Germany: Development of dictatorship

Paper 1 Option 5

Why was there a revolution in Germany in 1918?

-Germany’s defeat in the war
Almost Bankrupt— Paid for war by borrowing heavily & National income in 1918 was 1/3 of in 1913
600,000 widows and 2 million orphans— State spending 1/3 of its budget on war pensions
-Social Problems
Huge Gaps between living standards of rich and poor
German workers’ wages restricted during war while factory owners made huge profits
Women called up to work in factories in war— Seen as damaging to Family values and society

How revolutionary was the German Revolution? Not Very

-No radical change in party views and many policies remained unchanged
Moderate socialist Ebert in charge.
-Elite were still in charge and power concentrated among them

Opposition to the Weimar Republic

-Bavarian Democratic Republic (Nov 7 1918)
Establish communist government in Munich. Government put down with help of Freikorps.
700 workers killed and right-wing government established
-Sparticist Revolt (Jan-Mar 1919)
Establish communist government in Berlin.
Liebnknecht and Luxemburg killed along with 100 workers
-Kapp Putsch (Mar 1920)
Right Wing revolt supported by Freikorps to overthrow Weimar Republic.
Army refused to suppress uprising as many of the rebels were demobilised soldiers
Kapp took over Berlin but was overthrown by a general strike by socialists
Only 1 person Punished out of the 12,000 Freikorps

Why was there opposition?
-Stab in the Back Myth
Germany lost war as revolts from left-wing Germans forced government to resign in favour of the
Weimar Republic which in turn immediately surrendered
Encouraged Germans to blame Weimar Government as Army did not lose war but politicians did
An example of anger over the Treaty of V, not the cause of it
-Armistice Terms
Blockade continued with 300,000 Germans starving to death before lifted at Treaty of V


eroded democracy All civil servants of the Kaiser’s time were kept and they didn't approve of Republic Germany loses 10% of land Saarland occupied by the French for 15 years Germany loses 122. government printed extra money to pay them wages so they could live without working. President govern by decree as did in crisis of 1929-32. paid more each day and spent paycheques on items for bartering 2 . affected middle class Working class not affected as much. Were responsible for later German Economic problems Hyperinflation Crisis of 1923 -Germany fell behind on reparation payments so France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr They believed Germany was refusing to pay Treaty reparations Workers went on strike (Passive Resistance). tanks.00 men Not allowed to build battleships. didn't have enough money to pay for Passive R Government had to spend money it couldn't afford to spend and Bankruptcy meant that printing more money was the only way to do so -Effect on the people Government paid off debt which was worth next to nothing as of Hyperinflation.5% of its population Loses 10% of coal 48% of industry Army reduced to 100. Germany was the aggressor and people didn't accept that Germany had a greater role in starting the war -Reparations Pay half of the total cost of the war. -Government on verge of bankruptcy Heavily in debt to the people from war effort.Entire German Navy confiscated Germans had to release all POWs but no German POW released Germany evacuates all territory it occupied -Unstable Republic Proportional representation so hard for parties to gain a majority Article 48. submarines or airplanes The Treaty of Versailles -Statistics on the right -War Guilt Clause (Article 231) Germany responsible for all damage to Allied forces German people resented this as told they were fighting a defensive war Justification for reparations. Value of money decreased. all debt gone This angered the people Loaf of bread changed from 163 marks to 200 billion marks.

Hitler sentenced to 5 years but served only 9 months -Army’s Support and Bavarian State Government’s support They thought they could persuade the army to abandon the government and help them Hitler was developing a close relationship with Ludendorff and that Ludendorff would side with him Bavarian government was right-wing and their leaders had been plotting against the Reich already Why did it fail? -Kahr BS Government did not want to launch the putsch at that time so Hitler forced him to at gun point Kahr released & he made no attempt to help Nazis & allowed the order for Bavarian army to stop it Changes in the Nazi Party & What helped them -Switch to more legal means -Working Classes Ran public meetings to win their support but did not have much effect on them 3 .How did Germany recover between 1924-29? -Work of Stresemann Introduced the Rentenmark Ordered striking workers back to work Agreed to pay reparations -Dawes Plan of 1924 USA loaned Germany 800 million marks Reparation payments spread over longer period of time in smaller instalments Left Germany vulnerable when American Stock Market crashed in 1929 -Locarno Treaties Germany guaranteed their frontiers with France and Belgium Avoided giving any guarantees over eastern frontiers -Kellogg-Briand Pact Only go to war for self defence. with the Nazis… -The Beer Hall Putsch (Munich Putsch) Stresemann making Germany give in to France was seen as a betrayal Uprising easily crushed by the army 16 Nazis and 4 Policemen were killed. All other European powers signed it. -Young Plan Reduced reparations by 67% Allied forces withdrew from the Rhineland area Led to industrial production being higher than in 1913 Meanwhile.

became over 5 million in 1932 -Weimar Government Way to solve economic crisis was to print more money but they were afraid of Hyperinflation Chancellor raised taxes instead. cut wages and reduced unemployment benefit to get more money Chancellor governed by Article 48 as Social Democrats withdrew from the coalitions. represented strong and decisive leadership Strong Personality and Powerful Ideas Opposition had no one to match him.000 to over 100.Realised that anti-Semitic message was most popular so they increased anti-Semitic propaganda -Middle Classes Most new party members came from this class and the farmers Wanted to improve agriculture Held evening classes to train members in public speaking Party membership increased from less than 50. they changed it -Hitler Delivered powerful and moving speeches. repeat it Changed policies to fit the issues the people thought were important Idea was losing them support. 500 killed during elections of 1932 Communists were more popular and Nazis seemed like only party capable of defeating them -How it helped the Nazis Hitler was a strong leader and Weimar government is too weak Nazis would introduce road-building and public works to reduce unemployment Nazi’s SA only one to deal with Communists How the Nazis came to power in the Reichstag -Campaigning Hitler’s oratory 25-point program allowed them to appeal to a broad spectrum of society & political flexibility -SA 4 .000 in 1928 -Political Flexibility If subject was popular. campaigns focussed around his personality & skills The Great Depression -Unemployment Less than 1million in 1925. President rule -Extremism People were disenfranchised with Weimar government Communists said Depression showed that capitalist system was doomed Nazis blamed Weimar Republic. Treaty of V and the Jews Violence between 2 parties.

4% of the vote Largest party in the Reichstag. Common practise dictated that leader of largest party = chancellor However. believed Hitler as Chancellor meant Nazis too much power Hindenburg delayed chancellorship further -General von Schleicher Advised Hindenburg to get rid of Von Papen so he could be Chancellor Von Papen becomes angry and makes a deal privately with Hitler: All but three of the cabinet were non-Nazi and Von Papen was in it too VP persuades H. and army was smaller 100. only organisation able to remove Hitler so he needed their support SA was bigger.000 communists Made it difficult for anyone to organise opposition against Hitler -The Enabling Act (passed by 444 votes to 94) Nazis needed an overall majority so they banned the Communists & intimidated other parties Hitler could make laws without approval of Reichstag or President Reichstag voted itself out of existence.000 soldiers. 10. Hindenburg didn't trust Hitler.5 million people. voted in favour of a Nazi dictatorship Weimar Republic over and triggered the Nazi revolution The Night of Long Knives -Why? Hitler chooses the Army over the SA as Röhm wanted whole of army under his/SA’s control Army was more disciplined.Storm Troopers made the party seem stronger and more intimidating How Hitler became Chancellor -July 1932 Election. Goering’s police arrested 4000 Communist leaders Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to pass an… -Emergency Decree (“temporary” but stayed in place for 12 years) Suspended all articles in the constitution which guaranteed Freedom of speech/press/assembly and Personal Liberty Police allowed to Search houses. SA was getting out of hand. 37. confiscate property and detain people indefinitely without trial Dragged political opponents off to concentration camps. interfering with running of the country and the law courts Hitler didn't agree with SA’s anti-capitalist policies & socialist aims which he planned on dropping SA’s Rohm was a potential rival. arrested and executed them 5 . but he was a homosexual and drunkard (embarrassment) -Features SS breaks into homes of Röhm and other opponents. says limiting number of Nazis in cabinet means most extreme policies wont pass VP tells H alternatives is a Nazi revolt and Civil War Consolidating his power -The Reichstag Fire Dutch communist van der Lubbe started it Hitler used this as evidence that Communists were plotting a coup That night. 2.

Even the Nazi party Nazis wanted total control over Germany and People who believed in God would worship Hitler Church meetings could be used for spreading anti-Nazi ideas -Nazi Reasons to keep the churches Many Protestants had voted for Hitler Protestant church pastors were the most popular Nazi election speakers While they’d later disagree over some policies.Between 90 and 200 people were killed Hitler said the SA and Röhm were plotting a coup Eliminated opposition and blame Nazi’s excesses on Röhm to win support of army Many people killed so each murder got less attention. The combination of infrastructure investment. employed many people Government gave huge contracts to private companies to produce arms and equipment for army -Conscription All able-bodied German men had to spend 6 months in the Reich Labour Service And 3 years in the army Meant that Young men were not looking for work. Unemployed had to work on these to receive benefits. nearly all Germans were Christian & 1/3 were Roman Catholic. priests accompanied troops in the Rhineland 6 . even if they had professional training -Rearmament programs of 1933 Created work. e. only made it public in 1935.g Schleicher was killed too Nazi Germany— Unemployment -Public Works Projects Highway building to make work for unemployed people. rearmament and conscription reduced unemployment so much that there was a labour shortage when war broke out in 1939 -Fiddling of Figures Jews and Political opponents were fired from government jobs They were not counted in unemployment statistics Women were also pushed out of the workforce to some extent as well and not counted in stats Reduced official unemployment figures without reducing actual unemployment -Workshy People labelled as “workshy” could be incarcerated in Hashude or a concentration camp Discouraged people from applying for unemployment benefit The Churches -Nazi Reasons to destroy the churches In 1933. the others were Protestant Protestant Church hammer members than any other organisation in Germany. they agreed on family life’s importance and others Church supported Nazi influence on the military.

only Nazi approved music Also to broadcast Hitler’s speeches to peoples’ living rooms Germans listening to the BBC could be shot Pro-Nazi.g. illegal currency dealings —Christmas carols and nativity plays banned 1937 —Priests were stopped from teaching religious classes in schools 1938 —All Church Schools later abolished 1939 How Hitler controlled Germany -Propaganda Every word published was censored.g “the Eternal Jew” Parades and Rallies were staged by Goebbels to project an image of unity and strength Students had to study “Race Studies” subject Maths problems were written to emphasise cost of keeping mentally disabled people alive Entire History syllabus rewritten to emphasise greatness of Nazis -A One-party/Police State Dictatorship 7 .-The Concordat with the Catholic Church of June 1933 Hitler said that Christianity was ‘the unshakeable foundation of the moral life of our people” Catholics could continue with religious work & Catholic schools & youth groups would be left alone -Protestants Originally divided but united into the German Christians under pro-Nazi Bishop Ludwig Müller Opposition from the churches -Martin Niemöller Nazi’s most prominent critic and formed an alternative “Confessional Church” Was a Protestant minister and was put in a Concentration camp -Catholic Cardinal Galen Publicly attacked Nazi policies Revealed and campaigned against the Nazi Euthanasia programme. e. books written by Jews&other opponents were publicly burned Cheap People’s Receiver so many households could have one.Hitler pretended to drop it Nazi Party didn't want to make him into a martyr so they took no action against him 3 Catholic priests were executed for giving his sermons to soldiers Supported by provinces of Westphalia and city of Münster Nazi actions against the churches -Set up Department of Church Affairs 1935 700 Protestant ministers were arrested -Anti-Church campaigns 1936 Pressured children not to attend Church schools or youth movements Hundreds of Catholic priests/nuns were charged with offenses e. anti-Communist and anti-Semitic posters were all over Germany All films were blatantly designed to promote Nazi policy.

000 sent to concentration camps Goebbels suggested it to satisfy the hatred many Nazi hardliners had for the Jews Marked first time Hitler took physical action against the Jews and killed them outright Property damaged was rented by Jews from German Owners. 16% of the lawyers & 17% of bankers -1st Two years of Nazi Rule Little organised Persecution of Jews. writers & actors had to be members Students encouraged to burn all books which were politically against the Nazis Cheap theatre tickets were available -Gleishaltung All clubs & organisations were merged into Nazi organisations so Nazis controlled people’s leisure Difficult to criticise Nazis anywhere Position of the Jewish people -Background Anti-Semitism common in Europe for many centuries In 1933. Jews fined 1 billion Reichmarks -Even Worse 8 . Some Jews even supported the Nazis Der Stürmer newspaper poured out anti-Semitic propaganda and there was the 1-day boycott -1935 (Nuremberg Laws) Anti-Semitic actions increased and Jews forbidden to join the army in May Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour in September Banned Jew and Aryan marriage and sexual relations outside of marriage Reich Citizenship Law made Jews ‘subjects’ rather than citizens. lost certain rights -Lull in 1936 Anti-Semitic action died down because of Berlin Olympics Threats from nations to boycott games.If there was any opposition. all musicians. anti-Jewish posters taken down -Worse and Worse from 1938 Onwards Jews had to register their property so it was easier to confiscate Jewish doctors. punish & execute Nazis didn't believe in Democracy & thought that the Weimar’s democracy led to Germany’s failure -Culture Nazis were very critical of Weimar Germany’s culture They thought it undermined “traditional” German values Goebbels set up the Reich Chamber of Culture. dentists and lawyers forbidden to treat Aryans Jews have a red letter “J” stamped on their passport -Kristallnacht of 9-10 Nov 1938 400 Synagogues and 7500 shops were destroyed 91 Jews killed and 30. the SS & the Place had the absolute power to arrest. Jews made up less than 1% of German population.

Einsatzgruppen (SS soldiers) sent to murder all Jews they could find First mass execution of the war.cold or typhus. where the people were pure Aryans. Decree for the ‘Struggle against the Gypsy Plague”.alcoholics. Sarah and Israel.Jewish people only allowed to attend Jewish Schools and all Jewish businesses confiscated All Jews had to add new first names.juvenile delinquents sent to these In 1938.000 Jews shot -The Final Solution Nazis met in 1942 at Wannsee in Berlin to decide this Death camps built in Poland where Jews were worked to death or gassed Work on building gas chambers and crematoria was accelerated 6 million Jews were killed. starvation. 500.000 people murdered before public protests made Hitler stop it Who benefitted under the Nazis? -Small Businesses Small shops found it difficult to survive because of large department stores’ competition Nazis passed laws to ban new department stores and stop existing ones from growing Competing Jewish businesses closed down. socially useful -The Gypsies Non-Aryan & Homeless&Workshy. Reich office for Jewish emigration set up -The War Sent to Ghettos in Poland as war made emigration impossible Given only starvation rations & 1000s died from hunger.gays.beggars. religion and political beliefs The ‘Volk’. 500. allowed Nazis to sterilise people with. another round-up netted 11. ‘workshy’. ‘chronic alcoholism’ or ‘simple-mindedness’ In September 1933. children & teenagers killed by lethal injection.000 German Gypsies killed How/Why the Nazis oppressed the “burdens of society” -‘Master Race’ Feared ‘Inferiors’ Hitler believed in Social Darwinism. massive round-up of ‘tramps and beggars’ began. gas chambers (Grafeneck) 72. 670. 500000 died in Warsaw one In the invasion of Russia.prostitutes.tramps.000 people were sterilised -The Concentration Camps In 1936. ensured racial separation of the two -The Sterilisation Law In July 1935.000 beggars. and were sterilised Between 1934 and 1945.tramps and Gypsies were sent to Buchenwald Many Germans welcomed this removal of ‘awkward customers’ -The Euthanasia Campaigns In 1939. Nazis secretly exterminated mentally ill 6000 babies.000 Gypsies in Germany & wanted to prevent inter-marriage In 1938. physically and mentally healthy. Trade of small craftsmen doubled from 1933-1937 -Big Businesses 9 . 30. wanted to solve divisions of class.

e. prevented women from smoking and dieting. world economy was getting in shape anyway -Goering’s Four-Year Plan Aimed to prepare Germany for war within 4 years by making her self-sufficient Increased production of raw materials needed for rearmament Reduce imports further. exercise important Gave Medals. very few women in professions Nazis wanted women to have larger families and raise them to be loyal to the state -Methods of encouraging Women to have more Children Marriage Loans between 1933 and 1937 encouraged Women to have more children Lent 1000RM to couples to help them. education in schools focussed on motherhood Sacked women and pushed them out of the workforce Allowed women to work in Traditional jobs. gold for 8 children. plan limited imports Trade agreements with individual countries to supply raw materials in exchange for German goods Solved economic crisis and helped Hitler rearm. bronze for 4. tighten controls on prices and wages. they then groove a quarter of this for the birth of each child Loans & Nazis reduction of unemployment encourage more couples to have children Nazis provided free prenatal care.Benefitted from massive rearmaments programme and destruction of trade unions Value of German industry rose and big profits made Average salary rose by 70% -Not the Farmers Farmers resented government’s meddling. war forced Nazis to ask women to take on a different role Demands of the economy made Nazis pull women out of homes. Nazis tried to conscript all women between 17-45 to work with war effort Only 1/3 of the 3 million called up actually took jobs -Other Ways they were affected 10 . it was ordered that each hen produce 65 eggs/year Farmers suffered manpower shortage as workers left to go to better-paid jobs in town How the Nazis tackled the Economic Crisis -Schacht’s New Plan Made minister of the Economy in 1934. Germany still depended on foreign imports for 1/3 of its raw materials The position of women -More traditional. silver for 6.g farming or textiles -After 1937. marriage loans ended Instituted a ‘duty year’ making young women spend a year working in farms/factories In 1943. but. used forced labour Not successful & by 1939. Nazis encouraged at least 4 Overall birth rate rose and infant mortality decreased so population increased -Methods of making women focus on Homemaking Limited university female enrolment to 10%. domestic role from 1933-39 Wanted them to focus on role as mothers and homemakers.

but the HJ tried to assert its authority over them They beat up HJ patrols. it was clear Hitler put Germany in a position where they’d lose the war Hitler wanted to fight this war to the end and army officers opposed this Stauffenburg came up with a plan to kill Hitler. manufacture of clothing stopped altogether Allied bombing campaigns made women spend nights in air raid shelters & many made widows -Overall Pre-war Nazi policies reasonably positive for majority of Aryan women. the sick. having sex. blood-donors 2/5 Germans ate better than before the war. expectant mothers. hoping for the lightning victory he achieved in east Europe 11 . women drawn into world of work and child-bearing was impractical Nazi’s impossible demands had a negative effect on women who wanted to be homemakers Opposition to Hitler -Rosenstrasse Protest of 1943 Nazis tried to deport Jewish men married to ‘Aryan’ Women to concentration camps 6000 women protested and men were released -Eidelweiss Pirates Hitler Youth and the BDM were made compulsory in 1939 They lost a lot of their appeal as effective leaders were sent to army & overall leaders were too old Inexperienced teenagers were left in charge Working class youths resented being bossed around and stopped attending meetings They formed their own groups. take control of the government and negotiate peace Attempts failed before as suicide bombers changed their minds or Hitler’s schedule changed Attempt Failed and Stauffenburg and co. helped escaped prisoners and sheltered army deserters Nazis executed 12 of the ringleaders -The White Rose Set up at Munich university by the Scholl siblings Printed out and distributed leaflets to make the German people oppose the Nazis Were caught and executed by Guillotine -July 1944 Bomb Plot Army’s Oath of Allegiance kept most members loyal to Hitler In 1944. known generally as the Edelweiss Pirates They held their own camping trips. were tortured and executed by piano wire Impact of WWII on Germany -Went well initially 1939-41 Rationing introduced for most foodstuffs Extra rations given to workers in heavy industries. massive gamble. Soap was rationed -Starts going badly 1941-43 Hitler invades USSR.Imposition of Rationing meant very difficult to get necessities In 1943. but not for ambitious ones In the War.

30.000 people died In early 1945. 187. Germany’s war was going badly Hospital trains brought thousands of wounded Germans home from the war in USSR Propaganda campaigns to gain support for the war by Goebbels. Germans gave 1. film Kolberg.000 to 1 per 10.5 million furs -‘Total War’ Rationing 1943-44 Government prepared for ‘Total War’ with every part of German society geared towards war effort Anything that didn't help the war was eliminated.000 soldiers and 6000 horses used Prisoners worked to death and POWs -Air Raids War meant most doctors available to civilians fell from 15 per 10.000 in 1941 Others also lost because of ban on Jewish and Female doctors Attack on Hamburg led to a fire storm. most extreme air raids began. by 1942.000 As many German civilians killed by bombing as soldiers had died in combat Nazi administration couldn't cope with this much destruction and led to army giving up 12 .Army bogged down in a 4-year battle. hairstyling Propaganda allowed. cost 8. 2 nights of bombing in Dresden killed 150.5 million marks. e. sweet shops.g professional sport.