36th International Physics Olympiad.

Salamanca (España) 2005
R.S.E.F.

Th 2

ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES
SOLUTION

r
r
1. After some time t, the normal to the coil plane makes an angle ω t with the magnetic field B0 = B0 i . Then, the

magnetic flux through the coil is
r r
φ = N B0 ⋅ S
r
r
r
r
where the vector surface S is given by S = π a 2 cos ω t i + sin ω t j

(

Therefore

)

φ = N π a 2 B0 cosω t

The induced electromotive force is

ε

=−


dt

ε = N π a 2 B0 ω sin ω t

The instantaneous power is P = ε 2 /R , therefore

P

2
(
N π a 2 B0ω )
=

2R

where we used < sin 2ω t >=

1 T 2
1
sin ω t dt =
2
T 0

2. The total field at the center the coil at the instant t is
r
r
r
B t = B 0 + Bi
r
r
r
r
where Bi is the magnetic field due to the induced current Bi = Bi cos ω t i + sin ω t j

(

with

Bi =

Therefore

Bi =

µ0 N I

I=ε/R

and

2a

µ 0 N 2π a B0 ω
2R

)

sinω t

The mean values of its components are
Bix =
Biy =

µ 0 N 2π a B0 ω
2R

µ 0 N 2π a B0 ω
2R

sinω t cosω t = 0
sin 2ω t =

µ 0 N 2π a B0 ω
4R

And the mean value of the total magnetic field is
r
r µ N 2π a B0 ω r
j
Bt = B0 i + 0
4R

The needle orients along the mean field, therefore
tan θ =

µ 0 N 2π aω
4R

Solution Th 2 Page 1 of 4

) induced on each disk by the magnetic field B is ε D = ε D ' = Bω ∫ b r dr = 0 1 Bω b 2 2 Finally. the resistance of the coil measured by this procedure. f = µ 0 I1 I 2 2π h for I 1 = I 2 = I and length 2π a . in terms of θ . between 1 and 4 is ε = εD + ε =N ε D' µ 0 b 2ω I 2a 4.F.36th International Physics Olympiad.E.S. the force F induced on C2 by the neighbor coils C1 is F= µ0 a h I2 6. Salamanca (España) 2005 R.m. Finally. the electromotive force (e.f. is R= µ 0 N 2π aω 4 tanθ 3. The force per unit length f between two indefinite parallel straight wires separated by a distance h is.f. I G = 0 and Kirchoff laws give an immediate answer. When the reading of G vanishes. In equilibrium m g x = 4F d Then mg x = 4µ 0 a d 2 I h (1) so that ⎛ mghx ⎞ ⎟ I = ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4µ 0 a d ⎠ 1/ 2 Solution Th 2 Page 2 of 4 . the induced e.m. Then we have ε =IR ⇒ R=N µ 0 b 2ω 2a 5. The force on a unit positive charge in a disk is radial and its modulus is r r v × B = vB =ωrB where B is the magnetic field at the center of the coil µ I B=N 0 2a Then.

Salamanca (España) 2005 R.F.δz Therefore.S.E.δz h + δz h + δz Mg h . for tan δ ϕ ≈ sin δ ϕ = δz< M l h2 m xd δ z2 h2 cos δϕ δz d ⇒ δ z max = M lh2 m xd Solution Th 2 Page 3 of 4 . The balance comes back towards the equilibrium position for a little angular deviation δϕ if the gravity torques with respect to the fulcrum O are greater than the magnetic torques.36th International Physics Olympiad. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ d cosδϕ + Mg l sinδϕ + m g x cosδϕ > 2 µ 0 a I 2 ⎜⎜ ⎝ h −δ z h +δ z ⎠ x δϕ δz d O mg l G δϕ h . 7. using the suggested approximation Mg l sinδϕ + m g x cosδϕ > 4µ 0 a d I 2 h ⎛ δ z2 ⎜1 + ⎜ h2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cosδϕ ⎟ ⎠ Taking into account the equilibrium condition (1). one obtains M g l sin δϕ > m g x Finally.

0 Bx r r r E = v×B v =ωr 3 µ N 2π aω R= 0 4tan θ µ I B=N 0 2a br r ε = ∫ E dr ε=N µ 0 b 2ω I 2. Th 2 Question Basic formulas and ideas used Φ = N B0 ⋅ S dΦ ε =− P= Analytical results Marking guideline r r 1 ANSWER SHEET dt ε = N π a 2 B0 ω sin ω t P ε2 2 ( N π a 2 B0ω ) = 2R 0.0 R r r r B = B 0 + Bi 2 Bi = µ0 N 2a tanθ = I By 2.0 Solution Th 2 Page 4 of 4 .5 1.0 2.5 I2 6 mg x = 4F d ⎛ mghx ⎞ ⎟ I = ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4µ 0 a d ⎠ 7 Γ grav > Γ mag δ z max = 1.0 2a 0 4 ε = RI 5 f = µ0 I I ′ 2π h µ b ω R=N 0 2a 2 F= µ0 a h 0.0 1/ 2 M l h2 m xd 1.S. Salamanca (España) 2005 R.E.F.36th International Physics Olympiad.