MS ISO/IEC TR 10037 : 1995

MALAYSIAN

STANDARD
MS 84:1973 (Previously numbered as MS 3.14:1973)
ICS : 97.060

SPECIFICATION AND GRADES FOR PADI

STANDARDS & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MALAYSIA
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©

SIRIM. No part of this publication may be photocopied or otherwise reproduced
without the prior permission in writing of SIRIM

SPECIFICATION AND GRADES FOR PADI MS 3. KUALA LUMPUR. SIMSEC KUALA LUMPUR T&egrams: .14 : 1973 © Copyright STANDARDS INSTITUTION OF MALAYSIA P0 BOX 544.

MS 3.14: 1973 This Malaysian Standard. The Malaysian Standards are subject to periodical review to keep abreast of progress in the industries concerned. Suggestions for improvements will be recorded and in due course brought to the notice of the Committees charged with the revision of the Standards to which they refer. The Standards Institution of Malaysia wishes to draw attention to the fact that this Malaysian Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. which had been approved by the Agricultural Industry Standards Committee and endorsed by the Standards Council. The following SIM references relate to the work on this standard: Committee Reference : S1M/TC6(ISC3)/OOl Draft for Comment : D6(ISC3) . was published under the authority of the Standards Council in May. 1973.

.... .. ... ... . .. .. .... ..... .. 6 ... 12 .. .. .. ...... . ..... .. .14: 1973 CONTENTS Page Committee Representative Foreword 4 .. SPECIFICATION 1 Scope 2 Definitions 3 Classification of Path 4 Standard and Grades 5 Packing 6 Marking 7 Sampling 8 Tests Appendix A . ...... 6 . Determination of Moisture Content Table 1 Requirement for Padi Variety “Mahsuri” .... ... ..... . . “. . •. .. 17 . ..... .. ..... 10 Table 2 Requirement for All Padi Varieties Except “Mahsuri” Table 3 Requirement for Mixed Padi (Mixed Varieties) 3 13 ...... . . ...... ... .. . 7 8 12 ... 9 . ......... . .... ••. ... -. .... ... .. ... ........MS 3.. .. . ••.. ......~ .... .... . . 12 -. ... .. ••. ..... ... ..... . . 11 ..

14 : 1973 Committee Representation The Agricultural Industry Standards Committee under whose supervision this Malaysian Standard was prepared.MS 3. States of Malaya 4 . Rice and Rice Byproducts which prepared this Malaysian Standard consists of representatives from the following member organizations: Associated Rice millers Association Consumers Association Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority Lembaga Pacli dan Beras Negara Ministry of Defence (Technical Defence Centre) Ministry of Trade and Industry Ministry of Agricul. re and Fisheries (Department of Agriculture) Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Division of Food Technology) United Rice Importers and Exporters Association.. comprises representatives from the following Government Ministries. Research and Co-ordination of New Villages (Department of Chemistry) Ministry of Trade and Industry National Chambers of Commerce of Malaysia Oil Palm Growers Council of Malaysia Rubber Producers’ Council of Malaya Rubber Research Institute of Malaya Timber Trade Federation of Malaysia University of Malaya The Technical Committee on Padi.Research and Development Institute Malaysian Pineapple Industry Board Malaysian Plywood Manufacturers’ Association Malaysian Scientific Association Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Division of Agriculture) Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Division of Fisheries) Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Division of Food Technology) Ministry of Education (College of Agriculture Malaysia) ‘Ministry of Primary Industries (Forest Research Institute) Ministry of Technology. = Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers Lernbaga Kemaj uan Tanah Persekutuan Malay Timber Industry Association Malayan Edible Oil Manufacturers’ Association Malayan Medical Association Malayan Tobacco Manufacturers Association Malaysian Agricultural . trade commerce and manufacturer association and scientific and professional bodies.

padi refers specifically to the grain in the husk while rice refers to the dehusked grain. such as harvesting and threshing methods. Factors affecting the value of padi. have been also taken into due consideration. In general. Oryza sativa. In the local idiom. There is no ambiguity. The latter forms the staple of the people. from the primary marketing to the final consumer or export marketing level. 5 . all padi described. The former. the corresponding terms are padi and beras. mentioned. under the authority of the Agricultural Industry Standards Cothmittee. or referred to shall be of the type yielding.MS 3. In the Malaysian language. Glutinous and non-glutinous rice are locally recognized as pulut and beras respectively. In the preparation of this Malaysian Standard. type of milling equipment used and technique adopted. every endeavour was made to ensure that the grading system accurately reflects all the quality factors of economic significance and that the application of prescribed grades and quality standards is practicable and acceptable at all market levels. non-glutinous rice. Rice and Rice Byproducts.14: 1973 FOREWORD This Malaysian Standard was prepared by the Technical Committee on Padi. which are locally translated into English as padi and rice. the term “rice” may refer to both rice in the husk (paddy) and rice with the husk removed (dehulied paddy or milled rice). and drying and storage practices. on milling. constitutes only a small portion of the rice trade in Malaysia. There are variations in usage of terms pertaining to rice. therefore. commonly used in the making of local cakes. For the purpose of this Malaysian Standard.

6 . Such rice usually has a hard.-that is grain with the glumes enclosing the kernel. that is grain with the husk removed. translucent appearance and breaks with a clean vitreous fracture. Whole kernel A rice grains which is not broken. Such rice tends to become a “sticky” mass when cooked. DEFINITION 2. after threshing and without any portion of the stalk. sampling. husk Glume enclosing the rice grain. SCOPE 1. opaque and chalky in appearance. on milling.MS 3. Husked grain of Oryza sativa. Glutinous Said of a variety of rice in which a minimum of 90 per cent of its grains are white. the following definitions shall apply: Padi Unhusked grain of Oryza sativa. It is synonymous with paddy. It is synonymous with dehulled paddy or milled rice.14: 1973 SPECIFICATION 1. This term therefore denotes rice in the husk. Rice. 2. and testing for padi of the type yielding. non-glutinous rice. Non-glutinous Said of any rice which is not glutinous as defined above. Head rice Rice whose kernels measure more than 8/lOths of the whole kernel.1 This Malaysian Standard covers the Standardization.1 For the purpose of this Malaysian Standard. Hull. grading.

They include stained. Damaged grains Kernels which are distinctively identified as having been damaged by insects.2 mm. CLASSIFICATION OF PADI 3. Foreign matter includes such things as sand. stones.MS 3. 3. Damaged grains have a substantial discolouration on the surface. Chalky grains Kernels having an opaque. fragments of padi stalk. water or any causative agent other than those caused by the milling process. weed seeds.1 mm.14: 1973 Red grains Kernels with a~red or red-streaked pericarp. Short grain Grain with kernel length less than 5 . bran or rice polishings. and yellow grains. the different bran layers which cover the rice grain. heat. Kernel length has long been used in most rice- growing areas as one of the main characteristics for classifying rice varietjes. Medium grain Grain with kernel length 5. 3.2 mm to 6. husk. Long grain Grain with kernel length greater than 6. Within the context of this Malaysian Standard.Kernel width and thicknesshave also been used to differentiate classes of rice. chalky appearance.2 Terminology. .0. Slender Said of grain in which the kernel length (1) to breadth (b) ratio is greater than 3. - Foreign matter All matter other than rice (whether whple or broken) or padi. as a result of polishing. spotted.1 Kernel dimensions. Degree of milling The extent or degree of removing.2 mm. the following terms are applicable. and dust.

Bold Said ®f grain in which the kernel length (1) to breadth (b) ratio is 2.2 Padi shall be free from musty or sour odour or from other foreign odours. 4. it is necessary to specify for both mixed padi and single-variety padi. 4.0.39.1. when tested by the relevant clause of this Malaysian standard. shall also conform with the requirements specified in one of the following three Tables (Tables 1. Round Said of grain in which the kernel length (1) to breadth (b) ratio is less than 2. 4.0 to 2.1 In order to provide for all padis produced. 4.3 Padi shall be free from insect infestation when visually examined as directed in Clause 8. 2 and 3): 8 . 3.MS3.4 Padj. STANDARD AND GRADES 4. the variety “Mahsuri” is sufficiently unique to warranf a separate specification.3 A large number of varieties of padi is grown in Malaysia. eg “Bahagia”. For single-variety padi. It must be borne in mind that some varieties.14: 1973 Medium Said of grain in which the kernel length (1) to breadth (b) ratio is 2. are responsive to fertiliser. Mixed padi shall be taken to mean padi containing less than 80 per cent of any one variety. and their kernel length is to some extent determined by the time of fertiliser application relative to its growth stage.4 to 3.

15 0. max Red grains. per cent. per cent.0 9.20 0.0 4. per cent.1 0.9 J Note: Any quality of padi which does not meet the requirements for any of the above grades will be graded as ~‘Mahsuri”Sample Grade.9 65—65.0 6.5 1.0 3.0 10.0 6. 86—89.9 6363. per cent.0 2.0 4.0 12.9 96 mm 94—95. per cent.0 8.10 0. max Damaged grains.0 2.0 4. per cent.3 In unmilled grain Moisture.9 65 —64. max Foreign grains. max In test-milled grain Seeds/foreign matter. per cent in total rice . max Impurities/foreign matter.9 .TABLE 1 REQUIREMENT FOR PADI VARIETY “MAHSURI” Item No (1) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) Sub-standard Grade 3 Grade 2 Grading factors Premium Grade Standard Grade 1 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 14 14 14 14 14 1 1 1 1 1 0. max Chalky/immature grains. per cent Milling yield (Head rice.0 0. . per cent.9 90—9 3.2 0. max (Total rice.0 68 mm 66—67. — — — — 2.9 83—85. Grade 4 (7) .

max 2.0 12. max Foreign grains.20 0. per cent in total rice 88 mm 86—87. percent.3 ii .0 16. per cent.max Red grains.0 6. Standard Grade 1 GrMe 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 (4) (5) (6) (7) 14 14 14 14 14 1 1 2 2 22 — — 0.0 8.9 64—65.0 per cent 68 mm 66—67. max In Test Milled Rice Seeds/foreign matter.0 4.9 83—85.9 75—79. per cent.9 (Total rice.1 0.0 2.15 0.TABLE 2 REQUIREMENT FOR ALL PAD! VARIETIES EXCEPT “MAHSURI” Item Grading factors (1) (2) (i) (ii) (iii) 0 Premium No (iv) (v) (vi) (vli) In Unmilled Grain Moisture. 0.5 1. per cent.0 4. per cent.10 0. per cent. LI~ .9 (Head rice.9 62—63.0 3.9 60—61. max Impurities/foreign matter.0 max 2. per cent.9 80—82.0 8. max Chalky/immature grains. (The varietal name shall be stated within parenthesis).2 Grade (3) -- — 0.0 10.0 Damaged grains.0 4. (viii) Milling yield Note: Any quality of padi which does not meet the requirements for any of the above grades shall be graded as Sample Grade.

2 0. LID 4~. max Chalky/immature grains.2 0.0 1. per cent. per cent (vii) — 0.1 0. .9 Milling yield (Head rice.3 0.0 4.2 0.9 75—79.0 2.9 86 mm 83—85. rna’K (Total rice.0 12.0 - - 66 mm 64—65. per cent.1 4.0 10. per cent. per cent in total rice Note: Any quality of padi which does not meet the requirements for any of the above grades shall be graded as Mixed Padi Sample Grade. per cent. per cent.9 55—59. max 1 1 2 2 2 In Test-Milled Grain Seeds/foreign matter. — 0.0 4.max Red grains.9 80—82.15 0.9 62—63.TABLE 3 REQUIREMENT FOR MIXED PADI (MIXED VARIETIES) Item No (1) Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 (4) ~5) (6) 14 14 14 14 14 per cent.3 8.0 6.0 3. max Impurities/foreign matter.9 60—61. max (vi) Damaged grains.9 70—74.0 Grading factors (2) Grade 1 (3) Grade 5 (7) In Unmille4 Grain (1) (ii) (iii) (Iv) (v) Moisture.

1 Size of Sample 7. More than this quantity can be drawn if needed for test purposes.2 7. withdraw the probe. two or more slight up-and-down motions to the probe will facilitate filling of padi in the openings.MS 3. 7. 7.1 Padi shall be packed in new or good used gunny sacks without patches. (b) Class and grade. 6. MARKING 6.1 - Sampling from Bulk In bulk storage or in trucks.1 Each sack shall carry a suitable label giving the following information: (a) Locality where grown and crop year. Close the slots. wagons or other containers where padi is placed in bulk. The probing should be done as many times as possible to get a representative sample.14: 1973 5. The slots shall be facing upward when the probe is opened. the sample shall be taken using a compartmented bulk grain probe by inserting the probe into the padi with the slots closed.2. PACKING 5. SAMPLING 7. in order to afford ease of handling and maximum protection from the normal hazards of transportation. While the slots remain open. and (c) Net weight in kg or lb.1 . and place the contents of the probe full length on a sampling cloth.1 The size of the sample for an inspection of padi shall be not less than 100 g. 7.3 Samplingfrom Sacks 12 .

and ends of the stack as will enable the sampler to secure a representative sample from all of the accessible sacks.4 Representative Sample 7. and (c) the sample is sufficient in size to permit the required tests for grading.14 : 1973 7. at least 10 per cent of the sacks in a lot shall always be sampled. (b) the sample is preserved in its original condition from the time it is taken until the grade or quality factors are determined.1 The sample upon which the inspection and grading is made shall be representative of the lot from which the sample was drawn. sides. samples should be drawn from each individual sack. It is essential that: (a) the details of the sample are carefully recorded for easy identification. If a lot is of uniform quality.MS 3.1 For sacked padi. The following scheme shows the complete sequence for the laboratory examination of padi: 13 . samples shall be drawn from as many individual sacks stored on top. 8. TESTS 8. the sample of such shall be composited separately. they shall be composited to form the sample for the lot. If any part of the lot is found to be distinctly different from the rest of the lot. In the case of sacked padi stored in stacks in a warehouse. 7. samples shall be taken with a probe of sufficient length to reach to the centre of the sack~As far as possible. When all individual portions of a sample are found to be of one uniform quality.4.3.1 Padi shall be tested by the procedure prescribed by the relevant clauses of this Malaysian Standard.

hides. or (c) does not contain any live weevils but does contain five or more other live insects. burnt padi. vegetable matter. Insect-infested padi shall be padi infested with live weevils or other live insects. A musty and sour odour shall be such musty. smoke. Samples for moisture tests must be placed in an airtight or moisture-proof container at the time of sampling. A preliminary examination of the material will distinguish rice from padi. sour. This affords a check on the purity of the padi. Insect-infested padi — shall be graded and designated according to the grade requirements of the Malaysian Standard but the ‘york “infested” shall be added as part of the grade designation. A sample containing 50 per cent or more of padi grains is considered as padi. Objectionable foreign odours include those from fertilisers. Padi which is musty or sour or which has any objectionable foreign odour shall be down-graded and designated — “Sample Grade”. or (b) contains one live weevil and any other live insects. insect odour. earthy. or rancid odour as are common to unsound padi. and decaying animal and. Step 4 Insect Infestation in Padi. 14 . Step 3 Odour in Padi. The determination of impurities and foreign matter shall he made on a representative sample of 500 g.14: 1973 Step 1 Preliminary Observation. Moisture shall be determined by the method prescribed in Appendix A.MS 3. Impurities and foreign matter shall be all matter other than padi or rice grains. Step 5 — Impurities and Foreign Matter in Padi. oil products. using a dockage tester or hand sieves. — Step 2 — Moisture in Padi. mouldy odour. The padi is considered to be infested if a sample weighing not less than 500 g: (a) contains more than one live weevil.

The determination of red grains or red-streaked grains shall be made — on a representative portion of not less than 50 g of head rice. It is expressed as a percentage of the padi milled. Step 9 Red Grains. Not less than 100 g of padi. and handpicking. Head rice or whole kernels shall be kernels of not less than 8/10 of the length of the rice grain. measure individual grains for length and breadth. Foreign matter shall be all matter other than rice or padi grains. Seeds shall be grain or kernels. the degree of milling being maintained at 7 to 8 per cent fine bran removal. perforated sieves. Step 7 — Step 8 Seeds and Foreign Matter in Test-Milled Rice. It shall be expressed as a percentage of the total rice. shall be test-milled.14: 1973 Test 6 Milling Yield. either whole or broken.MS 3. of any plant other than — rice. Calculate the average length and breadth. Head Rice. with moisture content between 13 and 14 per — cent. With a suitable micrometer. This is the quantity of whole and broken kernels of milled rice obtained in the test-milling. The content of seeds/foreign matter shall be determined by the use of sieves and hand-picking. Remove from the total rice obtained above 25 whole-kernel rice grains. Classification of Padi.This shall be determined by the use of indented plates. 15 . Total Rice. Red grains (or red-streaked grains) shall be grains which are red in colour or which have red streaks on the grains. The milling yield of padi shall be determined using a vertical cone huller/polisher (Miniature Test Mill)..

14: 1973 Step 10 Chalky and Immature Grains. Grains. breadth and ratio of the grains differ from those of the grains of the. insects. Step 12 — Foreign Grains. Damaged grains shall be grains which are distinctly discoloured or damaged by water. — Step 11 — Damaged. Off-coloured. insect-bored and stained or spotted grains are also considered as damaged grains. yellow. The determination of chalky/immature grains shall be made on a representative portion of not less than 50 g of head rice. predominating class. The foreign grains or rice of other classes shall be determined on the basis of head rice from a representative portion of not less than 50 g of head rice. 16 .MS 3. Foreign grains shall be rice grains of other classes in which the length. heat or any other means. The determination of damaged grains shall be made on a representative portion of not less than 50 g of head rice. Immature or shrunken grains are considered as chalky/immature. Chalky grains shall be grains which are one-half or more chalky by volume.. Parboiled grains when found in white rice are considered as damaged grains.

14 : 1973 APPENDIX A DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT Al.1 The sample should be ground to particle size not exceeding 1.MS 3. (c) Dish of non-corrodible metal or. or any other effective desiccant. (b) Grinding mill. granulated and impregnated with cobalt chloride as indicator. P205. containing pure phosphorus pentoxide. of analytical grade. failing this.7 mm. as far as possible without cuntact with the outside air. of glass. or anhydrous calcium sulphate.3 g/cm2. METHOD Al . — A2. with a sufficiently tight-fitting lid. which shall be made of material which does not absorb moisture. controlled in such a way that the temperature of the air and of the shelves carrying the test portions is within the range of 130°C to 133°C. 17 . is easy to clean and has as little dead space as possible. A3. CaSO4. failing this. PREPARATION OF SAMPLE A3. electrically heated. without development of heat and. the effective surface enabling the test portion to be distributed so as to give not more than 0. with a thick perforated plate of metal or. of porcelain. and is adjustable so as to obtain particles of dimensions indicated in A3. enables grinding to be carried out rapidly and uniformly.ight loss of a powdered sample dried at a temperature of 130°C 133°C. (d) Constant-temperature oven. (e) Desiccator. APPARATUS (a) Analytical balance.1 The moisture content shall be determined by measuring the we.

5 mm. A4. Quickly close the latter and weigh it to the nearest mg. grind a small quantity of the product and reject this. (The time between taking the sample and weighing before drying should be less than 2 minutes.14: 1973 less than 10 per cent of the mass being over 1 mm and more than 50 per cent being less than 0. CALCULATION AS . and mass of the dry test portion. if a small mill of the classical cone hammer type is used). Weigh the dish when it has cooled to laboratory temperature. 18 . which should be at least 10 g. m0 m1 = initial mass of test portion. A42 Carry out at least two determinations on the same sample.1 Transfer the ground portion to a previsouly dried and tared dish. take the dish out of the oven. After this period and carrying out the operation rapidly.1 Calculate as follows: Moisture content. Adjust the grinding mill to obtain particles of the requisite dimensions. Place the open dish containing the test portion in the oven and leave it for 2 hours. (Never put dishes on top of each other in the desiccator). PROCEDURE A4. A5. reckoned from the moment when the oven temperature again reaches 130°C. per cent m = 0 m0 x 100 where. Then quickly grind an amount of sample slightly greater than that required for the test. cover it and put it in the desiccator.MS 3.

If necessary. A6.2 Take as the result the arithmetic mean of the two determinations. 19 . (b) Never place together in the oven moist samples and nearly dry test portions as this will result in partial rehydration of the latter.MS 3.14: 1973 AS .1 per cent. NOTES (a) The’ difference between two determinations carried out simultaneously or in rapid succession by the same analyst should not exceed 0. repeat the determination in duplicate.

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