Republic of the Philippines

SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE
College of Education
Sorsogon City Campus
Sorsogon City

Name: Roy O. Jarlego (1)
Topic: Natural Disasters
Yr. & Sec: 4A
Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid
Instructor’s Name: Mr. Oscar Don
NATURAL DISASTERS
-

is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth
can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage
in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability
to recover and also on the infrastructure available.
Includes; floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis and other
geologic processes
Typically leaves some economic damages

1. GEOLOGICAL DISASTERS
a. Avalanches and mudslides (a snowslide or snowslip)
- Many of the avalanches were caused by artillery fire.
- Accdg. (Physical Geography)
a. a fall of large masses of snow and ice down a mountain
b. a fall of rocks, sand, etc
b. Earthquakes
- is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic
waves.
- At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and
sometimes displacement of the ground.
- caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events such as
volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests.
- The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the focus. The point
directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter.
- rarely kill people or wildlife.
- It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse,
fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, which are actually the human
disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety
systems, early warning and planning.
c. Sinkholes
- When natural erosion or human mining makes the ground too weak to support the
structures built on it, the ground can collapse and produce a sinkhole.

d. Volcanic eruptions
- can cause widespread destruction and consequent disaster in several ways;
 may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock.
 lava, destroys many buildings, plants and animals due to its extreme heat .
 volcanic ash (cooled ash) - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby
locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete-like material.
 In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even
small quantities will harm humans if inhaled.
 it causes abrasion damage to moving parts such as engines.
 The main killer of humans in the immediate surroundings of a volcanic eruption is
the pyroclastic flows, which consist of a cloud of hot volcanic ash which builds up
in the air above the volcano and rushes down the slopes when the eruption no
longer supports the lifting of the gases.
2. HYDROLOGICAL DISASTERS
- It is a violent, sudden and destructive change either in quality of earth's water or in
distribution or movement of water on land below the surface or in atmosphere.
a. Floods
- A flood is an overflow of water that 'submerges' land.
- In the sense of 'flowing water', the word may also be applied to the inflow of
the tides.
- Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as
a river or lake, which overflows causing the result that some of the water escapes its
usual boundaries.
b. Limnic eruptions
- occurs when a gas, usually CO2, suddenly erupts from deep lake water, posing the
threat of suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans.
- Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising gas displaces
water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger such
an eruption.
c. Tsunami
- from Japanese: "harbour wave"; also known as a seismic sea wave or as a tidal
wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large
volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
- can be caused by undersea earthquakes
3. METEOROLOGICAL DISASTERS
- are caused by extreme weather, e.g. rain, drought, snow, extreme heat or cold, ice,
or wind. Violent, sudden and destructive change to the environment related to,
produced by, or affecting the earth's atmosphere, especially the weather-forming
processes.
a. Blizzards
- are severe winter storms characterized by heavy snow and strong winds.
- ground blizzard, when the snow had stir up and fallen in the ground
- can impact local economic activities, especially in regions where snowfall is rare.
b. Cyclonic storms

.contribute to conditions of drought. rather than melting before they hit the ground. Heat waves . but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel.Apart from the damage typically associated with storms. 4. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h)."hurricane". Electrical storms . It is also referred to as a twister or a cyclone.to as a "typhoon" and "cyclones" occur in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.Cyclone.. such as winds. although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider sense.is an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads through a human population. hail and flooding. A pandemic is an epidemic that has spread globally.is a period of unusually and excessively hot weather. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 mph (480 km/h). in the Northwest Pacific . dust clouds and volcanic eruptions can generate lightning. Epidemics . the lightning itself can damage buildings. to refer to any closed low pressure circulation. high temperatures and consequent evaporation of moisture from the ground. rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or. whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.Severe storms.The determining factor on which term is used is based on where they originate. 5.is the unusual dryness of soil. . resulting in crop failure and shortage of water and for other uses which is caused by significant low rainfall than average over a prolonged period. stretch more than two miles (3 km) across. Common causes include lightning and drought but wildfires may also be started by human negligence or arson. . d. e. shortage of water. hurricane. - c. such as the Black Death. They can spread to populated areas and can thus be a threat to humans and property. g. and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (perhaps more than 100 km). dangerous. which is a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans. are approximately 250 feet (80 m) across. Hailstorms . and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. . There have been many epidemics throughout history. hot dry winds. Tornadoes is a violent. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes. the base of acumulus cloud.are large fires which often start in wildland areas. in rare cases. tropical cyclone. f. ignite fires and kill by direct contact. WILDFIRES . Droughts . and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon.are falls of rain drops that arrive as ice. HEALTH DISASTER/S a. the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific . as well as wildlife.

much more than normal. but the 1490 Ch'ing-yang event in which over 10. SPACE DISASTERS a.are unlikely to cause any direct injury. . Even asteroids and comets that burn up in the atmosphere can cause significant destruction on the ground due to the air burst explosion.000 people may have died has been linked to a meteor. Impact events and airburst .Asteroids that impact the Earth have led to several major extinction events. including one that created the Chicxulub crater 64.No human death has been definitively attributed to an impact event. . .Scientists estimate that the likelihood of death for a living human from a global impact event is comparable to death from airliner crash. b. .is a phenomenon where the sun suddenly releases a great amount of solar radiation. but can destroy electrical equipment. Solar flare .9 million years ago and associated with the demise of the dinosaurs.6.

TIPS TO HELP KEEP YOU SAFE AT SCHOOL:  Always walk or ride your bicycle on the sidewalk. Whether you are at home or in school. if someone got hurt. If there is a fire or someone is hurt call for help. Learning about all aspects of proper safety is an important part of education. There are many areas within your home that can inflict harm and pose unnecessary accidents. TIPS TO HELP KEEP YOU SAFE AT HOME:      Never talk to stranger or get into a car with someone you don’t know. Staying safe at school is just as important.  When at the playground sit on the swings and don’t walk up the slide. It also means that you have a firm grasp on what to do if there was a fire. AND ROADS It is important to understand the seriousness of personal safety and how to avoid dangerous situations at home or in school. Learning how to stay safe when you are n your way to school and at school will protect you from any harm. drugs or cigarettes from anyone. Do not put chemicals or poisons in your mouth. Do not answer the telephone or door when you are home alone. staying safe on the bus and playground and knowing how to protect yourself from a bully. SCHOOL. Learning about how to stay safe when you are at home will only benefit you in the future. Walking or riding your bicycle to school. Never accept alcohol. tell an adult right away. A lot can happen on your way to school. & Sec: 4A Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid Instructor’s Name: Mr. staying safe is the top priority. .  When waiting for the transportation make sure you stand far back from the street. is all important to know. and Roads Yr. never talk to a stranger or get into a car with someone you don’t know. about poisons and chemicals around the house. staying safe on the computer and understanding that drugs. School. alcohol and tobacco are bad for you.Republic of the Philippines SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE College of Education Sorsogon City Campus Sorsogon City Name: Maryrose Gil Ebdani (2) Topic: Safety Education in Home. Being safe at home means you understand what to do if someone comes to the door and you are home by yourself.  If a bully is trying to hurt. Oscar Don SAFETY EDUCATION IN HOME.  When on your way to school.

look. Anytime to anyone 2. Damage of properties ELEMENTS OF ACCIDENTS 1. avoid talking to friends and wearing headphones when crossing the road  Never walk alone  Walk on the sidewalk  Use the pedestrian lane when crossing the road  Never drive when your drunk  Use helmets  Secure your engines  Reduce distractions when driving  Park legally and safely  Never double park  Speed limit ACCIDENTS (Home)       Suffocation Drowning Falls Burns Cuts Food poisoning CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCIDENTS 1. Ensure you share road safety advice with family members and other carers who may help you transport your children.As parents and carers. listen and think every time you cross the road  Reduce distractions. 3. 2. Most importantly. 5. we all should be good road safety role models. we have responsibility to keep our children safe when travelling to and from school. Vehicular School Home Public places Work places . remove electronic devices. Anytime to anywhere 3. 4. TIPS TO HELP KEEP YOU SAFE ON THE ROAD:  Stop.

First aid is generally performed by the layperson. with care provided to preserve life. It is the care administered by a person as soon as possible after an accident or illness. and/or promote recovery. with many people trained in providing basic levels of first aid. & Sec: 4A Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid Instructor’s Name: Mr.  First aid.  Emergency Medicine is a medical specialty involving care for adult and pediatric patients with acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention. Some self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may only require first aid intervention. as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions. The main aims of first aid are:  To preserve life  To protect the casualty from further harm . Oscar Don FIRST AID What is First Aid?  Is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury. or between a full or partial recovery.  Is the initial assistance or care of a suddenly sick or injured person. It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available. or emergency first aid is the care that is given to an injured or sick person prior to treatment by medically trained personnel. prevent the condition from worsening. such as applying a plaster to a cut.Republic of the Philippines SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE College of Education Sorsogon City Campus Sorsogon City Name: Aldrin Habitan (3) Topic: First Aid Yr. such as performing CPR while awaiting an ambulance. and no further treatment. Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of first aid to cover mental health. It is this prompt care and attention prior to the arrival of the ambulance that sometimes means the difference between life and death. and others willing to do so from acquired knowledge.

cars rarely explode)." In other words. But most people do it wrong. Panic clouds thinking and causes mistakes. unless not moving them puts them at great risk (and by the way. It's far easier to do this when you know what you're doing. studies suggest no survival advantage when bystanders deliver breaths to victims compared to when they only do chest compressions. do no harm. I needed to calm myself before attempting to intervene. 2. Common First Aid Topics           Abdominal Pain Animal Bites Bee. You really need to indent the chest and should aim for 100 compressions per minute. It can literally be lifesaving so it behooves all of us to know some basic principles. Also. but even if you encounter a situation for which you're unprepared. Second. there's usually some good you can do. If you're doing it right. Wasp. especially an unconscious one. And if there's nothing you can think to do yourself. a wise resident advised me when entering a "code blue" situation to always "take my own pulse first. 3. It means make sure that if you're going to do something you're confident it won't make matters worse. Don't panic. To promote recovery These aims are known as the three P’s of first aid. most people don't compress deeply enough or perform compressions quickly enough. increased bleeding). This doesn't mean do nothing. So don't move a traumavictim. know that CPR doesn't reverseventricular fibrillation. Don't remove an embedded object (like a knife or nail) as you may precipitate more harm (e.. If you're not sure about the risk of harm of a particular intervention. CPR can be life-sustaining. When I was an intern and learning what to do when confronted with an unresponsive patient. First. the most common cause of unconsciousness in a . What follows are some rules that cover common conditions and general practices: 1. Focus on that rather than on allowing yourself an unhelpful emotional response.g. First. That's more than 1 compression per second. if you're alone and your only means to do that is to leave the victim. CPR should wear you out. You can let yourself feel whatever you need to feel later when you're no longer needed. you can always call for help. don't do it. In fact. Insect Stings Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Broken Toe Bruises (Hematomas) Burns Choking Cuts and Wounds Diarrhea           Dizziness Fever in Children Food Poisoning Frostbite Heart Palpitations Heat Exhaustion Heatstroke Hypothermia Nosebleeds Pulled Muscle (Muscle Strain)       Rectal (Anal) Bleeding Spider Bites Sprains Sunburn Testicle Pain Vertigo Ten Principles Of First Aid That Need To Know First aid is defined as the immediate care given to an acutely injured or ill person. then leave the victim.

someone actually drowning is usually barely moving at all (I strongly encourage everyone to click on this link to learn more about how to recognize what drowning does look like). heart attacks and strokes. they've usually passed that critical juncture. When someone passes out but continues breathing and has a good pulse. or difficulty with speech or smiling. visual disturbances. or arms. First. which represents a true emergency. The greatest danger posed to someone having a seizure is injury from unrestrained forceful muscular contractions. but patients often do poorly because they don't gain access to that technology in time. Don't Heimlich someone who says to you. But CPR is a bridge that keeps vital organs oxygenated until paramedics arrive. drowning people are physiologically incapable of crying out for help. Meaning they're not choking. If a person can talk or cough. If you or someone you know has risk factors for heart disease and starts experiencing chest pain. 7. The risk of dying from a heart attack. and pain. 8. In fact. stress. they may be having a stroke. Drowning doesn't look like what you think it does. Either electricity (meaning defibrillation) or medication is required for that. legs. High blood pressure is rarely acutely dangerous. their airway is open. when the blood pressure is higher than around 200/120. confusion) it's considered a hypertensive urgency. fear. and even then. Most seizures are not emergencies. Current protocols for treatment depend on the length of time symptoms have been present. the two most useful pieces of information to help doctors figure out what happened are: 1) the pulse rate. There is such a thing as a hypertensive emergency. nausea. Soap and water and some kind of bandage are best. resist the urge to write it off. "I'm choking. high blood pressure is anormal and appropriate response to exercise. 6. Move any objects on which they may hurt themselves away from the area (including glasses from their head) and time the seizure.patient suffering from a heart attack. 4. the more likely the best therapies can be applied. has evolved to an amazing degree. for example. 10. Don't attempt to move a seizing person's tongue. Don't worry—they won't swallow it. By the time most people even admit to themselves the chest pain they're feeling could be related to their heart. Don't use hydrogen peroxide on cuts or open wounds." 9. 5. Time counts. A true seizure is often followed by a period of confusion called "post-ictal confusion. is greatest in the first 30 minutes after symptoms begin. and 2) the length of time it takes for consciousness to return. but it's quite rare to see readings that high. meaning you have 24 hours to get the pressure down before you get into trouble." Your reassurance during this period that they're okay is the appropriate therapy. But the damage high blood pressure does to the human body takes place overyears to decades. in the absence of symptoms (headache. Many patients I follow for high blood pressure begin panicking when their readings start to come in higher. For one thing. Get to the nearest emergency room as quickly as you can. . If someone develops focal weakness of their face. The shorter that time. It's more irritating to tissue than it is helpful. The technology we now have to treat two of the most common and devastating medical problems in America.

(consider spinal imobilization at this time) Then you must ensure adequate BREATHING (12-16 breaths per minute) After this you check for CIRCULATION by checking the pulse.General direction in giving first Aid First you must ensure/control the AIRWAY so air can enter the lungs. you would role the patient onto their side so that you can check the back for injuries. dilated or unresponsive pules) After this. After that you would do a sweep of the patient to check for bleeding. or torniquet. The more trained you are. known as battle signs. fractures and burns. ask if someone else knows how to use it. You shouldn't worry about a defibrillator unless you know how to use one. Addrees each problem as you come to it. this might be the time when an IV is established. pressure dressing. If there is only one person. otherwise. this may be the way to go. treat bleeding before fractures and fractures before burns. Do not role the patient if there are signs of a pelvic fracture. (bruising around eyes and ears. . If you don't know first aid. They are "automatic" and "dummy proof" so if you are the only one there. maybe try it. the more it changes. Now you should control any major bleeding through the use of a bandage. After this you would check for head injuries.

Where Do Sprains Usually Occur? Sprains happen most often in the ankle. 2016 Topic : Sprain and Strain SPRAIN AND STRAIN Sprain    A sprain is an injury to a ligament (tissue that connects two or more bones at a joint). wrench or twist the ligaments of (an ankle. one or more ligaments is stretched or torn. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Sprains? The usual signs and symptoms of a sprain are:  Pain  Swelling  Bruising  Not being able to move or use the joint. Sprains can occur if people:  Fall and land on an arm. Falling. What Causes a Sprain? Many things can cause a sprain. A sprain to the thumb is common in skiing and other sports. A sprain can be mild.Sorsogon State College Teacher Education Department Sorsogon City Campus Sorsogon City Name : Fathy Faye Espenocilla Date : August 26.  Fall on the side of their foot. Sometimes when people fall and land on their hand. twisting. Abnormal stretching or tearing of a ligament that supports a joint.  Twist a knee. This can cause ligaments around the joint to stretch or tear. or severe. or getting hit can force a joint out of its normal position. . wrist. or other joint) violently so as to cause pain and swelling but not dislocation. they sprain their wrist. Sometimes people feel a pop or tear when the injury happens. In a sprain. moderate.

rowing. the doctor might tell you to use crutches or a cane. a muscle or tendon is stretched or torn. and golf. hockey. Your doctor will tell you which one is best for you and how tight it should be. What Causes Strains? A strain is caused by twisting or pulling a muscle or tendon. and wrestling put people at risk for strains in the back or legs. People who play some sports use their hands and arms a lot.STRAIN   A strain is an injury to a muscle or a tendon (tissue that connects muscle to bone). tennis. casts. boots. In a strain.  Put ice on the injury for 20 minutes at a time. or splints. A sudden (acute) strain is caused by:  A recent injury  Lifting heavy objects the wrong way  Overstressing the muscles. If the ankle or knee is hurt. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Strains? A strain can cause:  Pain  Muscle spasms  Muscle weakness  Swelling  Cramping  Trouble moving the muscle. it is often very painful and hard to move. football. Abnormal stretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon. The doctor might say to do this 4 to 8 times a day. If a muscle or tendon is torn completely. doctors usually say to:  Rest the injured area. Chronic strains are usually caused by moving the muscles and tendons the same way over and over. . Where Do Strains Usually Occur? Two common sites for a strain are the back and the hamstring muscle in the back of the thigh. Elbow strains can also happen when playing sports. boxing. People who play these sports sometimes strain their hand or arm. TREATMENT Treatments for sprains and strains are the same. Sports such as soccer. To reduce swelling and pain in the first day or two. Examples are gymnastics.  Compress (squeeze) the injury using special bandages. Strains can happen suddenly or develop over days or weeks.

Can Sprains and Strains Be Prevented? To help prevent sprains and strains. or wrist up on a pillow. Your doctor or physical therapist will tell you when you can start to do normal activities. You may need to exercise the injured area or go to physical therapy for several weeks. After treating pain and swelling.  Try to avoid falling (for example.  Be in proper physical condition to play a sport.  Get new shoes if the heel wears down on one side.  Warm up and stretch before playing a sport. including sports. doctors usually say to exercise the injured area.  Exercise every day. elbow. you can:  Avoid exercising or playing sports when tired or in pain. you can injure the area again. .  Wear shoes that fit well.  Eat a well-balanced diet to keep muscles strong. This helps you get the right treatments.  Maintain a healthy weight. It is important to see a doctor if you have a painful sprain or strain. knee. put sand or salt on icy spots on your front steps or sidewalks). This helps to prevent stiffness and increase strength. such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Some people need physical therapy.  Wear protective equipment when playing. If you begin too soon.  The doctor may recommend taking medicines.  Run on flat surfaces. Put the injured ankle.

Types of Burns 1. Signs: a. (e. Glossy appearance from leaking liquids e. Red b. 3. Blisters d. Pain c. & Sec: 4A Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid Instructor’s Name: Mr.Republic of the Philippines SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE College of Education Sorsogon City Campus Sorsogon City Name: Niño Dellomas (5) Topic: Burns Yr. These include : thermal burns. Deep reddening of the skin b. 2. Cool the burn by running cool water. Remove the clothing from the burn areas except clothing that is stuck to the skin. chemical burns and electrical burns. Put ice to the burn b. Keep the area uncovered and elevated. Do not: a. Painful to touch c. Partial Thickness (Second Degree) Burns are burns that involve the first two layers of the skin. if possible. or any other ointments. 2. 4. Apply butter. Consider giving subject medication to relieve pain. Superficial (First Degree) Burns are burns that involve the top layer of the skin. 5. toothpaste. Monitor for signs of infections. Skin will show mild swelling First Aid: 1. Oscar Don BURNS Burns are serious injuries caused by disasters such as explosions and fires.g Sunburn) Signs: a. Possible loss of some skin First Aid: .

If possible. Rub the affected area to dry. 2. Remove jewelry or clothing that has been contaminated by the chemical. 2. 2. If breathing has stopped or you suspect that the subject’s airway is blocked. Cover the burned area using a dry sterile bandage or a clean cloth. moist sterile bandage or clean cloth. 4. Skin is dry and leathery d. Make sure that the subject is no longer in contact with heat or the source of the burn. 6. Break the blisters. Change the dressings regularly. or any other ointments. and if necessary begin CPR. Skin may appear charred or have patches that appear white. Consider using a cooling lotion or ointment to prevent drying. Make sure subject is breathing. 3. 5. Do not: a. Until help arrives you can: 2. nerves and even bones. CALL THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES IN ANY CASE OF CHEMICAL BURNS. blot it with clean. 7. Apply butter. 4. Once dried. Rinse the burn again if subject complains of increased burning sensation after initial washing. b. 3. SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL CARE. Often painless c. . Full-Thickness (Third Degree) Burns are burns that destroy all the layers of the skin and any or all of the underlying structures like fats. try to clear the airway. or black. Hold affected area under cool running water or apply a cold compress to cool skin surface and reduce pain. dress the affected area with a single layer or loose gauze that will not stick to the skin. Monitor for signs of infections. muscles. 4. dry cloth instead. Cool the burn by running cool water. brown. CALL THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES. Treatment for Scalding 1. Cover the burned areas using a cool. Apply Urtica ointment to soothe the pain. Remove the cause of the burn by flushing the chemicals off the skin surface with cool running water for 20 minutes or more. Loss of skin layers b. Signs: a. 3. Assist the Medical Services. Remove the clothing from the burn areas except clothing that is stuck to the skin. c. 3. 7. Stop the burning. Note: if burn surface is larger than 3 inches in diameter. prop the burnt area higher than the rest of the body.1. Continue applying cold compresses. 5. First Aid 1. Treatment for Chemical Burns 1. toothpaste. 6.

it is safe to approach the subject. Look first.Treatment for Electrical Burns 1. Cover the burned area using a dry sterile bandage or a clean cloth. Turn off the source of electricity. do not move the subject should he/she have other injuries. 4. 3. don’t touch. check to see if he/she is breathing. CALL THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES IN ANY CASE OF CHEMICAL BURNS. 5. If subject is breathing. Until help arrives you can: 2. . 6. Once. Don’t use a blanket.

asthma medication. irritability. An illness is a sickness and an injury is physical bodily harm. DO NOT give anything to drink/eat “Tripod”. Weather changes. sports injuries and prevention methods. II . ABC &CPR. unexplained Headache. Loosen. nitroglycerin tablets EMS. Poisoning. Nausea. Sweating) Asthma Fainting Seizures Epilepsy. Loosen clothing . frequent urination. Tickly throat Anxiousness) physical or emotional (Dizziness. Fast/irregular breathing. EMS. High fever. exercise. Chest discomfort) Stroke oxygen is denied to the brain as a result of disrupted blood flow: (Weakness/paralysis. Pale skin. sit for a while and sweetened liquids. check for any injury. Heat stroke. & Sec: 4A Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid Instructor’s Name: Mr. Hypoglycemia. Alcohol withdrawal/drug abuse/overdose Diabetes pancreas fails to produce enough insulin/ insulin cell receptors are defective (weight loss. Weakness. Wheezing. Deviation of the eyes from PEARL (Pupils Equal And Reactive to Light) Triggers: Allergens. Electric shock. EMS I . calm and reassuring. Excitement (Coughing w/o cold. least painful position. lay the victim down head and shoulders slightly elevated. It also heightens students’ awareness of common sports injuries and helps them learn to apply the knowledge to treatment and preventive measures. oral medication. I. medical-alert tag. Loosen cloth. warm fluids. Fresh air and a cold wet cloth.diet. Blurred vision. Renovalles II (6) Topic: Sudden Illness and Specific Injuries (foreign objects) Yr. offer your help. ABC. ABC & CPR. Visual blurring. Lung irritants.Republic of the Philippines SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE College of Education Sorsogon City Campus Sorsogon City Name: Roderick J. Pain . clothing. SUDDEN ILLNESS Illness Heart attack Cause (symptoms) blood supply severely reduced or stopped (Uncomfortable pressure. Oscar Don • • Sudden Illness and Specific Injuries (foreign objects) This part helps students understand the safety measures in physical activities. thirst/hunger. overexertion. recovery position. Problems speaking/understanding. Dizziness . fatigue.daily insulin injections. oral medications . Brain injury/tumor/stroke. Seeing spots. Upset stomach. Infections. visual disorders. and nausea) What to do Don’t delay. EMS ABC. EMS convulsions and grand mal: Cushion. calm and reassure. Roll side.

pins. SPECIFIC INJURIES  Exercising by playing sports can be very beneficial to your health. tissues have been injured. compression. Common sports injuries Injury Type Bleeding Abrasion Contusion Dislocation Fracture Strain Sprain Heat and cold Overuse Cause/s skin and deeper tissues are cut. Do not expose affected area to adverse conditions until told to do so by a doctor. bleeding and inflammation. muscle is forcefully or excessively stretched and “pulled”. body type.sports injuries will be more likely to occur when the players’ fitness level drops. do rehab.Protective devices may reduce the risk of injury (helmet. etc. • Equipment . rubbing or scraping off of the skin. has significant bearing on the likelihood of injury. Surgery to realign the bone fragments with screws. twisting or torsion. resulting from a break. Stretching/tearing of ligament caused by compression. mouthpiece. If the bone is lined up correctly.II. Cold condition is associated with hypothermia. stabbed or scraped. Complete tears may need surgery. weight. Take all prescribed medicine. keep the muscle in a gentle stretch position and use the PRICE principles. The equipment installed in an open area should be inspected and maintained regularly to prevent sports injuries. 5) Level of fitness . 6) Physical limitations . A gradual return to exercise is advised. it can be protected in a cast. PRICE.Participants should have the required physical capabilities.Participants without adequate specific skills or knowledge face a greater chance of injury. B. 7) Nature of different sports • Level of contact . exercises. Treatment Clean the wound. over-exposure to extreme hot/cold conditions. but sometimes these benefits are outweighed by negative things.The level of contact in some sports.) 4) Level of skill . such as rugby and wrestling. strength and technique to take part in the activity. A. specific injuries sustained from a repetitive action. Proper clothing should be worn for physical activities. without any breakage of the skin. compressed or twisted.High temperature may induce heat cramps. A fall/blow causing the displacement of a joint. such as height.the availability of a proper environment for athletes is vital to help reduce the chance of injuries.All equipment should be checked before use. ect. such as an injury. . bone is hit. etc. heat exhaustion and heatstroke. PRICE principles are used here. Graded return to exercise is essential. take medicine. Surgery if required. (some requiring surgery to fully heal). Factors leading to sports injuries 1) Environmental factors • weather . Medicine for pain and relax muscles.There are great discrepancies among players in age.  Severity range from minor to very serious. 3) Protective devices . Control pain. • Mismatching of players . usually as a result of direct trauma. 2) Facilities and equipment • Sports grounds . elevation Clean and dress wound to prevent infection. Rest.

bleeding. 3) Break the skin over the object.It is of paramount importance that every sports injury should be treated as soon as possible. If it fails seek immediate medical assistance 1) Blow gently.To prevent from further injury • Rest . Foreign Objects: Foreign DO NOT: Objects in the: ear Probe with a tool Use step 3 if: .Immobilize limb • Ice .Eye injury caused by exposure or chemical . 3) Use warm oil for an insect.C. regardless of how minor it seems to be.Eye injury caused by a blow (black eye) III. 2) Sterilize a needle. The PRICE Principle • Protection . discharge . close other nostril.Not insect nose Probe with any tool Try to inhale the object skin Steps: If: 1) Remove object if possible. 2) Remove if possible. .If there is pain.Minor eye irritation . 5) Apply antibiotic. 2) Use gravity. If it fails seek immediate medical assistance If particle remains.Serious eye injury (large foreign object penetrated he globe of the eye) . seek medical help.To reduce swelling • Compression . 1) Rinse with soap and water.To control bleeding • Elevation -To raise injured limb Other injury/s like: • Eye injuries . 4) Use sanitized tweezers. Treatment General principles of first aid .

leg.Padding or Cold compress = Folded .Provide support/pressure = Unfolded .Republic of the Philippines SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE College of Education Sorsogon City Campus Sorsogon City Name: Karen D. foot o TUBULAR BANDAGE -larger ones are used to support joints or hold dressings in place. Oscar Don BANDAGING 3 Key Uses:    Applying pressure to bleeding wounds Covering wounds and burns Providing support and immobilization for broken bones. To control bleeding 2. smaller tubular bandages are ideal for finger injuries General Principles of Bandaging 1. To support and immobilize injuries Types of Bandage o TRIANGULAR BANDAGE -made from cloth & exceptionally versatile because of its uses: = Pad .Sling o ACE BANDAGE -used to provide support or secure dressings in place. forearm. sprains and strains Objectives of Bandaging 1. hand. & Sec: 4A Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid Instructor’s Name: Mr. explaining what you are doing. knee. 2. Bulaon Topic: Bandaging Yr. -used for neck. Work with the injured person. arm. Work in front of the injured person where possible and from the injured side if you can . To prevent swelling 3. elbow.

use the body’s natural hollows such as the knees. with pointed directly under the elbow of injured arm  Lower ends of the base at the side of the neck using a square knot  Make several twist with apex and tie a knot  Hide the knot  Underarm Sling  Same procedure as arm sling except the lower end of the base is tucked under the injured arm  Secure end of base and apex with a square knot the center indention at the back  Cravat Bandage for Forehead  Place the center of the cravat over the compress covering the wound . particularly if the injured person has to move. a bow or a square knot Tying A Square Knot =Right over left and left over right= Triangular Bandage Open fold .3. Also.check regularly to insure that the bandage is still comfortable. 4. and tie them with a square knot  Arm Sling  Place folded base vertically over  One arm. take them around the wrist. Bandage firmly over bleeding and securely over broken bones. as movement can loosen the bandage. check that the bandage remains firmly secured. clips. 5. When wrapping bandages around an injured person.Broad fold .Narrow fold – Padding Cravat Bandage to the parts of the Body  Head Top (head injuries)  Fold the base at least 2-3”  Place folded base aligned with eyebrows  Pull back and cross-over at the back. 6. tucking apex beneath  Pull both ends in front/secure with a square knot at the center of the folded base/tuck  Pull down apex (tuck sides neatly) & Tuck apex neatly at cross-over area  Chest Bandage  Apex at the shoulder of the injured part  Pull back folded base and secure with a square knot at the center indention of the back  Knot/tie longer end with apex  Hand Bandage  Place the hand in the middle of the triangular bandage with the wrist at the base  Place the apex over the fingers and tuck any excess material into the pleats on each side of the hand  Cross the ends on top of the hand. necks and small of the back to slide the bandages gently into place. but not so tight as to compromise circulation below the sight of the injury. Secure bandages with tape. ankles. Be aware that the most injuries swell.

tying there and pulling second cravat up and away from uninjured eye Cravat Bandage for the elbow  Bend arm and below place center of cravat at point of elbow  Bring ends up and across each other in overlapping spiral turns. Continue one end up arm and the other end down forearm & Brings end to front of elbow and tie Cravat Bandage for the forearm. cross them. this pressure is transferred to the walls of vessels. Start with the middle of the cravat over the compress covering the cheek or the ear  Carry one end over the top of the head and the other under the chin  Cross the ends at the opposite side  Bring the short end back around the forehead and the long end around the back of the head & Tie them down over the compress Cravat Bandage for the eye  Lay center of the first cravat over top of with the front end falling over uninjured eye  Bring second cravat around head. with each turn covering two-third of preceding turn until dressing is covered & Terminate by tying both ends in square knot Shoulder Armpit Cravat  Starts at the armpit  Cross-over at injured shoulder  Tie at the opposite armpit (side of front) How to improvise Bandage A clean and sterilized cloth for triangular follow the standard size 40x40x56 and for tubular & ace we can always use the triangular bandage folded into narrow cravat Tourniquet  The tourniquet itself and a wooden stick.       Carry the ends around the opposite side of the head. Thigh. Leg. causing them to become temporarily occluded. specifically a bandage. Pressure is applied circumferentially upon the skin and underlying tissues of a limb. Tie in front  Bring end of first cravat back over top of head. Bring them back to the starting point and tie them Cravat Bandage for the neck  Place the center of the cravat over the compress covering the wound  Carry the ends around the neck. Arm. cross them. Bring them back to the starting point and tie them loosely Cravat Bandage for the cheeks/ear  Use the white cravat. over eyes and over loose ends of first cravat. Knee  Place center of cravat over the dressing  Begin ascending turns with upper end and descending turns with lower end. It is a constricting or compressing device. Republic of the Philippines SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE .It is used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time.

Keeping a Broken Bone Still 1. The victim will often have put the injured part in the position that is most comfortable for him and will generally be guarding the injury and keeping it still. Deformity. especially after a fall. Some swelling may be present at the site of a fracture. 2 Types of Broken Bone 1. This accompanies most broken bones and can often only felt when the injured part is gently touched. If the victim has not done this. You may also hear the ends of broken bone rubbing together. Oscar Don FIRST AID FOR BROKEN BONES Broken bones are not uncommon in children. There may be reddening or bruising over the site of the break.  There is swelling. particularly when compared to the uninjured side. Swelling. Do not give the patient who has a broken bone anything to eat or drink in case he needs a general anesthetic in hospital. How to Treat Fractures The general rule for treating all broken bone is to immobilized them.  It is painful to bear weight on the injured part or to move it. bruising or tenderness. but not all. This accompanies most. & Sec: 4A Course Title: Safety Education and First Aid Instructor’s Name: Mr. An injured part may appear deformed. The child may have a broken bone if:  You or the subject heard a snapping or grinding sound during the injury. because this reduce pain and the likelihood of further injury. Open (Compound) break or fracture . or a feeling of “pins and needles” on the injured part. a sound known as crepitus. A broken bone requires emergency medical care.  Subject’s hands and fingers. Closed (Simple) break or fracture. Signs and Symptoms of Broken Bones Pain. Fortes and Lenilyn Benbing Topic: First Aid for Broken Bones Yr. The risk of infection is also an important consideration in the treatment of open fractures and requires action. fractures and is caused by the broken bone end pressing on nerve endings. or feet and toes. Tenderness.The bone has either pierced the skin or is associated with an open wound.The bone has broken but has not pierced the skin.College of Education Sorsogon City Campus Sorsogon City Name: Andrea M. Shock. encourage him to keep still and help him into a comfortable position. tingle or feel numb. 2. . but not often takes some time to appear.

By helping the victim keep the injured part still you enable him to relax. If you have to transport the victim yourself. Encourage her not to move her head. Face and Jaw  Treating a fractured skull A skull fracture is a very serious injury since it is often associated with some form of damage to the brain. The key point to remember with any types of bandaging are . 2. First Aid Treatment: 1. Keep a constant check on the airway. Fractures of the Skull. 3. numbness. Cheking for damage to circulation. Once the victim is still you can help to steady and support the fracture using your hands. until the blood flow returns. The very act of relaxing the muscles reduces the pull on the broken bones and often alleviates pain. 3. or blue. 2. or feels cold to the touch. If you notice any of this signs. or if it is going to be a while until help arrives. 3. Signs and symptoms of a skull fracture  Bruising to the eye socket  Pain  A bump or a dent  Staw-colored fluid coming from one or both ears  Deterioration in the level of consciousness of the victim Does the person respond slowly to the questions or commands? Is he having problem focusing? If any of these things is present. Ways to check whether a bandage is cutting off the circulation:  If the skin below the site of the bandage becomes white.  If the victim complains of tingling.2.  If the pulse in the limb slows or stops. . assume a skull fracture with a potential injury to the brain. . Place the dressing over the wound and build up padding alongside the bone. or of a lack of circulation. gray. Remember that broken bones do swell and that you may need to loosen the bandage if the circulation below the site of the break becomes impaired. 4. breathing and circulation.Not to tie the bandage too tightly. Concussion and compression may both accompany skull fractures. gently loosen. Tie both the padding and the dressing in place. then you can immobilized the broken bone further with bandages or improvise with coats or blankets for example. “ Bandaging an Open Break “ 1.To pad around the site of the break Do not move the injured area unnecessarily. Be prepared to resuscitate or turn into the recovery position if necessary. Keep the victim still while she is unconscious.  If the color does not quickly return to the skin after the skin is gently pinched or the nail compressed. but do not remove the bandage. Call for emergency help as soon as possible. using firm pressure.

Place the injured arm with fingers by the collarbone on the uninjured side. the victim is most likely to be supporting the injured arm. 4. In this case. Treatment 1. this will often be lying down on the ground. .do not try to bend the arm. place a light dressing over the wound. with the shoulder on the injured side slumped. you need to treat the arm in the position found. Extra support can be gained by placing a triangular bandage folded into three around the arm and body. How to treat fractures of the face and jaw If a person has a fracture to the bone of the face of jaw. Use a triangular bandage to make an elevation sling. Applying an Elevation Sling 1. 5. either because of the pain or because the joint is fixed. but it may also be standing up with the arm hanging straight down. Place a bandage around the body for extra support. 2.encourage the victim to spit into a bandage or handkerchief. Keep the arm supported at the elbow. 3. 3. Help the victim into the most comfortable position.hold a pad under it. 4. bruising and tenderness above the site of the injury. Do not pinch a broken nose to control bleeding. 5. 1. Hold uninjured shoulder. Tie the collarbone in a squire knot [or a bow]. 2. Fasten the spare material at the elbow with a pin or twist it and tuck it away. 5. Fractures of the Arm and Hand  Broken Elbow or an Arm that cannot bend If the broken bone is on or near the elbow it may not be possible for the person to bend the arm. 4. 2. 1. Fractures of the Upper Body  Broken Collarbone Along with potential swelling. the airway is your overwhelming priority. Get the victim hospital because she will require medical treatment. Support elbow to reduce pressure on collarbone. A cold compress may help to reduce pain.  Work with the injured person to find the most comfortable position for the arm and for the body as a whole. 6. Treatment  If the bone has pierced the skin. 3. Since the collarbone is close to the skin it is particularly important to look for an open fracture. Tuck the bandage underneath the hand and down underneath the injured arm.  Broken Shoulder If you are confident that the shoulder itself is broken then the treatment is to work with the victim to find the best position. Gently remove any teeth or bits of broken bone from the mouth and give the victim a pad to hold against the injured part for additional support and comfort. Place the triangular bandage with the point resting at the elbow on the injured side. Ensure that any blood in the mouth is allowed to dribble out.

If possible. pass this information on as soon as possible to the medical staff as early treatment will be needed to prevent further damage to the circulation in the fingers.2. Place padding around the injured part. Fractures of the Ribcage  Treating a Simple Broken Rib The best treatment for a simple fractured rib is to put the arm on the injured side into an arm sling and to advise the victim to seek medical aid. Gently cover any open wounds with a dressing or clean. .  Fractured Wrist Treatment Provide support and immobilization in the same way as for a break to the upper or lower arm. which can also be adapted for crush injuries to the foot and for burns to the hand or foot. [ This is an indication of a punctured lung as oxygenated blood is escaping from the respiratory system. The victim will need to be transported by the ambulance. This helps to reduce swelling and bleeding and also provides some pain relief. both between the arm and the body and on the outside of the arm. Treat any sucking wounds by covering. Cover the injured area with a pad soft fabric or cotton woo [ taking particular care if there are open wounds not to get strands of materials stuck into the injury ] This padding can be held in place with a cover created from a triangular bandage. 2. initially with a hand and then with plastic. remove rings and wrist watches before the injury starts to swell. There may or may not be an associated sucking wound to the chest. red. non-fluffy piece of material. frothy blood coming from the mouth and/or nose. Encourage the victim to raise her arm. Do not attempt to bandage the arm if helps is on its way because this will cause further discomfort and may make the injury worse. 3.  Multiple Broken Rib Signs and symptoms of multiple broken ribs  Chest rises on the injured side as the person breathes out [ paradoxical breathing ]  Swelling or indentation along the line of the ribs  Open breaks  Difficulty in breathing  Pain on breathing  Shock [ as there is likely to be some degree of internal bleeding ]  Bright. ]  Sucking wound to the chest 1. 3.  Hand Fractures Treatment 1. Remove watches and bracelets because these may contribute to cutting off circulation to the hand if the injury swells. Treat any open breaks. If jewelry has been crushed into the hand or swelling prevents its easy removal.

Do not remove your support from the head until help arrives. monitor the airway and breathing and place the person into the recovery position with the injured side upward. Among the most serious is damage to spinal cord which may lead to paralysis or meningitis. 3. leave him where he is. leaving the good lung free to breathe. If the victim lose consciousness. If the symptoms do not ease. Signs and symptoms of a broken back  Dent or step in the spine. Hold the victim’s head still by placing your hands over the ears and your fingers along the jaw line. 3. Treat for shock. If the victim is still walking around. Treatment 1. thus allowing the force to travel up the body  And whiplash. Check the nature of the incident carefully. Injuries to the back are caused in a number of ways. support him in lying down on the ground. 4.2. seek medical attention promptly. through which runs the spinal cord [the part of the central nervous system connecting all parts of the body with the brain] and major blood vessels.  Though direct impact such as a heavy blow to the neck or back  Indirect impact such as landing on the head or feet without bending the legs.if the pain is related to a recent heavy fall or other accident. This allows any blood to drain into the injured lung. 5. lay him down. which may indicate a displaced vertebra  Bruising or swelling over the backbone  Complaint of pain in the back  Tenderness over the area of the break Treatment 1. He is most likely to find breathing easier in a half-sitting position. Help the person to lie down. If the victim is unconscious. 4. Usually the most comfortable position will be flat on the back on a hard surface. . Tell the person to keep still until medical help arrives and reassure him. If you can. If the victim is conscious. If the victim is conscious and already lying down. Ensure that an ambulance has been called at the earliest opportunity. These form the backbone or spinal column. put a blanket or coat underneath before you lie the person down. Place the arm on the injured site into an elevation sling. maintaining a clear airway is your first priority. Recognizing Back and Spinal Injury The spine is made up of a number of small bones called vertebrae. assume that there may be a spinal cord damage and treat as for a broken back. Lean the victim toward the injured side. 2. 2. 3. when the head is violently thrown forward and backward [ common in traffic accidents ].  Back Pain There are many causes of back pain.