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FLUID MECHANICS II

INGM 321 '14


Study Unit 02
Boundary Layer theory
Werner H Kaiser

2014/09/09
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1. Introduction
MOVIE CLIP OF TURBULENT FLOW

2/32

1. Introduction

2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

3/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

1. Introduction
INTRODUCTION
External flow immersed fluid
Airplanes, automobiles
Complete surrounded fluid
Reduce drag proper design
From experimental flow
Simplify flow past flat plate
Munson 9.2.1 Boundary layer Structure

OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDES


Understand & explain the relation between laminar & turbulent boundarylayer flow.

4/32

1. Introduction

Non-viscous
u(x)

u(x)

Laminar boundary
layer

Actual -Viscous
Transition

u(x)

Laminar sub layer

Laminer : du dy
Turbulent : du dy
5/32

>>

Turbulent boundary
layer

1. Introduction
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDES
Understand & explain the relation between laminar & turbulent
boundary-layer flow.
SUMMARY

6/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

7/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Know & reproduce the assumptions under which the boundary layer equations are
derived.
Conduct an order of magnitude analysis on the mass conservation & Navier Stokes
equations &
explain how to derive the simplified mass & momentum conservation equations for
boundary-layer flow.
TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 6.8.2 Navier-Stokes equation

CONTENT
1. ASSUMPTIONS

Neglect gravity no buoyancy

Two dimensional

Steady state
2. ANALYZE THE ORDER OF MAGNITUDE

Conservation of momentum (X and Y direction)


8/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


1. ASSUMPTIONS

Two dimensional
Steady state
Newtonian
Uncompressible
Gravitation negligible
Does not apply for fluid refraction

uy

V
ux

Conservation of mass (continuity):

V 0
t

u x u y

0
x
y

-- 2-1

Infinitesimal CV

Conservation of momentum Navier Stokes No body forces :


2u x 2u x
u x
u x u x
u
1 P
v

g x 2 2
x: u x u x
t
x
y
z
x
x y
2u y 2u y
1 P
ux
uy

g y 2 2
y:
t
x
y
z
y
x y
Nu; Kinematic viscosity
u y

u y

u y

u y

9/32

-- 2-2

-- 2-3

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


2. ANALYZE THE ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
(SIMPLIFY BOUNDARY EQUATIONS FOR LAMINAR FLOW)

V
uy

ux

ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
Make approximate comparison
Two numbers have the same order of magnitude,
they are about the same size.

Powers of ten

Order of magnitude
0.01

0.1

10

1
10/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


2. ANALYZE THE ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
(SIMPLIFY BOUNDARY EQUATIONS FOR LAMINAR FLOW)
y

V
uy

ux

ORDER OF MAGNITUDE

Observe fluid

NB SIMPLIFY THE EQUATIONS

u x 1, x 1 & y

u x u y

0
x
y

Conservation of mass (Continuity)

-- 2-1

Conservation of momentum (Navier Stokes)


2u x 2u x
u x
u x
1 P
ux
uy

2 2
(X-direction)
x
y
x
x y

-- 2-2

2u y 2u y
1 P
ux
uy

2 2
x
y
y
x y

-- 2-3

(Y-direction)

u y

u y

11/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


2. ANALYZE THE ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
(SIMPLIFY BOUNDARY EQUATIONS FOR LAMINAR FLOW)
y

V
uy

ux

Boundary layer thickness ()


Because the boundary layer is very thin
Observe a fluid where u x 1, x 1 & y

<<1

From the conservation of mass (continuity eq.) it follows :


u x u y

0
-- 2-1
x
y
(1) u y

0
uy
-- 2-4
(1) ( )
u y order of magnitude is u y O( ) y O ( )
u x order of magnitude is 1 u x O(1)

x O(1)

12/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow

V
uy

ux

Conservation of momentum (X-direction)


2u x 2u x
u x
u x
1 P
ux
uy

2 2
x
y
x
x y

-- 2-2

u x 1, x 1 & y
On the edge of the boundary layer Bernoulli equation applies
One-dimensional, non viscous flow
2u x
u x
u x
2u x
1 P
ux
uy

2 2
u 1, x 1, y & v
x
y
x
y
x
O

thus O

1
?
Right hand side has to be O 1 .
1
1 P
1 P

1
1& P 1
x
1
13/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


V

uy

ux

1, x 1, y , u y , 1& P 1

Conservation of momentum (X-direction)

2u x 2u x
2 2
x y

u
u
1 P
ux x u y x
x
y
x
O

1
1
1

1 1

1 1

O 1/ 2 1.
Thus O

14/32

1
1
2 2

1
1

+ 1 2

-- 2-2

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


V

uy

ux

1, x 1, y , u y , 1& P 1

+ 1
2

2u x
1

1
1 2 O 1 O 2 ignore 2 x
1
O
2 1

To ensure that all the terms do not cancel out let O( 2 )
O

The important terms which are left are thus :


2u x
u x
u x
1 P
ux
uy

2
x
y
x
y
15/32

-- 2-6

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


Conservation of momentum (Y-direction)
2u y 2u y
u y
u y
1 P
u
v

2 2
x
y
y
x y

u 1, x 1, y , v , 1, P 1 &
2

? 2 2 2

1

1

1 P
O( ) O(1)
y
Thus, assume that :
P
0
y
P f ( x)

-- 2-7

Solve with the aid of Bernoulli in non-viscous flow


16/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


U

P2

P2

uy

P1

P2

ux

P2

P1
P1

x2

P1

x1
P1

P2
17/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Know & reproduce the assumptions under which the
boundary-layer equations are derived.
Conduct an order of magnitude analysis on the mass
conservation and Navier Stokes equations and explain
how to derive the simplified mass and momentum
conservation equations for boundary layer flow.

18/32

2. Conservation equations for boundary layer flow


SUMMARY
The boundary equation is:
Conservation of mass:

u v

0
x y

-- 2-5

Conservation of momentum inside the boundary layer:


0
2

u y
2u y
u x
ux
1 P
X-direction u x
uy

2
2
x
y
x

x
y

P
Y-direction
0
-- 2-7
y

Bernoulli on the edge of non viscous flow:


ux

u x
1 P

x
x
19/32

-- 2-8

-- 2-6

3. Boundary layer thickness


INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

20/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

3. Boundary layer thickness


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Know & reproduce the definition of boundary-layer thickness & displacement
thickness.
Understand & explain the practical meaning of boundary-layer thickness &

displacement thickness.

TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.1 Boundary Layer thickness flat plate
CONTENT

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Boundary layer thickness () (Grenslaag dikte)


Boundary layer displacement thickness (*) (Verplasingsdikte)
Boundary layer momentum thickness (Momentumdikte)
Difference between stream line & boundary layer thickness
Order of magnitude of boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness * ?

21/32

3. Boundary layer thickness


1. Boundary layer thickness () (Grenslaag dikte)
u=0.99U
y

x
Definition: Boundary layer thickness () (Grenslaag dikte)
Distance from the wall out to where the fluid velocity is:

u 0,99U

u / U 0,99
22/32

--(3-1)

3. Boundary layer thickness


2. Boundary layer displacement thickness (*) (Verplasingsdikte)
U

=0

Same
area
u

Distance which boundary would have to be displaced


if the entire flow were imagined frictionless and
the same mass flow maintained at any section

qVOL u dy * U dy
0

u dy = U dy U dy

*
U

u
dy

dy

0 U

dy

23/32

--(3-2)

3. Boundary layer thickness


3. Boundary layer momentum thickness (Momentumdikte)
a
b
0

=0

U u

Distance from actual boundary


Linear momentum flow rate for uniform velocity U through section of height
= momentum flow rate over entire section

u U u dA U u u dy
0

U 2 U u u dy

u
u
1

U U

u
u

dy

0 U U

dy

24/32

--(3-3)

3. Boundary layer thickness


4. Difference between stream line & boundary layer thickness

Stream line

NB
-line is not a stream line (stroom lyne).

Stream line lines tangent to velocity vectors of particles in flow


It is thus possible for fluid flow across the line .
25/32

3. Boundary layer thickness


5. Order of magnitude of boundary layer thickness & displacement
thickness * ?
Ux Ux
Re x

Local Reynolds number of any section x is:

Order of magnitude of Reynolds number thus:

Re x (Ux / )
O

u ~ O(1),U ~ O(1), x ~ O(1), ~ O( )


2

(1.1 / 2 )

Re x O(1 / 2 )
and ( / x)
( / x)

O( )
O(Re x ) 1/2

O( 2 )1/2

O(1 / 2 ) 1/2

O(1 / Re x )1/2

( x 2 )1/2 O(1 / Re x )1/2 O( x 2 / Re x )1/2 O( x 2 / [Ux / ])1/2

x /U
O x /U

O
similar *
and

*
x

--(3-4)
--(3-5)

O(Re x ) 1/2

--(3-6)
26/32

3. Boundary layer thickness


OUTCOMES STUDY GUIDE
Know & reproduce the definition of boundary-layer thickness &
displacement thickness.
Understand & explain the practical meaning of boundary-layer thickness &

displacement thickness.

SUMMARY

Boundary layer thickness ( ) (Grenslaagdikte)

u / U 0,99

--(1)

Boundary layer displacement thickness (*) (Verplasingsdikte)

u
u

dy

dy

0
U
U

--(3-2)

Boundary layer momentum thickness () (Momentumdikte)

u
u
1

U U

u
u

dy

0 U U

dy

27/32

--(3-3)

4. Prandtl / Blasius equation


INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

28/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

4. Prandtl / Blasius equation


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Know & reproduce the conditions for which the Blasius equation is
valid.
Apply the Blasius solutions for boundary-layer thickness &
displacement thickness in practical problems.

TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.2 Prandtl / Blasius Boundary Layer
CONTENT
1. Generic solution for velocity in boundary layer
2. Exact solution for boundary layer thickness & displacement

thickness

29/32

4. Prandtl / Blasius equation


1. Generic solution for velocity in boundary layer
U

dP
0
-- 4-1
dx
NB: Always see the same flow pattern no matter how much we zoom in
Observe laminar flow over a plate where

u x u y

0
x
y

The boundary layer then becomes


Conservation of Mass (continuity eq):
Conservation of Momentum:

-- 4-2

2u x
u x
u x
ux
uy
2
x
y
y
u x
P
0 and
0
y
x
30/32

-- 4-3
-- 4-4&5

4. Prandtl / Blasius equation


U

x
U=constant in die free stream.

Blasius transformed in 1908 above equations i.t.o. normalized parameters

(u / U ) in stead of u

-- 4-6

Zeta

( y / ) in stead of y

-- 4-7

Eta

The advantage of this is as follows:


For the u,y coordinate system:

= f(x) and u = f(x,y)

In the , coordinate system is

= f'()

is it the same at any section x.


' (Prime) denotes differentiation respect to
31/32

4. Prandtl / Blasius equation


U

(u / U )

-- 4-6

Zeta

(y / )

-- 4-7

Eta

f '( )
u
y
f '
U

y
u U f '

O x /U

U f '
-- 4-8

x /U
U constant (free current velocity).
32/32

--(3-4)

4. Prandtl / Blasius equation


U

y
u U f ' U f '


x /U
If one thus knows what

-- 4-8

f '( x) and f '( ) one can determine the velocity at any point x,y.
Substitute (4-8) back into the boundary layer equation.
After much algebra

f ''' 1 2 ff '' 0

The boundary conditions become:


@ y = 0:
As y

f 0 f ' 0 0
f ' 1.0

Blasius equation. Solved numerically


33/32

4. Prandtl / Blasius equation


2.

Exact solution for Boundary layer thickness & displacement

thickness

Blasuis also obtained a exact solution for f ( ) and f ( x) as follows:


Boundary layer thickness ()
(Grenslaag dikte)

=y/

1,0

0,8

4,96Rex1/2 -- 4-8

Displacement thickness
(*) (Verplasingsdikte)

0,6

0,4

*
x

0,2

1,73Rex1/2 -- 4-9

(u / U )
0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8
34/32

1,0

4. Prandtl / Blasius equation


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Know & reproduce the conditions for which the Blasius equation is
valid.
Apply the Blasius solutions for boundary-layer thickness &
displacement thickness in practical problems.
Summary

Boundary layer thickness () (Grenslaag dikte)

4,96

x
U

4,96 x Re x 1/2

-- 4-8

Displacement thickness (*) (Verplasingsdikte)

* 1,73

x
U

1,73 x Re x 1/2

-- 4-9

See how the boundary layer get wider, as the flow moves further over
the body
35/32

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

36/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Derive the general form of the von Karman momentum integral

equation.

TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.3 Momentum integral
Boundary Layer eq.
CONTENT
1. Deriving von Karman momentum integral equation

Conservation of momentum
Momentum flow
Mass flow
Conservation of Mass (continuity eq):

2. Estimating boundary layer thickness () (grenslaag dikte)


37/32

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


1.

Deriving the von Karman momentum integral equation

Observe the forces on the control volume in the boundary layer:


y

1 P

dx d

d
0
dt

dx d

Steady state

dx

wdx
Conservation of momentum:

F V V d A t
CS

CV

V dv

Simplify

Sum of forces On CV

Linear momentum efflux (vloed) through the control volume in x direction

Mass flow in at the top surface (oblique side / skuins sy)

Conservation of Mass (continuity eq) back simplified momentum von Karman


38/32

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


1.

Deriving the von Karman momentum integral equation

Observe the forces on the control volume in the boundary layer:


y

1 P

dx d

d
0
dt

dx d

Steady state

dx
x

wdx

Conservation of momentum:

F V V d A t
CS

Sum of forces
On CV

CV

V dv

P
1 P

Fx P P
dx d P
dx d wdx
x
2 x

Fx
w dx
--(5-1)
x

39/32

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


y

1 P

dx d
P
2

d
0
dt

dx d
P
x

dx

Steady state

wdx

F V V d A t

Conservation of momentum:

CS

CV

V dv

Linear momentum efflux (vloed) through the control volume in x direction:

Momentum flow (Efflux / flux (vloed) transfer of momentum across a unit area) on
the left-hand side (at x):

u 2 dy

--(5-2)

Momentum flow out on the right-hand side @ (x + dx) as a Taylar series:

Thus
Total Momentum flow

2
u dy
u dy dx

x 0
2

2
u dy dx

x 0
40/32

--(5-3)
--(5-4)

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


y

1 P

dx d
P
2

d
0
dt

dx d
P

Steady state

dx

wdx

F V ( V dA) t

Conservation of momentum:

CS

CV

V dv

Mass flow in at the top surface (oblique side / skuins sy):


u x u xm and u y u y m

m main stream velocity components

V dA (u xm i u y m j ) (d i+dxj )
u xm d u y m dx
V V dA x u xm u y m dx uxm d
41/32

--(5-5)

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


F V ( V dA) t

Conservation of momentum:
Sum of forces

CS

Fx
w dx
x

2
u dy dx

x 0

Linear momentum efflux


Mass flow

V V dA x u xm u ym dx u xm d

CV

V dv
--(5-1)

--(5-4)

--(5-5)

Linear momentum equation thus:


w dx u 2 dy dx u xm u ym dx u xm d

x 0
x

42/32

--(5-6)

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


y

1 P

dx d
P
2

dx d
P

Steady state

dx

wdx

d
0
dt

0
d
CS V .dA dt CV dV 0


udy udy udy dx (u y m dx u xm d ) 0

0
0
x 0

(u y m dx u xm d ) udy dx
--(5-7)

x 0

Conservation of Mass (continuity eq):

Substitute back into linear momentum eq (5-6):

w dx u 2 dy dx u xm u ym dx u xm d

x 0
x


w dx u 2 dy dx u xm udy dx

x 0
x 0
x

43/32

--(5-6)
--(5-8)

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


We are only considering the changes in x direction and
because P/y =0 for a boundary layer we can write
2

P

w dx
u dy dx u xm
udy dx

x 0
x 0
x

P
2

u dy
u xm
udy

x
x 0
x 0

--(5-8)
--(5-9)

This is a general form of the von Karman momentum integral equation.

One can combine the integrations on right hand side of eq (5-9)


This gives a more restricted form
of the von Karman momentum integral equation

d
dx

u 2 Uu dy
44/32

--(5-10)

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


2. ESTIMATING BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS () (GRENSLAAG DIKTE)
In general one can estimate the boundary layer thickness from (9) for

Incompressible

Steady state flow over a plate by:

1. Use potential flow equation to solve velocity field away from body
2. Determine p / x with the aid of Bernoulli equation for the lowest se
streamline of a hypothetical non-viscous streamline, and determine U=f(x).
3. Assume a reasonable shape for the flow-profile inside the boundary layer,
thus:

u
y
f
: Zeta; Eta
U


4. Substitute w in the momentum integral equation with the relationship of u &
solve

f ( ) of

45/32

5. Von Karman momentum integral equation


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Derive the general form of the von Karman momentum integral

equation.

SUMMARY

w
x
x

d
dx

u dy u xm
x
2

u 2 Uu dy

46/32

udy

--(5-10)

--(5-9)

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

47/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Use the von Krmn momentum integral equation to derive
solutions for the boundary-layer thickness, displacement thickness
in simple laminar & turbulent flow over a smooth plate.
Calculate the various boundary layer thicknesses on simple bodies
with the aid of the smooth plate approach.
TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.3 Momentum integral
Boundary Layer eq.

48/32

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
CONTENT

1. Boundary layer thickness () (Grenslaagdikte)

Parabolic u = x + y2
Boundary conditions
Laminar flow

Momentum integral equation

2. Boundary layer displacement thickness (*) (Verplasingsdikte)


3. Other velocity profiles

y=0

u y y2
*

x
49/32

Parabolic

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
1. Boundary layer thickness () (Grenslaagdikte)
Observe a special case of laminar flow over a plate where (dp/dx)=0.
y

u y y2
*

Parabolic

y=0

Assume that:

u y y2

Boundary conditions:

y0
y

u0
u U

--(6-2a)
--(6-2b)

u y 0

--(6-2c)

--(6-1)

U 2

Parabolic velocity profile

free current

--(6-3)

y 2 y
0 2
50/32

--(6-4)

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
Observe a special case of laminar flow over a plate where (dp/dx)=0.
U
y

y=0
x

U 2
0 2

--(6-3)
--(6-4)

From --(6-3) and --(6-4)


=2(U/ )

= U / 2
u 2U ( y / ) U ( y / ) 2
51/32

--(6-5)

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
y

y=0

x
Further, for laminar flow Shearing stress (Skuif spanning)

-- 6-6

w (u y )

Substitute above in momentum integral equation (5-9)

Take:

w
x
x

u 2 dy um

udy

--(5-9)

um=U, = const. and (dP/dx)=0

dP dx

U
w d dx u 2 dy um d dx udy
0

u y d dx u 2 Uu dy
0

52/32

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
y

y=0

u y d dx u 2 Uu dy
0

u 2U y U y

but

--(6-5)

2
y 2U y U y

&

y 0

2U y U y 2 2

d dx
dy
0
2
2
U 2U y U y


53/32

--(6-7)

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
y

y=0

2U y U y 2 2

y 2U y U y
d dx
dy --(6-7)
0

y 0
2
2
U 2U y U y


Differentiate left, set y = 0 & expand then integrate Right

2
3
4
2
2U d dx U 2 4 y 4 y y 2 y y dy
0

integrate
2
2 U U d dx (4 3) 5 3

2 U 2 15 d

dx differentiate

d 15 U dx

--(6-8)

Integrating & putting limits

2 2 15 U x C

--(6-9)
54/32

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
y

y=0

=0 when x=0

2 15 U x C
2

--(6-9)

Origin of our reference is at the leading edge, then =0 when x=0


C 0
( 2 2) 15 U x
30 x U
or

x 5, 48Rex1 2
x 4,96 Rex1/2
x 4,64 Rex1 2

--(6-10)

Parabolic u = x + y2

-- 4-8

Blasius
3rd order

55/32

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
2. Boundary layer displacement thickness (*) (Verplasingsdikte)

* 1 u U dy 1 u U dy

--(3-2)

* 1 1 u U dy 1 u U dy

-- 4-7

y0

d dy

&

1 u U dy 1 u U d
*

2
1 2 y y d
0

1 2 2 d
0
* 1 3
* x 1,835Re x 1/2

6 % error compared Blasius

* x 1,730 Re x 1/2

Blasius

* x 1,740 Re x 1/2

3rd order
56/32

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
3. Other velocity profiles
One can similarly do a analyses for other assumed velocity profiles.
1,0

0,8
Liner

Cubic

0,6

Blasius
0,4

Parabolic

0,2

u U
0,2

0,4

0,6
57/32

0,8

1,0

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
Laminar Re < Recrit
Blasius

Cubic

u / U 1,5( y / )

Parabolic

u / U 2( y / )

0,5( y / )3

x
* x

4,96
Re x
1,73
Re x

x
* x

4,64
Re x
1,74
Re x

58/32

( y / )2

x
* x

5, 48
Re x
1,83
Re x

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Use the von Krmn momentum integral equation to derive
solutions for the boundary-layer thickness, displacement thickness
in simple laminar & turbulent flow over a smooth plate.
Calculate the various boundary layer thicknesses on simple bodies
with the aid of the smooth plate approach.

59/32

6. Laminar boundary-layer with von


Karman
SUMMARY

1,0

0,8

Linear
0,6

Cubic

0,4

Blasius
Parabolic

0,2

0,2

0,4

Blasius
Laminar
Re < Recrit

Cubic

Parabolic

u / U 1,5( y / )
0,5( y / )3

u / U 2( y / )
( y / )2

60/32

0,6

0,8

1,0

4,96
1,73
; * x
Re x
Re x

4,64
Re x

* x

1,74
Re x

5,48
Re x

* x

1,83
Re x

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

61/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate the surface friction drag (Oppervlak wrywing sleepkrag) on
simple bodies with the aid of the smooth and rough plate approach.
TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.4 Transition from Laminar
to Turbulent flow
CONTENT

1. Local surface friction coefficient Cf,x

(Lokale wandwrywingskoffisint )
2. Surface friction drag DS (Oppervlak sleepkrag) on 1 side of a
rectangular whole plate

3. Example

62/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
1. Local surface friction coefficient Cf,x (Lokale wandwrywingskoffisint )

y=0

w dx
x

Local surface
friction
coefficient

b
dx

C f , x w, x U 2
w, x C f , x U 2

-- 7-1
-- 7-2

Shearing stress
(Skuif spanning)

u
2
w, x (u y) y 0 -- 6-6
C f ,x
U
y y 0

2
U 2
2U y U y
Parabolic

y 0
C f , x 2U U 2
63/32

-- 7-3

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
1. Local surface friction coefficient Cf,x (Lokale wandwrywingskoffisint )

y=0

w dx
x

Local surface
friction
coefficient

b
dx

C f , x 2U U 2

-- 7-3

but 30 x / U

--(6-10)

C f , x 0,730 x / U
0,730 Re x 1/2

--(7-4)

Parabolic u = x + y2

C f , x 0,644Rex 1/2

Blasius

C f , x 0,647 Rex 1/2

3rd order
64/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
2. Surface friction drag DS (Oppervlak wrywings sleep krag) on 1 side of a rectangular whole plate

y=0

Global surface
friction
coefficient

w dx
x

Local surface
friction
coefficient

b
dx

DS w, x dA

--(7-3)

w, x C f , x U 2
DS C f , x U 2 dA
A

-- 7-2
--(7-5)

DS C f , x U 2 b dx
0

0,730 x / U U 2 b dx
0
0,730 b LU 3
65/32

--(7-6)

Shearing stress
(Skuif spanning)

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
2. Surface friction drag DS (Oppervlak wrywings sleep krag) on 1 side of a rectangular whole plate

y=0

Global surface
friction
coefficient

w dx
x

Local surface
friction
coefficient

b
dx

Cf = Global or Plate surface friction coefficient (Globale


wandwrywingskoffisint)

Per definition:

C f DS

U A
2

--(7-7)

0,731 b LU 3
Cf
U 2bL
C f 1, 462Re L1/2
with Re L UL
66/32

--(7-8) Parabolic

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
2. Surface friction drag DS (Oppervlak wrywings sleep krag) on 1 side of a rectangular whole plate

y=0

Global surface
friction
coefficient

w dx
x

Local surface
friction
coefficient

b
dx
Cf

Per definition:
l

Cf

Cf

b W dx

1 2 U A
2

b C fx 1 2 U 2 dx
0

1 2 U 2 A

1 2 U b C fx dx
2

D
1 2 U 2 A

1 2 U 2 b L
1 L
C f , x dx

0
L

-- 7-9
67/32

--(7-7)

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
2. Surface friction drag DS (Oppervlak wrywings sleep krag) on 1 side of a rectangular whole plate

y=0

Global surface
friction
coefficient

w dx
x

Local surface
friction
coefficient

b
dx
1 L
C f , x dx
L 0
1 L 0.664
Cf
dx
L 0 Re1x 2
Cf

--(7-9)

Blasius

0.664 L Ux
Cf

L 0 v
UL
2 0.664

v
C f 1,328Re L1/2

1 2

0.664 U
dx

L v

1/2

x1 2
12

1 2

--(7-10)
68/32

Blasius

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
Laminar Re < Recrit

SUMMARY
Blasius

Cubic

u / U 1,5( y / )

Parabolic

u / U 2( y / )

0,5( y / )3

4,96
Re x

x
* x

1,73
Re x

4,64
Re x

x
* x

1,74
Re x

( y / )2

5, 48
Re x

x
* x

1,83
Re x

C fx

0,664
Re x

C fx

0,646
Re x

C fx

0,731
Re x

Cf

1,328
Re L

Cf

1, 292
Re L

Cf

1, 462
Re L

69/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
Example 7-1

The fixed keel of a sailboat is 0.950 [m] long. The boat is moving at a speed
of 15 m/s. The temperature of the water is 15 [C]. Assume laminar flow.
(Assume = 1.14e-6 [m2/s]; = 1000 [kg/m3])
Determine the surface friction drag (oppervlak wrywings sleepkrag) of the keel:
DS ?
DS w, x dA
--(7-3)
A
dA L z dz
2
C fx U dA
A
C f 1,328 Rel (Blasius )
0,850 [m]

z
15 [m/s]

lA
0,950 [m]

with B gradient

0,850 0,375
z
0,950
0, 475
0,375
z
0,950
0,375 0,5 z [m]
0,375

dz

1.14 106 [m 2 s]
[kg m3 ]

B z

Recr 1.5 x 107


0,375 [m]
70/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
0,850 [m]

Outline:

DS w, x dA

0,950 [m]

--(7-3)

C fx U dA

dz
z

0.950

C f U 2ldx

Solution:

L(z) = 0,375+0,50z [m]

15 [m/s]

0,375 [m]

Assume laminar flow (given)

C f 1,328
1,328

Rel 1,328

Ul

(15) L z 1.14 10 6

3,661 104

L z

dDS 2 C f U 2 dA C f U 2 dA

dDS 3,661104

(2 sides of the keel)

L z 103 15 L z dz
71/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
Integration

15 [m/s]

0,950 [m]

1.14 10 [ m s ]
6

0,850 [m]
dz

l = 0,375+0,50z [m]

[ kg m ]
3

Recr 1.5 x 107

0,375 [m]

L z 103 15 L z dz

dDS 3,661 104


DS 82,373

0,950

DS 82,373

0,950

L z dz
0,375 0,5 z dz

0.950
2
1.5
82,373 0,375 0,5 z 0,5
0
3
2
1.5
1.5
82,373
0,375 0,5 0.950 0,375
3 2
60.85 N

NB: This is only friction drag force, not shape drag force.
72/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
Transformation

15 [m/s]

0,850 [m]

0,950 [m]

dz

1.14 10 [ m s ]
6

l = 0,375+0,50z [m]

[ kg m ]
3

Recr 1.5 x 107

0,375 [m]

dDS 3,661 104 / 0,375 0,5 z (103 )(15) 2 (0,375 0,5 z ) dz


DS 82,373

0,950

0,375 0,5 z dz

let

0,375 0,5 z

z 2 0,75

0,375 0,5 0 0,375


DS 164,745

0,850

0,375

dz 2 d

0,375 0,5 0,950 0,850

(164,745) 2 3 (0,850) (3/2) (0,375)(3/2)


60,85 N
73/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
Numerical integration (average values)
DS C fx U 2 dA C f U 2 A

0,950 [m]

DS ; Avg 2 C f , Avg U AAvg


1
2

0,850 [m]
dz
l = 0,375+0,50z [m]

15 [m/s]

z
0,375 [m]

0,85 0,375
0.375 0,6125
2
U Lavg 1000 15 0,6125

0,6125 [m]

Lavg
Re L ,avg

8,059 106

C f , avg

1,328
1,328

4,678 104
Re L ,avg
8,059 106

DS ; Avg 2 C f , avg 12 U 2 Aavg


2 4,678 104 12 1000 152 0,6125 0,950
61, 244 [N]

% err = 0.65 %; Max error 4,4%


74/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Use the von Krmn momentum integral equation to derive
solutions for the boundary-layer thickness, displacement thickness,
local wall friction coefficient & global wall friction coefficient in simple
laminar & turbulent flow over a smooth plate.
Calculate the surface friction drag on simple bodies with the aid of
the smooth plate approach.

75/32

7. Laminar boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth flat plate
Laminar Re < Recrit

SUMMARY
Blasius

Cubic

u / U 1,5( y / )

Parabolic

u / U 2( y / )

0,5( y / )3

4,96
Re x

x
* x

1,73
Re x

4,64
Re x

x
* x

1,74
Re x

( y / )2

5, 48
Re x

x
* x

1,83
Re x

C fx

0,664
Re x

C fx

0,646
Re x

C fx

0,731
Re x

Cf

1,328
Re L

Cf

1, 292
Re L

Cf

1, 462
Re L

76/32

8. Transition for smooth flat-plate flow


INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

77/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

8. Transition for smooth flat-plate flow


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate the wall friction drag on simple bodies with the aid of the
smooth and rough plate approach.
TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.4 Transition from
Laminar to Turbulent flow
CONTENT
1. Laminar to turbulent transition
2. Turbulent intensity

78/32

8. Transition for smooth flat-plate flow


1. Laminar to turbulent transition
Rex
Free stream
turbulence
Transition
Roughness of the
plate
Heat transfer to or from

the plate

Remember Blasius solution states

4,96

x
U

4,96Re x1/2

4,96
x U

-- 4-8
-- 8-1

79/32

8. Transition for smooth flat-plate flow


Experimental data of Hansen 1930:

16
14
12

Turbulent

Laminar

Transition

18

/ x / U 10

Blasius

4,96
x U

8
6

4
2

5,4
0

6
8
Re x 105

Rekrit 3,2 105


80/32

10

12

8. Transition for smooth flat-plate flow


2. Turbulent intensity
The turbulent intensity in die free-stream is given as

with

% turbulance= u u 100
u - time average value of the fluctuating velocity component
- time average velocity.
u

Experiments have shown that

% turbulence

Recrit 3,2 105 till 106


Recrit

Surface roughness Re
crit
Heat transfer to the plate Re
crit

In general we assume that for Recrit 5 x 105 a plate

The boundary plate oscillates typically between laminar and turbulent flow in
the transition area around Rekrit

Negative pressure gradient (p decreases in the flow direction) helps that the
transition is later
81/32

8. Transition for smooth flat-plate flow


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate the wall friction drag on simple bodies with the aid of the
smooth and rough plate approach.
SUMMARY

14

turbulence

12

Transition
Roughness of the

Transition

Free stream

Laminar

16

Turbulent

18
Rex

/ x / U 10
8

plate

Heat transfer to or

from the plate

Blasius

vx / U

5,4

4,96

-- 8-1

6
8
Re x 105
Recrit 3, 2 105

82/32

10

12

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

83/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate the wall friction drag on simple bodies with the
aid of the smooth approach.
TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.4 Transition from Laminar to
Turbulent Flow

CONTENT
1. Smooth plates Re < 107
2. Smooth plates Re > 107
3. Example
84/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
2. Smooth plates 5 x 107 <Re < 107
U

1/7th rule

w dx

y=0

x
b
l

w, x (u y) y 0

For laminar flow:

-- 6-6

From experimental data it was found that smooth plates with turbulent
flow the with laminar Re the shearing stress (Skuif spanning) is:

5 10 < Re 10 :
5


w 0,0225 U

(1/4)

Assume now the following velocity profile (1/7th rule):


u U ( y / )(1/7)
85/32

-- 9-2

-- 9-1

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
2. Smooth plates Re < 107
U
y

w dx

y=0

but

For the special case of (dp/dx)=0 follows from the von Karman
momentum integral equation:

( dP dx ) w d dx u 2 dy um d dx udy
0

u u & um U

-- 5-9

w d dx u 2 Uu dy
0

w / d dx u 2 Uu dy
0

u U ( y / ) (1/7)

but
0,0225U ( / U )
2

(1/4)

-- 9-2

d dx U 2 ( y / ) (2/7) ( y / ) (1/7) dy
0

86/32

-- 9-3

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
2. Smooth plates Re < 107
U
x = 0 =0

w dx
x

0,0225U ( / U )
2

(1/4)

(d / dx) U 2 ( y / )(2/7) ( y / )(1/7) dy


0

Integrate the term on the right hand side:

0,0225( / U )(1/ 4) (d / dx) (7 / 9) (7 / 8)


(7 / 72)( d / dx)
( / U )(1/ 4) dx 4,32 (1/ 4) d
Integrate again (both sides):

1 4

x 4,32 5 4 5 4 C

1 4

x 3, 46

5 4

-- 9-5
87/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
2. Smooth plates Re < 107
x = 0 =0

w dx
x

1 4

x 3,46

5 4

-- 9-5

Apply now boundary conditions determine the value of C.


Remember
that x refers to the point on the plate in the turbulent boundary layer.

Have to know what


and x is at the start of the turbulent boundary layer.

Prandtl assumed,
hypothetical turbulent boundary layer
start at the edge of the plate

0 @ x 0 C 0.

1 4

x 3, 46

5 4

88/32

-- 9-6

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
2. Smooth plates Re < 107
U
Turbulent

w dx
x

x = 0 =0

This is not the best assumption, but we keep to it because it is simpler.

1 4

x 3, 46

5 4

-- 9-6

U x
1 5
x 0,37 U x
-- 9-7

or

5 4

0, 289 x

5 4

x 0,37 Re x 1 5 and
* x 0,0463Re x 1 5
89/32

14

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface


friction Smooth plate
2. Smooth plates Re < 107
U
y

Global surface
friction
coefficient
Local surface
friction
coefficient

w dx

y=0

x
b

l
Local surface friction coefficient (Lokale wandwrywingskoffisint) .
C fx

w
U 2

C fx 0,0225 U 2 U
0,045 U

w 0,0225 U 2 U

but

1 4

1 4

-- 9-1

(1/4)

U
2

and
(1/4)

0,37 x U x

0,045

1 5
U 0,37 x U x
C fx 0,0577 Re x (1/5)
for 5 105 Re x 107
90/32

1 5

-- 9-7

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
Surface friction drag (oppervlak sleepkrag) DS for a rectangular plate b x L:

DS w dA
A

c f x U 2bdx
0

(0,0577)U 2b ( / Ux) (1/5) dx


0

(0,0577)U 2b( / U ) (1/5) x (1/5) dx


0

0,029 U 2b( / U ) (1/5) (5 / 4) L(4/5)


DS (0,0361 / Re (1/5)
) U 2 A
L
Global surface friction coefficient (Globale wandwrywingskoffisint) for
DS
the plate
Cf
--(7-7)
1 2 U 2 A

Cf

0,0361 Re U

C f

15
L

U 2 A

0,072
15
ReL
91/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
From experimental data a better solution is:
C f 0,074 / Re L1/ 5

Applies only if there turbulent flow over the entire flow.


In practice there is always a small region which has laminar
boundary flow near the leading edge with less surface drag.

Needs thus to reduced depending on the percentage of the flow that


is laminar.

From experiments it follows that: (Prandtl Schlichting)


C f 0,074 Re L1/5 ACR Re L

with
ReCR

3E5

5E5

1E6

3E6

ACR

1050

1700

3300

8700

92/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
3. Smooth plates Turbulent Re > 107
Only turbulent part
C f 0, 455 log Re L

3,91 ln Re L

2,58

Schlichting

2,58

Laminar and turbulent part

C f 0,455 log Re L
3,91 ln Re L

2,58

2,58

ACR Re L

ACR Re L

ReCR

3E5

5E5

1E6

3E6

ACR

1050

1700

3300

8700

93/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
Summary of smooth plates:
Smooth plate
Turbulent flow

Laminar flow
8

C f 0, 455 log Re L

C f 1,328/ Re L (1/ 2)

3,91 ln Re L
6

2,58

2,58

C f 0,074 Re L1/5 ACR Re L

1000C f
4

105

106

107

Laminar-turbulent transition zone


94/32

108

109

Re L

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
Blasius

SUMMARY
Laminar
A. Smooth

Re < Recrit

Linier;

plates

Parabolic;

x 4,96

Re x

* x 1,73

Re x

C f , x 0,664

Re x

C f L 1,328

Re L

Cubic

Boundary

layer

C f , x 0,0577 Re1/5
x
1/5
C f 0,074 Re L ACR Re L

Smooth Plates
Recrit <Re < 107

Smooth plate
Re >

C f 0, 455 / log Re L

107

B.
Rough
plates
95/32

2,58

ACR Re L

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
Example 9-1
n Autogyro has 3 blades of 4,5m x 0,3 m. The temperature of the air is 10C.
Transition in the boundary layer takes places at Recr = 5 x 105 . Take
v = 1.5 m2/s

1. Using flat plate theory, what is the aerodynamic torque needed to overcome
surface friction drag (oppervlak wrywings sleepkrag/ sleurkrag) for an angular
speed of =80 rpm

4,5m

96/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
turbulent

laminar

u(r)

4,5m

C 0,074 Re

C 1,328 ( Lr / )

1/2

1/5
L

A Re
CR

dD 6C U (r ) dA
2

dD 6C (r ) Ldr 3C (r ) Ldr
2

3C (r ) Ldr
2

dT rdD

dT rdD

T rdD
r

97/32

4.5
r

rdD
4.5

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
Maximum Reynolds number:

1,55 105 m 2 / s 1, 2 kg/m 2

Rekrit 5 105

(80 2 ) / 60 8,378 rad/s


(Re L ) maks U maks L / (4,5)(8,378)(0,3) /1,55 105 7,3 105
Both laminar and turbulent for low Reynolds number

Close to the centre U is smaller and thus there could be a area where there is only
laminar flow till the point r.

Re L r r(8,378)(0,3) / 1,55 105


5

(1,55 10 )(5 10 )
(8,378)(0,3)
3,083 m

laminar

turbulent

u(r)
3,083m
4,5m
98/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
Start with laminar boundary region till r (0 x3.083):

C 1,328 / Re

1/2

Re LU ( r ) /

dr

L r /
C 1,328 / ( L r / )

1/2

dD 6 C U (r ) dA
2

C ( r ) Ldr

dD (3)(1,328) / ( L r / )

( r ) Ldr
(3)(1,328) L / ( L / ) r r dr
dD (3)(1,328)(1, 2)(8,378) 0,3 / (0,3)(8,378) / 1,55 10 )
(1/2 )

(1/2 )

1/2

dD 0, 250 r dr
3/2

dT rdD

0, 25r dr
5/2

T 0, 25
r

3,083

5/2

r dr

0, 25 / (7 / 2) (3,083)

7/2

3, 675 Nm
99/32

1/2

r dr
3/2

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
tillr the end (3.083 x4.5):

Next one compute the surface friction for the potion of

Re 10 :

C 0,074 / Re A / Re

For

1/5

Re 5 10
krit

A 1700

C 0,074 / ( L r / ) 1700 / ( L r / )
1/5

dD 6C ( r ) Ldr 3C ( r ) Ldr
2

0,074 / [(0,3)(8,378) r / 1,55 10 ]


3
1700 / [(0,3)(8,378) r / 1,55 10 ]
75,806 0,0067 / r 0,0105 / r r dr

5 1/5

1/5

0,5079r

1/5

0,7960r

r dr
2

dD 0,579 r 0,796 r dr
9/5

100/32

(1, 2)(8,378) (0,3) r dr

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
dT rdD

0,579 r
T

4 ,5
r

14/5

0,796 r dr
2

0,579 r dr 0,796 r dr
4 ,5

4 ,5

14/5

3,083

3,083

[0,579 / (19 / 5)][(4,5)


35, 259 16, 403
18,856 Nm

19/5

(3,083) ] (0,796 / 3)[(4,5) (3,083) ]


19/5

T 3,675 18,856
total

22,53 Nm

101/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate the surface friction drag on simple bodies with the aid of
the smooth approach.
SUMMARY
Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

C f 0, 455 / log Re L

C f 1,328 / Re L (1/ 2)

2,58

C f 0,074 Re L1/5 ACR Re L

6
1000C f

2
105

106

107

Laminar-turbulent
transition zone

Re L

109

108

C f 0,074 Re L1/5 ACR Re L


ReCR

3 x 105

5 x 105

106

3 x 106

ACR

1050

1700

3300

8700

102/32

9. Turbulent boundary-layer & surface friction


Smooth plate
x 4,96

SUMMARY
A.

Boundary layer

Smooth

thickness

plates
Laminar
Re < ReCR
Boundary
layer

Blasius

Smooth Plates

Re x

* x 1,73

Re x

C f , x 0,664

Re x

C f L 1,328

Re L

C f , x 0,0577 Re1/5
x
C f 0,074 Re1/5
L ACR Re L

ReCR <Re < 107

C f 0,455 / log Re L

Smooth plate
Re > 107

B.
Rough
plates

103/32

2,58

ACR Re L

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates
INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

104/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate the wall friction drag on simple bodies with the aid of the rough
plate approach.
TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.4 Transition from Laminar to
Turbulent Flow
CONTENT
1. Rough plates
2. Example

105/32

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates
1. Rough plates
Test to determine if rough plate

e 100L Re
adm

Smooth plate
L

Thus eadm is the maximum e for smooth plate


Or if e > eadm then rough plate

106/32

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates
C f , x 2.87 1,58log x e

1. Rough plates

2,5

200

0,014

L / e 300

0,012

Rough zone
0,010

Transition
zone

500

C f 1,89 1,62log L e

2,5

1000

0,008

2000

0,006
5000

Turbulent
smooth
Laminar

2 104

104

0,004

5 104
106

0,002

Laminar-turbulent
transition zone

0 10

10

10
107/32

Re

10

10

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates
Example 10-1:
Air flows over a plate of 3 m wide and 4 m long the air velocity is 25 m/s. The
surface roughness for the plate is e = 0.04 [mm], Assume = 1.18 [kg/m3] & =
1.595 x 105, ReCR = 5 x 105
3m
Determine for the entire plate:
1)

Boundary layer thickness

2)

Displacement thickness

3)

Surface friction drag

4m

OUTLINE
1) & 2) Boundary layer - & displacement thickness
Assume laminar flow
3)
Drag force
Determine rough plate or smooth plate
Determine in which flow regime
Determine drag force
108/32

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates
Assume the plate is smooth.

3m

4m

Determine for the entire plate:


1)

Boundary layer thickness (Assume laminar flow)


1. / x 0,37 / Re1/5
x

4 0,37 / 6, 27 10

1/5

Re L

UL UL 1,18 25 4
6

6,
27

10

1,595 105

0,0647 m

2)

Displacement thickness (Assume laminar flow)

2. * / x 0,0463/ Re1/x 5

* 4(0,0463) /(6, 27 106 )1/ 5


8,094 103 m
109/32

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates

3m

4m
3) Determine the surface friction drag (oppervlak wrywings sleepkrag)
a) Determine rough plate or smooth plate
e 100L Re
adm

100(4) 6, 27 10 6,38 10
6

but e 0,04 / 1000 4 10

e 6,38 10

Thus smooth plate


a) Determine if the flow is laminar or laminar & turbulent

Re

CR

5 105 Re L 6, 27 106 107

The flow is thus laminar & turbulent for low Re


110/32

C f 0,073 / Re1/5
L ACR / Re L

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates

3m

4m

C f 0,073 / Re1/5
L ACR / Re L
ReCR

3 x 105

5 x 105

106

3 x 106

ACR

1050

1700

3300

8700

C f 0,073 / Re1/5
0,073 / 6, 27 106 1700 / 6, 27 10 6
L ACR / Re L
1/5

2,92 103

F C f U 2 A
2,92 103 1,16 25 3 4
2

12,7 N
111/32

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate the wall friction drag on simple bodies with the aid of the
rough plate approach.
SUMMARY
2,5

C f , x 2.87 1,58log x e
0,014

C f 1,89 1,62log L e

0,012

200

2,5

L / e 300

Rough zone

500

0,010
C

Transition
zone
Turbulent

1000

0,008
2000

0,006

5000
10

2 10 4
4

0,004

smooth
Laminar
0,002
Laminar-turbulent
0 10
transition zone

5 10 4
106

10

10

112/32

Re

10

10

10. Turbulent boundary-layer and wall friction


Rough plates
Boundary layer
thickness

Smooth
plates

Re < ReCR

Blasius

Smooth plate

Hydraulically smooth zone -

plates

Re x
Re L

C f 0,074 Re1/5
L ACR Re L

Re > 107

Rough

C f , x 0,664

C f , x 0,0577 Re1/5
x

Boundary

B.

Re x

C f 1,328

Smooth Plates
ReCR <Re < 107

layer

Re x

* x 1,73

Laminar
A.

x 4,96

C f 0, 455 / log Re L

2,58

ACR Re L

Smooth plate
Hydraulically transition
zone- Figure

C f , x 2.87 1,58log x e

Hydraulically rough zone

C f 1,89 1,62log L e

113/32

2,5

2,5

11. Flow over curved and separation


INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

114/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

11. Flow over curved and separation


INTRODUCTION
Flow over flat plate
Flow over body
Flow separation
TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.2.6 Effects of pressure gradient
OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Understand & explain the cause of flow separation on a body as well
as the mathematical criteria indicating the flow separation point.
CONTENT
1. Flow separation
115/32

11. Flow over curved and separation


y
x
According to Bernoulli dy thus p . Thus (dp/dx) > 0
point of separation

At the point of separation:(u / y)

y 0

Separation only accurse if (dp/dx)>0


Potential flow & boundary layer theory do not apply if the flow separates.
Solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation needs thus to be solved.

116/32

12. Drag force on bodies


INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

117/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

12. Drag force on bodies


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate drag force on bodies by means of empirical values for the
drag force coefficient.
TEXTBOOK REFERENCE
Munson 9.3.3 Drag Coefficients Data and Examples

CONTENT
1. Definition of friction drag force and total drag force
2. Drag and lift
3. Drag and lift for a flat plate
4. Coefficient of drag (sleepkrag koeffisint) for various shapes
118/32

12. Drag force on bodies


1. Definition of friction drag force and total drag force
F C U A
2

[N]

-- 12-1

with
F Surface friction drag (Oppervlak wrywings sleepkrag).
F

C Global surface friction coefficient (Globale wandwrywings koffisint)


F

A Frontal area (Front oppervlak)


F C U A
2

[N]

-- 12-2

with
F =Total drag force (Totale sleepkrag)
D

C = Coefficient of drag (Sleepkrag koffisint)


D

= Global surface friction coefficient + Pressure drag force coefficient


= (Globale wandwrywings koffisint + Druk sleepkrag koffisint)
119/32

12. Drag force on bodies


2. Drag and lift

dFw, y

dFp

dFw

dFp , x

dFw, x

F dF dF C U A
2

w,x

p ,x

F dF dF C U A
2

w,y

w,y

120/32

dFp , y

12. Drag force on bodies


3. Drag and lift for a flat plate

121/32

12. Drag force on bodies


4. Coefficient of drag (sleepkrag koeffisint) for various shapes
Shape

Direction

Cd

Disc

1.17

60 cone

0.49
1.05

Cube

0.08
0.38

Hallow cup

1.42
0.38

Solid hemisphere

1.17
122/32

12. Drag force on bodies


OUTCOMES -STUDY GUIDE
Calculate drag force on bodies by means of empirical values for the
drag force coefficient.
SUMMARY
F C U A
2

123/32

13. Boundary layer summary


INTRODUCTION
2. Conservation equations
for boundary layer flow
A. Boundary layer
thickness

Assumptions
Order of Magnitude

3. Boundary layer thickness

Various boundary layer

and displacement thickness

thickness deff

4.Prandtl/ Blasius
6. Laminar boundary layer

Parabolic, Cubic,

with von -Karman

Linear

7.Walll friction for Laminar


flow
Smooth flat plates

8. Transition from laminar to


turbulent

9. Wall friction for


Turbulent flow
Hydraulically smooth zone
- Smooth plate
B. Boundary layer drag

10. Rough plate

Hydraulically transition

zoneHydraulically rough zone


11. Flow over curved

Flow over bodies

surfaces and separation


12. Drag force on bodies

124/32

Re < ReCr

ReCr > Re < 107


Re > 107

13. Summary

5. Von Karman integral


1. Introduction

Boundary layer

equation

13. Boundary layer summary


1) Boundary layer thickness background

Boundary layer is
seen separate from
the rest of the flow.
Non-viscous

Viscous forces

One work with friction and inertia effects


Thus laminar and turbulent flow.
In the boundary layer the thickness and profile changes in the direction
of the flow.
Focus on steady, incompressible flow over plate with zero angle of
attack.
125/32

13. Boundary layer summary


2) Boundary layer thickness formulas
u(x)

u(x)

Laminar boundary
layer
Transition

transition

u(x)

Laminar sub layer

Rekrit 5 105

A. Boundary layer thickness () (Grenslaagdikte)


Distance from fixed wall until u=0,99U.

126/32

Turbulent layer

13. Boundary layer summary


B. Boundary layer displacement thickness *

(Verplasingsdikte)

Distance by which the boundary would have to be displaced


if the entire flow were imagined to be frictionless and
the same mass flow maintained at any section
U
U

* 1
0

u
U

C. Momentum thickness

u
u
1

U U

dy

0 U

dy

(Momentumdikte)
u
u

dy

0 U U

127/32

dy

13. Boundary layer summary


D. Laminar boundary layer: Re < ReCR
Blasius:
Boundary layer thickness (Grenslaagdikte)

/ x 4,96 / Re x
Boundary layer Displacement thickness (Verplasingsdikte)

* / x 1,73 / Re x
Reynolds number:
Linier:
Parabolic:
Cubic:

Re x Ux /

u /U y /

u / U 2( y / ) ( y / ) 2
u / U 1,5( y / ) 0,5( y / )3
128/32

13. Boundary layer summary


E.

Smooth plate: Re > ReCR


Shear stress


w 0.0225 U 2

Boundary layer thickness (Grenslaagdikte)

x 0,37 Re1/5
x
Boundary layer Displacement thickness (Verplasingsdikte)

* x 0,0463 Re1/5
x

129/32

13. Boundary layer summary


2. Effect of wall friction (laminar):
Total drag force / Totale sleepkrag

D C f U 2 A
Blasius
Local (surface) friction coefficient / Lokale wrywings koffisint

c f x 0,664 / Re x

(Plate) surface friction coefficient / Globale wrywings koffisint

C f 1,328 / Re L

130/32

13. Boundary layer summary


A.

Smooth plate:

i)

Turbulent boundary layer


a)

Recrit < Re < 107

Local surface friction coefficient / Lokale wrywings koffisint

C fx 0,0577 Re1/5
x
b) Plate surface friction coefficient / Globale wrywings
koffisint
C f 0,074 Re1/5
L ACR Re L
ReCR

3 x 105

5 x 105

106

3 x 106

ACR

1050

1700

3300

8700

II) High Reynolds number

Re > 107

(Plate) surface friction coefficient / Globale wrywings koffisint

C f 0,455 log Re L
131/32

2,58

ABL Re L

13. Boundary layer summary


B. Rough plates:
1. Hydraulically smooth zone; use smooth plate results
2. Smooth-rough Transition zone; Use Figure: Three zone of flow for a
rough plate

132/32

13. Boundary layer summary


B. Rough plates:
3. Rough zone:

(Local) surface friction coefficient / Lokale wrywings koffisint

C fx 2.87 1,58log x e

2,5

(Plate) surface friction coefficient / Globale wrywings koffisint

C f 1,89 1,62log L e

133/32

2,5

13. Boundary layer summary


Linier; Parabolic;
Cubic

Laminar
A.

Re < ReCR

Blasius

Smooth

x 4,96
* x 1,73

Re x

C f , x 0,664
C f 1,328

plates

Re x

Re x
Re L

Smooth Plates
ReCR <Re < 107

C f , x 0,0577 Re1/5
x

Boundary
Smooth plate

layer

C f 0,074 Re1/5
L ACR Re L

Re > 107
Hydraulically smooth zone -

C f 0,455 / log Re L

2,58

ACR Re L

Smooth plate
B.

Rough
plates

Hydraulically transition zoneFigure

C f , x 2.87 1,58log x e

Hydraulically rough zone

C f 1,89 1,62log L e

134/32

2,5

2,5

THANK YOU

135/32