CHEMICAL PROCESS and

MATERIAL BALANCE

Chemical Processing

Chemical Processing #2 .

section of a pipe  Importance of system bounderies  Closed System  Material neither enters nor leaves the system  Changes can take place inside the system  Open System  Material can enter through the boundaries . the cell. human body. mitochondria.SYSTEMS  Systems  OPEN or CLOSED  Any arbitrary portion of or a whole process that you want to consider for analysis  Reactor.

ALAT Finput Foutput sistem Finput Foutput sistem .

PABRIK KIMIA recycle Finput feed preparation reactor separation purification Foutput Finput sistem Foutput Foutput Foutput .

limbah cair. dan limbah padat yang terbentuk? . Konsep ini sangat diperlukan oleh seorang chemical engineer untuk melakukan evaluasi suatu proses dalam pabrik kimia.Neraca Massa (Mass Balance) Dasar dari neraca material (neraca massa) adalah “hukum kekekalan massa (law of conservation of mass). •Berapa banyak bahan baku yang dibutuhkan? •Berapa banyak produk yang terbentuk? •Berapa banyak emisi gas.

Dalam akuntansi.Apa yang dilakukan seorang chemical engineer dalam perhitungan neraca massa. . seorang akuntan melakukan perhitungan neraca untuk mengetahui apa yang terjadi dengan uang perusahaan. secara prinsipiil sama dengan perhitungan akuntansi yang dilakukan oleh seorang akuntan. Sementara seorang chemical engineer melakukan perhitungan neraca massa untuk mengetahui apa yang terjadi pada setiap bahan yang ada dalam suatu proses.

Setiap kali kita melakukan tinjauan. . b. variabel-variabel tersebut mempunyai harga yg berbeda dengan ketika pertama kali kita tinjau. Unsteady-state (Transient) process adalah suatu proses yg berubah dengan berubahnya waktu. semua variabel mempunyai harga yg sama seperti ketika pertama kali kita tinjau.Klasifikasi Proses I. Berdasarkan bagaimana suatu proses bervariasi terhadap waktu. a. Setiap kali kita melakukan tinjauan. Steady-state process (proses ajeg) adalah suatu proses yg tidak berubah dengan berubahnya waktu.

Kondisi Unsteady Finput sistem Foutput INPUT . laju akumulasi = 0 sehingga: INPUT .OUTPUT = ACCUMULATION Kondisi Unsteady: kondisi dalam sistem berubah dengan berubahnya waktu (transient) Kondisi Steady: kondisi dalam sistem tidak berubah dengan berubahnya waktu (ajeg) Pada kondisi steady.OUTPUT = 0 .Kondisi Steady vs.

output= akumulasi bocor unsteady steady input = output akumulasi=0 .ember diisi air input.

Umpan diumpankan pada waktu tertentu begitu juga produk yang dihasilkan.II. Batch process adalah suatu proses dimana arus umpan diumpankan ke sistem proses untuk memulai proses. Continuous process adalah suatu proses yang mempunyai arus umpan (yang membawa bahan masuk kedalam sistem proses ) dan arus produk (yang membawa bahan keluar dari sistem proses) untuk setiap saat. a. Berdasarkan bagaimana suatu proses dirancang untuk beroperasi. Material umpan kemudian diproses melalui berbagai tahapan proses dan produk akhir dibentuk selama satu atau lebih tahapan proses. b. .

Beberapa bahan dalam proses dihandel secara batch dan bahan yang lain diproses secara kontinyu. Semi-batch process (also called semicontinuous) suatu proses yang mempunyai karakteristik proses kontinyu dan proses batch.c. .

Proses Batch vs. Proses Kontinyu batch V t t pemasukan t proses t batch Finput t= V/Fv kontinyu V Foutput pengeluaran .

Chemical Processing #4 Continuous process Input Accumulation Output Steady state process: The process is constant with time (variables have the same values all the time) Un-steady state process: The process changes with time (One/more variables value change with time) .

cannot be created nor destroyed” In this case. .Material balance Mass conservation law. “ Total mass is conserved. conversion of mass to energy (nuclear reaction) is not present or ignored.

Material balance #2 Total mass balance Total Mass Input Total Mass Accumulation Total Mass Output .

Total Mass Balance Batch process: Mass Input – Mass output = Mass accumulation Continuous process Rate of mass input – Rate of mass output = Rate of mass accumulation Steady state  Rate of accumulation = 0 Un-steady state  Rate of accumulation ≠ 0 .

three different continuous streams are delivered. At what steady mass stream is withdrawn to keep the scale reading from changing? . The first stream is 120 lbm/hour.Problem 1 Into a container sit on a scale. the second 100 lbm/hour and the third 90 lbm/hour.

The column separate the combined mixture into several components of different volatilities (and different densities) which leave the column at the top (product stream 1).Problem 2 Two stream of similar liquid mixtures enter the center of a distillation column. what is the density of product stream 2? Stream Mass flow (kg/hr) Volumetric flowrate (m3/hr) Density (kg/m3) Feed 1 260000 Feed 2 283 935 Prod 1 157 721 Prod 2 235 Prod 3 208000 . Given the following data. middle (product stream 2) and bottom (product stream 3).

Problem 3 Feed water is fed to a large steady-state boiler. with a smaller amount of hot residual water discharged to waste. Most of the water leaves the boiler as high-pressure steam. The density and flowrate of the stream are as follows: Stream Density (kg/m3) Volumetric flowrate (m3/min) Feed water 1000 28 Hot residual water 960 6.5 High-pressure steam 3.7 What is the volumetric flowrate of the steam? .

Component Mass Balance If the streams contain more than one species. mass balance of individual species can be developed Component i Input Component i Accumulation Component i Output .

Component Mass Balance #2 Batch process: Mass A Input – Mass A output = Mass A accumulation Continuous process Rate of mass A input – Rate of mass A output = Rate of mass A accumulation Steady state  Rate of accumulation = 0 Un-steady state  Rate of accumulation ≠ 0 .

Example: If there are 3 components (A. only n mass balances are required. B and C). B. C). mass balance needed are: • 3 component mass balances (A. or • 1 total mass balance and 2 component mass balances (A and B or A and C or B and C) .Component Mass Balance #3 If there are n components.

please determine concentration of toluene in the bottom product. If 90% of the benzene is recovered in the top product with a purity of 95% (w/w).Problem Separation of benzene and toluene A mixture of benzene and toluene containing 50% (w/w) benzene is separated by a distillation column into two fraction. .

Problem Methanol – water mixture Two methanol-water mixtures are contained in separated flasks. what are the mass and composition of the product? . If 200 g of the first mixture is combined with 150 g of the second. the second contains 70 wt% methanol. The first mixture contains 40 wt% methanol.