# Module 16

All About “F”

What this module is all about
This module will focus on using special products and factoring in solving
problems involving number relations and areas of polygons such as rectangles,
squares and triangles.
This module contains the following lessons:
Lesson 1 Using Special Products and Factoring in Solving Problems
Involving Numbers
Lesson 2 Using Special Products and Factoring in Solving Problems
Involving Squares
Lesson 3 Using Special Products and Factoring in Solving Problems
Involving Rectangles
Lesson 4 Using Special Products and Factoring in Solving Problems
Involving Triangles

What you are expected to learn

After going through this module, you are expected to use special products and
factoring to solve problems on
 number relations
 areas and dimensions of rectangles, squares and triangles

1

How to learn from this module
This is your guide for the proper use of the module:
1. Read the items in the module carefully.
2. Follow the directions as you read the materials.
3. Answer all the questions that you encounter. As you go through the module, you
will find help to answer these questions. Sometimes, the answers are found at the
end of the module for immediate feedback.
4. To be successful in undertaking this module, you must be patient and industrious
in doing the suggested tasks.
5. Take your time to study and learn. Happy learning!
The following flowchart serves as your quick guide in using this module.

Start

Take the Pretest

Check your paper and count
your correct answers.

Yes

Is your score
80% or
above?

Scan the items you
missed.

No
Study this module

Proceed to the next
Take the
In order to learn from
this Posttest
module, you need to module/STOP.
recall the special product and

factoring formulas, the formulas for areas and dimensions of rectangle, square, and triangle:
and the properties of equality.

2

What are the numbers? a. PROPERTIES OF EQUALITY For any real numbers a. 1.You refer to the previous module for the special product and factoring formulas. 6 and 7 c. then b=a Exploration Transitive: 1 If a=b and b=c. 8 and 9 2. 10 3. 16 b. then a + c = b + c  Multiplication Property of Equality (MPE): If a = b. the number of seats in each row is 4 more than the number of rows. then ac = bc  Zero Property for Multiplication: ab = 0. How many seats are there in each row? a. 12 d. What is the height of the triangle if the area is 15 sq cm. then a=c  Addition Property of Equality (APE): If a = b. Choose the letter of the correct answer. 7 and 8 d. The length of a rectangular field is 12 m longer than its width. then a = 0 or b = 0 What to do before (Pretest) Take the following pretest. The area of the field is 108 sq m. What is its width? a. 6 m d. Multiple Choice. 4 m b. 7 m 4. 14 c.? 3 . b and c  Reflexive: a = a  Symmetric: If a=b. The height of a triangle is one more than thrice its base. 5 m c. 5 and 6 b. Let’s recall the properties of equality. The square of a positive number is 47 less than twice the square of the next consecutive positive number. The audio-visual room sits 60 persons. In a school audio-visual room.

What is the number? a. and integers. 7 b. . 0. 16 cm 5. Counting numbers= {1. . 2. 10 Answer Key on page 20 Lesson 1 Using Special Products and Factoring in Solving Problems Involving Numbers Exploration In this lesson. . 1. . Problem 1. . 7 cm b.. . -2.} Whole numbers= {0. Read the problem carefully and understand the method of solving it. . you will learn to solve problems about number relations. -1. 3. 13 cm d. whole numbers.} Integers= { . 2. .} Consider the problem below. determine the following: Unknown: Known: 2 consecutive counting numbers the square of the first is 98 less than twice the square of the second consecutive counting number 4 . 3. The square of a counting number is 98 less than twice the square of the next consecutive counting number. 9 d. 2. . What are the numbers? To solve the problem. 10 cm c.a. 8 c. 3. It is worthwhile to recall the elements of the set of counting numbers. The square of a number decreased by 64 is equal to 17. 1. . -3. .

Find the numbers. Problem 2.12 is rejected because counting numbers do not include negative number x = 8 → the first counting number x + 1 = 9 → the next counting number Therefore.Representation: Let x = the first counting number x + 1 = the second counting number x2 = the square of the first (x + 1)2 = the square of the second 2(x + 1)2 – 98 = 98 less than twice the square of the second Equation: Square of the first x2 = 98 less than twice the square of the second number = 2(x + 1)2 – 98 Solve: x2 = 2(x + 1)2 – 98 x2 = 2(x2 + 2x + 1) – 98 x2 = 2x2 + 4x + 2 – 98 x2 = 2x2 + 4x – 96 2x2 + 4x – 96 = x2 2x2 + (-x2) + 4x – 96 = x2 + (-x2) x2 + 4x – 96 = 0 (x – 8)(x + 12) = 0 x – 8 = 0. a = 1 Zero Property for Multiplication x =.98 Symmetric Property Addition Property of Equality Inverse Property for Addition Factoring trinomial ax2 + bx + c. Check: Is the square of the first counting number(8) equals 98 less than twice the square of the next counting number (9)? x2 ? 2(x + 1)2 – 98 82 ? 2(9)2 – 98 64 ? 2 (81) – 98 64 ? 162 – 9 64 =64 It’s Correct! Read the problem below. x + 12 = 0 x = 8. the counting numbers are 8 and 9. This time you will be required to answer questions as you read and solve the problem. The square of a number decreased by 36 is equal to 64. 5 . x = -12 → → → → → → → → Square of a binomial Distributive Property Combine 2 and .

Equation: Solve: x2 – 36 = 64 x2 – 36 = 64 x2 – 36 – 64 = 0 → Addition Property of Equality x2 – 100 = 0 → (1) _________________________ x2 – 102 = 0 → Express 100 in exponential form (x – 10)(x + 10) = 0 → (a2 – b2) = (a – b)(a + b) x – 10 = 0 . . . 6 . x + 10 = 0 → (2)___________________________ x = 10 . the numbers are 10 and -10. x = -10 Therefore. Unknown: Known: a number the square of the number decreased by 36 is 64 Then you are right! How do you represent the unknown in this problem? Let x = _____________________ Check your answers with mine. My answers: Representation: Let x = the number x2 = the square of the number What is the equation?_____________ Did you answer x2 – 36 = 64? Very good! Now you read and supply the reason for each of the steps in solving this problem.What are the unknown and the known in the problem? Unknown_________ Known___________ Did you answer.

Compare your answers with mine. Find two positive numbers whose difference is 2 and whose product is 24. My answers: (1) Combine 36 and .Compare your answers with mine. (-10)2 – 36 ? 64 100 – 36 ? 64 64 = 64 64 = 64 You are now ready to solve the next problem. Problem 3. My answers are found in the following solution: Unknown : The values of two positive numbers Known: The difference of the unknown positive numbers is 2 and their product is 24 Representation: Let x = the smaller number x+2 = the larger number Equation: x(x+2) = 24 7 . Check: x2 – 36 = 64 for x = 10.64 (2) Zero Property for Multiplication Now check if your answers are correct. Show your solution below. (10)2 – 36 ? 64 100 – 36 ? 64 x2 – 36 = 64 for x –10.

Therefore. find the numbers. If the sum of their squares is 40. Self-check 1 Solve the following problems.Solve: x(x+2) = 24 x2 + 2x = 24 x2 + 2x – 24= 0 (x+6) (x – 4) = 0 Distributive property APE Factoring x = -6 and x = 4 x = -6 is rejected since you are looking for positive numbers. the answers are correct since they satisfied the conditions in the problem. The square of a number decreased by 25 is 24. 1. CONGRATULATIONS! You did well in the lesson and can proceed to the next lesson. If not. 2. If you got all the answers correct. Compare your answers with those in the Answer key. the numbers are x= 4 and x +2 = 6. One number is 4 more than the other. you need to go over the same lesson and take note of the mistakes committed. Check: Is their difference 2? 6-4 = 2 YES Is their product 24? 6(4) = 24 YES Hence. Answer Key on page 20 Lesson 2 Using Special Products and Factoring in Solving Problems Involving Squares Exploration 8 . It pays to have a second look. Find the numbers.

s Area of a Square Area = square of the side: A = s2 Read and analyze the problem below. the side of the square lot is 12 m. The area of a square lot is 144 sq m. Problem 1. Let us recall the definition. parts and formula to find the area of a square. x = -12 x = -12 is rejected for there is no negative linear measurement. Find the length of one side.In this lesson.   A square is a four-sided polygon with four sides congruent and having four right angles. x + 12 = 0 A = s2 Solve: → → → → → Symmetric Property of Equality Addition Property of Equality Express 144 in exponential form a2 – b2 = (a – b) (a + b) Zero Property for Multiplication x = 12 . Therefore. Unknown: Known: length of one side of the square area is 144 sq m Representation: Equation: Let x = the length of one side 144 = x2 144 = x2 x2 = 144 2 x – 144 = 0 x2 – 122 = 0 (x –12)(x + 12) = 0 x – 12 = 0 . Check : Is the area of the square lot 144 sq m if the side is 12 m? A = s2 = (12)2 = 144 sq m It’s correct! 9 . you will learn to solve problems involving area and dimensions of a square.

Read and understand the problem below. You need to fill up the missing parts in the solution. Problem 2. My answers: Unknown: area of the square in terms of x Known: the side of the square is increased by 3 How do you represent the unknown in this problem? Let x=__________________ ___________________ Did you answer . Solve: A = (x+3)2 using the formula A = s2 A = x2 + 4x + 4 (a+ b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 10 . What is its area in terms of x? x x=3 A= x2 A= ? What is the unknown and known in the problem? Unknown:___________________ Known:_____________________ Compare your answer with mine. The side of a square is increased by 3. Representation: Let x = the side of a square x+3 = the side of the square increased by 3 Then you are right! What is the equation? _____________ Did you answer A= (x+3)2 ? You’re correct! Now we solve the equation to answer the question. . .

l w  Area of a Rectangle Area = length times width: A= lw 11 .  A rectangle is a four-sided polygon with two pairs of opposite sides congruent and having four right angles. If you got all the answers correct. 1. you will learn to solve problems involving rectangles. How long is the side of a square field having an area of 169 sq m? Compare your answers with those in the Answer key. Answer Key on page 20 Lesson 3 Using Special Products and Factoring in Solving Problems Involving Rectangles Exploration In this lesson.Self-check 2 Solve the following problems. What is the side of a square bulletin board if its area is 64 sq ft? 2. If not. parts and formula to find the area of a rectangle. It pays to have a second look. CONGRATULATIONS! You did well in the lesson and can proceed to the next lesson. Let us recall the definition. you need to go over the same lesson and take note of the mistakes committed.

thus Area = 96 sq m 12 cm A = 96 sq cm Representation: Equation: 12 + x A = 2(96) 8 cm 8+ x Let x = the equal amount of increase 8 + x = the width of the new photograph 2 + x = the length of the new photograph 2(96) = the area of the new photograph (8 + x) (12 + x) = 2(96) 96 + 20x + x2 = 192 x2 + 20x + 96 = 192 x2 + 20x + 96 – 192 = 0 x2 + 20x – 96 = 0 (x + 24)(x – 4) = 0 x + 24 = 0 . The length and the width are increased by an equal amount in order to double the area of the photograph. What are the dimensions of the new photograph? To solve the problem. determine the Unknown: Known: dimension of the new paragraph The width of the photograph is 8cm. Read the problem carefully and follow the method of solving it. A photograph is 8 cm wide and 12cm long.Consider the problem below. Area = lw Substitute = 8cm (12). a = 1 → Zero Property for Multiplication x = -24 .192 → Factoring trinomial ax2 + bx + c. x = 4 x = -24 is rejected If x = 4: 8 + x = 8 + 4 = 12 cm → 12 the width of the new photograph . Its length is 12cm. Problem 1. x – 4 = 0 A = LW → FOIL Method → Commutative Property → Inverse Property → Combined 96 .

Check: Are the dimensions of the new photograph double the area of the given photograph? 12(16) ? 2(96) 192 = 192 It’s correct! Now you will solve the problem below completely. Find the length and the width. Representation: Let x = the width x+ 2 = the length x2 = the square of the width (x + 2)2 = the square of the length Square of the width + square of the length x2 + (x + 2)2 = 130 = 130 x2 + (x + 2)2 = 130 x + (x2 + 4x + 4) = 130 2x2 + 4x + 4 – 130 = 0 2x2 + 4x – 126 = 0 2 (x2 + 2x – 63) = 0 Equation: 2 → → → → 13 Square of a binomial Addition Property of Equality Combine 4 – 130 Factor out common monomial factor . My answer: Unknown: Known: length and width of the floor of the classroom the sum of their squares is 130. x+ 2 x Compare your answer with mine.12 + x = 12 + 4 = 16 cm → the length of the new photograph Therefore. The sum of their squares is 130. Problem 2. the dimensions of the new photograph are 12 cm by 16 cm. The length of the floor of the classroom is 2 m longer than the width.

The area is 40 sq m . x = 7 → Factor trinomial ax2 + bx + c. Answer Key on page 21 14 . If you got all the answers correct. Find the dimensions of the corridor.2 (x + 9) (x – 7) = 0 x + 9 = 0. If not. The length of a corridor is twice its width. The width is doubled and the length is increased by 5 m in order to triple the area of the corridors. a = 1 → Zero Property for Multiplication x = 7 m is the width x + 2 = 7 + 2 = 9 m is the length Therefore. CONGRATULATIONS! You did well in the lesson and can proceed to the next lesson. 2. Check : Is the length 2 m longer than the width? 9-7=2 YES Is the sum of the squares of the length and the width equal to 130? 72 + 92 ? 130 49 + 81 ? 130 130 = 130 It’s correct! You have noticed that negative solutions for problems involving linear measurement are rejected because negative value does not make any sense as far as linear measurement is concern. The length of a rectangle is 3 m longer than the width. Self-check 3 Solve the following problems. Compare your answers with those in the Answer key. the floor of the classroom measures 7 m by 9 m. x – 7 = 0 x = -9 rejected. you need to go over the same lesson and take note of the mistakes committed. It pays to have a second look. 1. Find the length and the width.

or an equilateral triangle( 3 sides congruent). h b  Area of a triangle Area = one-half the product of its base and height: A 1 bh 2 Read and understand the procedure of solving the problem that follows. you will learn to solve problems involving triangles. 2x x 15 .  A triangle is a three-sided polygon. The area of the flag is 81 sq cm. an isosceles triangle( 2 sides congruent). Let us recall the definition. The height of a triangular flag is twice its base. It can be a scalene triangle ( no sides congruent). Find the base and the height. parts and formula to find the area of a triangle. Problem 1.Lesson 4 Using Special Products and Factoring in Solving Problems Involving Triangles Exploration In this lesson.

Unknown: the base and height of the triangle Known: the height is twice the base Area is 81 sq m. Try it. The area covered by the garden is 50 sq m. x = -9 Solve: x = 9 cm is the base 2x = 2(9) = 18 cm is the height Therefore. Check: Is the height twice the base? 9(2) = 18 YES Is the area equals 81 sq cm ? A= 1 (9)18  81 2 YES Now you are ready to solve the problem below completely.x+9=0 x = 9 . Problem 2. The height of a triangular garden is equal to its base. the base and height of the flag are 9 cm and 18 cm respectively. How long is the base of the garden? x 50 sq m x 16 . Representation: Let x = the base 2x = the height A Equation: 81 = ½ (x)(2x) 1 bh 2 81 = x2 x2 = 81 x2 – 81 = 0 (x – 9)(x + 9) = 0 x–9=0.

the base of the triangle is 10 m long. x + 10 = 0 x = 10 .Compare your answer with mine. Check: Is the area equals 50 sq m if the base = height = 10 m? 50 ? ½ (10)(10) 100 50 ? 2 50 = 50 17 . x = -10 is rejected x = 10 m is the base Therefore. My answer: Unknown: Known: the base of the triangular garden 50 sq m is the area the base is equal to the height Representation: Let x = the base x = the height A Equation: 50 = ½ (x)(x) 1 bh 2 Solve: 50 = ½ (x)(x) 50 = ½ x2 2(50) = 2(1/2x2) 100 = x2 2 x – 100 = 0 (x – 10)(x + 10) = 0 x – 10 = 0 .

Find the base and height of the triangle. 1. 2. The area of the pond is 25 sq m. If you got all the answers correct. These mathematical methods provide you with patterns that can be used in solving practical problems. CONGRATULATIONS! You did well in the lesson and can proceed to the next lesson. Compare your answers with those in the Answer key. If not. 18 .   What to do after (Posttest) Take the following posttest. Find the base and the height of the pond. Answer Key on page 21 Look back! Special products and factoring techniques are important tools for solving equations. It pays to have a second look. Number relations and finding dimensions of enclosed figures are just few of the many problem situations that need mathematical manipulation. you need to go over the same lesson and take note of the mistakes committed. The height of a triangle is thrice the base. The area of the triangle is 24 sq units. The base of triangular pond is one-half the height.Self-check 4 Solve the following problems.

10m c. The area of a square glass top is 4m 2. What is the smaller number? a. d 3. 20m d. What is the number? a. 3m d. One number is 3 less than the other. Its area is 100 sq m. The length of a corridor is four times its width. What is the height of the triangle? a. 9 b. 10 c. How long is the corridor? a. 4m 4. Choose the letter of the correct answer. What is the length of one side of the glass top? a. 2 5. The height of a triangle is three more than twice the base. 11 d. A certain number decreased by 7 is multiplied by the sum of the number and 7. b 5. 4 c. c 19 . 1m b. 5m b. 2m c. 15 b. 3 d. 2 Answer Key on page 22 Answer Key Pretest page 3 1. The product is 51. a 2.Multiple Choice. 12 2. The area of the triangle is 45 sq units. 1. The sum of the number multiplied by the larger equals 35. 5 b. 12 c. 3 d. c 4. 100m 3.

Lesson 2 Exploration 2 and Self-Check 2 page 11 1. x + 13 = 0 x = 13 . 169 = x2 x2 = 169 2 x – 169 = 0 x2 – 132 = 0 (x – 13)(x + 13) = 0 x – 13 = 0. 2. x2 + (x + 4)2 = 40 x2 + x2 +8x + 16 = 40 2x2 + 8x + 16 – 40 = 0 2x2 + 8x – 24 = 0 2(x2 + 4x – 12) = 0 2(x + 6)(x – 2) = 0 2 = 0. 2.Lesson 1 Exploration1 and Self-Check 1 on page 8 1. Lesson 3 Exploration 3 and Self-Check 3 page 14 20 . 64 = x2 x2 = 64 x2 – 64 = 0 x2 – 82 = 0 (x – 8)(x + 8) = 0 x – 8 = 0. the numbers are 7 and -7. x = -13 rejected Therefore. x = -8 rejected Therefore. x + 6 = 0. x + 7 = 0 x = 7. the side of the bulletin board is 8 ft. x2 – 25 = 24 x2 – 25 – 24 = 0 x2 – 49 = 0 x2 – 72 = 0 (x – 7)(x + 7) = 0 x – 7 = 0. x + 8 = 0 x = 8 . x = 2 If x = -6 x+ 4 = -6 + 4 = -2 If x = 2 x+ 4 = 2 + 4 = 6 Therefore the numbers are -6 and -2 and 4 and 6. the field has a side of 13 m. x = -7 Therefore. x – 2 = 0 x = -6.

x = -10 is rejected 21 . x – 5 = 0 x = 0. x – 4 = 0. x = 5 x = -8 is rejected x = 5 m is the width x + 3 = 8 m is the length Therefore.1. the base and height of the triangle are 4 and 12 respectively. x = 5 x = 0 is rejected x = 5 m is the width 2x = 2 x 5 = 10 m is the length Therefore. ½ (1/2 x )(x) = 25 x2/4 = 25 4(x2/4) = 4(25) x2 = 100 x2 – 100 = 0 (x – 10)(x + 10) = 0 x – 10 = 0. x + 10 = 0 x = 10. x + 4 = 0 x = 4. ½(x)(3x) = 24 3x2/2 = 24 2(3x2/2) = 2(24) 3x2 = 48 2 3x – 48 = 0 3 (x2 – 16) = 0 3(x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 3 = 0. x = -4 is rejected x = 4 units is the base 3x = 3(4) = 12 units is the height Therefore.x–5=0 x = -8. the rectangle measures 5 m by 8 m. 2. Lesson 4 Exploration 4 and Self-Check 4 page 18 1. 2. the corridor is 5 m wide and 10 metres long. x(x + 3) = 40 x2 + 3x – 40 = 0 ( x + 8)(x – 5) = 0 x+8=0. 2x(2x + 5) = 3x(2x) 4x2 + 10x = 6x2 6x2 = 4x2 + 10x 6x2 – 4x2 – 10x = 0 2x2 – 10x = 0 2x(x – 5) = 0 2x = 0 .

b 2. NY: Van Nostrand Company.x = 10 m is the height ½ x = ½(10) = 5 m is the base Therefore. b 4. a END OF MODULE BIBLIOGRAPHY Fuller. (1977). d 5. Posttest page 19 1. Gordon. 22 . New York. the base and height of the pond are 5 m and 10 m respectively. 4th ed. c 3. College algebra.

Intermediate slgebra: A text/workbook. C.Leithold. (1989). USA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. (1990).P. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Inc. 23 . Inc. College algebra. 3rd ed. Mckeague. Louis.