Effective use of voice and nonverbal symbols (Nonverbal Communication

)
Main source:
a. Zarefsky, D. (2009). Public Speaking. Strategies for Success. Boston: Allyn and
Bacon
Other sources:
b. Beebes, S. & Beebes S. (2009). Public Speaking: An Audience Centered Approach,
7th Ed. Massachusetts: Ally and Bacon

Overview
I. The Voice in Presentation
A. Volume
B. Pitch
C. Rate
D. Pauses
E. Articulation and Enunciation
F. Pronunciation
G. Inflection
II. The Body in Presentation
A. Physical Appearance
B. Movement
C. Gesture
D. Facial Expression

Volume -Volume refers to the loudness and softness of the voice. If you don’t behave as people think you should.“One of the least effective ways to improve your presentation is to concentrate on it directly… The best way to improve your presentation is to keep your attention on the speech and on the audience” . is much more than simply a way to “embellish” a speech. Al] -“People have certain expectations as to how you should communicate. your listeners will feel you have violated their expectations” -There can be an “ideal” style in delivering speeches for a certain culture but this style is not necessarily ideal for all types of audiences” -There are many characteristics which an effective presentation possesses. then.“Presentation is also called delivery. it depends on the setting and equipment that will be used during the presentation. Among these are: a. the two terms are used interchangeably to refer to how the voice and the body help create the effect a speaker wants. even the same words. Particularly important to realize is that vocal cues are among the audience’s earliest evidence in judging a speaker’s ethos” A. Unobtrusive b. The same ideas. and so it also affects what listeners actually hear and understand” I. -A varied use of loudness or softness may also be used for emphasis on certain ideas. How a speaker says something affect what is really said. Delivery.“By learning about the aspects of presentation and by practicing certain strategies. can elicit different reactions from an audience depending on how you present them. et.“A speaker uses the voice to advance the overall purpose of the speech. remember and act] d. -Whether a speaker needs to speak louder or softer. Feedback: Always look at the nonverbal cues of the audience whether they hear you or not . Helpful [listen. you can train yourself to speak ‘naturally’ and confidently even if you are nervous about facing the audience” . The Voice in Presentation . Characteristic of Effective Presentation -Nonverbal Expectancy Theory [by Judee Burgoon. Natural and uncontrived c. Identifiable and empathetic II. understand..

Speaker may need to more distinctly articulate words at a slower pace. pauses allows the audience to digest the previous information provided by the speaker. While providing some kind nonverbal placing of importance. avoid questioning the audience. yet are effective]. This is for two reasons: (1) The pitch we usually hear is distorted and (2) Pitch rises under stress C. “Can everyone hear me” as it may undermine your introduction. -It is suggested that in practicing for a speech. there may be a greater need for practice in handling presentations which utilizes a microphone. -While a monotonous speech may allow the speaker to maintain speaking in the comfortable pitches for the audience. (1) Stress. -A overly high or low pitch may render the audience and the speaker uncomfortable during the speech process. Rate -Rate is the speed at which a person speaks -While the speakers’ rate in speaking doesn’t always have an impact on the speech itself [there are persuasive speakers who may talk slower or faster than normal rate. (2) Variety. (2)It marks transition. Similar to pitch. At most times. a more varied use of pitch can hold the audience’s attention more. When speakers are stressed. B. one should record the speech to be delivered. D. It will also not allow the audience to classify the ideas according to the importance the speaker’s wants them to perceive. a monotonic rate can be displeasing to the audience. Pauses allow the audience to receive a nonverbal sign that one main idea/ section in the speech has been completed. there are factors that still need to be taken accounted for. Pauses -Pauses are the brief silences within a speech -Pauses are highly communicative and are indicative of a message of completeness and finality. it is highly probable that their rate of speaking will be too fast to be understood. These are some ways it can enhance a speech: (1)It provides emphasis. Pitch -Pitch refers to the highness and lowness of the voice. Breathe and relax. And here are some guidelines in making use of pauses efficient: .Amplification: Because of the mediation between the speaker and the audience.

(3) Faulty pronunciation may affect the speaker’s credibility. may changes in its degree of value according to pronunciation and audience analysis. correct pronunciation brings about certain importance that are undeniably important. the audience starts to evaluate the speaker’s credibility even before he speaks. -Enunciation refers to the distinctness with which the whole words are sounded. G. Physical Appearance -The performance of a public speaker starts once seen by the audience. correct pronunciation of words in the speeches may not always be important. (2) Mispronouncing a word may bring attention to itself. (2) Enunciation. Inflection III. However. however. (3) Avoid vocalized pauses. Pronunciation -Correct pronunciation is the accepted way to sound any given word. E. Avoid being too precise and too informal in the presentation. (1) Articulation. -In some cases. (2) Know the effective length of pause you can use.(1) Only pause when needed. The goal of articulation is to be understood clearly by the audience. the body must not bring attention to itself as it brings the audience the visual resources they needed for the presentation. The Body in Presentation Like the utilization of the voice in a presentation. - . A. these are as follows: (1) Mispronouncing a word changes its meaning. Consciously or unconsciously. because of the many dialects that are used for a particular language. These three. F. Articulation and Enunciation -Articulation refers to the clarity of individual sounds.

for example. it’s important to always consider your audience in whatever you do as a speaker (Whether it’s verbal cues or nonverbal ones). This helps in having a more accurate interpretation of the audience’s responses. African American listeners may enthusiastically voice their agreement or disagreement with something you say during your presentation” iii. Look for cluster of cues. are likely to be restrained in their response to a speech and to show little expression. S. Such common nonverbal reactions such as applauses are very helpful to take note of as these are very useful in any speaking events. Movement C. Closure . e. -There nonverbal reactions which are common through diverse audiences. This helps the audience focus more on the speech. “Japanese audience members. [recall concept of common places from Protagoras of Abdara] ii. v. Some Eastern European Countries listeners may not maintain eye contact with you. The Audience as center of the Presentation As stressed in the previous topics. Facial Expression IV. Consider nonverbal cues in context. power. -Combine the cues received from the audience. they may look down at the floor while listening. A. iv. look for cues that communicate liking. Accurately Interpret Nonverbal Messages and adapt. In some contexts. Gesture D. -It cannot be helped that different cultures may have differences in how they react to the speaker. and responsiveness -Nonverbally involve the audience in the speech. Consider general nonverbal cues. i.B. Monitor the audience’s emotional response B.g. *From Beebe.