AMTE 213

Gas Turbine Engine

Name: Pajarillo,Bernard Eric
Subj-sec: Amte 211- 2B

Mr. Noel Anthony Paz
Instructor

Turbofan Engine A turbofan engine is the most modern variation of the basic gas turbine engine. As with other gas turbines. one "spool" for the core. The hot exhaust passes through the core and fan turbines and then out the nozzle. some of the fan blades turn with the shaft and some blades remain stationary. The fan shaft passes through the core shaft for mechanical reasons. How does a turbofan engine work? The incoming air is captured by the engine inlet. So a turbofan gets some of its thrust from the core and some of its thrust from the fan.) Some advanced engines have additional spools for even higher efficiency. the core engine is surrounded by a fan in the front and an additional turbine at the rear. This type of arrangement is called a two spool engine (one "spool" for the fan. whose parts and operation are discussed on a separate page.where it is mixed with fuel and combustion occurs. In the turbofan engine.The rest of the incoming air passes through the fan and bypasses. The air that goes through the fan has a velocity that is slightly increased from free stream. as in a basic turbojet. As with the core compressor and turbine. just like the air through a propeller. like the core compressor and core turbine and are connected to an additional shaft. All of this additional turbomachinery is colored green on the schematic. . The ratio of the air that goes around the engine to the air that goes through the core is called the bypass ratio. Some of the incoming air passes through the fan and continues on into the core compressor and then the burner. or goes around the engine. there is a core engine. The fan and fan turbine are composed of many blades.

the airplane inlet slows the air down from supersonic speeds. This means that a turbofan is very fuel efficient. like one you would see on an airliner. Even though the fighter plane can fly much faster than the speed of sound. Low bypass ratio turbofans are still more fuel efficient than basic turbojets. We have to supply energy to turn the compressor. But inlets come in many shapes and sizes depending on the aircraft's mission. they call this part the intake. it can operate efficiently at higher speeds than a simple propeller. At the rear of the inlet. a turbofan generates more thrust for nearly the same amount of fuel used by the core. since the compressor pulls air into the engine. In fact. the air going into the engine must travel less than the speed of sound for high efficiency. which is probably a more accurate description. They can then cruise efficiently but still have high thrust when dogfighting.Because the fuel flow rate for the core is changed only a small amount by the addition of the fan. the air is at a much higher pressure than free . The compressor acts like many rows of airfoils. Turbojet Engine we are concerned with what happens to the air that passes through the engine. A compressor is like an electric fan.) We have shown here a tube-shaped inlet. the air enters the compressor. At the exit of the compressor. Large amounts of surrounding air are continuously brought into the engine inlet. That is why turbofans are found on high speed transports and propellers are used on low speed transports. Therefore. high bypass ratio turbofans are nearly as fuel efficient as turboprops Because the fan is enclosed by the inlet and is composed of many blades. (In England. with each row producing a small jump in pressure. Many modern fighter planes actually use low bypass ratio turbofans equipped with afterburners.

There may be an additional turbine stage present. 100 pounds of air/sec is combined with only 2 pounds of fuel/sec. The turbine takes some energy out of the hot exhaust. The turbine works like a windmill. The exhaust velocity of a turboprop is low and contributes little thrust because most of the energy of the core exhaust has gone into turning the drive shaft. (In a typical jet engine. The drive shaft.stream. In a jet engine we use the energy extracted by the turbine to turn the compressor by linking the compressor and the turbine by the central shaft. but there is enough energy left over to provide thrust to the jet engine by increasing the velocity through the nozzle. A variation of the turboprop engine is the turboshaft engine. Because propellers become less efficient as the speed of the aircraft increases. the hot exhaust is passed through the turbine. since very little fuel is added to the stream. the gear box is not connected to a propeller but to some other . the turbine extracts energy from a flow of gas by making the blades spin in the flow. For a jet engine. most of the energy of the exhaust is used to turn the turbine. The gear box is then connected to a propeller that produces most of the thrust.) Leaving the burner. Instead of needing energy to turn the blades to make the air flow. is connected to a gear box. the core engine and the propeller. In a turboshaft engine. In the burner a small amount of fuel is combined with the air and ignited. as shown in green on the diagram which is connected to a drive shaft. thrust is created as described by the thrust equation. High speed transports usually use high bypass turbofan because of the high fuel efficiency and high speed capability of turbofans. turboprops are used only for low speed aircraft like cargo planes. Turboprop Engine There are two main parts to a turboprop propulsion system. the exit mass flow is nearly equal to the free stream mass flow. Because the exit velocity is greater than the free stream velocity. also shown in green. The core is very similar to a basic turbojet except that instead of expanding all the hot exhaust through the nozzle to produce thrust. Most of the hot exhaust has come from the surrounding air.

as well as tanks. referred to as a 'free power turbine'. and one or more stages of turbine. the gas generator and power section are mechanically separate so they can each rotate at different speeds appropriate for the conditions. turboshaft engines usually drive a transmission which is not structurally attached to the engine. Depending on the design. many of the same engines are built in both turboprop and turboshaft versions. . The gas generator creates the hot expanding gases to drive the power section. In contrast. a gear reduction system. The transmission is attached to the vehicle structure and supports the loads created instead of the engine. with only minor differences. The main difference is a turboprop is structurally designed to support the loads created by a rotating propeller. In most designs.drive device. and even race cars in the late 1960's. The power section consists of additional stages of turbines. the engine accessories may be driven either by the gas generator or by the power section. The gas generator consists of the compressor. as it allows the design to forego the weight and cost of complex multipleratio transmission and clutches. and the shaft output. though. combustion chambers with ignitors and fuel nozzles. The general layout of a turboshaft is similar to that of a turboprop. In practice. boats. Turboshaft engines are used in many helicopters. A free power turbine can be an extremely useful design feature for vehicles. Turboshaft Engine A turboshaft engine may be made up of two major parts assemblies: the 'gas generator' and the 'power section'. as the propeller is not attached to anything but the engine itself.

. it switches partially to turboshaft mode to send 29. The Mil Mi26 uses two Lotarev D-136 at 11. Examples of direct-drive turboshafts include marinised or industrial Rolls-Royce Dart engines.380 hp each.[2]while the Sikorsky CH-53E Super Stallion uses three General Electric T64 at 4.An unusual example of the turboshaft principle is the Pratt & Whitney F135-PW600 turbofan engine for the STOVL F-35B . delivering power through a shaft driven directly from the gas generator shafts.400 hp each. via a reduction gearbox. Large helicopters use two or three turboshaft engines for redundancy.in conventional mode it operates as a turbofan. but when powering the LiftFan.[3] Early turboshaft engines were adaptations of turboprop engines.000 horse power forward through a shaft (like a turboprop) and partially to turbofan mode to continue to send thrust to the main engine's fan and rear nozzle.