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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

The major problems of the environment are recognized as


global climatic change, ozone depletion, water and air
pollutions, deforestation and resources degradation.
23 billion tones of carbon dioxide is released in the air by
burning fossil fuels causing Greenhouse effect. The
Greenhouse gases are mainly contributed by the
industrialized nations.
By the middle of 21st century, earths temperature at present
level of heat emission would go up by one to three degree
Celsius and the sea level would rise between 30 to 100
centimeters.
India has witnessed alarming environmental degradation in
the last two decades. It is the sixth largest and the second
fastest producer of Greenhouse gases.
The key environmental pollutions related to industries in
India are water pollution, soil erosion, ground water
contamination and deforestation. Indian rivers are also
suffering from high level of pollution due to enormous
municipal wastes, industrial effluents and agricultural runoffs.
According to expert findings, 70 per cent of Indias surface
water is severely polluted. As per government statement in
1992, 3/4th of the total waste water generation is due to the
municipal waste which is one half of the total pollution load.
Consequent to it, fresh water resources are depleting very
fast and water-born diseases are on the increase that
account for 2/3rd of the total illnesses in India.
Air pollution in India is the highest by vehicular sources to
the extent of 64 per cent, by thermal power 16 per cent, by
industry 13 per cent and by climatic sector 7 per cent.

The average level of suspended particular matter, in Kolkota,


Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi is very high and these are
included in the list of 10 metropolitans of the world in respect
thereof.
These cities have reached critical level while Kanpur, Nagpur
and Ahmedabad are hitting the same. Chennai is found
moderate.
In respect of land pollution, it is disposal of solid and toxic
municipal and industrial wastes. The per capita solid waste
generation average in India is to the order of 360 to 400
gms. per day. This waste counts for affliction of respiratory
diseases.
The steps to control pollution in India include environmental
clearance for major industrial activities based to impact
assessment before site selection.
Introduction of unleaded petrol, low-sulphur diesel and
higher emission norms throughout the country in a phased
manner is the second significant step.
Beside this, efforts are to be intensified further to control
pollution in 22 industries in various towns and cities that are
critically polluted. The industries are to comply with such
emission and effluent standards as may be notified in a timebound manner.