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Republic of the Philippines

SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE


College of Education
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City

Name: Roy O. Jarlego (1)


Topic: Natural Disasters
Yr. & Sec: 4A
Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid
Instructors Name: Mr. Oscar Don
NATURAL DISASTERS
-

is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth


can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage
in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability
to recover and also on the infrastructure available.
Includes; floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis and other
geologic processes
Typically leaves some economic damages

1. GEOLOGICAL DISASTERS
a. Avalanches and mudslides (a snowslide or snowslip)
- Many of the avalanches were caused by artillery fire.
- Accdg. (Physical Geography)
a. a fall of large masses of snow and ice down a mountain
b. a fall of rocks, sand, etc
b. Earthquakes
- is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic
waves.
- At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and
sometimes displacement of the ground.
- caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events such as
volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests.
- The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the focus. The point
directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter.
- rarely kill people or wildlife.
- It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse,
fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, which are actually the human
disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety
systems, early warning and planning.
c. Sinkholes
- When natural erosion or human mining makes the ground too weak to support the
structures built on it, the ground can collapse and produce a sinkhole.

d. Volcanic eruptions
- can cause widespread destruction and consequent disaster in several ways;
may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock.
lava, destroys many buildings, plants and animals due to its extreme heat .
volcanic ash (cooled ash) - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby
locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete-like material.
In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even
small quantities will harm humans if inhaled.
it causes abrasion damage to moving parts such as engines.
The main killer of humans in the immediate surroundings of a volcanic eruption is
the pyroclastic flows, which consist of a cloud of hot volcanic ash which builds up
in the air above the volcano and rushes down the slopes when the eruption no
longer supports the lifting of the gases.
2. HYDROLOGICAL DISASTERS
- It is a violent, sudden and destructive change either in quality of earth's water or in
distribution or movement of water on land below the surface or in atmosphere.
a. Floods
- A flood is an overflow of water that 'submerges' land.
- In the sense of 'flowing water', the word may also be applied to the inflow of
the tides.
- Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as
a river or lake, which overflows causing the result that some of the water escapes its
usual boundaries.
b. Limnic eruptions
- occurs when a gas, usually CO2, suddenly erupts from deep lake water, posing the
threat of suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans.
- Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising gas displaces
water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger such
an eruption.
c. Tsunami
- from Japanese: "harbour wave"; also known as a seismic sea wave or as a tidal
wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large
volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
- can be caused by undersea earthquakes
3. METEOROLOGICAL DISASTERS
- are caused by extreme weather, e.g. rain, drought, snow, extreme heat or cold, ice,
or wind. Violent, sudden and destructive change to the environment related to,
produced by, or affecting the earth's atmosphere, especially the weather-forming
processes.
a. Blizzards
- are severe winter storms characterized by heavy snow and strong winds.
- ground blizzard, when the snow had stir up and fallen in the ground
- can impact local economic activities, especially in regions where snowfall is rare.
b. Cyclonic storms

Cyclone, tropical cyclone, hurricane, and typhoon are different names for the same
phenomenon, which is a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans.
- The determining factor on which term is used is based on where they originate; the
Atlantic and Northeast Pacific - "hurricane", in the Northwest Pacific - to as a
"typhoon" and "cyclones" occur in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.
Droughts
- is the unusual dryness of soil, resulting in crop failure and shortage of water and for
other uses which is caused by significant low rainfall than average over a
prolonged period.
- contribute to conditions of drought.; hot dry winds, shortage of water, high
temperatures and consequent evaporation of moisture from the ground.
Electrical storms
- Severe storms, dust clouds and volcanic eruptions can generate lightning.
- Apart from the damage typically associated with storms, such as winds, hail and
flooding, the lightning itself can damage buildings, ignite fires and kill by direct
contact.
Hailstorms
- are falls of rain drops that arrive as ice, rather than melting before they hit the
ground.
Heat waves
- is a period of unusually and excessively hot weather.
Tornadoes
is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the
surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of
acumulus cloud.
It is also referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in
meteorology in a wider sense, to refer to any closed low pressure circulation.
Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but are typically in the form of a
visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often
encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less
than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are approximately 250 feet (80 m) across,
and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme
tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 mph (480 km/h), stretch more
than two miles (3 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (perhaps
more than 100 km).
-

c.

d.

e.
f.
g.

4. WILDFIRES
- are large fires which often start in wildland areas. Common causes
include lightning and drought but wildfires may also be started by human
negligence or arson. They can spread to populated areas and can thus be a threat
to humans and property, as well as wildlife.
5. HEALTH DISASTER/S
a. Epidemics
- is an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads through a human population.
A pandemic is an epidemic that has spread globally. There have been many
epidemics throughout history, such as the Black Death.

6. SPACE DISASTERS
a. Impact events and airburst
- Asteroids that impact the Earth have led to several major extinction events,
including one that created the Chicxulub crater 64.9 million years ago and
associated with the demise of the dinosaurs.
- Scientists estimate that the likelihood of death for a living human from a global
impact event is comparable to death from airliner crash.
- No human death has been definitively attributed to an impact event, but the 1490
Ch'ing-yang event in which over 10,000 people may have died has been linked to
a meteor. Even asteroids and comets that burn up in the atmosphere can cause
significant destruction on the ground due to the air burst explosion.
b. Solar flare
- is a phenomenon where the sun suddenly releases a great amount of solar
radiation, much more than normal.
- are unlikely to cause any direct injury, but can destroy electrical equipment.

Republic of the Philippines


SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE
College of Education
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City

Name: Maryrose Gil Ebdani (2)


Topic: Safety Education in Home, School, and Roads
Yr. & Sec: 4A
Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid
Instructors Name: Mr. Oscar Don
SAFETY EDUCATION IN HOME, SCHOOL, AND ROADS
It is important to understand the seriousness of personal safety and how to avoid dangerous
situations at home or in school. Learning about all aspects of proper safety is an important part of
education. Whether you are at home or in school, staying safe is the top priority.
Being safe at home means you understand what to do if someone comes to the door and you are
home by yourself. It also means that you have a firm grasp on what to do if there was a fire, if someone
got hurt, about poisons and chemicals around the house, staying safe on the computer and understanding
that drugs, alcohol and tobacco are bad for you.
There are many areas within your home that can inflict harm and pose unnecessary accidents.
Learning about how to stay safe when you are at home will only benefit you in the future.
TIPS TO HELP KEEP YOU SAFE AT HOME:

Never talk to stranger or get into a car with someone you dont know.
Do not answer the telephone or door when you are home alone.
Never accept alcohol, drugs or cigarettes from anyone.
Do not put chemicals or poisons in your mouth.
If there is a fire or someone is hurt call for help.

Staying safe at school is just as important. Walking or riding your bicycle to school, staying safe
on the bus and playground and knowing how to protect yourself from a bully, is all important to know.
A lot can happen on your way to school. Learning how to stay safe when you are n your way to school
and at school will protect you from any harm.
TIPS TO HELP KEEP YOU SAFE AT SCHOOL:
Always walk or ride your bicycle on the sidewalk.
When at the playground sit on the swings and dont walk up the slide.
When on your way to school, never talk to a stranger or get into a car with someone you dont
know.
If a bully is trying to hurt, tell an adult right away.
When waiting for the transportation make sure you stand far back from the street.

As parents and carers, we have responsibility to keep our children safe when travelling to and
from school. Ensure you share road safety advice with family members and other carers who may help
you transport your children. Most importantly, we all should be good road safety role models.
TIPS TO HELP KEEP YOU SAFE ON THE ROAD:
Stop, look, listen and think every time you cross the road
Reduce distractions; remove electronic devices, avoid talking to friends and wearing
headphones when crossing the road
Never walk alone
Walk on the sidewalk
Use the pedestrian lane when crossing the road
Never drive when your drunk
Use helmets
Secure your engines
Reduce distractions when driving
Park legally and safely
Never double park
Speed limit
ACCIDENTS (Home)

Suffocation
Drowning
Falls
Burns
Cuts
Food poisoning

CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCIDENTS
1. Anytime to anyone
2. Anytime to anywhere
3. Damage of properties
ELEMENTS OF ACCIDENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Vehicular
School
Home
Public places
Work places

Republic of the Philippines


SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE
College of Education
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City

Name: Aldrin Habitan (3)


Topic: First Aid
Yr. & Sec: 4A
Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid
Instructors Name: Mr. Oscar Don
FIRST AID
What is First Aid?

Is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care
provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and/or promote recovery. It
includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being
available, such as performing CPR while awaiting an ambulance, as well as the complete
treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut. First aid is generally performed
by the layperson, with many people trained in providing basic levels of first aid, and others
willing to do so from acquired knowledge. Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of
first aid to cover mental health.

Is the initial assistance or care of a suddenly sick or injured person. It is the care administered
by a person as soon as possible after an accident or illness. It is this prompt care and attention
prior to the arrival of the ambulance that sometimes means the difference between life and

death, or between a full or partial recovery.


First aid, or emergency first aid is the care that is given to an injured or sick person prior
to treatment by medically trained personnel. Some self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may only
require first aid intervention, and no further treatment.
Emergency Medicine is a medical specialty involving care for adult and pediatric patients with
acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention.
The main aims of first aid are:

To preserve life

To protect the casualty from further harm

To promote recovery
These aims are known as the three Ps of first aid.

Common First Aid Topics

Abdominal Pain
Animal Bites
Bee, Wasp, Insect Stings
Blood in Urine (Hematuria)
Broken Toe
Bruises (Hematomas)
Burns
Choking
Cuts and Wounds
Diarrhea

Dizziness
Fever in Children
Food Poisoning
Frostbite
Heart Palpitations
Heat Exhaustion
Heatstroke
Hypothermia
Nosebleeds
Pulled Muscle (Muscle Strain)

Rectal (Anal) Bleeding


Spider Bites
Sprains
Sunburn
Testicle Pain
Vertigo

Ten Principles Of First Aid That Need To Know


First aid is defined as the immediate care given to an acutely injured or ill person. It can literally be lifesaving so it behooves all of us to know some basic principles. What follows are some rules that cover
common conditions and general practices:
1. Don't panic. Panic clouds thinking and causes mistakes. When I was an intern and learning what to
do when confronted with an unresponsive patient, a wise resident advised me when entering a
"code blue" situation to always "take my own pulse first." In other words, I needed to calm myself
before attempting to intervene. It's far easier to do this when you know what you're doing, but even
if you encounter a situation for which you're unprepared, there's usually some good you can do.
Focus on that rather than on allowing yourself an unhelpful emotional response. You can let yourself
feel whatever you need to feel later when you're no longer needed.
2. First, do no harm. This doesn't mean do nothing. It means make sure that if you're going to do
something you're confident it won't make matters worse. If you're not sure about the risk of harm of
a particular intervention, don't do it. So don't move a traumavictim, especially an unconscious one,
unless not moving them puts them at great risk (and by the way, cars rarely explode). Don't remove
an embedded object (like a knife or nail) as you may precipitate more harm (e.g., increased
bleeding). And if there's nothing you can think to do yourself, you can always call for help. In fact, if
you're alone and your only means to do that is to leave the victim, then leave the victim.
3. CPR can be life-sustaining. But most people do it wrong. First, studies suggest no survival
advantage when bystanders deliver breaths to victims compared to when they only do chest
compressions. Second, most people don't compress deeply enough or perform compressions quickly
enough. You really need to indent the chest and should aim for 100 compressions per minute. That's
more than 1 compression per second. If you're doing it right, CPR should wear you out. Also, know
that CPR doesn't reverseventricular fibrillation, the most common cause of unconsciousness in a

patient suffering from a heart attack. Either electricity (meaning defibrillation) or medication is
required for that. But CPR is a bridge that keeps vital organs oxygenated until paramedics arrive.
4. Time counts. The technology we now have to treat two of the most common and devastating
medical problems in America, heart attacks and strokes, has evolved to an amazing degree, but
patients often do poorly because they don't gain access to that technology in time. The risk of dying
from a heart attack, for example, is greatest in the first 30 minutes after symptoms begin. By the
time most people even admit to themselves the chest pain they're feeling could be related to their
heart, they've usually passed that critical juncture. If you or someone you know has risk factors for
heart disease and starts experiencing chest pain, resist the urge to write it off. Get to the nearest
emergency room as quickly as you can. If someone develops focal weakness of their face, legs, or
arms, or difficulty with speech or smiling, they may be having a stroke, which represents a true
emergency. Current protocols for treatment depend on the length of time symptoms have been
present. The shorter that time, the more likely the best therapies can be applied.
5. Don't use hydrogen peroxide on cuts or open wounds. It's more irritating to tissue than it is
helpful. Soap and water and some kind of bandage are best.
6. When someone passes out but continues breathing and has a good pulse, the two most useful
pieces of information to help doctors figure out what happened are: 1) the pulse rate, and 2) the
length of time it takes for consciousness to return.
7. High blood pressure is rarely acutely dangerous. First, high blood pressure is anormal and
appropriate response to exercise, stress, fear, and pain. Many patients I follow for high blood
pressure begin panicking when their readings start to come in higher. But the damage high blood
pressure does to the human body takes place overyears to decades. There is such a thing as a
hypertensive emergency, when the blood pressure is higher than around 200/120, but it's quite rare
to see readings that high, and even then, in the absence of symptoms (headache, visual disturbances,
nausea, confusion) it's considered a hypertensive urgency, meaning you have 24 hours to get the
pressure down before you get into trouble.
8. If a person can talk or cough, their airway is open. Meaning they're not choking.
Don't Heimlich someone who says to you, "I'm choking."
9. Most seizures are not emergencies. The greatest danger posed to someone having a seizure is
injury from unrestrained forceful muscular contractions. Don't attempt to move a seizing person's
tongue. Don't worrythey won't swallow it. Move any objects on which they may hurt themselves
away from the area (including glasses from their head) and time the seizure. A true seizure is often
followed by a period of confusion called "post-ictal confusion." Your reassurance during this period
that they're okay is the appropriate therapy.
10. Drowning doesn't look like what you think it does. For one thing, drowning people are
physiologically incapable of crying out for help. In fact, someone actually drowning is usually barely
moving at all (I strongly encourage everyone to click on this link to learn more about how to
recognize what drowning does look like).

General direction in giving first Aid


First you must ensure/control the AIRWAY so air can enter the lungs. (consider spinal imobilization
at this time) Then you must ensure adequate BREATHING (12-16 breaths per minute) After this
you check for CIRCULATION by checking the pulse. Now you should control any major bleeding
through the use of a bandage, pressure dressing, or torniquet. If there is only one person, this
might be the time when an IV is established. After that you would do a sweep of the patient to
check for bleeding, fractures and burns. Addrees each problem as you come to it. treat bleeding
before fractures and fractures before burns. After this you would check for head injuries. (bruising
around eyes and ears, known as battle signs, dilated or unresponsive pules) After this, you would
role the patient onto their side so that you can check the back for injuries. Do not role the patient
if there are signs of a pelvic fracture. If you don't know first aid, this may be the way to go. The
more trained you are, the more it changes. You shouldn't worry about a defibrillator unless you
know how to use one. They are "automatic" and "dummy proof" so if you are the only one there,
maybe try it, otherwise, ask if someone else knows how to use it.

Sorsogon State College


Teacher Education Department
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City
Name : Fathy Faye Espenocilla
Date : August 26, 2016
Topic : Sprain and Strain

SPRAIN AND STRAIN


Sprain

A sprain is an injury to a ligament (tissue that connects two or more bones at a joint). In a sprain,
one or more ligaments is stretched or torn.
wrench or twist the ligaments of (an ankle, wrist, or other joint) violently so as to cause pain and
swelling but not dislocation.
Abnormal stretching or tearing of a ligament that supports a joint.

What Causes a Sprain?


Many things can cause a sprain. Falling, twisting, or getting hit can force a joint out of its normal position.
This can cause ligaments around the joint to stretch or tear. Sprains can occur if people:

Fall and land on an arm.

Fall on the side of their foot.

Twist a knee.
Where Do Sprains Usually Occur?
Sprains happen most often in the ankle. Sometimes when people fall and land on their hand, they sprain
their wrist. A sprain to the thumb is common in skiing and other sports.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Sprains?


The usual signs and symptoms of a sprain are:

Pain

Swelling

Bruising

Not being able to move or use the joint.


Sometimes people feel a pop or tear when the injury happens. A sprain can be mild, moderate, or severe.

STRAIN

A strain is an injury to a muscle or a tendon (tissue that connects muscle to bone). In a strain, a
muscle or tendon is stretched or torn.
Abnormal stretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon.

What Causes Strains?


A strain is caused by twisting or pulling a muscle or tendon. Strains can happen suddenly or develop over
days or weeks. A sudden (acute) strain is caused by:

A recent injury

Lifting heavy objects the wrong way

Overstressing the muscles.


Chronic strains are usually caused by moving the muscles and tendons the same way over and over.
Where Do Strains Usually Occur?
Two common sites for a strain are the back and the hamstring muscle in the back of the thigh. Sports such
as soccer, football, hockey, boxing, and wrestling put people at risk for strains in the back or legs. People
who play some sports use their hands and arms a lot. Examples are gymnastics, tennis, rowing, and golf.
People who play these sports sometimes strain their hand or arm. Elbow strains can also happen when
playing sports.
What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Strains?
A strain can cause:

Pain

Muscle spasms

Muscle weakness

Swelling

Cramping

Trouble moving the muscle.


If a muscle or tendon is torn completely, it is often very painful and hard to move.
TREATMENT
Treatments for sprains and strains are the same. To reduce swelling and pain in the first day or two,
doctors usually say to:

Rest the injured area. If the ankle or knee is hurt, the doctor might tell you to use crutches or a cane.

Put ice on the injury for 20 minutes at a time. The doctor might say to do this 4 to 8 times a day.

Compress (squeeze) the injury using special bandages, casts, boots, or splints. Your doctor will tell you
which one is best for you and how tight it should be.

Put the injured ankle, knee, elbow, or wrist up on a pillow.

The doctor may recommend taking medicines, such as aspirin or ibuprofen.


After treating pain and swelling, doctors usually say to exercise the injured area. This helps to prevent
stiffness and increase strength. Some people need physical therapy. You may need to exercise the injured
area or go to physical therapy for several weeks. Your doctor or physical therapist will tell you when you
can start to do normal activities, including sports. If you begin too soon, you can injure the area again.
It is important to see a doctor if you have a painful sprain or strain. This helps you get the right treatments.
Can Sprains and Strains Be Prevented?
To help prevent sprains and strains, you can:

Avoid exercising or playing sports when tired or in pain.

Eat a well-balanced diet to keep muscles strong.

Maintain a healthy weight.

Try to avoid falling (for example, put sand or salt on icy spots on your front steps or sidewalks).

Wear shoes that fit well.

Get new shoes if the heel wears down on one side.

Exercise every day.

Be in proper physical condition to play a sport.

Warm up and stretch before playing a sport.

Wear protective equipment when playing.

Run on flat surfaces.

Republic of the Philippines


SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE
College of Education
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City

Name: Nio Dellomas (5)


Topic: Burns
Yr. & Sec: 4A
Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid
Instructors Name: Mr. Oscar Don
BURNS
Burns are serious injuries caused by disasters such as explosions and fires. These include : thermal
burns, chemical burns and electrical burns.
Types of Burns
1. Superficial (First Degree) Burns are burns that involve the top layer of the skin. (e.g Sunburn)
Signs:
a. Red
b. Painful to touch
c. Skin will show mild swelling
First Aid:
1. Remove the clothing from the burn areas except clothing that is stuck to the skin.
2. Cool the burn by running cool water.
Do not:
a. Put ice to the burn
b. Apply butter, toothpaste, or any other ointments.
3. Keep the area uncovered and elevated, if possible.
4. Consider giving subject medication to relieve pain.
5. Monitor for signs of infections.
2. Partial Thickness (Second Degree) Burns are burns that involve the first two layers of the skin.
Signs:
a. Deep reddening of the skin
b. Pain
c. Blisters
d. Glossy appearance from leaking liquids
e. Possible loss of some skin
First Aid:

1. Remove the clothing from the burn areas except clothing that is stuck to the skin.
2. Cool the burn by running cool water.
3. Continue applying cold compresses.
Do not:
a. Rub the affected area to dry, blot it with clean, dry cloth instead.
b. Apply butter, toothpaste, or any other ointments.
c. Break the blisters.
4. Once dried, dress the affected area with a single layer or loose gauze that will not stick to
the skin.
5. If possible, prop the burnt area higher than the rest of the body.
6. Change the dressings regularly.
7. Monitor for signs of infections.
3. Full-Thickness (Third Degree) Burns are burns that destroy all the layers of the skin and any or all of
the underlying structures like fats, muscles, nerves and even bones.
Signs:
a. Loss of skin layers
b. Often painless
c. Skin is dry and leathery
d. Skin may appear charred or have patches that appear white, brown, or black.
First Aid
1. CALL THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES.
2. Stop the burning. Make sure that the subject is no longer in contact with heat or the source of
the burn.
3. Make sure subject is breathing. If breathing has stopped or you suspect that the subjects
airway is blocked, try to clear the airway, and if necessary begin CPR.
4. Cover the burned areas using a cool, moist sterile bandage or clean cloth.
Treatment for Scalding
1. Hold affected area under cool running water or apply a cold compress to cool skin surface
and reduce pain.
2. Apply Urtica ointment to soothe the pain.
Note: if burn surface is larger than 3 inches in diameter, SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL CARE.
Treatment for Chemical Burns
1. CALL THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES IN ANY CASE OF CHEMICAL BURNS. Until help
arrives you can:
2. Remove the cause of the burn by flushing the chemicals off the skin surface with cool running
water for 20 minutes or more.
3. Remove jewelry or clothing that has been contaminated by the chemical.
4. Consider using a cooling lotion or ointment to prevent drying.
5. Cover the burned area using a dry sterile bandage or a clean cloth.
6. Rinse the burn again if subject complains of increased burning sensation after initial washing.
7. Assist the Medical Services.

Treatment for Electrical Burns


1. CALL THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES IN ANY CASE OF CHEMICAL BURNS. Until help
arrives you can:
2. Look first, dont touch.
3. Turn off the source of electricity.
4. Once, it is safe to approach the subject, check to see if he/she is breathing.
5. If subject is breathing, do not move the subject should he/she have other injuries.
6. Cover the burned area using a dry sterile bandage or a clean cloth. Dont use a blanket.

Republic of the Philippines


SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE
College of Education
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City

Name: Roderick J. Renovalles II (6)


Topic: Sudden Illness and Specific Injuries (foreign objects)
Yr. & Sec: 4A
Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid
Instructors Name: Mr. Oscar Don

Sudden Illness and Specific Injuries (foreign objects)


This part helps students understand the safety measures in physical activities, sports injuries
and prevention methods.
It also heightens students awareness of common sports injuries and helps them learn to
apply the knowledge to treatment and preventive measures.

An illness is a sickness and an injury is physical bodily harm.


I. SUDDEN ILLNESS
Illness
Heart
attack

Cause (symptoms)
blood supply severely reduced or stopped
(Uncomfortable pressure, Pain , Chest discomfort)

Stroke

oxygen is denied to the brain as a result of disrupted


blood flow:
(Weakness/paralysis, Blurred vision, Problems
speaking/understanding, Dizziness , unexplained
Headache, Deviation of the eyes from PEARL (Pupils
Equal And Reactive to Light)
Triggers: Allergens, Lung irritants, Weather changes,
Infections, overexertion, Excitement
(Coughing w/o cold, Wheezing, Fast/irregular
breathing, Upset stomach, Tickly throat
Anxiousness)
physical or emotional
(Dizziness, Weakness, Seeing spots, Visual blurring,
Nausea, Pale skin, Sweating)

Asthma

Fainting

Seizures

Epilepsy, Heat stroke, Poisoning, Electric shock,


Hypoglycemia, High fever, Brain injury/tumor/stroke,
Alcohol withdrawal/drug abuse/overdose

Diabetes

pancreas fails to produce enough insulin/ insulin cell


receptors are defective
(weight loss, visual disorders, thirst/hunger, frequent
urination, fatigue, irritability, and nausea)

What to do
Dont delay, EMS, ABC &CPR, least
painful position, Loosen cloth, calm
and reassuring, nitroglycerin tablets
EMS, ABC & CPR, lay the victim
down head and shoulders slightly
elevated, DO NOT give
anything to drink/eat
Tripod, ABC, calm and reassure,

warm fluids, asthma medication,


EMS
ABC, Loosen clothing , check for any
injury, recovery position, sit for a
while and sweetened liquids, Fresh
air and a cold
wet cloth, EMS
convulsions and grand mal:
Cushion, Loosen, clothing, Roll side,
medical-alert tag, offer your help,
EMS
I - daily insulin injections, oral
medication.
II - diet, exercise, oral medications

II. SPECIFIC INJURIES


Exercising by playing sports can be very beneficial to your health, but sometimes these
benefits are outweighed by negative things, such as an injury.
Severity range from minor to very serious, (some requiring surgery to fully heal).
A. Factors leading to sports injuries
1) Environmental factors
weather - High temperature may induce heat cramps, heat exhaustion and
heatstroke. Cold condition is associated with hypothermia.
2) Facilities and equipment
Sports grounds - the availability of a proper environment for athletes is vital to
help reduce the chance of injuries.
Equipment - All equipment should be checked before use. The equipment installed
in an open area should be inspected and maintained regularly to prevent sports
injuries. Proper clothing should be worn for physical activities.
3) Protective devices - Protective devices may reduce the risk of injury (helmet, mouthpiece,
ect.)
4) Level of skill - Participants without adequate specific skills or knowledge face a greater
chance of injury.
5) Level of fitness - sports injuries will be more likely to occur when the players fitness level
drops.
6) Physical limitations - Participants should have the required physical capabilities, such as
height, weight, strength and technique to take part in the activity.
7) Nature of different sports
Level of contact - The level of contact in some sports, such as rugby and wrestling,
has significant bearing on the likelihood of injury.
Mismatching of players - There are great discrepancies among players in age,
body type, etc.
B. Common sports injuries
Injury Type
Bleeding
Abrasion
Contusion
Dislocation
Fracture
Strain
Sprain
Heat and cold
Overuse

Cause/s
skin and deeper tissues are cut,
stabbed or scraped.
rubbing or scraping off of the skin.
tissues have been injured, usually as a
result of direct trauma, without any
breakage of the skin.
A fall/blow causing the displacement
of a joint.
bone is hit, compressed or twisted,
resulting from a break.
muscle is forcefully or excessively
stretched and pulled.
Stretching/tearing of ligament caused
by compression, twisting or torsion.
over-exposure to extreme hot/cold
conditions.
specific injuries sustained from a
repetitive action.

Treatment
Clean the wound, compression, elevation
Clean and dress wound to prevent infection.
Control pain, bleeding and inflammation,
keep the muscle in a gentle stretch position
and use the PRICE principles.
Medicine for pain and relax muscles.
Surgery if required.
If the bone is lined up correctly, it can be
protected in a cast. Surgery to realign the
bone fragments with screws, pins, etc.
PRICE principles are used here. Graded
return to exercise is essential.
PRICE. Complete tears may need surgery.
Take all prescribed medicine. Do not expose
affected area to adverse conditions until
told to do so by a doctor.
Rest, take medicine, do rehab. exercises. A
gradual return to exercise is advised.

C. Treatment
General principles of first aid - It is of paramount importance that every sports injury should be
treated as soon as possible, regardless of how minor it seems to be.
The PRICE Principle
Protection - To prevent from further injury
Rest - Immobilize limb
Ice - To reduce swelling
Compression - To control bleeding
Elevation -To raise injured limb
Other injury/s like:
Eye injuries
- Minor eye irritation
- Serious eye injury (large foreign object penetrated he globe of the eye)
- Eye injury caused by exposure or chemical
- Eye injury caused by a blow (black eye)
III. Foreign Objects:
Foreign
DO NOT:
Objects in the:
ear
Probe with a tool
Use step 3 if:
- If there is pain,
bleeding, discharge
- Not insect
nose
Probe with any tool
Try to inhale the object
skin

Steps:

If:

1) Remove object if possible.


2) Use gravity.
3) Use warm oil for an insect.

If it fails seek
immediate
medical assistance

1) Blow gently, close other


nostril.
2) Remove if possible.

If it fails seek
immediate
medical assistance
If particle remains,
seek medical help.

1) Rinse with soap and


water.
2) Sterilize a needle.
3) Break the skin over the
object.
4) Use sanitized tweezers.
5) Apply antibiotic.

Republic of the Philippines


SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE
College of Education
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City

Name: Karen D. Bulaon


Topic: Bandaging
Yr. & Sec: 4A
Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid
Instructors Name: Mr. Oscar Don
BANDAGING
3 Key Uses:

Applying pressure to bleeding wounds


Covering wounds and burns
Providing support and immobilization for broken bones, sprains and strains
Objectives of Bandaging
1. To control bleeding
2. To prevent swelling
3. To support and immobilize injuries
Types of Bandage

TRIANGULAR BANDAGE
-made from cloth & exceptionally versatile because of its uses:
= Pad - Padding or Cold compress
= Folded - Provide support/pressure
= Unfolded - Sling

ACE BANDAGE
-used to provide support or secure dressings in place.
-used for neck, hand, arm, forearm, elbow, leg, knee, foot

TUBULAR BANDAGE
-larger ones are used to support joints or hold dressings in place; smaller tubular bandages are
ideal for finger injuries
General Principles of Bandaging
1. Work with the injured person, explaining what you are doing.
2. Work in front of the injured person where possible and from the injured side if you can

3. Bandage firmly over bleeding and securely over broken bones, but not so tight as to
compromise circulation below the sight of the injury.
4. When wrapping bandages around an injured person, use the bodys natural hollows such as
the knees, ankles, necks and small of the back to slide the bandages gently into place.
5. Be aware that the most injuries swell- check regularly to insure that the bandage is still
comfortable. Also, check that the bandage remains firmly secured, particularly if the injured
person has to move, as movement can loosen the bandage.
6. Secure bandages with tape, clips, a bow or a square knot
Tying A Square Knot
=Right over left and left over right=
Triangular Bandage
Open fold - Broad fold - Narrow fold Padding
Cravat Bandage to the parts of the Body
Head Top (head injuries)
Fold the base at least 2-3
Place folded base aligned with eyebrows
Pull back and cross-over at the back, tucking apex beneath
Pull both ends in front/secure with a square knot at the center of the folded base/tuck
Pull down apex (tuck sides neatly) & Tuck apex neatly at cross-over area
Chest Bandage
Apex at the shoulder of the injured part
Pull back folded base and secure with a square knot at the center indention of the back
Knot/tie longer end with apex
Hand Bandage
Place the hand in the middle of the triangular bandage with the wrist at the base
Place the apex over the fingers and tuck any excess material into the pleats on each side
of the hand
Cross the ends on top of the hand, take them around the wrist, and tie them with a square
knot
Arm Sling
Place folded base vertically over
One arm, with pointed directly under the elbow of injured arm
Lower ends of the base at the side of the neck using a square knot
Make several twist with apex and tie a knot
Hide the knot
Underarm Sling
Same procedure as arm sling except the lower end of the base is tucked under the injured
arm
Secure end of base and apex with a square knot the center indention at the back
Cravat Bandage for Forehead
Place the center of the cravat over the compress covering the wound

Carry the ends around the opposite side of the head, cross them. Bring them back to the
starting point and tie them
Cravat Bandage for the neck
Place the center of the cravat over the compress covering the wound
Carry the ends around the neck, cross them. Bring them back to the starting point and tie
them loosely
Cravat Bandage for the cheeks/ear
Use the white cravat. Start with the middle of the cravat over the compress covering the
cheek or the ear
Carry one end over the top of the head and the other under the chin
Cross the ends at the opposite side
Bring the short end back around the forehead and the long end around the back of the
head & Tie them down over the compress
Cravat Bandage for the eye
Lay center of the first cravat over top of with the front end falling over uninjured eye
Bring second cravat around head, over eyes and over loose ends of first cravat. Tie in
front
Bring end of first cravat back over top of head, tying there and pulling second cravat up
and away from uninjured eye
Cravat Bandage for the elbow
Bend arm and below place center of cravat at point of elbow
Bring ends up and across each other in overlapping spiral turns. Continue one end up arm
and the other end down forearm & Brings end to front of elbow and tie
Cravat Bandage for the forearm, Leg, Arm, Thigh, Knee
Place center of cravat over the dressing
Begin ascending turns with upper end and descending turns with lower end, with each turn
covering two-third of preceding turn until dressing is covered & Terminate by tying both
ends in square knot
Shoulder Armpit Cravat
Starts at the armpit
Cross-over at injured shoulder
Tie at the opposite armpit (side of front)
How to improvise Bandage

A clean and sterilized cloth for triangular follow the standard size 40x40x56 and for tubular &
ace we can always use the triangular bandage folded into narrow cravat
Tourniquet

The tourniquet itself and a wooden stick. It is a constricting or compressing device, specifically a
bandage.It is used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time.
Pressure is applied circumferentially upon the skin and underlying tissues of a limb; this pressure is
transferred to the walls of vessels, causing them to become temporarily occluded.

Republic of the Philippines


SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE

College of Education
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City

Name: Andrea M. Fortes and Lenilyn Benbing


Topic: First Aid for Broken Bones
Yr. & Sec: 4A
Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid
Instructors Name: Mr. Oscar Don
FIRST AID FOR BROKEN BONES
Broken bones are not uncommon in children, especially after a fall. A broken bone requires emergency
medical care. The child may have a broken bone if:
You or the subject heard a snapping or grinding sound during the injury.
There is swelling, bruising or tenderness, or a feeling of pins and needles on the injured part.
It is painful to bear weight on the injured part or to move it.
Subjects hands and fingers, or feet and toes, tingle or feel numb.
2 Types of Broken Bone
1. Closed (Simple) break or fracture- The bone has broken but has not pierced the skin.
2. Open (Compound) break or fracture - The bone has either pierced the skin or is associated with
an open wound.
Signs and Symptoms of Broken Bones
Pain. This accompanies most, but not all, fractures and is caused by the broken bone end pressing on nerve
endings.
Deformity. An injured part may appear deformed, particularly when compared to the uninjured side.
Swelling. Some swelling may be present at the site of a fracture.
Tenderness. This accompanies most broken bones and can often only felt when the injured part is gently
touched.
Shock. There may be reddening or bruising over the site of the break, but not often takes some time to
appear. You may also hear the ends of broken bone rubbing together, a sound known as crepitus.
How to Treat Fractures
The general rule for treating all broken bone is to immobilized them, because this reduce pain and the
likelihood of further injury. The risk of infection is also an important consideration in the treatment of open
fractures and requires action. Do not give the patient who has a broken bone anything to eat or drink in case
he needs a general anesthetic in hospital.
Keeping a Broken Bone Still
1. The victim will often have put the injured part in the position that is most comfortable for him and
will generally be guarding the injury and keeping it still. If the victim has not done this, encourage
him to keep still and help him into a comfortable position.

2. Once the victim is still you can help to steady and support the fracture using your hands. By
helping the victim keep the injured part still you enable him to relax. The very act of relaxing the
muscles reduces the pull on the broken bones and often alleviates pain.
3. If you have to transport the victim yourself, or if it is going to be a while until help arrives, then you
can immobilized the broken bone further with bandages or improvise with coats or blankets for
example.
The key point to remember with any types of bandaging are
- Not to tie the bandage too tightly.
- To pad around the site of the break
Do not move the injured area unnecessarily.
Bandaging an Open Break
1. Place the dressing over the wound and build up padding alongside the bone.
2. Tie both the padding and the dressing in place, using firm pressure.
3. Remember that broken bones do swell and that you may need to loosen the bandage if the
circulation below the site of the break becomes impaired.
Cheking for damage to circulation.
Ways to check whether a bandage is cutting off the circulation:
If the skin below the site of the bandage becomes white, gray, or blue, or feels cold to the touch.
If the victim complains of tingling, numbness, or of a lack of circulation.
If the pulse in the limb slows or stops.
If the color does not quickly return to the skin after the skin is gently pinched or the nail
compressed.
If you notice any of this signs, gently loosen, but do not remove the bandage, until the blood flow
returns.
Fractures of the Skull, Face and Jaw
Treating a fractured skull
A skull fracture is a very serious injury since it is often associated with some form of damage to the
brain. Concussion and compression may both accompany skull fractures.
Signs and symptoms of a skull fracture
Bruising to the eye socket
Pain
A bump or a dent
Staw-colored fluid coming from one or both ears
Deterioration in the level of consciousness of the victim
Does the person respond slowly to the questions or commands? Is he having problem focusing?
If any of these things is present, assume a skull fracture with a potential injury to the brain.
First Aid Treatment:
1. Keep the victim still while she is unconscious. Encourage her not to move her head.
2. Keep a constant check on the airway, breathing and circulation.
3. Be prepared to resuscitate or turn into the recovery position if necessary.
4. Call for emergency help as soon as possible.

How to treat fractures of the face and jaw


If a person has a fracture to the bone of the face of jaw, the airway is your overwhelming priority.
1. Ensure that any blood in the mouth is allowed to dribble out- encourage the victim to spit into a
bandage or handkerchief.
2. Gently remove any teeth or bits of broken bone from the mouth and give the victim a pad to hold
against the injured part for additional support and comfort.
3. A cold compress may help to reduce pain.
4. Get the victim hospital because she will require medical treatment.
5. Do not pinch a broken nose to control bleeding- hold a pad under it.
Fractures of the Upper Body
Broken Collarbone
Along with potential swelling, bruising and tenderness above the site of the injury, the victim is most
likely to be supporting the injured arm, with the shoulder on the injured side slumped. Since the collarbone
is close to the skin it is particularly important to look for an open fracture.
Broken Shoulder
If you are confident that the shoulder itself is broken then the treatment is to work with the victim to
find the best position.
Treatment
If the bone has pierced the skin, place a light dressing over the wound.
Work with the injured person to find the most comfortable position for the arm and for the body
as a whole.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Hold uninjured shoulder.


Support elbow to reduce pressure on collarbone.
Place a bandage around the body for extra support.
Use a triangular bandage to make an elevation sling.
Keep the arm supported at the elbow.

Applying an Elevation Sling


1. Place the injured arm with fingers by the collarbone on the uninjured side.
2. Place the triangular bandage with the point resting at the elbow on the injured side.
3. Tuck the bandage underneath the hand and down underneath the injured arm.
4. Tie the collarbone in a squire knot [or a bow].
5. Fasten the spare material at the elbow with a pin or twist it and tuck it away.
6. Extra support can be gained by placing a triangular bandage folded into three around the arm
and body.
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Broken Elbow or an Arm that cannot bend
If the broken bone is on or near the elbow it may not be possible for the person to bend the arm,
either because of the pain or because the joint is fixed. In this case, you need to treat the arm in the
position found- do not try to bend the arm.
Treatment
1. Help the victim into the most comfortable position; this will often be lying down on the ground, but
it may also be standing up with the arm hanging straight down.

2. Place padding around the injured part, both between the arm and the body and on the outside of
the arm.
3. The victim will need to be transported by the ambulance. Do not attempt to bandage the arm if
helps is on its way because this will cause further discomfort and may make the injury worse.
Fractured Wrist
Treatment
Provide support and immobilization in the same way as for a break to the upper or lower arm.
Remove watches and bracelets because these may contribute to cutting off circulation to the hand if the
injury swells.
Hand Fractures
Treatment
1. Gently cover any open wounds with a dressing or clean, non-fluffy piece of material. Encourage
the victim to raise her arm. This helps to reduce swelling and bleeding and also provides some
pain relief.
2. If possible, remove rings and wrist watches before the injury starts to swell. If jewelry has been
crushed into the hand or swelling prevents its easy removal, pass this information on as soon as
possible to the medical staff as early treatment will be needed to prevent further damage to the
circulation in the fingers.
3. Cover the injured area with a pad soft fabric or cotton woo [ taking particular care if there are
open wounds not to get strands of materials stuck into the injury ] This padding can be held in
place with a cover created from a triangular bandage, which can also be adapted for crush
injuries to the foot and for burns to the hand or foot.
Fractures of the Ribcage
Treating a Simple Broken Rib
The best treatment for a simple fractured rib is to put the arm on the injured side into an arm sling
and to advise the victim to seek medical aid.
Multiple Broken Rib
Signs and symptoms of multiple broken ribs
Chest rises on the injured side as the person breathes out [ paradoxical breathing ]
Swelling or indentation along the line of the ribs
Open breaks
Difficulty in breathing
Pain on breathing
Shock [ as there is likely to be some degree of internal bleeding ]
Bright, red, frothy blood coming from the mouth and/or nose. [ This is an indication of a punctured
lung as oxygenated blood is escaping from the respiratory system. There may or may not be an
associated sucking wound to the chest. ]
Sucking wound to the chest
1. Treat any sucking wounds by covering, initially with a hand and then with plastic. Treat any open
breaks.

2. If the victim is conscious, lay him down. He is most likely to find breathing easier in a half-sitting
position.
3. Lean the victim toward the injured side. This allows any blood to drain into the injured lung,
leaving the good lung free to breathe. Place the arm on the injured site into an elevation sling.
4. Treat for shock.
If the victim lose consciousness, monitor the airway and breathing and place the person into the
recovery position with the injured side upward.
Recognizing Back and Spinal Injury
The spine is made up of a number of small bones called vertebrae. These form the backbone or
spinal column, through which runs the spinal cord [the part of the central nervous system connecting all
parts of the body with the brain] and major blood vessels. Injuries to the back are caused in a number
of ways;
Though direct impact such as a heavy blow to the neck or back
Indirect impact such as landing on the head or feet without bending the legs, thus allowing the
force to travel up the body
And whiplash, when the head is violently thrown forward and backward [ common in traffic
accidents ].
Signs and symptoms of a broken back
Dent or step in the spine, which may indicate a displaced vertebra
Bruising or swelling over the backbone
Complaint of pain in the back
Tenderness over the area of the break
Treatment
1. If the victim is conscious and already lying down, leave him where he is. If the victim is still walking
around, support him in lying down on the ground. If you can, put a blanket or coat underneath
before you lie the person down.
2. Ensure that an ambulance has been called at the earliest opportunity.
3. Tell the person to keep still until medical help arrives and reassure him.
4. Hold the victims head still by placing your hands over the ears and your fingers along the jaw
line.
5. Do not remove your support from the head until help arrives.
If the victim is unconscious, maintaining a clear airway is your first priority.
Back Pain
There are many causes of back pain. Among the most serious is damage to spinal cord which may
lead to paralysis or meningitis.
Treatment
1. Check the nature of the incident carefully- if the pain is related to a recent heavy fall or other
accident, assume that there may be a spinal cord damage and treat as for a broken back.
2. Help the person to lie down. Usually the most comfortable position will be flat on the back on a
hard surface.
3. If the symptoms do not ease, seek medical attention promptly.