems are composed of an array of 4 3 and 4 6 panels. 3. Generalized regression The GRNN was proposed by Specht as an alternative to the well known back-error propagation training algorithm for feed-forward neural network. Chen / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 55 (2014) 554–561 ough for a backpropagation neural network. C. between the training sample and the point of prediction is small. The PWM module is used to generate PWM pulses to control the duty cycle of the switch. Load .2. For a small value of the smoothness parameter the representation is limited to a narrow range of X. causes the term expðD2j =2r2 Þ to become smaller and therefore the contribution of the other training samples to the prediction is relatively small. 3. Fig. and x11 ¼ V PV . and the ﬁnal network’s output is obtained at the output layer which performs the normalization function [13.-H. MPPT is also used to provide a constant voltage to the required load [10]. Block diagram of P&O Method.2. The weights on the signals going into the Numerator neuron are one. Architecture A four-layer GRNN with a boost converter shown in Fig. (4) can be simpliﬁed to be rewritten by ignoring Rs and Rsh as shown below [7]: qðV PV þ IPV Rs Þ 1 IPV ¼ Iph IPVO exp nKT ð5Þ 3. becomes big. The ratio of the variation of power (P) to voltage (V) is considered as the step length of duty ratio D. dc/dc converter. which is given by: PV DC /DC Converter I pv DC /AC Load DC/DC Converter Ipv V pv Vdc DC/AC Vpv PV P& O PWM Fig. is used as a measure of how well the each training sample can represent the position of prediction X. thus.2. 3. expðD2j =2r2 Þ.556 C. where the step lengths is adjusted according to the distances to the maximum power point (MPP). The calculations performed in each pattern neuron of GRNN are expðD2j =2r2 Þ. To maximize the ﬁll factor is to maximize the ratio of photocurrent to reverse saturation current while minimize series resistance Rs and maximum shunt resistance Rsh within the PV cell. going into the Denominator neuron are weighted with the corresponding values of the training samples Yi. Hong. The distance to all the other training samples is bigger. The probability density function used in GRNN is the normal distribution. respectively. The summation layer will perform the summing operation as for the upper and lower parts of (9). Input layer will simply channel in the input vector to the GRNN. dc/ac inverter and control algorithm. a variable step method is proposed to search for the maximum power point. 4 shows the control block of the P&O method. This neural network like other probabilistic neural networks needs only a fraction of the training samples a backpropagation neural network would need [11. Temperature GRNN V MPPT PWM Fig. 4. Therefore the use of a probabilistic neural network is especially advantageous due to its ability to converge to the underlying function of the data with only few training samples available. 3. 6. Equivalent circuit of PV cell. is used as the mean of a normal distribution. the normal distribution centered at each training sample. Block diagram of Intelligent MPPT Method. The two summation units Denominator and Numerator to output layer. A bigger distance Dj. Perturbation and Observation (P&O) method The most common method in this ﬁeld is the P&O method [2]. The term Y j expðD2j =2r2 Þ for the jth training sample is the biggest one and contributes very much to the prediction. PV Cell Ipv Rs + Ipvo Rsh Iph Vpv - h i D2 exp 2ri 2 YðXÞ ¼ P h i D2i n i¼1 exp 2r2 ð6Þ D2i ¼ ðX X i ÞT ðX X i Þ ð7Þ Pn i¼1 Y i Fig. which is actually the slope of each operating point under very short sampling time. The standard deviation or the smoothness parameter r.14]. The additional knowledge needed to get the ﬁt in a satisfying way is relatively small and can be done without additional input by user.1.1. is subject to a search.2. 5 is adopted to implement the controller where the control law VMPPT is generated. 5. the possible representation of the point of evaluation by the training sample is possible for a wideer range of X. If the Distance Dj. Each training sample. A general structure of the GRNN can be illustrated as in Fig. MPPT Control for PV systems With the cost of PV cell. and its distance to the recorded patterns are then calculated in each of the pattern nodes at pattern layer. it is necessary to implement MPPT to have the voltage operating close to the maximum power point under the changing environment.

ð10Þ where Pout and Pref represent the actual output power and the reference output power of the generator. The sliding mode controller is designed as the output of RBFN. Architecture of the RBFNSM. e denotes the tracking error. Hong. 7. RBFNSM controller design Suppose switching function is RBFN input. MPPT control for wind energy systems The wind power generation system studied in this paper is shown in Fig. 4.557 C.1. 7. Structure of the four-layer GRNN. Layer 1: Input layer In the input layer. 6. The structure of RBFNSM controller can be illustrated in Fig. . and the RBFNSM control can be built by utilizing the ability of self-learning [15– 17]. We can deﬁned the sliding surface as: _ sðtÞ ¼ ceðtÞ þ eðtÞ Fig. Based on gradient descent algorithm. ð11Þ Dbj ¼ ½yðtÞ ym ðtÞwj hj kX cj k2 3 bj bj ðtÞ ¼ bj ðt 1Þ þ gDbj þ a½bj ðt 1Þ bj ðt 2Þ ð12Þ 4. 8.-H. central vector of mode and base width constant can be expressed as: wj ðtÞ ¼ wj ðt 1Þ þ g½yðtÞ ym ðtÞhj þ a½wj ðt 1Þ wj ðt 2Þ Dbij ¼ ½yðtÞ ym ðtÞwj xj cij 2 bj cij ðtÞ ¼ cij ðt 1Þ þ gDcij þ a½cij ðt 1Þ cij ðt 2Þ ð14Þ ð15Þ where g is adaptive rate. 8. respectively. a is momentum factor. k ¼ 1. Pitch control for WECS (a) PI controller and (b) RBFNSM controller. and the signal propagation and the basic function in each layer are introduced in the following. the node is deﬁned by net11 ¼ s11 ðkÞ ð13Þ y11 ðkÞ ¼ f11 ðnet11 ðkÞÞ ¼ net 11 ðkÞ ð16Þ where k represents the kth iteration. 2 2r i¼1 Numerator ¼ n X " exp i¼1 D2i 2r 2 ð8Þ # ð9Þ 4.-M. the iterative algorithm of output weight. Chen / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 55 (2014) 554–561 Pitch Servo V dc - max - + Supercised learning law V MPPT + WECS PI Controller Pref + + PV System Pout 1 τs min Pout Y (X ) (a) Output Neuron σ Online learning Denominator Numerator Summation Neurons Pitch Servo max - Y1 Yj Yi Yp Pattern Neurons + RBFNSM Pref + Controller Pout 1 + WECS τs min Pout (b) Input Neurons Fig. s11 ðkÞ is switching surface.1. C. and the proposed pitch angle control system using PI and RBFNSM is explained in this section.1. X2 X1 X3 Fig. " # n X D2i Denominator ¼ Y i exp 2 . the sliding mode controller is taken as the output of neural network.

a supervised learning is used to train this system based on gradient descent. 4. .558 C.143. 25 °C.3. Compared with that of the PI control.4. C. both in the transient and the stability. the node input and output are represented as net 3o ¼ X wj y2j ðkÞ j y3o ðkÞ ¼ fo3 net3o ðkÞ ¼ net3o ðkÞ ¼ bc ð18Þ 5.1. m 5. 10. bj is the base width constant of jth mode and bj > 0. Layer 2: Update base width b1j By using the chain rule. MPPT with load change ð21Þ And the weight is updated by wj ðt þ 1Þ ¼ wj ðtÞ þ gw Dwj ð22Þ where gw is the learning rate.2. 2. the update law of c1j is " # !( ) @y2j @E @E @net 3o Dc1j ¼ ¼ @c1j @c1j @y2j @net3o 1 2 s c1j ¼ do wj y2j 1 2 b1j Table 1 Simulation parameters.1. Layer 2: Hidden layer In the hidden layer.5. Hong. Simulation results where cj is the central vector of jth mode. From Fig.3 7. with the comparison of various MPPT schemes [20–24] including the typical PI and P&O method . it can be seen that the RBFNSM controller provides a better control performance than PI with less transient and smaller vibrations. PV power MPPT The output power from PV is shown in Fig. 11 and 12 shows the comparison of the proposed algorithms with PI and P&O methods for a sudden load change from 8 kW to 10 kW at 0.5 s.1. c1j. and updated.8 26. while RBFNSM oscillates only slightly. 4. it increases by 15%. 1000 W/m2 12 and 24 2.1. Chen / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 55 (2014) 554–561 The base width b1j is updated according to the following equation that 4. Layer 3: Update central vector c1j By using the chain rule. and the PV array used in the simulation are shown in Table 1.-M. we can see that the GRNN controller provides a better performance than P&O.2.7%.-H.4 and 4.2. j ¼ 1. the error term for each layer is calculated. The output power from WECS is shown in Fig. . Compared with that of P&O. they can quickly and accurately track the maximum power output as shown in ð25Þ Rated power (kW) Voltage (V) Frequency (Hz) Inertia No of pole pairs Wind speed (m/s) 2 and 4 220 60 0. 10.1. MPPT system performance ð3Þ where yo ðkÞ is the output of the RBFNSM and also the pitch angle command of the proposed controller.1. 4. ð17Þ ð26Þ where gb is the learning rate. Layer 4: Update weight wj The error term to be propagated is given by do ¼ " # @E @E @y3o ¼ @y3o @net 3o @net3o The hybrid system shown in Fig. 5.3 kW. The derivation is the same as that of the back-propagation algorithm [18. Then the weight wj is adjusted by the amount " # @E @E @y3o @net3o ¼ do y2j Dwj ¼ ¼ 3 @wj @yo @net 3o @wj 5. the node is deﬁned by net 2j ðkÞ ¼ y2j ¼ fj2 ks21 cj k2 b1j ðt þ 1Þ ¼ b1j þ gb Db1j 2 bj net2j ðkÞ ¼ exp net2j ðkÞ . ð20Þ 5. 9. the update law of Wij is " # !( ) @y2j @E @E @net30 Db1j ¼ ¼ @b1j @b1j @y2j @net30 1 2 2 s1 c1j ¼ do wj y2j 3 b1j With sufﬁcient wind and irradiance. Wind induction generator ð23Þ The central vector c1j is updated according to the equation that c1j ðt þ 1Þ ¼ c1j ðtÞ þ gc Dc1j ð24Þ where gc is the learning rate. Many tests were conducted to show performance of the model under various conditions. Figs.1. From Fig.1.61 600–1000 Load Capacity (kW) 8–25 Grid Voltage (V) Frequency (Hz) Phase 220 60 3 .19]. The GRNN method can quickly and accurately track the maximum power output for PV array. Parameters of the WECS. Once the RBFNSM has been initialized. By recursive application of the chain rule. it increases by 5. Wind power MPPT Time domain simulation was run for the hybrid power system with constant load under sufﬁcient wind and irradiance.1. 1 is implemented in the Matlab/Simpower environment. . It is employed to adjust the parameters wj. The average power is 2.6. We choose sðtÞs_ ðtÞ ! 0 as the control objective. The transient response at the starting point can be seen clearly that PI ﬂuctuates more.7065 2 8–12 PV array Maximum power of module unit (W) Module number Total power rating (kW) Unit rated voltage (V) Unit rated current (A) Irradiance level (W/m2) 200. 4. Layer 3: Output layer In the output layer. . and b1j of the RBFNSM by using the training patterns. The RBFNSM and PI pitch controllers are used for comparison.86 kW. The average power is 1. 9. the target of weight adjustment of RBFN is E ¼ sðtÞs_ ðtÞ ð19Þ The learning algorithm is described below.

5 0 0 0.2 0.5 GRNN Controller P&O Controller 3.5 2 1.6 0.5 0.9 1 Time (s) Fig.8 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 1 0.7 0. MPPT tracking response of the WECS.5 0.2 0. We can see from Fig.3 0.5 0.3KW P&O Controller 2KW Power (KW) 2.5 1 0.5 0.7 0. Chen / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 55 (2014) 554–561 3 4 RBFNSM controller 1. C. 11. Active power of the hybrid generation system. Power management under variable load When the inductive load changed from 8 kW to 16 kW at 2.6 0. Fig. 10.5 0 0 0.5 2 1.5 Power (KW) 3 2. The output active power from grid-connected hybrid generation system is shown in Fig.5 1 2.1 0.7 0.76KW 2.4 0.86KW PI controller 1. Wind MPPT tracking under sudden load change.6 0. 5. 14. enough. Fig.3 0.5 0.8 0.3 0. Fig. PV MPPT tracking under sudden load change.-H.4 0. The proposed method can track faster with a more stable output power under load disturbance. 9.-M. 14 that with the system bus voltage 3 GRNN Controller 2. MPPT tracking response of the PV system. they can quickly reach stable power output with GRNN yielding a better performance. . Fig.559 C. Fig.1 0.9 1 Time (s) Fig.6 0.3. Hong. 11.7 0. The hybrid power system quickly reaches a stable operation.5 1 0. 12 shows comparison of GRNN and P&O methods used in PV power system MPPT. 13.9 1 Time (s) 0 0. active power is provided from the grid.4 0.5 0 0. 12.5 s.1 0.5 Power (KW) Power (KW) 3 2 1. The bus voltages in hybrid generation system.8 0.8 0.5 2 1. 13.9 1 Time (s) Fig.2 0. Where the active output power of the PV and wind turbine are not 4 RBFNSM controller PI Controller 3.

7 0. From Fig. C. 17.7 0. The proposed method can track with a more stable output power under variable load condition. 18 that with the drop of wind speed and irradiance.3 0. The output power from WT2 is shown in Fig.5 0 -0. the hybrid system quickly reaches a stable operation. the wind turbine and PV array power output are not enough to supply the load. We can see from Fig. it can be seen that the RBFNSM controller provides a better pitch angle control performance than PI controller with less transient and smaller vibration. we have the WT1 and WT2 wind speed changed from 12m/s to 8m/s.-H.560 C. Hong.6 0.-M. The bus voltage in hybrid generation system.5 0.9 1 Time (s) Fig. 19.2 0.5 1 0.4 0. MPPT tracking response of the WT2 under variable conditions. Fig. dropped to around 0. 15. it shows that voltage and power can be well controlled in the hybrid system un- .3 kW.5 0 0 0. Time domain simulation was run for the hybrid power system with constant load under different wind and irradiance at 0. The grid will supply more active power to the load.1 0.5 2 1.5 -1 0 0. the PV1 and PV2 irradiance level changed from 1000 W/m2 to 600 W/m2. 15. MPPT tracking response of the PV2 under variable conditions. MPPT under variable conditions This case demonstrates a changing environment. MPPT tracking under variable conditions at t = 2.6 0.4.3 0.8 0. 16. The WT2 wind power dropped to a low level around 0. Hybrid systems are the right solution for clean energy production. From four cases studies. Chen / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 55 (2014) 554–561 3 RBFNSM controller PI controller 2. Simulation result of pitch angle response. 17. In this paper. 6.5 0. the system voltage reaches stable as shown in Fig. 3 GRNN Controller P&O Controller Power (KW) 2.5 Power (KW) 2 1.19 kW and PV2 solar power also dropped to around 1. Fig.5 s.9 1 Time (s) Fig. Conclusion Renewable energy source also called non-conventional type of energy are continuously replenished by natural processes. Fig. 19.8 0.2 0. 16. With a short transient in the beginning.5.97 pu. a new wind-PV hybrid generation system has been proposed and implemented.4 0. 18. The output power from PV2 is shown in Fig.5 1 0. 5.1 0. and the total load is 8 kW. Within a short time.

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