APPLICATIONS OF

4
THE DERIVATIVE
4.1 Linear Approximation and Applications
Preliminary Questions
1. True or False? The Linear Approximation says that the vertical change in the graph is approximately equal to the vertical
change in the tangent line.
SOLUTION This statement is true. The linear approximation does say that the vertical change in the graph is approximately equal
to the vertical change in the tangent line.

2. Estimate g.1:2/ ! g.1/ if g 0 .1/ D 4.
SOLUTION

Using the Linear Approximation,
g.1:2/ ! g.1/ " g 0 .1/.1:2 ! 1/ D 4.0:2/ D 0:8:

3. Estimate f .2:1/ if f .2/ D 1 and f 0 .2/ D 3.
SOLUTION

Using the Linearization,
f .2:1/ " f .2/ C f 0 .2/.2:1 ! 2/ D 1 C 3.0:1/ D 1:3

4. Complete the sentence: The Linear Approximation shows that up to a small error, the change in output !f is directly proportional to . . . .
SOLUTION The Linear Approximation tells us that up to a small error, the change in output !f is directly proportional to the
change in input !x when !x is small.

Exercises
In Exercises 1–6, use Eq. (1) to estimate !f D f .3:02/ ! f .3/.
1. f .x/ D x 2
SOLUTION

Let f .x/ D x 2 . Then f 0 .x/ D 2x and !f " f 0 .3/!x D 6.0:02/ D 0:12.

2. f .x/ D x 4
SOLUTION

Let f .x/ D x 4 . Then f 0 .x/ D 4x 3 and !f " f 0 .3/!x D 4.27/.0:02/ D 2:16:

3. f .x/ D x !1

1
Let f .x/ D x !1 . Then f 0 .x/ D !x !2 and !f " f 0 .3/!x D ! .0:02/ D !0:00222:
9
1
4. f .x/ D
xC1
1
SOLUTION Let f .x/ D .x C 1/!1 . Then f 0 .x/ D !.x C 1/!2 and !f " f 0 .3/!x D !
.0:02/ D !0:00125:
16
p
5. f .x/ D x C 6
p
1
SOLUTION Let f .x/ D x C 6. Then f 0 .x/ D 2 .x C 6/!1=2 and

SOLUTION

"x
3
SOLUTION Let f .x/ D tan

!f " f 0 .3/!x D

1 !1=2
9
.0:02/ D 0:003333:
2

6. f .x/ D tan

!x
3 .

Then f 0 .x/ D

!
3

sec2

!x
3

and

"
.0:02/ D 0:020944:
3
7. The cube root of 27 is 3. How much larger is the cube root of 27.2? Estimate using the Linear Approximation.
!f " f 0 .3/!x D

Let f .x/ D x 1=3 , a D 27, and !x D 0:2. Then f 0 .x/ D
Approximation is
SOLUTION

!f " f 0 .a/!x D

1 !2=3
3x

1
.0:2/ D 0:0074074
27

and f 0 .a/ D f 0 .27/ D

1
27 .

The Linear

356

APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE

CHAPTER 4

8. Estimate ln.e 3 C 0:1/ ! ln.e 3 / using differentials.
SOLUTION

Let f .x/ D ln x, a D e 3 , and !x D 0:1. Then f 0 .x/ D x !1 and f 0 .a/ D e !3 . Thus,
ln.e 3 C 0:1/ ! ln.e 3 / D !f " f 0 .a/!x D e !3 .0:1/ D 0:00498:

In Exercises 9–12, use Eq. (1) to estimate !f . Use a calculator to compute both the error and the percentage error.
p
9. f .x/ D 1 C x, a D 3, !x D 0:2
SOLUTION Let f .x/ D
!f " f 0 .a/!x D 14 .0:2/

.1 C x/1=2 , a D 3, and !x D 0:2. Then f 0 .x/ D 12 .1 C x/!1=2 , f 0 .a/ D f 0 .3/ D
D 0:05. The actual change is
p
!f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D f .3:2/ ! f .3/ D 4:2 ! 2 " 0:049390:

1
4

and

The error in the Linear Approximation is therefore j0:049390 ! 0:05j D 0:000610; in percentage terms, the error is
0:000610
# 100% " 1:24%:
0:049390
10. f .x/ D 2x 2 ! x, a D 5,

2x 2

!x D !0:4

SOLUTION Let f .x/ D
! x, a D 5 and !x D !0:4. Then f 0 .x/ D 4x ! 1, f 0 .a/ D 19 and !f " f 0 .a/!x D
19.!0:4/ D !7:6. The actual change is

!f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D f .4:6/ ! f .5/ D 37:72 ! 45 D !7:28:
The error in the Linear Approximation is therefore j ! 7:28 ! .!7:6/j D 0:32; in percentage terms, the error is
0:32
# 100% " 4:40%:
7:28
11. f .x/ D
SOLUTION
f 0 .a/!x D

1
, a D 3, !x D 0:5
1 C x2
Let f .x/ D

1
,
1Cx 2

2x
0
0
a D 3, and !x D :5. Then f 0 .x/ D ! .1Cx
2 /2 , f .a/ D f .3/ D !0:06 and !f "

!0:06.0:5/ D !0:03. The actual change is

!f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D f .3:5/ ! f .3/ " !0:0245283:
The error in the Linear Approximation is therefore j ! 0:0245283 ! .!0:03/j D 0:0054717; in percentage terms, the error is
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ 0:0054717 ˇ
ˇ
ˇ
ˇ !0:0245283 ˇ # 100% " 22:31%
12. f .x/ D ln.x 2 C 1/,

a D 1,

!x D 0:1

Let f .x/ D
C 1/, a D 1, and !x D 0:1. Then f 0 .x/ D
1.0:1/ D 0:1. The actual change is
SOLUTION

ln.x 2

2x
,
x 2 C1

f 0 .a/ D f 0 .1/ D 1, and !f " f 0 .a/!x D

!f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D f .1:1/ ! f .1/ D 0:099845:
The error in the Linear Approximation is therefore j0:099845 ! 0:1j D 0:000155; in percentage terms, the error is
0:000155
# 100% " 0:16%:
0:099845
In Exercises 13–16, estimate !y using differentials [Eq. (3)].
13. y D cos x,
SOLUTION

aD

!
6,

dx D 0:014

Let f .x/ D cos x. Then f 0 .x/ D ! sin x and
!y " dy D f 0 .a/dx D ! sin

14. y D tan2 x,
SOLUTION

aD

!
4,

dx D !0:02

!" "
6

.0:014/ D !0:007:

Let f .x/ D tan2 x. Then f 0 .x/ D 2 tan x sec2 x and
!y " dy D f 0 .a/dx D 2 tan

"
"
sec2 .!0:02/ D !0:08:
4
4

Linear Approximation and Applications

S E C T I O N 4.1

15. y D

10 ! x 2
, a D 1,
2 C x2

SOLUTION

Let f .x/ D

357

dx D 0:01

10 ! x 2
. Then
2 C x2
f 0 .x/ D

.2 C x 2 /.!2x/ ! .10 ! x 2 /.2x/
24x
D!
.2 C x 2 /2
.2 C x 2 /2

and
!y " dy D f 0 .a/dx D !
16. y D x 1=3 e x!1 , a D 1,

24
.0:01/ D !0:026667:
9

dx D 0:1

x 1=3 e x!1 ,

Let y D
a D 1, and dx D 0:1. Then y 0 .x/ D
4
0
!y " dy D y .a/ dx D 3 .0:1/ D 0:133333.
SOLUTION

1 !2=3 x!1
e
.3x
3x

C 1/, y 0 .a/ D y 0 .1/ D

In Exercises 17–24, estimate using the Linear Approximation and find the error using a calculator.
p
p
17. 26 ! 25
p
1
SOLUTION Let f .x/ D x, a D 25, and !x D 1. Then f 0 .x/ D 2 x !1=2 and f 0 .a/ D f 0 .25/ D
"
"
"

SOLUTION

"

and

1
10 .

1
The Linear Approximation is !f " f 0 .a/!x D 10
.1/ D 0:1.
The actual change is !f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D f .26/ ! f .25/ " 0:0990195.
The error in this estimate is j0:0990195 ! 0:1j D 0:000980486.

18. 16:51=4 ! 161=4
"

4
3,

Let f .x/ D x 1=4 , a D 16, and !x D :5. Then f 0 .x/ D 14 x !3=4 and f 0 .a/ D f 0 .16/ D

The Linear Approximation is !f " f 0 .a/!x D
The actual change is

1
32 .0:5/

1
32 .

D 0:015625.

!f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D f .16:5/ ! f .16/ " 2:015445 ! 2 D 0:015445
"

The error in this estimate is j0:015625 ! 0:015445j " 0:00018.

19. p

1

101

!

SOLUTION

!0:0005.
"
"

1
10

Let f .x/ D

p1 ,
x

1
D ! 12 x !3=2 and f 0 .a/ D ! 12 . 1000
/ D

The Linear Approximation is !f " f 0 .a/!x D !0:0005.1/ D !0:0005.
The actual change is
!f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D p

"

d
.x !1=2 /
dx

a D 100, and !x D 1. Then f 0 .x/ D

1
101

!

1
D !0:000496281:
10

The error in this estimate is j!0:0005 ! .!0:000496281/j D 3:71902 # 10!6 .

1
1
20. p !
98 10
SOLUTION

!0:0005.
"
"
"

SOLUTION

"
"

p1 ,
x

a D 100, and !x D !2. Then f 0 .x/ D

d
.x !1=2 /
dx

1
D ! 12 x !3=2 and f 0 .a/ D ! 12 . 1000
/D

The Linear Approximation is !f " f 0 .a/!x D !0:0005.!2/ D 0:001:
The actual change is !f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D f .98/ ! f .100/ D 0:00101525.
The error in this estimate is j0:001 ! 0:00101525j " 0:00001525.

21. 91=3 ! 2
"

Let f .x/ D

Let f .x/ D x 1=3 , a D 8, and !x D 1. Then f 0 .x/ D 13 x !2=3 and f 0 .a/ D f 0 .8/ D

1
The Linear Approximation is !f " f 0 .a/!x D 12
.1/ D 0:083333.
The actual change is !f D f .a C !x/ ! f .a/ D f .9/ ! f .8/ D 0:080084.
The error in this estimate is j0:080084 ! 0:083333j " 3:25 # 10!3 .

1
12 .

we estimate the object will travel # $ ! m" 1 100 s D 25 m s 4 in the next quarter-second.a/!xj " 0:000459.a/ D f 0 . 25.!0:1/ D !0:1.0:97/ SOLUTION " " Let f . e !0:1 ! 1 SOLUTION " " " Let f . The actual change is !f D f .1/.!0:03/ D !0:03.a/!x D 12 . f . a D 1. !s. Then f 0 . The actual change is !f D f .x/ D e x . 24.0:1/ D p 2 a We see that !f decreases as a increases. Estimate the distance traveled over the next quarter-second. and !x D 0:05.1/ " !0:030459 ! 0 D !0:030459: " The error is j!f ! f 0 . Then f 0 . Recall that velocity is the derivative of position. so we have just estimated the change in position.1:05/ ! SOLUTION " " " APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE ! 4 Let f .a/ D f . ln. tan!1 . an object in linear motion has velocity 100 m/s. Then f 0 . SOLUTION Because the velocity is 100 m/s. 1 f .x/ as in Figure 1. Then f 0 .a/ D f 0 .x/ D e x and f 0 .!0:1/j " 4:84 # 10!3 .0:97/ " ln 1 ! 0:03 D !0:03. and !x D !0:1.0:05/ D 0:025.x/ D tan!1 x.a C !x/ ! f .4:03/ " f .a/!x D .0/ D 1.4/ D 4!2 1 D : 10 ! 4 3 Thus. a D 1. The error in this estimate is j0:024385 ! 0:025j " 6:15 # 10!4 .4/ D 2 and f 0 . we find that f . Which is larger: 2:1 ! 2 or 9:1 ! 9? Explain using the Linear Approximation. 23. The Linear Approximation is !f " f 0 . The actual change is !f D f .358 CHAPTER 4 22.1 C x 2 /!1 and f 0 .4/. and !x D 0:1.x/ D ln x.4:03/ for f .0:03/ D 2:01: 3 26.0:03/.a/. At a certain moment. 4) Tangent line (4.a/ D f 0 .1/ D 1.4:03/ " 2 C . so ln.a C !x/ ! f . In particular p p 0:05 2:1 ! 2 " p 2 is larger than p p 0:05 9:1 ! 9 " 3 . The Linear Approximation is !f " f 0 .x/ D . p p p p 27.a C !x/ ! f . The Linear Approximation is !f " f 0 . 2) x FIGURE 1 SOLUTION Using the Linear Approximation.0:1/ D a!1=2 .a/ D f . From the figure.1/ D 12 .a/ D f .a/!x D 1. and !x D !0:03.1:05/ ! f . and explain how this is an application of the Linear Approximation. Estimate f . y y = f (x) (10.x/ D 1 x and f 0 .!0:1/ ! f . which is just the Linear Approximation.x/ D x.0/ D !0:095163.0:97/ ! f .x/ D 2 x !1=2 and the Linear Approximation at x D a gives !f D p a C 0:1 ! p 1 0:05 a " f 0 . The error in this estimate is j ! 0:095163 ! . using the product s 0 !t.4/ C f 0 .1/ D 0:024385. p 1 SOLUTION Let f . a D 0.

p/ D 3600p ! 10p 3 euros per showing when the ticket price is p euros. the rise in temperature over the next 10 seconds will be dT !t D 0:008. 359 Finally. so by the Linear Approximation.!0:418274/ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 3:98%: ˇ ˇ ˇ !0:418274 . The Linear Approximation at s D 55 mph is !F " F 0 . !3 / D 1 2. the length of the wire is approximately 17:99829 cm. then !R " !585 euros. (b) Compute the actual change. Hint: Express !# in radians. Using the Linear Approximation. SOLUTION " Let F .s/ D 1:1s C 0:054s 2 ft. so by the Linear Approximation. the change in length is approximately !L " 3:42 # 10!4 !T D . where s is the speed in mph.10/ D 0:08ı C: dt 33.a/ D f 0 . Estimate the rise in temperature over the next 10 seconds. and compute the percentage error in the Linear Approximation. if p is lowered by 0. Then P 0 . !f " f 0 .9/!p D 1170!p: If p is raised by 0.20/.h/!h D P 0 .5 euros. The Linear Approximation at s D 35 mph is !F " F 0 .!5/ D !0:00171 cm At T D 25ı C. At a certain moment.1 Linear Approximation and Applications 28.s/ D 1:1s C 0:054s 2 .3:42 # 10!4 /.1:1 C 0:108 # 35/!s D 4:88!s ft " The change in stopping distance per additional mph for s D 35 mph is approximately 4:88 ft.p/ for p D 9 and use the Linear Approximation to estimate !R if p is raised or lowered by 0:5 euros. the Linear 1! " " " D " 0:008727 2 180 360 29. 31. Box office revenue at a multiplex cinema in Paris is R.a/!x D SOLUTION Let R.0:5/ D !0:434906 kilopascals: (b) The actual change in pressure is P .x/ D sin x. SOLUTION (a) Let P .h/ D 128e !0:157h . Moreover.35/!s D .1:9 # 10!5 /. the temperature in a snake cage satisfies d T =dt D 0:008ı C/s. Estimate sin 61ı ! sin 60ı using the Linear Approximation.h/ D !20:096e !0:157h .h/ D 128e !0:157h kilopascals.9/ ! 10. 30. Estimate !L when T decreases to 25ı C if the coefficient of thermal expansion is k D 1:9 # 10!5ı C!1 (see Example 3).p/ D 3600p ! 10p 3 . and !x D ! 180 .18/ D 3:42 # 10!4 cm=ı C dT The change in temperature is !T D !5ı C. R0 . The stopping distance for an automobile is F .5 euros. SOLUTION We have dL D kL D .9/ D 3600.S E C T I O N 4. Use the Linear Approximation to estimate the change in stopping distance per additional mph when s D 35 and when s D 55. Let f .20/ D !0:418274 kilopascals: The percentage error in the Linear Approximation is ˇ ˇ ˇ !0:434906 ! .55/!s D . Calculate R.x/ D cos x and f 0 . SOLUTION Using the Linear Approximation. !R " R0 . (a) Estimate !P at h D 20 when !h D 0:5. then !R " 585 euros. A thin silver wire has length L D 18 cm when the temperature is T D 30ı C.p/ D 3600 ! 30p 2 . The atmospheric pressure at altitude h (kilometers) for 11 $ h $ 25 is approximately !T " P . Then f 0 . Then R.20:5/ ! P . on the other hand.9/3 D 25110 euros.1:1 C 0:108 # 55/!s D 7:04!s ft The change in stopping distance per additional mph for s D 55 mph is approximately 7:04 ft. 32. a D Approximation is SOLUTION ! 3. !P " P 0 .

700/.7/ D !0:7 pounds: 36. the pilot loses approximately 0.5 pounds at the altitude h such that !0:065h D !0:5.22/ " 15 $ C 0:12 $ D 15:12 $. does a 1 cm/s increase in v lead to a greater change in h at low or high initial velocities? Explain. SOLUTION From Exercise 35(a).v/ D v 2 =1960 cm. (b) Estimate the weight lost by a 200-lb football player flying in a jet at an altitude of 7 miles. SOLUTION (a) Using the Linear Approximation !W " W 0 . 1 (a) If v D 700 and !v D 1. Hint: Use the Linear Approximation with dx D h. The Linear Approximation gives us: ˇ ˇ R.1000/.v/!v D 980 . (a) Show that the weight lost at altitude h miles above the earth’s surface is approximately !W " !. the weight loss !W at altitude h (in miles) for a person weighing w at the surface of the earth is approximately !W " !0:0005wh If w D 130 pounds.for x % R/ where R D 3960 miles is the radius of the earth (Figure 2). Thus. 37.360 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 34. then !h " h0 . estimate the altitude at which a 130-lb pilot would weigh 129.R/!x D ! 2wR2 2wh hD! " !0:0005wh: R R3 (b) Substitute w D 200 and h D 7 into the result from part (a) to obtain !W " !0:0005.22/ ! R. Using Exercise 35(a).20/ " dR=d T ˇˇ !T D 0:06 $=ı C. Theˇresistance R of a copper wire at temperature T D 20ı C is R D 15 $.0:0005w/h. then !h " h0 . or h D 0:5=0:065 " 7:7 miles.x/ D wR2 x2 . h 0 396 FIGURE 2 The distance to the center of the earth is 3960 C h miles. 1 (b) If v D 1000 and !v D 1. SOLUTION A stone tossed vertically with initial velocity v cm=s attains a maximum height of h. Estimate the maximum error in the area A of the carpet if s is accurate to within 2 centimeters.2ı C/ D 0:12 $: T D20 Therefore. Estimate the resistance at T D 22ı C. . The pilot will weigh 129. then his or her weight at distance x from the center of the earth is W .065 pounds per mile of altitude gained. 38. then !W " !0:065h. Newton’s Law of Gravitation shows that if a person weighs w pounds on the surface of the earth. SOLUTION !T D 2ı C. Accordingly.1/ D 1:02 cm. Accordingly. In general.5 lb. The side s of a square carpet is measured at 6 m. assuming that dR=d T ˇT D20 D 0:06 $/ı C.000 cm/s and !v D 1 cm/s. R. 35. (c) A one centimeter per second increase in initial velocity v increases the maximum height by approximately v=980 cm. there is a bigger effect at higher velocities.v/!v D 980 . (a) (b) (c) A stone tossed vertically into the air with initial velocity v cm/s reaches a maximum height of h D v 2 =1960 cm.200/. h0 .1/ " 0:71 cm. Estimate !h if v D 1. Estimate !h if v D 700 cm/s and !v D 1 cm/s.v/ D v=980.

t D 17 90 ").25/ sin & 2 D 2:897 ft: 16 45 41. Estimate !s if # D 34ı .1 ft from the basket launches a successful jump shot from a height of 10 ft (level with the rim of the basket). and !S " S 0 .Linear Approximation and Applications S E C T I O N 4. the shot travels s D 32 v sin 2t D where t is in radians.0:02/ D 0:24 m2 In Exercises 39 and 40.s/ D s 2 is the area of the carpet. (a) If # D 34ı (i. The dosage D of diphenhydramine for a dog of body mass w kg is D D 4:7w 2=3 mg. in which case the shot would not have been successful. and !v D 2. SOLUTION Using Newton’s laws and the fixed angle of # D 34ı D sD 17 90 ". 3 so !D " D 2 !1=3 !w 3 kw kw 2=3 D 2 !w & 3 w If the percentage error in D must be less than 3%.t/!t D cos " !t D cos " !# & " 0:255!#: 16 45 16 45 180 SOLUTION 625 32 sin 2t ft..v/!v D The volume and surface area of the sphere are given by V D !r D ˙0:5. having been off half a foot. Estimate the maximum allowable error in w for a cocker spaniel of mass w D 10 kg if the percentage error in D must be less than 3%. this gives !s " 0:51 ft. Estimate the maximum error in the volume and surface area if r is accurate to within 0:5 cm. The Linear Approximation yields !D " 2 !1=3 kw !w. Then A. If r D 25 and !V " V 0 .e.25/.25/!r D 8". !s " s 0 .10/ & D .0:5/ " 3927 cm3 . With a D 6 and !s D 0:02 (note that 1 cm equals 0:01 m). 39.25/2 .6/!s D 12 . SOLUTION We have D D kw 2=3 where k D 4:7. the shot travels 1 2 17 v sin ": 32 45 With v D 25 ft/s and !v D 2 ft/s. use the following fact derived from Newton’s Laws: An object released at an angle # with initial velocity v ft/s travels a horizontal distance sD 1 2 v sin 2# ft (Figure 3) 32 y x FIGURE 3 Trajectory of an object released at an angle #. we find 1 17" .) (a) Show that !s " 0:255!# ft for a small change of !#.0:5/ " 314:2 cm2 : 42. an estimate of the size of the error in the area is given by the Linear Approximation: !A " A0 .25/!r D 4". at an angle # D 34ı and initial velocity v D 25 ft/s.1 361 SOLUTION Let s be the length in meters of the side of the square carpet. then SOLUTION 4 3 3"r and S D 4" r 2 . A player located 18. 40. v D 25 ft/s. respectively.:03/ D 0:45 kg 2 D 2 . (b) Is it likely that the shot would have been successful if the angle had been off by 2ı ? 1 2 Using Newton’s laws and the given initial velocity of v D 25 ft=s. The radius of a spherical ball is measured at r D 25 cm. (b) If !# D 2ı . then # $ # $ 625 17 625 17 " !s " s 0 . we estimate the maximum allowable error in w to be !w " 3w !D 3.

x/ D x 4 .a/.x/ D D x !1 .a/.2 atm. The linearization at a D 1 is 1 .x/ D f 0 .x/ D x 4 . a D 3 Let f . Then f 0 .x ! 1/ C 1 D 4x ! 3: aD2 1 x Let f . aD4 x!3 SOLUTION Let g. y D .x/ D g 0 .1 C x/!3=2 .x ! 3/ .a/. a D 0 SOLUTION L.a/ D 4!1=2 D so the linearization at a D 3 is SOLUTION L. y D . x L. g. f . The linearization at a D ! L. SOLUTION 46.a/.1 C x 2 /!1=2 . SOLUTION Given P V P 0 D !24V !2 and D 24 and V D 4.4!3=2 / D ! 16 .x ! 3/ C D ! x C : 16 2 16 16 aD0 Let f .#/ D sin2 #. with V D 4. we have 3 !P " ! !V 2 or 2 !V D ! !P: 3 If we require j!P j $ 0:2.x ! 3/2 The linearization at a D 4 is 49.a/ D 0. !P " P 0 . Then f 0 . In the notation of Exercise 43. f .x ! a/ C f .a/ D ! x C 1: 2 50. Thus.x/ D . so the linearization at a is L.x/ D . The linearization at a D 0 is 1 L.x/ D ! 12 .x/ D 4x 3 . 1 1 1 11 .x ! a/ C f .x/ D x2 x!3 . find the linearization at x D a.x ! a/ C f . The volume (in liters) and pressure P (in atmospheres) of a certain gas satisfy P V D 24. f .x/ D ! 12 .x ! 2/ C D ! x C 1: 4 2 4 47.a/.362 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 43.1 C x/!1=2 . 1 and f 0 . Estimate the maximum allowable error in V if P must have an error of less than 0.a/ D 1 and f 0 .a/ D 1 # ! x2 48.# ! a/ C f . "" 4 C ! 4 is 1 " 1 D#! C : 2 4 2 Then g 0 .a/ D ! 12 .x/ D .4/!V D !24. then we must have j!V j $ 2 .x ! a/ C g.x/ D f 0 .a/ D !8. it follows that P D 6 atmospheres.x/ D f 0 .a/ D 4.x/ D .a/.x/ D !x.x/ D f 0 .1 C x 2 /!3=2 .x ! 3/.#/ D sin2 #.x/ D f 0 .a/ D 1: .1 C x/!1=2 . Then f 0 .x/ D . SOLUTION 1 2. assume that a measurement yields V D 4.a/ D ! .0:2/ D 0:133333 L: 3 In Exercises 45–54.x ! a/ C f .x/ D SOLUTION aD1 Let f .a/.1 C x/!1=2 .x ! 4/ C 16 D !8x C 48: Let f .1 C x/!3=2 . Compute P and estimate the maximum error in this computation.x/ D !x !2 . f . Then f 0 .1 C x 2 /!1=2 .4/!2 . SOLUTION aD ! 4 Let f .˙0:3/ D ˙0:45 atmospheres: 44. y D .#/ D f 0 . The linearization at a D 2 is 1 1 1 L. Solving P V D 24 for P yields P D 24V !1 . A measurement yields V D 4 with a possible error of ˙0:3 L.#/ D 2 sin # cos # D sin 2#. 45. f .2x/ ! x 2 x 2 ! 6x D : 2 .1 C x/!1=2 . SOLUTION From Exercise 43. Then f 0 .a/ D ! 51.x ! a/ C f . Then f 0 .

x/ of g.a/.x C 1/: 2 2 54.a/ D e.x/: With a D 2. y 5 4 3 2 1 L(x) 0 5 f (x) 10 15 20 25 x .a/ D 3.x/ is Let f . 2 2 x so the linearization of f . The linearization L.e.x/.a/ D b.x/ and L.x/I i.x/ D 1 " 1 .a/ D e.x/ D f 0 .x ! a/ C ba C c D bx C c D g. Then f 0 .a/.x/ at a D 2 is L.x/ D g.x/ at a D 0 L.2/ D L.x/ at a is L.2/ if the linearization of f .x/: More generally.a/.x/ at a is 53.x/ D ex C e x ln x. f .x/ and L. let g.x/ D tan!1 x.x/ D 3x ! 4.a/ D !4 and f 0 . y D e p SOLUTION L. so the linearization of f . Prove more generally that a linear function coincides with its linearization at x D a for all a.x/ D p e x .a/ D 3. Plot f .a/ D 1 !1=2 2x and f 0 . aD1 Let f .x/ lies above the graph of f .x/ D f 0 .x ! 0/ D 3x ! 4 D f . With a D 0. y D e x ln x.. Graphs of f .x/ of f .x/ at a is L.x/ D x at a D 16.x/ D 3x ! 4 at a D 0 and a D 2. Because the graph of L. Then f 0 .x/. L.a/ D 1 1 e. we expect that the estimate from the Linear Approximation is too large. f .x ! 1/ C : 2 4 Then 1 p 1 f 0 .x/ D e p x. SOLUTION is Let f .x/ are shown below. and f 0 . Compute the linearization of f .a/.a/ D e.x/ at x D a is L.x/ D e x ln x. Then f 0 .x/ D f 0 .x ! a/ C f .a/ D . What is f .16/ D 1 8.a/ D x. p p 57. Estimate 16:2 using the linearization L. so the linearization of f . 56. f .x ! 16/ C 4 D x C 2: 8 8 p Thus.a/ D 2 and f 0 .2/ D 2. and f 0 .16:2/ D 4:025.x ! a/ C f .x/ D f 0 .x/ D L.x/ D 2x C 4? SOLUTION f .x ! 2/ D 2 C 3x ! 6 D 3x ! 4 D f .x/ D 2 C 3.a/ D f 0 .a/ D 0.x/ D !4 C 3.x/ at a D 2 is L.x ! 1/ C e D e. a D 16. f .x ! a/ C f .S E C T I O N 4.x/ D 3. Then f 0 . f . x so the linearization of f .a/ D e. 4 2 1 C x2 so the linearization of f .x ! a/ C g. a D 1 SOLUTION Let f . a D 1 SOLUTION Let f .1 Linear Approximation and Applications 363 52.x/ on the same set of axes and determine whether the estimate is too large or too small. and !x D 0:2. y D tan!1 x.x ! a/ C f .x/ D g 0 .x/ D bx C c be any linear function.2/ C 4 D 8. and f 0 . The linearization to 1 1 . we have 16:2 " L. SOLUTION f .a/ D .x/ D x 1=2 . 1 " .x ! 1/: 55.a/.

x ! 16/ C : 128 4 Then 1 1 1 33 p " L.101/ D !0:0001. Then f 0 .a/ D f 0 . we expect that the estimate from the Linear Approximation is too small.10/ D !0:002 and the linearization L.16/ D L.364 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 p p 58. f 0 .x/ D ! 12 x !3=2 .6 f (x) 0.x ! 16/ C D ! xC : 128 4 128 8 Let f .4 0.a/ D f 0 .x/ D f 0 . we have 1 " L.x ! a/ C f .x/ is Let f .a/ D !0:002.x ! a/ C f .a/ D ! 1 1 .x ! a/ C f .x/ D x !2 .x/ are shown below.x/ D 1= x.x/ D !x !2 . The linearization is and a D 16.8 0.15/ D ! .10:03/2 SOLUTION to f .x/ is 1 Let f .a/.a/.x/ D !2x !3 .a/. a D 16. The percentage error in the estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ p1 ! 0:257813 ˇ ˇ 15 ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 0:15% ˇ ˇ 1 p ˇ ˇ 15 y 0.100/ D !0:0001 and the linearization L.a/ D f 0 .x ! a/ C f . f 0 . and !x D 1.x/ D p1 x 1 ! 128 . Then f 0 . a D 100 and !x D 1. Because the graph of L. p 17 SOLUTION to f .x/.17/ " 0:24219. approximate using linearization and use a calculator to compute the percentage error.x/ D f 0 .x/ is 1 1 1 3 .x ! 100/ C 0:01 D !0:0001x C 0:02: Thus.x/ D f 0 .x/ D x !1 . Estimate 1= 15 using a suitable linearization of f .x/ D x !1=2 . 1 59.x/ D ! 12 x !3=2 and f 0 . we have 60. a D 10 and !x D 0:03.2 L(x) 0 5 10 15 20 25 x In Exercises 59–67.a/ D f 0 .101/ C 0:02 D 0:0099: 101 The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ 1 ! 0:0099 ˇ ˇ 101 ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 0:01% 1 ˇ ˇ 101 1 61.x/ and L.x ! 10/ C 0:01 D !0:002x C 0:03: . Plot f . Then f 0 . f 0 .x/ lies below the graph of f .x/ on the same set of axes and determine whether the estimate is too large or too small. p1 17 " L. Then f 0 . .16/ D ! 128 and the linearization L.a/ D ! Thus.!1/ C D D 0:257813: 128 4 128 15 Graphs of f .a/ D !0:0001. SOLUTION The nearest perfect square to 15 is 16. The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ p1 ! 0:24219 ˇ ˇ 17 ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 0:14% ˇ ˇ 1 p ˇ ˇ 17 1 101 SOLUTION to f . Let f .x/ D f 0 . Use a calculator to compute the percentage error.a/.x/ and L.

x/ D f 0 .10:03/ C 0:03 D 0:00994: .a/ D Thus. Then f 0 .a/.10:03/ 62.x/ D L. f 0 .64/ D 1 1 8 .64:1/ " 4:002083. and !x D 1. 3 p 2 3 " .a/ D f 0 .0:07/ D 0:07.a/.17/1=4 SOLUTION f .x ! 16/ C 2 D xC : 32 32 2 Thus.a/ D 1 !3=4 .1:2/5=3 " L. The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ .1 C x/2=3 . The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ .1:2/5=3 ! 1:3333 ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 1:61% ˇ ˇ . 4x f 0 .0/ D L.x ! a/ C f .0:52/ 66.17/1=4 " L.0:2/ C 1 D 1:3333.1:2/5=3 Let f .0:52/ ! 1:024104 ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 0:015%: ˇ ˇ cos!1 .a/ D x: Thus.a/ D 1 !2=3 . Then f 0 .x ! 64/ C 4 D xC : 48 48 3 Thus.0:52/ SOLUTION and the linearization to f .64:1/1=3 " L. a D 16.x ! 0:5/ C : 3 3 Thus.x/ D f 0 . we have .a/ D f 0 . The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ cos!1 . we have 1 " L.x/ D f 0 .17/1=4 63. a D 64.x/ D .x/ D 1 1Cx . 3x f 0 .0:02/ D 1:024104.17/ D 2:03125. Then f 0 . .a/ D f 0 .x/ D x 1=3 . ln 1:07 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D x 1=4 .0/ D 1 and the linearization to f . f 0 .x ! a/ C f . Then f 0 . .x/ D ! p and the linearization to f . and !x D 0:1.x ! a/ C f .0:52/ " L.x/ D f 0 . cos!1 .x/ D f 0 .10:03/ D !0:002.0/ D ! L.0:2/ D 65.1 C x/5=3 and a D 0.a/ D f 0 .x/ 5 x C 1: 3 5 3 .a/.17/1=4 ! 2:03125 ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 0:035% ˇ ˇ .x/ is Let f .64:1/1=3 64. we have cos!1 .Linear Approximation and Applications S E C T I O N 4. Then f 0 . The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ ln 1:07 ! 0:07 ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 3:46%: ˇ ˇ ln 1:07 . f 0 .a/.x/ is 5 3 1 1 ! x2 .16/ D 1 32 and the linearization to 1 48 and the linearization to 1 1 3 .a/ D ! p 2 3 .10:03/2 ! 0:00994 ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 0:0027% ˇ ˇ 1 ˇ ˇ 2 . we have ln 1:07 " L.a/.a/ D f 0 .1 C x/ and a D 0.64:1/1=3 SOLUTION f .10:03/2 The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ 1 ˇ ˇ .x/ is Let f .x/ D cos!1 x and a D 0:5.x/ D 5 3 .x/ is L.64:1/1=3 ! 4:002083 ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 0:000019% ˇ ˇ .x/ D ln.x ! a/ C f .x ! a/ C f .1:2/5=3 SOLUTION is Let f .1 365 Thus.x/ D L. . we have . The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ . we have .

Then plot f . Then f . SOLUTION Let f .x/j D 14 x !3=2 .x/ is shown below at the left. !4 / D 1.x/j $ K for x 2 Œ !4 .x/ D 2 sec2 x tan x. we see that for h D 10!n .x/j " 6:1 < 6:2. by the Linear Approximation. !4 / D 2. f 0 .x/ D e x and a D 0.4/ D 5 and L. 1 $ n $ 4.9 4. Therefore. that jf 00 .2 4.x ! a/ D 8 C 5.x ! 0/ C 1 D x C 1: Thus. From this graph we see that K D max jf 00 .x/ and find an interval I around a D 4 such that jf . Then f 0 . using a plot.x/ ! L.7 5.9/ D 6 .a/ D 1. p h E D j 9 C h ! 3 ! 16 hj 10!1 10!2 10!3 10!4 4:604 # 10!5 4:627 # 10!7 4:629 # 10!9 4:627 # 10!11 1 2 2 Kh 5:00 # 10!5 5:00 # 10!7 5:00 # 10!9 5:00 # 10!11 % & 70. it follows that for x % 9. (5) for h D 10!n .x/ D sec2 x and f 0 . Compute the linearization L.x/ ! L.88 . Then f .84 0.82 0.x/ ! L.86 0.x/ ! L.9/j D 1 < 0:01: 108 From the following table. f 0 .4 p p 69.x/ D f 0 .x/ D 2x ! 32 x 1=2 . so jf 00 . Set K D 6:2 and show. Show that the Linear Approximation to f .a/ D f 0 . The Linear Approximation to f . "=4 C 0:1% is shown below. y 6. Therefore.a/ C f 0 .0/ D 1 and the linearization to f .x ! 4/ D 5x ! 12: The graph of y D f .x/j < 0:1 roughly for 3:6 < x < 4:4.8 4. !" " !" " !" " f Ch !f D tan C h ! 1 " 2h: 4 4 4 Moreover.1 5. f 00 . we see that jf .x/ and y D 0:1 are shown below at the right.6 3. K D max jf 00 . by the Linear Approximation.x/j $ K for x % 9. for 1 $ n $ 4. f 0 .x ! a/ C f .x/j $ jf 00 .5 4.9/ D 3. SOLUTION Let f . !4 C 0:1%.1 x 0. The percentage error in this estimate is ˇ ˇ ˇ e !0:012 ! 0:988 ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ # 100% " 0:0073%: ˇ ˇ e !0:012 68.!0:012/ D 1 ! 0:012 D 0:988.x/ D e x .x/ ! L.x/ D tan x at x D !4 yields the estimate tan !4 C h ! 1 " 2h. e !0:012 SOLUTION Let f . we have e !0:012 " L.x/ D 2 x !1=2 and f 0 .3 4. From the graph on the right.78 0. f 0 .x/ D x at x D 9 yields the estimate 9 C h ! 3 " 16 h.x/ D ! 14 x !3=2 .x/ D tan x. Set K D 0:01 and show that jf 00 . p 1 1 SOLUTION Let f . f 00 .366 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 67. Then verify numerically that the error E satisfies Eq. y 12 10 8 6 4 2 x 2 4 x 6 3.x/j $ 0:1 for x 2 I .9 C h/ ! f . Then f 0 . Then verify numerically that the error E satisfies Eq. for 1 $ n $ 4. (5) for h D 10!n .x/ D x.x/ of f .80 0.x/ D f . The graph of the second derivative over the interval Œ"=4. E $ 12 Kh2 .0 4.9/ D p 1 h: 6 9Ch!3 " Moreover.a/.x/ D x 2 ! x 3=2 at a D 4.x/ is L. f .x/ D x 2 ! x 3=2 and a D 4. Because this is a decreasing function.a/. and portions of the graphs of y D f .

2.0:5. Compute dy=dx at the point P D . when x D 0:55.x/ D ! 13 x C 53 . 1/ is ˇ dy ˇˇ 1 1 D! 2 D! . from the following table. dx dx so dy y D! 2 : dx y Cx Thus. we see that for h D 10!n . Apply the method of Exercise 71 to P D . Apply the method of Exercise 71 to P D .2. 2/ on y 4 C 7xy D 2 to estimate the solution of y 4 ! 7:7y D 2 near y D 2. 1/ is ˇ dy ˇˇ 2 1 D D .2. . SOLUTION Differentiating both sides of the equation y 5 C y ! 2x D 1 with respect to x yields 5y 4 dy dy C ! 2 D 0.1/ 3 5.x/ D 1 C # $ 1 1 1 5 x! D xC : 3 2 3 6 Finally. when x D 2:1.0:55/ C D 1:017: 3 6 73. SOLUTION Differentiating both sides of the equation y 3 C 3xy D 7 with respect to x yields 3y 2 dy dy C 3x C 3y D 0. h 10!1 10!2 10!3 10!4 E D j tan.2:1/ C D 0:967: 3 3 72. dx ˇ.x ! 2/ D ! x C : 3 3 3 Finally. dx ˇ.x/ D 1 ! . E $ 12 Kh2 . we estimate that the y-coordinate of the point on the curve is y " L.0:5. and the linearization at P D . dx dx so dy 2 D 4 : dx 5y C 1 Thus. 1/ on the curve y 3 C 3xy D 7 and show that the linearization at P is L.0:5. 1 $ n $ 4.1/2 C 1 L. !4 C h/ ! 1 ! 2hj 2:305 # 10!2 2:027 # 10!4 2:003 # 10!6 2:000 # 10!8 1 2 2 Kh 3:10 # 10!2 3:10 # 10!4 3:10 # 10!6 3:10 # 10!8 Further Insights and Challenges 71. and the linearization at P D .!1. 1/ on y 5 C y ! 2x D 1 to estimate the y-coordinate of the point on the curve where x D 0:55.1 367 Finally. we estimate that the y-coordinate of the point on the curve is 1 5 y " L.1/ 3 1 C2 1 1 5 L.0:55/ D 5 1 .Linear Approximation and Applications S E C T I O N 4.x/ to estimate the y-coordinate of the point on the curve where x D 2:1.2:1/ D ! . Use L.

x/ D x !1 .!0:3/.1/hj D ˇˇ! ˇ ˇ h h2 C hˇˇ D : 1Ch 1Ch and If ! 12 $ h $ 12 . Then !f D f .2/ 25 4. Thus.1:02/!0:3 .0:02/ D 1 C .0:02/ D 1:014.1:02/0:7 and . Then L. ˇ dy ˇˇ 7.x C 1/ D ! x C : 25 25 25 Finally.5/ D .0/ D k. 4.x/ D 0 or .x/ D x 2 . Let !f D f . SOLUTION Let f . .x/ does not exist. Show that for any real number k.!1.0/.2/h2 D Kh2 : 2 2 76. What is the definition of a critical point? SOLUTION A critical f 0 . point is a value of the independent variable x in the domain of a function f at which either f 0 . Let !f D f .!x/ D f 0 .!1/ and the linearization at P D .!1:1/ C D 2:056: 25 25 74. the equation y 4 ! 7:7y D 2 corresponds to x D !1:1. then 1 2 $1Ch $ 3 2 and 2 3 $ 1 1Ch $ 2.1/hj is equal to h2 =.0:02/ D 1 C .368 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 SOLUTION Differentiating both sides of the equation y 4 C 7xy D 2 with respect to x yields 4y 3 dy dy C 7x C 7y D 0. Then prove that E $ 2h2 if ! 21 $ h $ 12 . 21 $ 1 C h $ 32 . 2/ is L.2/3 C 7. Let k D !0:3 and !x D 0:02.!x ! 0/ C f . we have f .!1. Then L.2 Extreme Values Preliminary Questions 1. 75. where f .0:02/ D 0:994.1 C h/ ! f .!x/ " L.1 C h/.x/ D x 2 . Estimate .!x ! 0/ C 1 D 1 C k!x " " Let k D 0:7 and !x D 0:02. dx ˇ.x/ D x !1 .5/hj D jh2 C 10h ! 10hj D h2 D 1 1 . SOLUTION Let f .1/ D 1 h !1D! 1Ch 1Ch ˇ ˇ E D j!f ! f 0 .2/ 14 D! D! .1 C x/k .5 C h/ ! f .5 C h/2 ! 52 D h2 C 10h and E D j!f ! f 0 . Then !f D f . E $ 2h2 for ! 21 $ h $ 21 . so we estimate the solution of this equation near y D 2 is y " L.5/hj satisfies (5) with K D 2.1/ where f .x/ D 2 ! 14 14 36 . Show directly that E D j!f ! f 0 . Verify directly that E D j!f ! f 0 .0:7/. dx dx so dy 7y D! 3 : dx 4y C 7x Thus.1 C h/ ! f .5/. Hint: In this case.!1:1/ D ! 14 36 .1 C 0/k!1 . Then for small !x.5 C h/ ! f .1 C !x/k " 1 C k!x for small !x.x/ D . SOLUTION Let f .

(e) Answers may vary.x/ D x !1 (Figure 2) has a minimum or maximum value on the following intervals: (a) . then (a) f .x/ might not have any extreme values on Œ0.2 Extreme Values 369 In Questions 2 and 3.0/ or f . Although Œ0. because f is not continuous. the function takes this value at x D 0. (b) The maximum value of f . SOLUTION The correct response is (b): f .0/ or f . If a continuous function on a closed interval has no critical points. How many critical points does f . 1% is closed.x/ have on Œ0. 8% is 6.1.c/ D 0 or f 0 . x D 3 and x D 5.x/ has no min or max on Œ0.1/ is the minimum value on Œ0. (d) Answers may vary.x/ is continuous but has no critical points in Œ0.x/ has three critical points on the interval Œ0. 1%. 1%.S E C T I O N 4. Another is Œ2. x D 7. 2/ (b) . If f .x/ D x !1 . 2. 2. 1%.1/ is the minimum value on Œ0. y 6 5 f(x) 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x 8 FIGURE 1 SOLUTION (a) f .x/ on Œ0.x/ achieves a local maximum of 5 at x D 5. 8%: at x D 3. If f .0. choose the correct conclusion. 8%? What are the local maximum values of f . then either f 0 . 4. 6%. the extreme values must occur at the endpoints. One example is the interval Œ4. 1%. The easiest way to ensure this is to choose an interval on which the graph takes no local minimum. Fermat’s Theorem does not claim that if f 0 .x/ has no extreme values on Œ0. is where the derivative does not exist. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The following questions refer to Figure 1.c/ is a local extreme value.x/? Find a closed interval on which both the minimum and maximum values of f . What does Fermat’s Theorem assert? SOLUTION Fermat’s Theorem claims: If f . Two of these. 2/ (c) Œ1.c/ does not exist. 1%. 8%. 1%. Exercises 1.x/ on Œ0. State whether f . 1%.x/ occur at critical points.x/ might not have any extreme values on Œ0. 8%? What is the maximum value of f . then f . (b) Either f . 3. Remember that extreme values occur either at critical points or endpoints. 1%. 2% y 1 2 3 x FIGURE 2 Graph of f . the function is not guaranteed to have any extreme values on Œ0. 2%. .c/ is a local extreme value (this is false).x/ is not continuous on Œ0. Find an interval on which the minimum value occurs at an endpoint. x D 5 and x D 7. then (a) f . (b) f . (c) f . SOLUTION The correct response is (b): either f .c/ D 0. 1%. are where the derivative is zero and one. One example is Œ0.

g.x/ D 2 x 0 .t/ D t ! 4 t C 1. In Exercises 3–20.x/ D 1 ! x .x/ D x2 x 2 ! 4x C 8 SOLUTION Let f .t/ D 1 ! p 2 D0 t C1 implies that t D 3 is a critical point of f . x 9. Hence.x/ takes on its minimum value of 12 at x D 2.x/ D 3x 2 ! 9x ! 54 D 3.x/ D x !1 ! x !2 .z ! 1/ z !z Then g 0 . 2%.x/ D 7x ! 2 SOLUTION Let f .t/ does not exist at t D !1. Hence. 5.x/ has no critical points. Though f 0 .4 ! x/ D 2 D0 .x 2 ! 4x C 8/. f . so f . Then f 0 . f . this is not a critical point of f because x D 0 is not in the domain of f .x/ D 2x ! 2 D 0 implies that x D 1 is the lone critical point of f .x/ D !x !2 C 2x !3 D 2!x D0 x3 implies that x D 2 is the only critical point of f .2x/ ! x 2 .x/ D x !1 ! x !2 SOLUTION Let f .z/ D ! .12t ! 1/ D 0 implies that t D 0 and t D 1 12 are the critical 7.x/ D x 2 ! 2x C 4. 4.x/ has no local minima or maxima.2x ! 4/ 4x. Then f D 0 implies that x D ˙1 are the critical points of f .x/ D x 3 ! 92 x 2 ! 54x C 2 Let f .2z ! 1/ D ! 2 D0 2 ! z/ . Then ! 4x C 8 f 0 . this is another critical point of f .z/ D 1 1 z ! .t/ D 24t 2 ! 2t D 2t.x ! 6/ D 0 implies that x D !3 and x D 6 are the critical points of f . Then f 0 .t/ D 8t 3 ! t 2 SOLUTION points of f . 3.x/ D x 2 ! 2x C 4 SOLUTION Let f . Let f .x/ D 7x ! 2. f .x/ D 7.x/ takes no minimum or maximum value on this interval.x/ only takes minimum and maximum values on an interval if it takes them at the endpoints. since the interval does not contain its endpoints.z/ D ! z!1 z SOLUTION Let g. f . Though g 0 . which is never zero.x/ D x 3 ! 92 x 2 ! 54x C 2. Then f 0 . Then f 0 . 1 1 8.370 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE SOLUTION f . p 11. f . f .x ! 4x C 8/2 implies that x D 0 and x D 4 are the critical points of f .z ! z/2 implies that z D 1=2 is the only critical point of g. SOLUTION 6. find all critical points of the function.x 2 C 1/2 x2 x2 . neither is a critical point of g because neither is in the domain of g. Then f 0 . x2 C 1 . f .x/ D .x/ D 10.z 2 1 2z ! 1 . (b) f .x 2 ! 4x C 8/2 .x/ D 2 x C1 SOLUTION Let f . . f .z ! 1/ 1 ! D D 2 : z!1 z z. Because f 0 .t/ D 8t 3 ! t 2 .x/ takes no minimum or maximum value on this interval. (c) The function is decreasing on the whole interval Œ1. f .x/ does not exist at x D 0.t/ D t ! 4 t C 1 p SOLUTION Let f . since the interval does not contain its endpoints.z/ does not exist at either z D 0 or z D 1.x C 3/. (a) f . Then f 0 .x/ takes on its maximum value of 1 at x D 1 and f . f .

Then f 0 .0/ is never equal to 0.x/ D x 2 1 ! x 2 . f . f . x < ! 12 x % ! 12 and we see that f 0 .x/ D sec!1 x ! ln x. xe 2x Let f . 16.x/ D x ln x. f .2 12. f .x/ D SOLUTION Let f . Then f 0 . the derivative does not exist when x D ˙1.t/ D 4 ! t 4.x/ D ' !1.x/ D ! p C 2x 1 ! x 2 D p : 1 ! x2 1 ! x2 p This derivative is 0 when x D 0 and when x D ˙ 2=3. and x D 0 are not critical points of f because none are in the domain of f . x D 1 and x D 2 are the only critical points of f . R.#/ D sin2 # SOLUTION Let g.t 2 C 1/1=2 implies that there are no critical points of f since neither the numerator nor denominator equals 0 for any value of t.x/ D sin!1 x ! 2x.#/ D 2 sin # cos # D sin 2# D 0 implies that #D n" 2 is a critical value of g for all integer values of n. x D ! 2. f .x/ D p !2D 0 1 ! x2 are the critical points of f . Moreover. f 0 . f .x/ D x 2 1 ! x 2 p SOLUTION Let f . However.x/ D x ln x SOLUTION 18.x/ D 1 x2 ! 1 : x !1 p This derivative is equal to zero when x 2 ! 1 D 1. Then f 0 . f 0 .#/ D cos # C sin2 # SOLUTION Let R. 3. x < ! 12 x % ! 12 Thus. 19. f .x/ D SOLUTION p 3 2 sec!1 x 1 f 0 .x/ D xe 2x . the derivative p does not exist at x D 0 and at x D ˙1. Then p x3 2x ! 3x 3 f 0 . g.t 2 C 1/1=2 ! t D D0 .x/ D . p x p .x/ D 1 C ln x D 0 implies that x D e !1 D 1 e is the only critical point of f . x D !1. Then R0 . Then f 0 .#/ D cos # C sin2 #. Then implies that x D ˙ 20. we see that f . #D " C 2n" 3 and # D 5" C 2n" 3 are critical points of R for all integer values of n.!1=2/ does not exist.x/ D sin!1 x ! 2x SOLUTION Let f . Then g 0 . Among these numbers. 3x C 1. All five of these values are critical points of f 14.2x C 1/e 2x D 0 implies that x D ! 12 is the only critical point of f .t/ D 4t ! p Extreme Values 371 t 2 C 1. so x D !1=2 is the only critical point of f . 15.t/ D 4t ! SOLUTION p t2 C 1 Let f .x/ D x C j2x C 1j SOLUTION Removing the absolute values. ! ln x Let f .S E C T I O N 4.x/ D ' !x ! 1.t 2 C 1/1=2 .por when x D ˙ 2.#/ D sin2 #. 17. p 13.#/ D ! sin # C 2 sin # cos # D sin #.2 cos # ! 1/ D 0 implies that # D n".

1% is 1 and the minimum value is !2. SOLUTION " " ! 2 ) . SOLUTION (a) (b) (c) (d) 0 .c/. h(t) 1 −2 1 −1 2 t −1 FIGURE 3 Graph of h. we find the critical points.0/ D !1 and the maximum is h. we find the maximum value of f on Œ0. 1%.x/ D 2x 3 ! 9x 2 C 12x. 1% and Œ0.t 2 ! 1/1=3 . p Plot f . 2% is h.2/ D !3. 3%: x-value Value of f 1 (critical point) f . (a) (b) (c) (d) CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Let f . Find the extreme values of f . we compare: first. for Œ0. Then on the interval 0. ( ) Let f . the minimum on Œ0.372 21.t/ D 3.1/ D 0 and the minimum is h. the maximum value of f on 0.4/ D 1. 3% and Œ0.x/ D x 2 ! 4x C 1.x/ D 6x 2 ! 18x C 12 D 0 yields D 0 so that x D 2 or x D 1. Find the critical points of f . 24.x/ D cos x ! sin x D 0 at x D !4 . Then find the extreme values of h.0/ D f . Setting f 0 .2/ D 31=3 " 1:44225.0/ D !1 and h. Compute the critical points of h. First. Then verify your answer using calculus. the only critical point of f in this interval.t/ D . f . !2 .t/ on Œ0. 2%: max min ( 23. 4% and determine the maximum value graphically. Since h. Let f .x/ D 2x 3 ! 9x 2 C 12x on Œ0. Using the results from (a) and (b). Find the critical point c of f .x/ D sin x C cos x and determine the extreme values on 0.0/ D 0 min 3 (endpoint) f . 4% is 1 and the minimum value is !3. Next.x/ D 2 x ! x on Œ0. Find the extreme values of f . while the minimum value is 1. Compute the value of f . 4%. Similarly.x/ D x 2 ! 4x C 1. the maximum value on Œ0. !2 is 2. These results are ! 1/2=3 consistent with Figure 3 which shows a horizontal tangent at t D 0 and vertical tangents at t D ˙1. SOLUTION " " 25. Hence the maximum value of f on Œ0.t 2 ! 1/1=3 . p ( ) p Since f . We have f .1/ D 5 2 (endpoint) f .t 2 . !4 / D 2 and f . 1% is h.0/ D f . 2%. Check that your answer is consistent with Figure 3.t/ D .c/ 22.x/ on Œ0. we have f 0 . Then h0 .2/ D 4 0 (endpoint) f . for Œ0.x/ at the endpoints of the interval Œ0. 2t D 0 implies critical points at t D 0 and t D ˙1. Then f D 2c ! 4 D 0 implies that c D 2 is the sole critical point of f .1/ D 0.1/ D !2.1/ D 5 2 (critical point) f .0/ D 0 Then. Let h. We have f .x/ D sin x C cos x.t 2 ! 1/1=3 .x/ and compute f . 2%.3/ D 9 max x-value Value of f 1 (critical point) f . !2 / D 1.2/ D 4 0 (endpoint) f . 4%. SOLUTION x 2 ! 3x C 2 Let f .0/ D !1. Determine the min and max of f .t/ D .x/ on Œ0.

x/ D 2x 2 C 4x C 5.2 Extreme Values 373 p The graph of y D 2 x ! x over the interval Œ0. g. Then f 0 . whereas its maximum is f . x D ˙1. (Note: f .x/ D 5e x ! sec2 x.5/ D 5.x/ D 5e x ! tan x in ! !2 . The minimum of f on the interval Œ1.6/ D 8. Hence. Then f 0 .3/ D 9.x/ D 4x C 4 D 0 implies that x D !1 is the only critical point of f . 4% is shown below. y D 6t ! t 2 . and g.!1/ D 3.x/ D p !x 1!x 2 C cos!1 x. y D 6t ! t 2 . The minimum of f on the interval Œ!2.!1/ D 1 and f . Solving f 0 . y 0.1/ D 3 and the critical point x D 0 is not in the interval Œ1. whereas the maximum is f . 6% Let f .) SOLUTION . Because f .) SOLUTION 31. y D 2x 2 C 4x C 5.2 0 1 2 3 4 x p To verify the information obtained from the plot.x/ D x !1=2 ! 1.x C 1/ D 0 implies that x D 1=3 and x D !1 are critical points of f . 6% is f . whereas the maximum is f . The derivative is defined for all x 2 ! 2 . y D x 3 ! 6x 2 C 8. 6% is f . Œ0. 5% Let f . g 0 . From the graph.x/ D 0 yields the critical points x D 0 and x D 1. From the graph.) SOLUTION 30.t/ D 6t ! t 2 . Then f 0 .1/ D 0. % & 28.S E C T I O N 4.x/ D 2 x ! x.x/ D ln x ! 5 sin x on Œ0:1. the critical points of g are x " 1:339895 and x " !0:82780. 2 and is equal to 0 for x " 1:339895 and x " !0:82780. Then f 0 .2/ D 10.x/ D 3x 2 C 2x ! 1 D . Then f 0 . The minimum of f on the interval Œ4. (Note: f . y D 2x 2 C 4x C 5. In Exercises 29–58.3x ! 1/.0:652185/ " 0:561096.5 1. SOLUTION Approximate the critical points of g.4/ D !24. 4% is 1. 6%. Œ1. we find g. 26. SOLUTION The graph of f .) 34.!2/ D !2.t/ D 6 ! 2t D 0 implies that t D 3 is the only critical point of f . Then f 0 . whereas its maximum is f .x/ D 3x 2 ! 12x D 3x. (Note: f . 6%.8 0. The maximum value of approximately !2:6 occurs at x " 0:2.4/ D 0 and f . !2 .6 0.0/ D 0.2/ D 21.0/ D f . 2%. so g 0 . 2% is f .) SOLUTION 32. The minimum of f on the interval Œ0. % ! !& SOLUTION Let g. 2% and approximate both the critical points and the extreme values. the maximum value of g. Evaluating g at the endpoints of its domain. y D x 3 C x 2 ! x. 2% is f .0 1. Hence. 2% Let f . Œ!2.0/ D 5.x/ D 5e x ! tan x. 2% Let f .5 x −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 27. SOLUTION y 1 0. Œ0.1/ D 1.x ! 4/ D 0 implies that x D 0 and x D 4 are the critical points of f . Plot f . 2% Let f .!1/ D !". whereas the maximum is f .2/ D 21.x/ D 2x 2 C 4x C 5. Then f 0 . the function achieves its maximum value of 1. (Note: The critical point t D 3 is not on the interval Œ4. 6% SOLUTION Let f .t/ D 6t ! t 2 . Approximate the critical points of g. we see that the maximum value of f on Œ0.4/ D 8.x/ D ln x ! 5 sin x is shown below.x/. 2% is f . whereas the maximum is f . (Note: f .1=3/ D !5=27. Œ!2. Œ4.x/ is approximately 0:561096.x/ D x 3 ! 6x 2 C 8.x/ D x 3 C x 2 ! x. we see that critical points occur at approximately x D 0:2 and x D 1:4. let f .) SOLUTION 33. The minimum of f on the interval Œ!2. find the min and max of the function on the given interval by comparing values at the critical points and endpoints. 29.t/ D 6 ! 2t D 0 implies that t D 3 is the only critical point of f . we see that at x D 1.x/ D 0 when x " 0:652185. 5% is f . Then g 0 . the minimum value of approximately !4:6 occurs at x " 1:4.x/ D x cos!1 x and estimate the maximum value of g.!2/ D 5.x/ D 4x C 4 D 0 implies that x D !1 is the only critical point of f .6/ D 0. The minimum of f on the interval Œ0.4 0. and at the critical point x " 0:652185. (Note: The critical point x D !1 is not on the interval Œ0.

0/ D f .3/ D 0.1/ D !1. Then x 2 C 3x f 0 . y D 1!x .) SOLUTION 36. Then x !4 f 0 .t C 1/ D 0 implies that t D 0 and t D !1 are the critical points of f . The minimum of f on the interval Œ0. (Note: f . 6% x !4 SOLUTION Let f . 3% is f .x/ D ! 12x 2 C 21x. 3% is f . whereas its maximum is f . the maximum value is f .x/ D 10x 4 C 10x D 10x.2/ D 2 5 ! 2.z C 2/.z 2 C 4/.x 2 C 3x/ ! . y D x2 C 1 . 3% xC1 SOLUTION Let f . Then 2x f 0 .x ! 4/2 p implies x D 4 ˙ 17 are critical points of f . 2% Let f . x D !1 is not a critical point because x D !1 is not in the domain of f .x 2 C 3x/2 . (Note: The critical point x D !1 is not in the interval Œ1.3/ D !3.x ! 7/. 2% is f .z/ D z 5 ! 80z. y D 2t 3 C 3t 2 . On the interval Œ1.z/ D 5z 4 ! 80 D 5. Neither x D 0 nor x D !3 is a critical point because neither is in the domain of f . 4%. 6%.2/ D 28. Œ0.) 38.t/ D 6t 2 C 6t D 6t. 2% Let f .0/ D 0.x/ D 1 ! 4 .x/ D p !1 D0 x2 C 1 #q $ q p 1 implies that x D ˙ 13 are critical points of f . On the interval p Œ5. the minimum is f D 3 and the maximum is 3 q p f . 2%.2x C 3/ .z 4 ! 16/ D 5. Œ!2.x/ D . whereas the maximum is f .t/ D 2t 3 C 3t 2 .x ! 4/ & 2x ! . y D 2x 5 C 5x 2 .) p 42.x/ D 1!x . y D z 5 ! 80z. Œ0.1/ D 10. Then f 0 . (Note: The critical point x D ! 13 is not in the interval Œ0.x C 3/ D D0 . (Note: Neither critical points are in the interval Œ1. x D 4 is not a critical point because x D 4 is not in the domain of f .) 40. Œ!3.) SOLUTION 37.6/ D 37 2 D 18:5. 2% is f . The minimum of f on the interval Œ1. whereas the maximum is f . the minimum of f is f . y D x 3 ! 12x 2 C 21x.1/ D 0 and the minimum value is f .374 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 35.!2/ D !44. x 2 C 3x SOLUTION Œ1.1/ D 5. Œ1. 4%. The minimum value of f on the interval Œ!2. The minimum of f on the interval Œ0. Œ5.0/ D 0. 2%.x 2 C 1/ & 1 x 2 ! 8x ! 1 D D0 2 .z ! 2/ D 0 implies that z D ˙2 are the critical points of f .x C 1/ D D0 .) . 2%.!3/ D 3 and f . Then f 0 . (Note: The critical point x D !3 is not in the interval Œ0. 6%.x ! 1/ D 0 implies that x D 1 and x D 7 are the critical points of f . 3%. y D x ! 4x .2/ D 84. 2% p SOLUTION Let f . y D 2 x 2 C 1 ! x. 3% SOLUTION Let f .x 2 C 3x/2 implies that x D 3 and x D !1 are critical points. (Note: f .x/ D 2x 5 C 5x 2 .x/ D !.3/ D ! 19 .x ! 3/. whereas the maximum is f . 2%.x/ D 2 x 2 C 1 ! x.!2/ D 128. whereas the maximum of f is f .x/ D x2 C 1 . Then f 0 .x ! 4/ .) 41.x ! 1/.!1/ D 3 and f . Then xC1 f 0 . On the interval Œ0. whereas the maximum is f . Then f 0 .1 ! x/.2/ D 2 and the critical point x D 7 is not in the interval Œ0.x C 1/2 .x 3 C 1/ D 0 implies that x D 0 and x D !1 are critical points of f . 4% Let f . 2% x3 Let f .x/ D 3x 2 ! 24x C 21 D 3. 2% is f .x/ D x ! 4x . (Note: The critical points x D 4 ˙ 17 are not in the interval Œ5. Œ0.5/ D 26.x C 1/2 implies that x D 1 and x D !3 are critical points of f . The minimum value of f on the interval Œ!3.) SOLUTION 39. (Note: f .2/ D !128.

"/ D " ! 1.1/ D 3 3 " 5:2. 2%. 4% p p SOLUTION Let f . 4 / D 2 ."/ D f ."=2/ D 4.#/ D ! sin # C cos # D 0 where sin # D cos #. The minimum value p of f on this interval is f . 14 /1=3 " 0:63.7"=6/ D f .t ! t 2 /1=3 .) ( ) 47. On the interval Œ0.2"/ D 2" " 6:283. 2% p SOLUTION Let f .#/ D 2# ! sec #. whereas the maximum value on the interval is p f . 2"% SOLUTION Let f . 0. (Note: p f . 2%. 2"% Let g. SOLUTION 48.1/ D 2 ! 2. whereas the maximum is f . (Note: s. the minimum is f .3"=2/ D !4.x/ D cos 2x D 0 when x D 4 . whereas the maximum is f .2 ! x/2 ! . 11"=6.t/ D 13 .2 C x/. 2"%. 2"% SOLUTION Let f . y D x C x 2 ! 2 x.2/ D 4 2 " 5:66. On the interval Œ0. 2" as critical points of f .2 ! x/2 /!1=2 . Then q 2.) implies that x D 0 and x D 3 2 46.) 50.0/ D f . 2% Let s. !3 %.) p 44.x/ D 1 C cos x D 0 implies that x D " is the only critical point on Œ0. (Note: g.0/ D 0 and g.) . Then s 0 . !4 ! 1/ " !0:303493. whereas the maximum is f .S E C T I O N 4.2"/ D !3 and f . 21 / D . a critical point of s. Other critical points of s are t D 0 and t D 1.#/ D 1 ! 2 cos # D 0 at # D !3 and # D 53 ". 2 . the minimum of f is f 23 " !0:589980 and the maximum is f .0/ D s. "=2.2"/ D 2".#/ D 2 ! sec # tan # D 0 at # D !4 .1 C 2x/ ! x !1=2 D D0 p p 2 2 x 1Cx p p are the critical points of f .2 Extreme Values 375 p 43. !3 / D 2 !3 ! 2 " !:519039. Œ0.x/ D p !2 D0 1 C x2 p implies that f has no critical points. 2"%. !3 / D !3 ! 3 " !:685 and the maximum is g.x/ D . Then f 0 . ". The minimum value of f on the interval Œ0. p p 45. y D sin x cos x. The minimum p p of g on this interval is g.x C x 2 /!1=2 . 3"=2.2 ! x/2 .2"/ D 1.2 ! x/ D p D0 2 C . On the interval 0. 4%. 0. Œ0. 1% p SOLUTION Let f . 2"%. on the interval Œ!1.0/ D 1.0/ D 0. 2"% 4 sin3 # ! 3 cos2 #.0/ D f .2 ! x/2 . y D . The minimum of f ! ! 1 on this interval is f . y D # ! 2 sin #. whereas the maximum value over this interval is f . 1% is f .!1/ D s. On the interval Œ0. (Note: f .2 C x/ 2 C . SOLUTION Let f .) p ( ) 49. 7"=6.4/ " 0:472136. !2 ( !) 1 ! SOLUTION Let f . y D . the minimum of s is s.#/ D cos # C sin #. Œ0. y D x C sin x. y D 1 C x 2 ! 2x.0/ D f . 2 / D 0.1 ! 2t/ D 0 at t D 12 .x ! 1/2 2 C . which is at the p 5! two points # D !4 and 5! 4 . Œ0.1/ D 0.x/ D .2 sin # C 1/ D 0 yields # D 0.t ! t 2 /!2=3 . Œ0. whereas the maximum is f . 2"% is f .x/ D x C sin x. !3 p p SOLUTION Let f .) 51. 2"% is f . f 0 . Then p 1 1 C 2x ! 2 1 C x f 0 . g 0 . where the derivative of s does not exist.#/ D 12 sin2 # cos # C 6 cos # sin # D 6 cos # sin #. The minimum value on the interval is f . Neither x D !1 nor x D ! 23 is a critical point because neither is !p " in the domain of f .0/ D 2 6 " 4:9 and the maximum is f .) SOLUTION 52. y D 2 # ! sec #. y D 4 sin3 # ! 3 cos2 #. On the interval Œ0. The minimum value of f on the interval Œ0. Œ0. !4 / D 2.2 C . Then f 0 .x/ D x C x 2 ! 2 x.t ! t 2 /1=3 . 4 / D ! 2.t/ D .2 C x/ 2 C . Then f 0 .x/ D sin x cos x D 2 sin 2x. (Note: f .11"=6/ D !11=4.0/ D !1. 35 "/ D 53 " C 3 " 6:968. The minimum value of f on the interval Œ0.0/ D 0. !4 / D 2. Œ!1. y D cos # C sin #.x/ D 1 C x 2 ! 2x. (Note: f . f 0 .x/ D x f 0 . Therefore.2 ! x/2 p implies that p x D 1 is the critical pointpof f .#/ D Œ0. (Note: f .#/ D # ! 2 sin #. On the interval Œ0.2/ D !21=3 " !1:26 and the maximum is s. f 0 . (Note: f .

#/. Then. The minimum of f is Œ0. 1%. (Note: f .x/ D 5 tan!1 x ! x. 3%. ! 4.1/ D e !1 " 0:367879.x/ D xe !x .2/ D 2e !2 " 0:270671.3/ D 27 ! 24 ln 2 " 0:633305. 5%. ! 12 . f 0 . y D 3e x ! e 2x . f 0 .) ( ) 56. SOLUTION f ." ! #/.cos. so the way to find the critical points is to find all points such that f 0 . f 0 .ln.# ! "// obtained by reflecting through the y axis. which are: " " The point .#/ on Œ0. (Note: f . then 4 cos 4# D !4 cos 2#. 2. that cos #1 D ! cos #2 if and only if #1 D " ˙ #2 C 2"k for an integer k. we find that cos #1 D ! cos #2 if and only if #1 D . % & Show that cos 4# D ! cos 2# if and only if # D !2 C "k or # D !6 C !3 k.1/ D 0 and the maximum is f .3=2// D 2:25.x/ D 3e x ! 2e 2x D e x . The minimum of f on this interval is f .) ( ) 1 58.x/ D sec2 x ! 2 D 0 at x D " !0:570796 and the maximum is f . Then. 1 ( 1 ) SOLUTION Let f . 3 (1 ) SOLUTION Let f . y D x 3 ! 24 ln x. there are two points with x coordinate ! cos #.5/ D 5 tan!1 5 ! 5 " 1:867004 and the maximum is f . Then.x/ D 3e x ! e 2x . The minimum of f on this interval is f .) SOLUTION 55. Then.2/ D 8 ! 24 ln 2 " !8:635532 and the maximum is f .#/ D 4 cos 2# C 4 cos 4#.3=2/. on the interval 2 . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1 8 C 24 ln 2 " Let f .x/ D tan x ! 2x. Then on the interval Œ0.) 57. on the interval Œ1." C #2 / C 2"k or #1 D .x/ D 3x 2 ! 24 D0 x at x D 2. (Note: f . The minimum of f on this interval is f . Check your results against a graph of f . Then. y D ln x . The minimum of f on this interval is f . (b) Given the point .# C "// on the opposite end of the unit circle. The graphic shows these two points. 3% Let f . on the interval ! 2 .) ! 2 xe !x . so cos 4# D ! cos 2#. If f 0 .x/ D ln x x . on the interval Œ0. 2"% and find the extreme values of f . 3 .!1=2/ D 3e !1=2 ! e !1 " 1:451713. The point .# C "/.1/ D 5! 4 ! 1 " 2:926991. Œ1.x/ D !xe !x C e !x D . y D tan x ! 2x. on the interval Œ1. !4 / D 1 ! 54. Show that # is a critical point if cos 4# D ! cos 2#. y D 5 tan!1 x ! x.3/ D 13 ln 3 " 0:366204.#/ on this interval. 1 .0/ D 0. y D Let f .2/ D 5 tan!1 2 ! 2 " 3:535744. 2% Let f . Find the six critical points of f .#/ D 0. using a unit circle. sin." ! #2 / C 2"k for integers k. .x/ D x 3 ! 24 ln x. f 0 . Œ0.0/ D 0 and the maximum is f . f 0 .e/ D e !1 " 0:367879.cos. x SOLUTION Œ1.x/ D 1 ! ln x D0 x2 at x D e.3 ! 2e x / D 0 at x D ln. If we include all angles representing these points on the circle. 1% SOLUTION f .#/ D 2 sin 2# C sin 4#.#/ D 2 sin 2# C sin 4# is differentiable at all #.376 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 53. (Note: f . sin. The minimum of f on this interval is f . (a) f 0 .x/ D 5 1 !1D0 1 C x2 at x D 2. 5% SOLUTION Let f . f 0 .cos #.) 59.1 ! x/e !x D 0 at x D 1. 2%.1/ D 3e ! e 2 " 0:765789 and the maximum is f .1/ D tan 1 ! 2 " !0:442592. sin #/ at angle # on the unit circle. (Note: f .1=2/ D 16:760532. (Note: f . Show.#/ D 0.

4%.x/ D !6 sin 3x ! 6 sin 2x. The values of x between 0 and 2" are 0. it has horizontal tangent lines at 5 k and at x D !2 .x/ D 0 only. 0/ and . we find the relationship between angles y and x such that sin y D ! sin x. we get sin 3x D ! sin 2x. and 2". respectively. 5 . 2! The graph is shown below.) the point antipodal to x (y D " C x C 2"k) or (ii. !6 / D f . 5 . 6 . y 4 2 1 −2 2 3 4 5 x 6 −4 In Exercises 61–64. This technique is also used in Exercise 59. 5 . As predicted. 0 $ # < 2" indicated by (c). ". 2"% are p 3 3 2 0 ! ! 5! 7! 3! 6 .S E C T I O N 4. Setting f 0 .x/ is differentiable for all x. f . we see that sin y D ! sin x if y is either (i. Check your answer against a graph of f . we get either 3x D " C 2x C 2"k or 3x D !2x C 2"k. 5 . the maximum value is f . Find the critical points of f . 2 . we use the following table: k f . we obtain # D !2 C k" or # D !6 C !3 k. refer to Figure 4. 6 . y y 1 30 20 10 x −6 2 −π 2 y = | x 2 + 4x − 12 | π 2 π y = | cos x | FIGURE 4 3π 2 x .x/. !2 . Each of these points is a local extremum.p2 . 2 3 4 5 5! 6 7! 6 3! 2 11! 6 and 11! 6 .x/ D 2 cos 3x C 3 cos 2x in Œ0. 7! 6 /D and the minimum value is D (e) The graph of f .2 Extreme Values 377 (c) Using (b). 3 3 f . 5! 6 / 1 ! 2 C k" ! 2 3! 2 ! 6 C ! 3k ! 6 ! 2 The critical points in the range Œ0. (d) To find all #. Looking at a unit circle. Solving for #. Solving each of these equations for x yields 2! 4! 6! 8! x D " C 2"k and x D 2! 5 k. and two points at . 60. There are 4 local extrema. SOLUTION From the diagram. 3! 2 . so we are looking for points where f 0 .#/ D 2 sin 2# C sin 4# is shown here: y 2 1 2 3 1 −1 5 4 x 6 −2 We can see that there are six flat points on the graph between 0 and 2". as predicted. 2"%.) the point obtained by reflecting x through the horizontal axis (y D !x C 2"k). 0/ where the graph has neither a local maximum nor a local minimum. Since sin 3x D ! sin 2x. we recognize that cos 4# D ! cos 2# if 4# D 2# C " C 2"k or 4# D " ! 2# C 2"k. On this interval. find the critical points and the extreme values on Œ0. 11! 6 /D! 2 . In Exercises 63 and 64.

x/ D 1. 2.x/ at the critical point and the endpoints. (1 ) 65. Now as x ! 2!. verify Rolle’s Theorem for the given interval. we examine the graph of f . we have f 0 . !4 .0/ D 12 and the critical points x D !6 and x D !2 are not in the interval.x/ D !2x ! 4 D 0 when x D !2. and its maximum of 2 at x D 0 and at x D 4. 4%. f . f . and f .2/ lim does not exist and the lone critical point of f is x D 2.2/ . . (Note: f .378 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 61. For x > 3.4/ D 2.x/ D !1.x/ ! f . f . so f 0 .x ! 2/j. f .x/ D x C x !1 . f 0 .2 SOLUTION Because f is continuous on Œ 12 .2/ D x!2 x!2 x !2 x!2 f .x/ D 3.5 0 1 2 3 4 x 62.x/ D 0.0/ D 9.3/ D 0 and f . f . f . y 2 1. !4 . 2%. For x > 2.x/ takes its maximum value of 1 at x D 0 and x D " and its minimum of 0 at x D !2 . we have D x!3 x!3 x!3 3.x/ ! f . Now. f 0 . There is also a critical point between x D !6 and x D 2 at which f 0 . Here.x C 6/. Therefore.x ! 3/ ! 0 f .x/ D jx 2 C 4x ! 12j D j. 2/ and # $ 1 1 1 5 1 f D C 1 D D 2 C D f .x/ ! f . we have D ! 1. From the graph of f in Figure 4. For x < 2.x/ at the critical point and the endpoints. 2/ at which f 0 . we have f 0 .2/ D 0."/ D 1. 21 .x/ ! f .c/ D 0. 4 4 2 x 2 !1 . so we may take ! c D 2. To find the extremum.0/ D 2. f .0/ D f . There are two types of critical points: points of the form " n where the derivative is zero and points of the form n" C "=2 where the derivative does not exist. 2 2 2 2 2 we may conclude from Rolle’s Theorem that there exists a c 2 .x/ D sin x.x/ D j3x ! 9j D 3jx ! 3j. y D j cos xj SOLUTION Let f . Only two of these.x/ D jx ! 2j. we check the values of f .) 64. y D jx 2 C 4x ! 12j SOLUTION Let f . Alternately. 0 0 we may conclude from Rolle’s Theorem that there exists a c 2 . differentiable on . so f . Alterx!3 x!3 x !3 nately. whereas as x ! 2C.3/ we have D ! !3. 3! 4 / at which f .x/ takes its minimum value of 0 at x D 3. x D !2 and x D " are in the interval Œ0. 4.x/ takes its minimum value of 0 at x D 2. !2 / D 0.x/ D j3x ! 9j shown below. Now as x ! 3!.2 ! x/ ! 0 f . Here. To find the extrema of f . we see that f 0 . For x < 3.4/ D j cos 4j " 0:6536.3/ ! 3. differentiable on .2/ .x/ D jx ! 2j x!2 x !2 shown below. ( ! 3! ) 66. y 12 8 4 2 4 6 x 63. we f .5 1 0.x/ D !x 2 ! 4x C 12.4/ D 3.2/. so f .3 ! x/ ! 0 f .x/ on Œ0. 3! 4 / and p # $ !" " 3" 2 f Df D . For !6 < x < 2. x2 so 3! 4 %. f . 4% the minimum value of f is f . f . y D jx ! 2j SOLUTION Let f .x/ D 1 ! x !2 D we may take c D 1. 4%. whereas as x ! 3C. f .x ! 2/ ! 0 have D ! !1. so these are critical points of f . we have f 0 . we have f 0 . we test the values of f .3/ D lim does not exist and the lone critical point of f is x D 3.3/ 3. f .x/ ! f . 4 SOLUTION Because f is continuous on Œ !4 . Therefore.x/ D !3.x/ D j cos xj. 12 .x/ does not exist at x D !6 and at x D 2. In Exercises 65–68.2/ D 0 and the maximum value is f . we examine the graph of f .c/ D 0. and its maximum value of 9 at x D 0. f 0 . f . On the interval Œ0.x/ ! f .4/ D 20. y D j3x ! 9j SOLUTION Let f .x/ D cos x. and f .

0. by the Intermediate Value Theorem. a/ at which f 0 . 5%. Here. Prove that f .! sin x/ D 2 sin 2x. b/ at which f 0 . Hint: Note that x D 0 is a root and apply Rolle’s Theorem.c/ D 0. f 0 .x/ D x 5 C 2x 3 C 4x ! 12 has precisely one real root. f .t/ D dv D !A! 2 sin !t: dt Thus. we conclude that f .d / D 0.c/ D 0. Suppose f .5/ D 1. there is no c 2 . 3! 4 / at which f . We will proceed by contradiction to establish that c D 4 is the largest real root. SOLUTION First. Based on this contradiction. there is no c between 0 and a at which f 0 . SOLUTION (! 3! 4. 5% 8x ! 15 SOLUTION Because f is continuous on Œ3.0/ D f .x/ D so we may take c D 15 4 . Based on this contradiction.0/ D !12 < 0 and f .x/ D 5x 4 C 6x 2 C 4 % 4 for all x.c/ D 0.x 2 ! 4/ > 0 for all x > 4.x C 1/2 C 3 % 3 for all x. f 0 .t/ D ds D A! cos !t dt and a.3/ D f . Because f is a polynomial. .x/ D x 5 C 2x 3 C 4x ! 12 has at least one root. Show that the speed jv. we conclude that f . it is continuous for all x. f 0 . so we may take c D ! 2. Thus. Because the polynomial f is continuous and differentiable for all real x. so f has at least one real root. where a > 4.t/j is at a maximum when v.x/ D x 4 ! 8x 2 ! 128.c/ D 0 and Rolle’s Theorem guarantees that there exists a d 2 . Moreover. However.c/ D 0. Next. 68.x/ D x 5 C 2x 3 C 4x ! 12 has two real roots. we may conclude from Rolle’s Theorem that there exists a c 2 . Here. !4 . we conclude that f . 4 4 0 we may conclude from Rolle’s Theorem that there exists a c 2 .2/ D 44 > 0. c/ such that f 0 .4/2 ! 128 D 256 ! 128 ! 128 D 0.2x/ ! 8x 2 2x.a.t/ is zero and that ja.x/ D x 3 C 3x 2 C 6x has precisely one real root. so there is no d 2 .8x ! 15/. f must have precisely one real root.t/j D jA! cos !tj . say x D a.a/ D f .x/ D x 3 C 3x 2 C 6x cannot have more than one real root. a/ such that f 0 .3. Finally. Note that f .x/ D x 4 C 5x 3 C 4x has no root c satisfying c > 0. note that f .t/ D A sin !t. b/ at which f 0 . 4 ) Because f is continuous on Œ !4 .c/ D 0.x/ D 4x 3 C 15x 2 C 4 > 4 for all x > 0. However. x D a and x D b. Because the polynomial f is continuous and differentiable for all real x. Prove that f .c/ D 0.8x ! 15/2 3! 4 %. we prove that this is the only root.S E C T I O N 4.t/j is at a maximum when the acceleration a.x/ D sin2 x ! cos2 x.x/ D 2 sin x cos x ! 2 cos x. the speed jv. 72.t/ D A sin !t. Based on this contradiction. Thus.0. SOLUTION Let s.c/ D 0. so c D 4 is a root of f .2 Extreme Values 379 x2 . Prove that f . 2/ such that f . 67. f . Suppose there exists real root.x/ D x 4 ! 8x 2 ! 128 has no real root larger than 4. f 0 . say x D a. We will use proof by contradiction. SOLUTION First.x/ D x 4 C 5x 3 C 4x has no root c satisfying c > 0.x/ D x 5 C 2x 3 C 4x ! 12 cannot have more than one real root. We will proceed by contradiction to establish that x D 0 is the only real root. where A is the amplitude and ! is the angular frequency. f . However.0/ D 0 and suppose that there exists a c > 0 such that f . Finally. it follows by Rolle’s Theorem that there exists a real number c 2 .d / D 0. SOLUTION 70.8x ! 15/2 . The position of a mass oscillating at the end of a spring is s. differentiable on . 3! 4 / and # $ !" " 3" f Df D 0.4. there exists a c 2 . Therefore.4/ D 44 ! 8.a. Suppose there exists another real root.x/ D 4x 3 ! 16x D 4x. f must have precisely one real root.4x ! 15/ D . differentiable on . Then v.c/ D 0. 5/ at which f 0 . Then f . Prove that c D 4 is the largest root of f .0/ D 0. 5/ and f .c/ D 0.t/ is zero. c/ such that f 0 .0.c/ D 0. Let’s first establish the f . note that f . Œ3. However. 73. 71.3. Then f . so there is no c 2 .x/ D 3x 2 C 6x C 6 D 3. !4 . f 0 .4. we conclude that f . SOLUTION We will proceed by contradiction. Based on this contradiction.x/ D f 0 . . 69. it follows by Rolle’s Theorem that there exists a real number c between 0 and a such that f 0 .b/ D 0 and Rolle’s Theorem guarantees that there exists a c 2 .

t/j is at a maximum when v. Solve numerically for the value of b (to two decimal places) for which maximum concentration occurs at t D 1 h.t/ D 0:016t t 2 C 4t C 4 Find the maximum concentration in the time interval Œ0. physicist Alfred Betz argued that the maximum efficiency of a wind turbine is around 59%. the maximum concentration occurs at t D 2 hours and mg is equal to :002 cm 3.t/ D 120. called the Betz Limit.5b/=. so we are looking for points where C 0 .t/ (in micrograms per milliliter) of antibiotic in a patient’s blood serum after t hours is C.r/.t/ D 120.t/ occurs at t D ln.8/ " 0:001.t C 4t C 4/ . 74. SOLUTION C 0 .r/ D 12 . is 16=27 " 0:59.t/ is equal to 100 mcg/ml.2t C 4// !t 2 C 4 2!t D 0:016 2 D 0:016 : 2 2 .t/.!0:2e !0:2t C be !bt / D 0 when SOLUTION tD ln 5b : b ! 0:2 Substituting t D 1 and solving for b numerically yields b " 2:86.e !0:2t ! e !bt / with b chosen so that the maximum occurs at t D 1 h. You may assume that the maximum occurs at a critical point as suggested by Figure 5. In 1919. where 0 $ r $ 1. The concentration C.380 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE is a maximum when j cos !tj D 1. that is.t/ exists for all t % 0. we know that C. On the other hand.b ! 0:2/ so we solve ln.t/ D 0 when t D 2.t/ D 0. setting the resulting expression equal to 100 and solving for b yields b " 4:75.5b/=. Then C 0 . The fraction of power extracted by the turbine is F D P =P0 .e !0:2t ! e !bt /. ja.1 C r/.t/j is at a maximum when the acceleration a.1 ! r 2 /.t/ D 120. The max of C. C 0 . 75.0:016t. that is. Hence. SOLUTION From the previous exercise. then the power extracted is the difference in kinetic energy per unit time: P D 1 2 1 2 mv ! mv 2 1 2 2 watts where m is the mass of wind flowing through the rotor per unit time (Figure 6).2/ D 0:002 cm 3 . Let C. ja.e !0:2t ! e !bt /. which is precisely when sin !t D 0. where & is the density of air and A is the area swept out by the rotor. Similarly. C (mcg/ml) 100 80 60 40 20 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (h) FIGURE 5 Graph of C.t/ achieves its maximum when tD ln 5b : b ! 0:2 Substituting this expression into the formula for C.t/ D 120. which is precisely when cos !t D 0. 8% and the time at which it occurs. 77. If wind enters a turbine with speed v1 and exits with speed v2 .b ! 0:1/ D 1 numerically. Wind flowing undisturbed through the same area A would have mass per unit time &Av1 and power P0 D 12 &Av13 . In the notation of Exercise 75. .t/j D jA! 2 sin !tj is a maximum when j sin !tj D 1.0/ D 0 and C.t C 2/3 C 0 .t/ D 0:016.t C 4t C 4/2 . the speed jv.v1 C v2 /=2. Antibiotic Levels A study shows that the concentration C.t/ (in mg=cm3 ) of a drug in a patient’s bloodstream after t hours is C. (a) Show that F depends only on the ratio r D v2 =v1 and is equal to F . Using a calculator. find the value of b (to two decimal places) for which the maximum value of C. where b % 1 is a constant that depends on the particular combination of antibiotic agents used.t 2 C 4t C 4/ ! . 76.t/ is zero. we find that mg C. (b) Show that the maximum value of F .t/ is zero. Betz assumed that m D &A. Answer is b D 2:86. C.

Show that a0 D 4"'0 „2 =.4 0. Hint: How much wind would pass through the turbine if v2 were zero? Is this realistic? F v1 0.0/ D 12 . The Bohr radius a0 of the hydrogen atom is the value of r that minimizes the energy E.1 ! r 2 /. Assume that the minimum occurs at a critical point. (A) Wind flowing through a turbine.6 0. E(r) (10−18 joules) 2 1 r (10−10 meters) 1 2 −1 −2 FIGURE 7 3 .v1 Cv2 / 2 . F . the Betz Limit is 16=27 " 0:59. Now.1 C r/ D ! r 2 ! r C : 2 2 2 The roots of this quadratic are r D !1 and r D 13 . m. (c) If v2 were 0.1 ! r 2 / ! r.r/ D 1 3 1 . which is not realistic.1 v2 0.5 0. and '0 are physical constants.2 Extreme Values 381 (c) Explain why Betz’s formula for F .me 2 /.S E C T I O N 4.r/ D „2 e2 ! 2mr 2 4"'0 r where „. as suggested by Figure 7. 78.1 C r/: 2 (b) Based on part (a). F 0 .2 0. FIGURE 6 SOLUTION (a) We note that F D P D P0 1 "A. then no air would be passing through the turbine.r/ is not meaningful for r close to zero.3 0.5 1 r (B) F is the fraction of energy extracted by the turbine as a function of r = v 2 /v 1.1/ D 0 and # $ 1 1 8 4 16 F D & & D " 0:59: 3 2 9 3 27 Thus. e. F .v1 2 2 1 3 2 &Av1 ! v22 / 1 v12 ! v22 v1 C v2 & 2 v12 v1 !# $ v2 1 v2 D 1 ! 22 1C 2 v1 v1 D D 1 .

!02 ! ! 2 /2 C 4D 2 ! 2 Both !0 (the natural frequency of the system) and D (the damping factor) are positive constants. The latter critical point is positive if and only if !02 ! 2D 2 > p 0. Hint: Find the critical point of A. Hence. by graphing f . the point ! D !02 ! 2D 2 .01 1 2 r (B) D = 0. The graph of ( is called a resonance curve. Define !r D !02 ! 2D 2 . (.!/ D q .0/ D 1=!02 and (.2 2 3 (C) D = 0. as in Figure 9. bees “know” which angle # minimizes the surface area (and therefore requires the least amount of wax).!02 ! ! 2 / ! 2D 2 / . The response of a circuit or other oscillatory system to an input of frequency ! (“omega”) is described by the function a0 D 1 (. (a) Show that # " 54:7ı (assume h and s are constant). (.!02 ! ! 2 /2 C 4D 2 ! 2 /3=2 q and the non-negative critical points are ! D 0 and ! D !02 ! 2D 2 .!/ ! 0 as ! ! 1. 50 1 3 2 0. if defined. s. 3 csc # ! cot #/ 2 with h. Now. and the positive frequency !r > 0.382 CHAPTER 4 SOLUTION APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Let E.!r / D q 1 . if it exists. is called the resonant q p 2 frequency. Then ( 0 .#/ D 3 csc # ! cot #. SOLUTION Let (. Remarkably. is a local maximum. and since we are q given D > 0. ..r/ D „2 e2 ! : 2 4"'0 r 2mr Then dE „2 e2 D! 3 C D0 dr mr 4"'0 r 2 implies rD 4"'0 „2 : me 2 Thus.5 1 r 2 (A) D = 0. is larger than 1=!02 . 80.75 (no resonance) FIGURE 8 Resonance curves with !0 D 1. that the critical point indeed minimizes the surface area. p (b) Confirm. We can show that the surface area of this cell is 3 p A. 2D !02 ! D 2 q p which. 4"'0 „2 : me 2 79.!/ D 2!. Finally.#/ D 6hs C s 2 . Show that !r D !0 ! 2D 2 if 0 < D < !0 = 2 and that no resonant frequency exists otherwise (Figure 8).. for 0 < D < !0 = 2. and # as indicated in the figure. Bees build honeycomb structures out of cells with a hexagonal base and three rhombus-shaped faces on top.!02 ! ! 2 /2 C 4D 2 ! 2 /!1=2 .#/ for 0 < # < "=2.. where ( takes its maximum value.!/ D . this is equivalent to 0 < D < !0 = 2.

#/ D 32 s 2 . f . 1%.! 3 csc # cot # C csc2 #/ D 0. Since a < b. 1% where 0 < a < b.2 x −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5 We can see on the plot that the only critical point of f . ab /1=. whence # D cos!1 p1 D 0:955317 radians = 54:736ı .b!a/ < 1.42 1. 1% is #! " $ ! " a 1=.1/ D 1 and the minimum value is f . 1% is # $1=5 ! # $ # $2 1 1 1 1 1 1 f D ! D ! D : 2 2 2 2 4 4 In Exercises 82–84. 3 3 p (b) The plot of 3 csc # ! cot #.b!a/ a a=.a ! bx b!a / D 0 implies critical points x D 0 and x D . or cos # D p1 .1/ D 1 and f .5 1. . SOLUTION " Let f .b!a/ f D ! : b b b " Let f . In particular.x/ D x a!1 . plot the function using a graphing utility and find its critical points and extreme values on Œ!5. Find the maximum of y D x a ! x b on Œ0.x/ lies at x D 1. we have A0 .6 0. We can see that the minimum occurs just below 55ı . 1Cjx!1j The plot follows: y 1 0. is given below. Then by part (a). we get p % & 3 csc # cot # D csc2 #.x/ D 1 . Then f 0 . SOLUTION p (a) Because h and s are constant relative to #.x/ D x 5 ! x 10 .48 1.4 0. which is in the interval Œ0.x/ on Œ!5. 82. it follows that the maximum value of f .S E C T I O N 4. With f . where # is given in degrees.x/ D ax a!1 ! bx b!1 .46 1. 5%. From this.8 0.44 1.!5/ D 17 . f .5/ D 15 . h 1.x/ > 0 and thus the maximum value of f on Œ0.x/ D x a ! x b .1/ D 0 and a < b implies x a > x b on the interval Œ0.0/ D f . f 0 . SOLUTION yD 1 1 C jx ! 1j Let f . 1%.2 Extreme Values 383 θ h s FIGURE 9 A cell in a honeycomb constructed by bees.!5/ D 17 .b!a/ ! a "b=. ab /1=. 5% is f . 1% as a < b implies ba < 1 and consequently x D .4 40 45 50 55 60 65 Degrees 81. find the maximum of y D x 5 ! x 10 on Œ0. Also. which gives f .b!a/ . the maximum value of f on Œ0.

2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 2 3 4 5 We can see on the plot that the critical points of f .x C y / y. . yD 2 jx ! 1j C jx 2 ! 4j x SOLUTION Let f .1/ D f .!5/ D 17 70 . yD f .1. 85.x/ D 2 .x 2 C y 2 /3 and its horizontal tangents are plotted below.x 2 C y 2 /3 with respect to x yields # $ dy 54x D 3. .6 0.x/ D 1 1 C : 1 C jx ! 1j 1 C jx ! 4j The plot follows: 1. f . There are therefore four points at which the derivative is zero: p p p p .x/ D 0.x 2 C y 2 /3 . Substituting into the equation for the curve.˙ 27. This occurs when y D 0 and gives the following points with vertical tangents: p 4 .x 2 C y 2 /2 2x C 2y : dx Solving for dy=dx we obtain dy 27x ! 3x.2 1 0.4/ D 4 and the minimum value is f . (b) Plot the curve and the horizontal tangent lines on the same set of axes.x 2 C y 2 /2 Thus. SOLUTION (a) Differentiating both sides of the equation 27x 2 D . (a) Use implicit differentiation to find the critical points on the curve 27x 2 D .!1. 32 / and . 2 / D 5 and f .!1. respectively. or x D ˙1.384 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 1 1 C 1 C jx ! 1j 1 C jx ! 4j SOLUTION Let 83.9 ! .x 2 C y 2 /2 x. The cusps at .!2. ! 23 / are the locations of the maximum and minimum values of f . the derivative is zero when x 2 C y 2 D 3. 5% is f .2. .x/j are likely to lie where g. jx !1jCjx 2 !4j so we choose a plot range that includes x D ˙2 and x D ˙1: y 0.!5/ D 70 .8 0. 2/: There are also critical points where the derivative does not exist.x 2 C y 2 /2 / D D : 2 2 2 dx 3y. 2/. it follows that the maximum value of 5 17 f . With f .4 0. . ! 2/.x/ on Œ!5. this yields x 2 D 1. ! 2/.0. the function has cusps at x D ˙2 and sharp corners at x D ˙1.4/ D 4 .x/.1/ D f . x 84.1.5 As we can see from the graph.x/ lie at the cusps at x D 1 and x D 4 and at the location of the horizontal 5 5 4 7 tangent line at x D 52 . The cusps of the graph of a function containing jg.5 −4 2 −2 4 x −0. y 1 −2 1 −1 −1 2 x . 0/. 0/: (b) The curve 27x 2 D .5/ D 10 . f .

S E C T I O N 4. 4/ with a minimum value [at x D 2] but no maximum value [since f .0. d# n n2 ! 1 . and an absolute maximum that occurs at a critical point. 4% that (a) has two local maxima and one local minimum and (b) has an absolute minimum that occurs at an endpoint (at x D 0 or x D 4) and has an absolute maximum that occurs at a critical point. SOLUTION Here is the graph of a function f on .0. SOLUTION Here is the graph of a function on Œ0. 3 di 2 .x/ ! !1 as x ! 0C]. Sketch the graph of a function on Œ0. Sketch the graph of a continuous function on . 4% with a discontinuity such that f .x/ ! 1 as x ! 4!]. y 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 x 90. y 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 x 89. The angle between the incoming and reflected rays is # D 4r ! 2i.x/ on Œ0.x/ has an absolute minimum but no absolute maximum. Hint: Show that D 0 if cos i D cos r.0. A rainbow is produced by light rays that enter a raindrop (assumed spherical) and exit after being reflected internally as in Figure 10. 4/ having a local minimum but no absolute minimum.0. where the angle of incidence i and refraction r are related by Snell’s Law sin i D n sin r with n " 1:33 (the index of refraction for air and water).x/ ! 1 as x ! 0C and as x ! 4!]. y 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 x 87. dr cos i (a) Use Snell’s Law to show that D . y 10 1 2 x 3 −10 88.2 Extreme Values 385 86. 4/ with a local minimum value [between x D 2 and x D 4] but no absolute minimum [since f . Sketch the graph of a function f . di n cos r s (b) Show that the maximum value #max of # occurs when i satisfies cos i D Then use Snell’s Law to eliminate r. Sketch the graph of a continuous function on . (b) An absolute minimum that occurs at an endpoint. 4/ with a minimum value but no maximum value. 4% that (a) has a discontinuity [at x D 4] and (b) has an absolute minimum [at x D 0] but no absolute maximum [since f . SOLUTION Here is the graph of a function f on . SOLUTION Here is the graph of a function f on Œ0. 4% having (a) Two local maxima and one local minimum.

Incoming light ray i θ r r Water droplet r r i Reflected ray FIGURE 10 SOLUTION (a) Differentiating Snell’s Law with respect to i yields cos i D n cos r dr di or dr cos i D : di n cos r (b) Differentiating the formula for # with respect to i yields d# dr cos i D4 !2D4 !2 di di n cos r by part (a).1:33/2 ! 1 D 0:5063 3 and cos r D 2 cos i D 0:7613: 1:33 Thus. d# D 0 when di cos i D n cos r: 2 Squaring both sides of this last equation gives cos2 i D n2 cos2 r. 4 while squaring both sides of Snell’s Law gives sin2 i D n2 sin2 r or 1 ! cos2 i D n2 . cos i D s s n2 ! 1 : 3 .1 ! cos2 r/: Solving this equation for cos2 r gives cos2 r D 1 ! 1 ! cos2 i I n2 Combining these last two equations and solving for cos i yields cos i D (c) With n D 1:33.386 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE (c) Show that #max " 59:58ı . i D 59:58ı and #max D 4r ! 2i D 42:52ı : . Thus. r D 40:42ı .

94. More generally. 95.x/ D g. that f .x ! 1/. Show. Then g.x/ D a sin x C b cos x.x/ D 0 implies a cos x ! b sin x D 0. A cubic polynomial may have a local min and max. If f . the roots of f are p !r ˙ r 2 ! 4s xD : 2 SOLUTION Observe that the midpoint between these roots is 1 2 !r C ! p r 2 ! 4s !r ! r 2 ! 4s r C D! : 2 2 2 p Next.x2 .x/ D x 2 C rx C s takes on both positive and negative values.x/ takes its minimum value at the midpoint M D (Figure 11).x/ D 1 3 1 2 x C ax C bx C c 3 2 that ensure that f has neither a local min nor a local max. f . find the conditions on r and s under which the quadratic function f .x/ D x 2 ! 2x C 3 D . it follows that f . Hint: Apply Exercise 92 to f 0 . Find conditions on the coefficients a and b of f . Then of course f .! 2r / is a minimum.x1 // and .x2 / D 0. Show that the extreme values of f . then its minimum value occurs at the midpoint between the two roots. Let f . Let f .x/ C c. Generalize Exercise 93: Show that if the horizontal line y D c intersects the graph of f .x/ takes on both positive and negative values.x/ D a sin x C b cos x D a p ˙a a2 C b 2 Cbp p a2 C b 2 D ˙p D ˙ a2 C b 2 : a2 C b 2 a2 C b 2 ˙b 92. then f 0 . f 0 .x ! 3/. Show that if the quadratic polynomial f . Completing the square.x/ D x 2 ! 4x C 3 D .x/ D a cos x ! b sin x. 2 y f(x) c y=c x1 M x x2 FIGURE 11 SOLUTION Suppose that a horizontal line y D c intersects the graph of a quadratic function f .x C 12 r/2 C s ! 14 r 2 > 0 for all x provided that s > 14 r 2 . f . f .x1 / D f . Here. Give examples of r and s for which f takes on both positive and negative values. f takes on its minimum value at the midpoint between the two roots.x ! 1/2 C 2 > 0 for all x.x/ D x 2 C rx C s in two points .x2 //.S E C T I O N 4.x/ D x 2 C rx C s.x/ D 2x C r D 0 when x D ! 2r and. f .x1 / D g. By the quadratic formula. 93.x/ D x 2 C rx C s takes on only positive values.x/ is an upward opening parabola.x/ D x 2 C rx C s at two points x1 C x2 . Then f takes on both positive and negative values. . we note that f .x/ D a sin x C b cos x are ˙ a2 C b 2 . Let f . by considering its minimum.x2 / D c. then f . By Exercise 93. because the graph of f . This will guarantee that f has two real roots. Then.x2 //.x1 . r D !4 and s D 3. or it may have neither (Figure 12). This implies tan x D ab .x1 C x2 /.x/ D f .x/. so that f 0 . Thus.x1 // and . Hence so does f . SOLUTION " " Observe that f . g takes on its minimum value at x D 12 . Let g. SOLUTION ˙a sin x D p a2 C b 2 and cos x D p ˙b a2 C b 2 : Therefore f .x/ D .x/ D x 2 ! 2x C 3 takes on only positive values.x/ ! c.2 Extreme Values 387 Further Insights and Challenges p 91.x2 .x/ D x 2 C rx C s and suppose that f .x1 .

x/ D x p . Which of the following statements does not follow from the MVT? If f has a secant line of slope 0. (Actually b % 41 a2 will suffice.2/ 9!3 D D 3: 4!2 4!2 Assume f is differentiable.4/ ! f .x/ be a continuous function with f . q > 0. then every secant line has positive slope.1 ! x/q!1 .9/.c/ is a local maximum. (a) (b) (c) (d) f .c/ is a local maximum. call it c. 1% is f .b/ local minima on the interval Œa.5/ < f . If f 0 .1 ! x/q!1 . Find the min and max of f .388 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE y y 60 20 30 −4 2 −2 4 x 2 −2 4 x −20 (A) (B) FIGURE 12 Cubic polynomials Let f . Since local minima occur at f .x/ D x 2 C ax C b > 0 for all x provided b > 14 a2 .1/ D 0. If f has a tangent line of slope 0.b/. If f . where f . 1%. where p and q are positive numbers.b/ are local minima where a < b.a/ and f .1 ! x/q px p!1 D x p!1 .x/ D x p . Prove that if f is continuous and f .c/ > 0 for some c 2 . f .x/ D x p q. whereas its maximum value is # $ p pp qq f D : pCq .1 ! x/q on Œ0.x/ D 13 x 3 C 12 ax 2 C bx C c.) Show that continuity is a necessary hypothesis by sketching the graph of a function (necessarily discontinuous) with two local minima but no local maximum. p pCq The minimum value of f on Œ0. since in this case [as we’ll see in a later section] f has an inflection point but no local extrema. SOLUTION " " Let f . then f has a secant line of slope 0. Then f 0 . . The function graphed here is discontinuous at x D 0. then f 0 .x/ D f 0 . m D 3 makes the statement correct. SOLUTION The Mean Value Theorem guarantees that the function has a tangent line with slope equal to Hence. y 8 6 4 −8 −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 8 x 4. then there exists a value c between a and b such that f . b%. 1.) SOLUTION 96. and f .4/ D 9.0/ D f .p C q/pCq 97. in which case f has no critical points and hence no local extrema.a/ and f . For which value of m is the following statement correct? If f . By Theorem 1. then f has a tangent line of slope m.2/ D 3 and f . where p. 9/.1 ! x/ ! qx/ D 0 at x D 0.!1/ C .x/ must take on both a minimum and a maximum on Œa.1 ! x/q . b%.a/ and f . the maximum must occur at some other point in the interval. Using Exercise 92.x/ > 0 for all x.3 The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity Preliminary Questions 1.p. b%. we have g.5. (Hint: Apply Theorem 1 to the interval Œa. then f has a tangent line of slope 0. SOLUTION Let f . 0 $ x $ 1.x/ is differentiable. 2.

f . Exercises In Exercises 1–8.b/ ! f . .b/ ! f . Œ9.1. SOLUTION Œ2. find a point c satisfying the conclusion of the MVT for the given function and interval.a/ 5!3 1 c D f 0 . there exists a c 2 . p 2. SOLUTION (a) To the left of x D c.0.c C 2/2 D 18 and c D !2 ˙ 3 2. consider the function f .x/ D x 1=2 . 3.x/ D 2 2 D f 0 . Then f 0 . 8/.c/ must be a local maximum. to the right of x D c. Choose c D 4 2 . 2"/ ! sin c ! cos c D f 0 .a/ 1 D 3 3 D : b!a 4!1 9 . Then f 0 .xC2/2 and by the MVT. sketch an example. As a counterexample.a/ 1 D f 0 .c/ D D 8 2 D! : 2 b!a 8!2 16 c Thus c 2 D 16 and c D ˙4.x/ D x 3 . Œ1.2.b/ ! f .x/ D !x !2 . so f is decreasing.a/ 1!1 D D 0: b!a 2" ! 0 2 . (b) No. f .0. For f .x/. b D 2". 4/ such that 2 !1 f . there exists a c 2 . y D . and by the MVT.x C 2/. y D x !1 . Œ0.2. SOLUTION Yes.x/ D cos x ! sin x. but as noted in part (a). a D 1. there exists a c 2 . there exists a c 2 . 25% SOLUTION Thus p1 c D Let f .x/ D x !1 . Let f . Choose either c D x 4. Choose c D 3 2 ! 2 " 2:24 2 . a D 9. 8% Let f . The derivative is a decreasing function. y D cos x ! sin x. and by the MVT. 2"/.x/ D 12 x !1=2 . 2"% SOLUTION such that Let f .0/ D 0. a D 0.c/ D D D : 2 b!a 25 ! 9 8 and c D 16 2 . Then f 0 . the derivative is negative. so f is increasing. .3 The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity 389 SOLUTION Conclusion (c) does not follow from the Mean Value Theorem. 4% xC2 SOLUTION 3! 4 or c D 7! 4 f . 8/ such that ! 1 !1 1 f . 1.c C 2/ p p Thus .S E C T I O N 4.1.x/ a decreasing function? y x c FIGURE 1 Graph of derivative f 0 . but no secant line has zero slope. y D x. 3. b D 4. Can a function that takes on only negative values have a positive derivative? If so.x/ D x= .c/ D Thus ! sin c D cos c. b D 8. 4/. y x 4.x/ D ! sin x ! cos x.9. a D 2.b/ ! f .9. Then f 0 .x/ with derivative as in Figure 1: (a) Is f . 25/ such that 1 4 1 !1=2 f . and by the MVT. b D 25. the derivative is positive. Note that f 0 .x/ is increasing for x < c and decreasing for x > c. The figure below displays a function that takes on only negative values but has a positive derivative. 25/.c/ D 2 .c/ a local minimum or maximum? (b) Is f . Consequently.

b/ ! f . f 0 . b D 5. 5/ such that 3c 2 D f 0 .x/ D e x ! 1.x/. f 0 . The graph of f .a/ 189 D D 21: b!a 9 p Solving for c yields c 2 D 7. Because f 0 . Then f 0 . 1/ such that e c ! 1 D f 0 .!1. SOLUTION 4 e f .1.x/.6 y = x5 + x 2 y 0. 1% SOLUTION Let f .x/. SOLUTION Let f .0. 1/: 9.b/ ! f . Then f 0 . so by the MVT. Then graph f . Then f 0 . b D 3. 1/. 5%. Œ!1. it appears that the x-coordinate of the point of tangency is approximately 0. Zooming in on the point of tangency (see below at the right).c/ D Solving for c yields c D e 2ln2!1 D 7. a D 1. Describe its sign changes and use this to determine the local extreme values of f .1. Plot the derivative of f . b D 2.x/ D x 5 C x 2 .a/ e !6 ! 1 e !6 ! 1 D D : b!a 3!0 3 Solving for c yields 1 1 ! e !6 c D ! ln 2 6 ! " 0:8971 2 . f 0 . Then f 0 . The line y D 2x ! 0:764 appears to be tangent to the graph of y D f . The graph of f 0 . 3/ such that !2e !2c D f 0 . The slope of the secant line between x D 0 and x D 1 is f . the secant line between x D 0 and x D 1. 6. y 0.c/ D 2 for some c 2 . Œ0. Then plot y D 2x C b for different values of b until the line becomes tangent to the graph of f . At x D 1. Then f 0 .x/.3 0. 2% SOLUTION Let f .x/ D 3x 5 ! 5x 3 .390 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 5. a D !1.764 1 x 0. and by the MVT.e ! e !1 / ! 1: b!a 1 ! .!4. 5% SOLUTION Let f . confirms each of these conclusions.0. Both of these values are in the interval Œ!4.x/ D x ln x.b/ ! f .4 0.x/ D 3x 5 ! 5x 3 . y D e x ! x.x/ has neither a local maximum nor a local minimum at x D 0. y D e !2x .e !1 C 1/ 1 D D .!1. there exists a c 2 . Zoom in on the point of tangency to estimate x-coordinate c of the point of tangency.x/ changes from positive to negative at x D !1. Let f .x/ changes from negative to positive.56 0. so either value can be chosen. 2/ such that 1 C ln c D f 0 .b/ ! f .x/ D 3x 2 . y D x 3 .e ! 1/ ! . so c D ˙ 7.x/ D x 3 .x/ to confirm your conclusions. a D 0.x/ D 1 C ln x. and the line y D 2x ! 0:764 is shown below at the left.x/ is shown below at the left. b D 1. Plot f . 3/: 8. Œ1.x/ changes from decreasing to increasing and therefore has a local minimum.a/ . and by the MVT.x/ D e !2x . and by the MVT. Œ!4. there exists a c 2 . 3% Let f . Though f 0 .x/ and the secant line on the same axes. 2/.0. The secant line between x D 0 and x D 1 has slope 2 (check this). and by the MVT.0/ 2!0 D D 2: 1!0 1 A plot of f . so f .64 x 10.x/ D e x ! x. there exists a c 2 .a/ 2 ln 2 D D 2 ln 2: b!a 1 " 1:4715 2 .x/ D !2e !2x . SOLUTION Let f . so f .x/ changes from increasing to decreasing and therefore has a local maximum at x D !1. shown below at the right.6 0.!1/ 2 Solving for c yields e ! e !1 c D ln 2 ! " 0:1614 2 .x/ does not change sign at x D 0.c/ D f .c/ D f .x 2 ! 1/.x/ D 15x 4 ! 15x 2 D 15x 2 .c/ D f . there exists a c 2 . .1/ ! f . y D x ln x.x/ D 0 at x D 0.52 0.62. a D !4.5 4 2 y = 2x − .x/ D x 5 C x 2 . f .

4/ are local minima or local maxima.2. If the graph of f 0 . SOLUTION In Exercises 15–18. Finally. b/ over which f 0 . assuming that Figure 2 is the graph of f . so f .5. 3/ and .2/ is a local maximum. 13.x/. so f . Determine the intervals on which f . then f .0. At x D !1. there is no sign transition in f 0 . 1/ and .3.2/ is a local minimum. so f . assuming that Figure 2 is the graph of f 0 . or neither. SOLUTION f . and is decreasing on every interval over which f 0 . f 0 transitions from ! to C. at x D 2. At x D 12 . State whether f .x/ D 0 when x D !1.x/ whose derivative f 0 .x/ > 0 for x > 3 and f 0 .x/ is increasing on every interval . 4/.x/ and determine whether they are local minima.x/ is positive and negative. these are the critical points of f . Determine the intervals on which f 0 . local maxima. y 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 x .x/ is increasing on the intervals . so f . it is negative on the intervals .x/ < 0. f 0 .x/ of a function f .x/ < 0 for x < 3.x/ is increasing or decreasing.x/ < 0 for x < 3 SOLUTION Here is the graph of a function f for which f 0 . 6/.!1/ is neither a local maximum nor a local minimum. 15.x/ > 0 for x > 3 and f 0 . 14.1.x/. 6/ where f is decreasing. x D 12 and x D 2.x/ > 0.x/.5 2 3 x FIGURE 3 Since f 0 .x/ is given in Figure 2.3 y y 80 10 60 5 1 40 −2 2 −1 −1 x −5 20 −2 391 1 2 x −10 11. 2/ and . assuming that Figure 2 is the graph of f 0 .The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity S E C T I O N 4. sketch the graph of a function f . 12 / is a local maximum. SOLUTION " " f 0 .x/ makes a transition from positive to negative at x D 2. f 0 .x/ makes a transition from negative to positive at x D 4. Find the critical points of f .a. so f . 5/ where f is increasing.4.2/ and f .4/ is a local minimum. y y = f '(x) 6 −2 −1 −2 0.x/ has the given description. f 0 transitions from C to !.x/. y 1 2 3 4 5 6 x FIGURE 2 SOLUTION The derivative of f is positive on the intervals . Figure 3 shows the graph of the derivative f 0 . 12. and is decreasing on the interval .0.

x/ D xC1 x2 SOLUTION Let f . therefore. find all critical points of f and use the First Derivative Test to determine whether they are local minima or maxima. as x increases through 1.x/ D x. On the other hand.x ! 2/.x/ < 0 for x > 1 SOLUTION Here is the graph of a function f for which f 0 .x/ D x 3 C x !3 . !. 19. Therefore. C. !.x/ makes the sign transition C. x D 0 is not a critical point of f because it is not in the domain of f .x/ D x 3 ! 12x ! 4 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D .x 2 ! x C 1/.x ! 1/. Though f 0 . Then xC1 f 0 . !.2/ is a local minimum.!2/ D !4 is a local maximum. Then.1.1/ is a local minimum.x/ makes the sign transition C. !. C. 22.x/ makes the sign transition !. y 8 6 4 2 −2 1 2 3 x 4 18. f 0 . f 0 .x/ makes the sign transition !. therefore. f .x/ is negative on . SOLUTION Here is the graph of a function f for which f 0 . C.1. As x increases through !2.!2/ is a local maximum.x C 1/2 implies that x D 0 and x D !2 are critical points. !.x/ makes the sign transition C. f . f . f 0 .x/ D 6 ! 2x D 0 implies that x D 3 is the only critical point of f . y 60 40 20 −4 2 −2 4 x −40 In Exercises 19–22. f 0 .x C 2/ D 0 implies that x D ˙2 are critical points of f .x/ D 3x 2 ! 12 D 3. As x increases through 0.x/ makes the sign transitions C.x/ makes the sign transition C. x2 21.x/ D x 3 C x !3 SOLUTION Let f .x/ > 0 for x < 1 and f 0 . f 0 . therefore. ! so f . as x increases through 2. !.x/ is negative on .x C 1/.x/ > 0 for x < 1 and f 0 .x/ does not exist at x D 0. therefore. f 0 .x/ D 3x 2 ! 3x !4 D 3 3 6 . SOLUTION Here is the graph of a function f for which f 0 makes the sign transitions C. C. f .392 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 16. y 1 1 −1 2 3 x −2 17. f 0 .!1/ is a local maximum. .x/ D 4 C 6x ! x 2 SOLUTION Let f . f .x/ makes the sign transition !. On the other hand.0/ D 0 is a local minimum. f . Note that x D !1 is not a critical point because it is not in the domain of f .x ! 1/ D 4 .x/ D x 3 ! 12x ! 4. As x increases through !1. Then f 0 . 20.x/ < 0 for x > 1.x/ D 4 C 6x ! x 2 . As x increases through 3. 3/ and positive everywhere else. f . Then f 0 . 3/ and positive elsewhere. f 0 . !. As x increases through !2.x 2 C x C 1/ D 0 x4 x implies that x D ˙1 are critical points of f . f .x C 2/ D0 . f 0 . f 0 . C so f .3/ D 13 is a local maximum. f 0 . f .

SYMBOL MEANING ! The entity is negative on the given interval. x f f . 0 The entity is zero at the specified point. Then f 0 . 7 2 C f " 7=2 0 ! ! M % " 7 2.x/ D x 3 ! 12x 2 . 12 .x ! 2/3 & 1 D .x/ D 12x 3 C 24x 2 ! 12x ! 24 D 12x 2 . Then f 0 . 1/ ! 0 C 0 C & m % : % 27. 1 m & C % 25.The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity S E C T I O N 4. x f f 0 . ! 35 f ! " !3=5 0 ! " ! 35 .x/ D 10x C 6 D 0 yields the critical point c D ! 35 .x ! 2/2 D 0 yields critical points c D 2.!1.0.x/ D !x 2 C 7x ! 17.x/ D 7 ! 2x D 0 yields the critical point c D 72 . : There is no local extremum here. 1=2/ 1=2 . C The entity is positive on the given interval.2. 2/ 2 .x/ D 3x 4 C 8x 3 ! 6x 2 ! 24x.x C 2/.8.3 393 In Exercises 23–52.1=2. Then f 0 .x ! 2/3 .4x ! 2/ . x f0 ! !1. y D x. 0/ 0 . ! x f0 !1. Use the First Derivative Test to determine whether the critical point is a local min or max (or neither). % f is increasing on the given interval.x ! 8/ D 0 yields critical points c D 0. y D 3x 4 C 8x 3 ! 6x 2 ! 24x SOLUTION Let f . M f has a local maximum at the specified point. y D x 3 ! 12x 2 SOLUTION Let f .x ! 2/3 SOLUTION Let f .1 & 24. 1/ C 0 ! 0 C % M & m % 0 26. 8.!1. m f has a local minimum at the specified point.x C 2/ D 12.x/ D x & 3 .x/ D x .x 2 ! 1/ .x/ D 5x 2 C 6x ! 4. 8/ 8 . Then f 0 . Then f 0 .x ! 2/2 C . y D 5x 2 C 6x ! 4 SOLUTION Let f . U The entity is undefined at the specified point.x/ D 3x 2 ! 24x D 3x. 23. SOLUTION Here is a table legend for Exercises 23–44.x C 2/ ! 12. find the critical points and the intervals on which the function is increasing or decreasing. & f is decreasing on the given interval. y D !x 2 C 7x ! 17 SOLUTION Let f .

1/ C 0 ! 0 C % M & m % f 30. C x3 x . !1.x/ D 4x 3 C 3x 2 D x 2 .) SOLUTION x f0 ! % & " 2=5 0.!1. ! x f0 f !1. Then f 0 .x/ D 5x 4 C 3x 2 C 1 % 1 for all x.x/ D x 5=2 ! x 2 .x/ D 2x C 2 .10 ! x/2 .x/ D 5x 4 C 3x 2 D x 2 .x/ D x 5 C x 3 C x. x f . y D 31 x 3 C 32 x 2 C 2x C 4 SOLUTION c D !2. 1/ 1 . ! 34 . 16 25 ! & ! 2x D x.!1. ! 34 ! " ! 34 0 ! " ! 34 .!1. 1/ C 0 C f % : % Cx Let f . y D x 5=2 ! x 2 3 2=5 2 ! 0 & m !% & 3 2=5 2 C " .x ! 1/ . Thus. 0/ 0 f0 .0.1. 5/ 5 . 1 C % 16 25 . so the critical point is c D & 16 25 0 m % 16 & 25 . !2/ !2 . !1/ !1 . which gives us the critical point c D . y D x 4 ! 4x 3=2 (x > 0) Let f . (Note: c D 0 is not in the interval under consideration. x f0 .10 ! x/2 SOLUTION Let f .10 ! x/ .5x 2 C 3/ yields a single critical point: c D 0. !1. Then f 0 .x C 2/ D 0 yields critical points x f 0 . !2/ !2 .x C 1/ .x/ D x 2 C 3x C 2 D .1 % (x > 0) Let f . y D x 5 C x 3 C 1 SOLUTION 32. 0 0 . 32 /2=5 .!2.0. y D x5 SOLUTION increasing.!1.) SOLUTION x f0 f 5 3=2 2x % 0. Then f 0 .!2.!1/ D 4x ! 20 D 0 yields the critical point c D 5. 1/ ! 0 C & m % 0 f 29.x C 2/ D 0 yields critical points c D !2.4x C 3/ yields critical points c D 0. Then f 0 . Then f 0 .!1. Let f . Then f 0 . 1/ ! 0 C 0 ! 0 C & m % M & m % f 28. 1.5. 1/ C 0 C % : % m & 31. (Note: .!1. 32 f 34. 52 x 1=2 ! 2/ D 0.x/ D c D 0 is not in the interval under consideration. y D x 4 C x 3 SOLUTION Let f .x C 1/ .x/ D x 4 C x 3 .394 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 D 12 . f has no critical points and is always 33. Then f 0 .2x 5=2 ! 3/ D 0.x/ D 1 3 3x C 3 2 2x C 2x C 4. y D x 2 C .x/ D x 2 C . !1/ !1 .x/ D x 4 ! 4x 3=2 for x > 0. Let f .x/ D 4x 3 ! 6x 1=2 D 2x 1=2 .x/ D x 5 C x 3 C 1.

1/ ! 0 C f & m % 1 x2 C 1 % &!1 % &!2 Let f . !1!2 5 .x/ D x !2 ! 4x !1 .x/ D .x/ D !2x x 2 C 1 D 0 yields critical point c D 0. SOLUTION 38.x/ D D D0 % &2 % &2 x2 C 1 x2 C 1 p !1 ˙ 5 yields critical points c D .!1. .x > 0/ Let f . Then f 0 .x 2 C 1/.2x/ !2 x 2 C x ! 1 f . y D x C x !1 395 .0. 40.0.The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity S E C T I O N 4. (Note: c D !1 is not in the interval under consideration.2/ ! .3 35.3x 2 / ! x 3 . y D .x/ D 1 ! x !2 D 0 yields the critical point c D 1.2x/ x 2 . y D f0 ! 0 C 0 ! f & m % M & x3 C1 x2 Let f .x 2 C 1/2 yields the single critical point c D 0. 12 / 1 2 f0 . and x D SOLUTION 37. Then f 0 .x 2 C 3/ D D0 .x/ D SOLUTION x3 . 2 p " p p p " p p ! ! ! " !1! 5 !1! 5 !1C 5 !1C 5 !1C 5 x !1.x/ D x 2 C 1 . 1/ ! 0 C & m % (x > 0) x .1 2 2 2 2 2 0 39.x/ D x C x !1 for x > 0. 0/ 0 f0 .x 2 C 1/2 . 1/ C 0 ! f % M & 2x C 1 .0. 2x D 1. 1/ C 0 C f % : % 1 2. y D 0 2x C 1 x2 C 1 Let f . Then f 0 . .x/ D !2x !3 C 4x !2 D 0 yields !2 C 4x D 0.x/ D SOLUTION x . y D x3 !3 x2 x .1. 12 . 0/ 0 f0 .!1. Then C1 x2 f 0 . y D x !2 ! 4x !1 1 . 1/ Let f .2x C 1/ .0.) SOLUTION x f f 36. Thus. Then x2 C 1 % 2 & % & x C 1 .

0.0.x 2 ! 3/2 p yields the critical points c D 0 and c D ˙3." 0 ! M & & " . Then f 0 . y D sin2 # C sin # ! 2 & ! ! 6 0 M % ! 7! 6. y D # ! 2 cos #. y D " and c D 7! 6 . & % # 43.x/ D ex x . Then x2 ! 3 . 2 x x2 " % on the interval Œ0. !3/ !3 p . 1/ ! 0 C & m % 0 f SOLUTION 11! 6 0 m ! 7! 11! 6 . f 7! 6 C " 7! 6 0 ! 7! 11! 6 . 6 11! 6 . Then f 0 . Then f 0 . c D ˙ 3 are not critical points because they are not in the domain of f .x/ D x f0 . 6 M % ! ! 0.3x 2 / ! x 3 .#/ D cos # ! 3 sin # D 0 yields the critical points c D f0 SOLUTION Let f . 3/ 3 . y D x C e !x f . 2" C ! 11! 6 . ! 2 C & % ! 6 C f # %! ! 2 2 .x ! 1/ D . 0/ 0 C 0 ! 1 ! 0 ! % M & : & : & f . y D sin # C 3 cos # SOLUTION Let f . 0/ 0 .x/ D x3 .#/ D 1 C cos # ! sin # D 0 yields the critical points c D % 0. # f0 C f p 42. 6 ! " ! 7! 6 0 7! 3! 6 . 1/ 1 ! 0 C : & m % 3 41.x ! 3/ . x ex x " & Let f .2x/ x 2 .x/ D x C e !x . 2" m & C ! ! 2 0 M ! 7! 2. ! 3/ p ! 3 p .! 3.#/ D # ! 2 cos #.x 2 ! 9/ D D0 2 2 .#/ D sin # C % 0. f0 f % 0. Then f 0 . 6 M % ! " 11! 6 0 m & 45. Then f 0 . " % Let f .x/ D which yields c D 1 as the only critical point.#/ D sin2 # 3! 11! c D !2 .#/ D # C sin # C cos #. which yields c D f0 46. Œ0. 3. f 0 . Then f 0 . 2"/ 0 C m % p p 3 cos #. xe x ! e x e x .#/ D 2 sin # cos # C cos # D cos #.x 2 ! 3/. % 44.". which yields c D 0 as the only critical point.x > 0/ Let f .x/ D 1 ! e !x . 7! 6 . 2 C m & " ! 3! 2 0 3! 11! 2 . C sin #.!1. and 6 . 2"%.396 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 SOLUTION Let f . 6 ! " ! 7! 6 0 7! 6 . 2"% SOLUTION ! 2 .!3.3.!1. y D # C sin # C cos # SOLUTION Let f . 2" C .2 sin # C 1/ D 0 yields the critical points # SOLUTION ! 6 and c D ".#/ D 1 C 2 sin # D 0. p p 3/ p . 2 .

The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity S E C T I O N 4.3 x .x/ D which yields c D e as the only critical point.x/ D x ! ln x.x/ D tan!1 x ! 12 x. x f0 ! 2 %. x2 . 1/ 1 .1. 397 Then f 0 . ! !4 ! !4 C 0 % M f % ! !) !4.x/ D x 2 e x . SOLUTION ! Let f . x f0 p & % !1.!1.0. Then f 0 .x/ D .x 2 ! 2/e x .x/ D 1 1 ! . y D x 2 e x SOLUTION Let f .0. Then f 0 .x/ D ln x x .x 2 ! 2x/e x C . y D x ! ln x SOLUTION f SOLUTION ! 0 & m 2 %p & 2. Then f 0 . f ln x x p . 1/ ! 0 C & m % 0 f f ( 47. !1/ !1 . y D .x 2 ! 2x/e x SOLUTION Let f . y D tan!1 x ! 12 x SOLUTION Let f .x/ D ) ! ! 2. 1/ ! 0 C 0 ! & m % M & f 50. 1/ 1 . 2 ! & 48. 1 ! ln x . x f0 . which yields c D !2 and c D 0 as critical points.!1.x/ D !e !x sin x ! e !x cos x D !e !x .x C 2/. 2 e !x cos x. y D e !x cos x.1. 1/ 1 . 1 C % Let f .x/ D .x/ D x 2 e x C 2xe x D xe x . y D % p p & ! 2. 1 C x2 2 which yields c D ˙1 as critical points. p which yields c D ˙ 2 as critical points.1. 2 p ! 2 C 0 % M f 51. 1/ ! 0 C & m % .x > 0/ Let f .sin x C cos x/.2x ! 2/e x D . x f 0 . Then f 0 .x/ D 1 ! x !1 .!1. which yields c D ! !4 as the only critical point on the interval Œ! !2 .!2. which yields c D 1 as the only critical point. !2/ !2 . 2 0 .0. 0/ 0 . 1/ C 0 ! 0 C % M & m % f 49.x > 0/ x 52.x 2 ! 2x/e x . Then f 0 . ( ! & ! 2 .

! " For x < ! b2 . Let h.x/ D x x . 1/ whenever a % 0.x/.x/ D 2x C b D 0 yields the critical point c D ! b2 .x/ < 0.x/ D h.!1.x/ > 0 for all x. ! b2 .x/. Sam made two statements that Deborah found dubious. Find the minimum value of f . Similarly. Plot h. 1/ C 0 ! % M & 0 f 53. Thus.x/ is decreasing for x < !1 and for 0 < x < 1. f is increasing for all x. . Because f 0 . 1 . (a) “The average velocity for my trip was 70 mph.3x13 C b/ D 3. By logarithmic differentiation.3 0.x/ < 0 for 0 < x < 1e and f 0 . but my speedometer never read 65 mph.3x23 C b/ ! . SOLUTION " " 55.x2 / ! f .x/ D x 3 C ax C b is increasing on .x/ D x x .2 0.x/ has local minima at x D !1 and x D 1 and a local maximum at x D 0.x/ itself.x/ D x 3 C ax C b. so f is increasing on ! b2 .x/ > 0.x/ D x 3 C ax C b is increasing on . which theorem did Deborah apply to prove Sam’s statement false: the Intermediate Value Theorem or the Mean Value Theorem? Explain.!1. f . Let f .x/ D 3x 2 ! 4x C 2 D 3 x ! C % > 0: 3 3 3 Since f 0 . 57. For all x. Because h. If a > 0. then f 0 . we have # $ 2 2 2 2 f 0 . then f 0 .x/ is positive on these intervals. Sketch a plausible graph for f . 1/. Moreover. h(x) f(x) 1 0. SOLUTION Let f . Show that f . at no point in time did my speedometer read 70 mph.x/ D 3x 2 C a < 0 and f is decreasing for jxj < q ! a3 .x1 / D . SOLUTION f 1 e is the only critical # $ # $1=e 1 1 D " 0:692201 e e is the minimum value.x22 C x2 x1 C x12 / > 0 whenever x2 > x1 . 56.x 2 ! 1/ and suppose that f 0 . x D point.x/ D x 2 C bx C c.” (b) “A policeman clocked me going 70 mph. it follows that f . A plausible graph for f . f . e/ e . In summary. we know that f 0 .1 1 −1 −0. then f . f .” In each case.5 −2 0.2 −1 58.x2 ! x1 /. the function f is everywhere increasing. % & % & 54. 1 .x/ is shown below at the left. If a D 0. we have f 0 .398 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE x f . ! b2 and increasing on ! b2 .x/. Thus.x/ is increasing for !1 < x < 0 and for x > 1 because h.x/ D x x for x > 0. SOLUTION " " Let f .x/ is shown below at the right. so f is decreasing on !1.x/ is negative for x < !1 and for 0 < x < 1.5 2 x −2 1 −1 2 x −0. " If a < 0. Hint: Find the minimum value of f 0 .x/ D 3x 2 C a > 0 and f is increasing for all x. Show that f .x/ D x 3 ! 2x 2 C 2x.e.x/ and use the plot to describe the local extrema and x2 C 1 the increasing/decreasing behavior of f .x/ > 0 for x > 1e .1 C ln x/.x/ D x 2 C bx C c is decreasing on ! 1. we have f 0 .x/ D SOLUTION The graph of h. x. Find conditions on a and b that ensure that f .x/ D x 3 ! 2x 2 C 2x is an increasing function. ! " For x > ! b2 . Let f .0. Then f 0 .

p .t/ be Sam’s distance. in these cases. 8002 C 2002 D f . Which values of c satisfy the conclusion of the MVT on the interval Œa. SOLUTION " " Let f .c/ D 13 .b ! a/ . then f .1000 ! x/2 C x 2 . guarantees that there exists a c 2 .a. f . applied to the interval Œ0. SOLUTION SOLUTION we have Let f .1000 ! x/2 C x 2 is decreasing. b% and differentiable on . every point c 2 .x/ D 2px C q. b/. then f 0 .x/ is any quadratic polynomial.4/ ! f . b%. b% in these instances). Show that if f . 4/ such that f 0 . and by the MVT % 2 & % & pb C qb C r ! pa2 C qa C r f .4/ ! f . the hypotheses of the MVT are met and the theorem does apply.c/ D p D .0/ is undefined. The MVT does not apply in this case. 64. or f . guarantees there exists a c 2 . Accordingly. and reached a velocity of 70 mph.x/ D px 2 C qx C r with p ¤ 0 and consider the interval Œa. Prove more generally that f . (b) Deborah is applying the Intermediate Value Theorem here. from his starting point. considering the interval Œa. Show that f . 2 63.0/ C 12 D 14.!2. The MVT.x/ $ f . applied to the interval Œ2. then f is continuous on Œa. then the midpoint c D satisfies the conclusion of the MVT on Œa.200/ > f .x/ D .c/x: Because c > 0. Apply the MVT to the interval Œ0.x/ % 5. b!a 1 ! .4/ ! f .0/ $ 3x.4/ ! f .0/ D f 0 .!2/ 3 Indeed.x/ D !2. 4%. f . 1/ such that f 0 . f 0 .3 The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity 399 SOLUTION (a) Deborah is applying the Mean Value Theorem here.x/ D !1 for x > 0.x/ D 1 ! jxj. any point c 2 .2/ % 10.c/ D f .0/ 4!0 or f . x%. b%.a/ D b!a b!a .b C a/ C q/ D D p .400/ D 6002 C 4002 . Accordingly. b% if both a and b are positive or negative. so f .b/ ! s.x/ $ 3 for x > 0.c/ D f .4/ $ 14.0/ C 3x D 3x C 2.0/ D 4f 0 . Thus 2pc C q D p. f 0 . he should have reached a velocity of 65 mph at some point. and let b be the end time of the same trip. SOLUTION 60. 61.a C b/ C q.x/ D .2/ C 10 D 8. b% for 2 any a and b.c/ D f .4/ ! f . Then the slope of every secant line and tangent line of f is f .b/ ! f . aCb 62. b% if f . Suppose that f . Show that if f .4/ % 8.0/ D 2 and f 0 . 59.c/ $ 3.0.2/ D !2 and f 0 .2. Use this to decide which is larger: 8002 C 2002 or 6002 C 4002 . Therefore. we have D D .x/ is a linear function? Let f . Finally.0/ x!0 or f .x/ D px C q. 1/.2/ D 2f 0 . and c D SOLUTION The MVT. Sam is claiming that at no point was s 0 . in miles. and f 0 . b/ satisfies the conclusion of the MVT (since f 0 is constant on Œa.!2. Let s.b/ ! f . Yet there is no point c 2 .a/ 0 ! .x/ ! f . f .c/ $ 3.b C a/ C q b!a 2pc C q D f 0 . f 0 . Sam started out at rest. it follows that f . 4%. By the IVT. .c/ D aCb .x/ ! f .a.4/ % f . b/ satisfies f 0 .t/ D s. so f .c/: Because f 0 . Let v. the conclusion of the b!a MVT. 4% to prove that f . Then f 0 .x/ $ 2 C 3x for all x > 0.4/ ! f .x/ ! f . let x > 0. let a be the start time for Sam’s trip. 4/ such that f 0 . If f .a/ p. but not if a < 0 and b > 0.x/ % 5 for x > 2.2/ 4!2 or f .b/ ! f . applied to the interval Œ0. x/ such that f 0 .S E C T I O N 4.!1/ 1 For a D !2 and b D 1. guarantees there exists a c 2 . SOLUTION The MVT.0.x/ < 0 as long as x < 500. where p and q are constants.x/ D 1 ! jxj satisfies the conclusion of the MVT on Œa.1000 ! x/ C 2x D 4x ! 2000. since f is not differentiable on the open interval . f 0 . Indeed. More generally. f 0 .a/ : b!a This violates the MVT.x/ D 1 for x < 0. If a and b (where a < b) are both positive (or both negative). Determine where f .t/ be Sam’s velocity in miles per hour.a. Finally.0/ $ 12.4/ $ f .c/: Because c > 0.

Hence f . for x % 0.x/ D 1 ! x C 12 x 2 .c/: Because f 0 .x/. and that a term whose derivative is ! 12 x 2 should be of the form C x 3 . 70. or D D 120 .0/ D g. (b) Let f .0/ D g.c/ D f .x/ D 1 $ sec2 x D g 0 . h.x/ for 1 4 x % 0 by part (b). by Exercise 67 we conclude that e !x $ 1 ! x C x 2 for x % 0.x/ D e !x . Since f 0 . 1/.x/ D e !x and g. SOLUTION ! 2. by Exercise 67 we conclude that e !x % 1 ! x for x % 0.x ! 2/f 0 . Prove that if f . 1 4 (c) Let g. if b > a2 =3.x/ $ 0 for all x % 0. The MVT.x/ D x ! 16 x 3 . d 1 4 d C x 3 D 3C x 2 D ! 12 x 2 . Now apply Exercise 67 to conclude that cos x % 1 ! 21 x 2 for x % 0. 2 .x/ $ g 0 .x/ D x and g. Then f .0/ D g. By the sum rule.0/ D 1 and g 0 . and so f .x/ D e !x . A term whose derivative is 24 x should be of the form Dx 5 .0/ D 1 and.x/ ! f . valid for x % 0.!1. Hint: Show that f .x/.0/ D g.2/ % 10. then f . Use Exercise 67 to prove that x $ tan x for 0 $ x < ! 2.0/ D 1 and. guarantees there exists a c 2 .0/ and f 0 .x/ ! f .x/ for x % 0 by part (a).x/ for x % 0 by Exercise 68. h0 .x/ D !e !x $ x ! 1 D g 0 . it follows that f . Show that if f .0/ D 0 and g 0 .x/ D x 3 C ax 2 C bx C c.x/ $ g.x/ for all x % 0.x/ % 10x ! 15 for all x > 2. Thus.x/ for 0 $ x < the result of Exercise 67 to conclude that x $ tan x for 0 $ x < !2 .0/ ! g. and look for a polynomial (which we currently must do by educated guess) whose derivative is 1 4 1 ! 12 x 2 C 24 x . dx Dx 5 D dx 1 4 1 1 4 5Dx D 24 x .x ! 2/ D 10x ! 15. h0 .0/ D f .0/ D g.x ! 2/.x/: Thus.x/ ! f .!1.x/ D cos x and f .6) to prove the following assertions for all x % 0 (each assertion follows from the previous one).x/ % f . Apply 69. Then f .x/ 1 by the result from part (a). Then f . Then f .x/ for x % 0.x/ $ g.x/ D 1 ! 12 x 2 C 24 x and f . Then f 0 .x/ ! g.2/ D 5 and f 0 .x/ ! g. Then f . This implies that h is nonincreasing. f 0 . so that 5D D 24 .0/ D 0. % & a 2 SOLUTION Let f . then f .2/ x!2 or f . Therefore.x/ D !x C 16 x 3 % ! sin x D f 0 .0/ D g. f 0 . 68. 1 (d) The next inequality in the series is sin x $ x ! 16 x 3 C 120 x 5 .0/ D g. then f .2/ C 10. we note that the derivative of sin x is cos x.x/ for x % 0.x/ % 10. a2 3 C b > 0 for all x if 67.x/ D !1 $ !e !x D g 0 . so C D ! 16 . Now apply Exercise 67 to conclude that cos x $ 1 ! 12 x 2 C 24 x for x % 0. We know the derivative of x is 1.400 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 65. (b) Let g. Let f . Since h. Use the method of Exercise 69 to prove the following inequalities for x % 0. it cannot climb above zero). To construct (d) from (c). 1/ if b > a2 =3.x/ $ g 0 .x/ D cos x.x/ D x 3 C ax 2 C bx C c is increasing on . x%.x/ D 3x 2 C 2ax C b D 3 x C 3 ! b! a2 3 > 0.x/ D 1 ! x and g. or f .2/ D . From this.x/ D f . (a) cos x % 1 ! 12 x 2 (b) sin x % x ! 16 x 3 1 4 (c) cos x $ 1 ! 12 x 2 C 24 x (d) Can you guess the next inequality in the series? SOLUTION (a) We prove this using Exercise 67: Let g. x/ such that f 0 .x/ D f 0 .x/ is nonincreasing. for x % 0. Let f .x/ $ 0 for all x % 0 (as h is nonincreasing.x/ ! g.x/ ! g 0 . SOLUTION Let h.x/ $ 0 for all x % 0. Then f .x/ for all x % 0. applied to the interval Œ2.x/ D ! sin x % !x D f 0 .x/ is increasing on .2.x/ D cos x % 1 ! 12 x 2 D f 0 . Show that a cubic function f .x/ D sin x and f . Use Exercise 67 and the inequality sin x $ x for x % 0 (established in Theorem 3 of Section 2. Further Insights and Challenges 66.0/ D 1 and g 0 .0/ D 0 and f 0 . SOLUTION Let x > 2.x/ D tan x.x/ % 10 for x > 2.x/ D 1 ! 21 x 2 . (a) e !x % 1 ! x (b) e !x $ 1 ! x C 12 x 2 (c) e !x % 1 ! x C 12 x 2 ! 16 x 3 Can you guess the next inequality in the series? SOLUTION (a) Let f . Now apply Exercise 67 to conclude that sin x % x ! 16 x 3 for x % 0.

f .x/ D 1 ! x C 12 x 2 ! 16 x 3 and g.0/2 C f 0 . and deduce that sin2 x C cos2 x D 1. Since f 0 .x/ D f .3 The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity 401 (c) Let f .S E C T I O N 4. x1 /. Thus. and x D 0 is a critical point of f . for this problem. y −0. Then f 0 .x/f 0 .!x !2 / D x 3x sin ! cos : x x x x This formula is not defined at x D 0. where m D f 0 . Rearranging the statement. Examine the graphs of f .0/ D 1 and.2 0. In other words.0/2 . we conclude that f 0 . Hint: Show that the function on the left has zero derivative.x/ D e !x .x/ D mx C constant.x/ D 0 for all x.x/ D mx C b.x/ D !f . 73. g.x/ ! mx.0/ D lim Thus f 0 . for x % 0.x/ and f 0 .x/ D m for all x. Therefore f . by Exercise 67 we conclude that e !x % 1 ! x C x 2 ! x 3 for x % 0. we want to substitute x D 0 and find C D f .x/2 C f 0 . where we have used the fact that f 00 .x/ D x 3 sin. we conclude that f .x/ D f . To determine the value of C .x/ takes values higher than f . Then g 0 .x/2 C f 0 . (b) The figure below at the left shows f .x/.x/ ! mx D constant for all x.0/2 C f 0 .x/ D 2f . Since f . by the Squeeze Theorem.x/2 must be a constant function.x/ satisfies the following equation (an example of a differential equation): f 00 . which implies that the First Derivative Test cannot be applied. but its limit is. Then f .0/ is neither a local minimum nor a local maximum of f .0/.2 y 0.x/ D 3x 2 sin # $ # $ # # $ # $$ 1 1 1 1 C x 3 cos .x/ D constant for all x and consequently f .0/ 1 D lim x 2 sin D 0: x!0 x!0 x!0 x f 0 . (b) Verify that sin x and cos x satisfy Eq.x/2 . Prove that f .2 x (c) As x approaches 0 from either direction.x/ ! f .0/ arbitrarily close to x D 0).0/ cannot be a local minimum (since f . Show that f 0 . ˇ # $ # $ˇ #ˇ # $ˇ ˇ # $ˇ$ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ 1 1 ˇˇ ˇ3x sin 1 ˇ C ˇcos 1 ˇ $ jxj.x/ D 0 for all x.0/ and b D f . f .x/2 C f 0 .0/ arbitrarily close to 0).x/ alternates between positive and negative arbitrarily close to x D 0.0/2 for all x. f .x/2 D C for some constant C .x/j D jxj ˇˇ3x sin ! cos $ jxj ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ x x x x ˇ so.x/ ! m D m ! m D 0 which implies that g.0/ D g. " " 72. In particular.0/ D b. Let g. This means that f .x/ D !f .x/2 D f .x/f 0 .x/ D constant for all x. (1).x/ D 2f .x/ is continuous at x D 0. Because g 0 . Assume that f 00 exists and f 00 .x/ D x 3 sin x1 for x ¤ 0 and f .2 x −0.x/2 D f .0/ D 0? We check using the limit definition of the derivative: x!0 # $ f .x/f 00 . lim jf 0 . nor can f .x/ C 2f 0 .x/.!f .x/j D 0.0/ D m.x/ C 2f 0 .x/. Can the First Derivative Test be applied? Show that f .x/ is continuous at x D 0 and that x D 0 is a critical point of f . Suppose that f .3jxj C 1/ jf 0 . But does f 0 .x/ 2 1 1 by the result from part (b).x/ D !1 C x ! x 2 $ !e !x D g 0 .0/2 C f 0 . f .0/2 : .x/2 C f 0 .0/ is neither a local min nor a local max.0/ D 0.x// D 0. SOLUTION Let f 00 .0/ be a local maximum (since f . Hence. Then g 0 . SOLUTION (a) Let g. Then f 0 . we can substitute any number for x. Since !1 $ sin x $ 1 and !1 $ cos x $ 1 for all x. 1 f 0 .x/ D f .x/ D f 0 .x/ gets lower than f . Note how the two functions oscillate near x D 0.x/2 C f 0 . 2 6 1 1 1 The next inequality in the series is e !x $ 1 ! x C x 2 ! x 3 C x 4 for x % 0 2 6 24 71. (a) (b) (c) SOLUTION (a) Let f .0/ D 0 for all x.x/ D mx C b for all x.x/ 1 (a) Show that f . % & Define f .x/.x/. and the figure below at the right shows f 0 .

x/ D !f .x/ D cos x and f 00 .c/ < 0? SOLUTION If f 0 .0/ D g.x/ ! g.0/ D 1.x/: Furthermore. (c) f 00 .x/ D !f .x/ goes from C to !. Then f 0 . If f is concave up. In B. Match the graphs in Figure 1 with the description: (a) f 00 .x// D !. Suppose that functions f and g satisfy Eq.0/ D 1 and g 0 .x/ D sin x is the unique solution of Eq. (1) and have the same initial values—that is.0/.x/ D g.x// D !h. then f . (1) satisfying f . (C) (D) .x/ goes from C to !. Use Exercise 74 to prove: f . Exercises 1. then f has a point of inflection at x D c.x/ goes from ! to C.402 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE (b) Let f . the result from part (a) guarantees that sin2 x C cos2 x D sin2 0 C cos2 0 D 0 C 1 D 1: 74. By Exercise 74.x/ < 0 for all x. This can only happen if h.0/ D 0. and we can directly calculate that f .x/ D f 00 . (B) FIGURE 1 SOLUTION (a) (b) (c) (d) In C.0/ ! g 0 . Hence.4 The Shape of a Graph Preliminary Questions 1.0/ D f 0 .0/ D 0 and f 0 .x/ changes from C to ! at x D c. f . let f .x/ D sin x is the unique solution of Eq.c/ is a local min.0/ D 1. This result can be used to develop all the properties of the trigonometric functions “analytically”—that is.x/ goes from ! to C.x/.x/ D g. Since f 00 is the derivative f 0 must therefore be increasing.x/ > 0 for all x. If of f 0 .x/ D !f .x/.x/ ! .x/ D sin x for all x.x/ for all x.0/ D 0 is carried out in a similar manner. Then h00 . we have f 00 .x/ D sin x. What conclusion can you draw if f 0 .x/ ! g 00 . The proof that g. then f 00 . 75.x/ ! g. equivalently.x/2 D 0.x/.c/ is a local maximum. In A.0/ D 1.c/ D 0 and f 00 . SOLUTION In part (b) of Exercise 73. f .0/ D 0. Hint: Apply Exercise 73(a) to f ! g.0/ D sin 0 D 0 and f 0 . SOLUTION False. 4. h. so f 00 .x/ D sin x. Thus. f 00 .x/ for all x. True or False? If f 00 .0/ and f 0 .f . by part (a) of Exercise 73.c/ < 0.x/ D ! sin x. and we again have f 00 .0/ D f . (1) such that f . f will have a point of inflection at x D c only if x D c is in the domain of f . and g. if we take f .0/ D 0 and f 0 . SOLUTION Let h. In D. it follows that F . 2. (1) satisfying g. (d) f 00 . we have f 00 .0/ D 0 and F 0 . then f 0 is (choose one): (a) increasing (b) decreasing SOLUTION The correct response is (a): increasing.0/ D 1 and g 0 . f .x/ D f .0/ D 0 and h0 . it was shown that f .x/ D ! sin x. then f 00 is positive.x/ D cos x is the unique solution of Eq.0/ D cos 0 D 1.c/ D 0 and f 00 . h. it follows that the derivative of f 0 is positive and the function is concave up.c/ could be zero. without reference to triangles.!g. SOLUTION False.x/ D sin x satisfies Eq.x/. (1).x/ > 0 for all x. Next. Prove that f . Then f 0 . call it F .x/ < 0 for all x.0/ D g 0 .x/ D ! cos x. 4. f 00 . True or False? If f . 3.0/ ! g. Finally. or. Suppose there is another function.x/2 C h0 .x/ D cos x is the unique solution such that g.x/ D cos x.x/ D 0 for all x. (1) with the same initial conditions: F . f 00 . that satisfies Eq.c/ must be positive. f 00 . (A) (b) f 00 .

because f 00 .#/ D 2 sin #. f . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) FIGURE 2 SOLUTION (a) (ii) An increasing growth rate implies an increasing f 0 . determine the intervals on which the function is concave up or down and find the points of inflection. because f 00 . f is concave up for 0 < # < " since f 00 .x/ D x. f . but now it’s picking up. y D x. Finally. . because f . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) The Shape of a Graph 403 Match each statement with a graph in Figure 2 that represents company profits as a function of time. The outlook is great: The growth rate keeps increasing. (e) (vi) “Cooling off” generally means increasing at a decreasing rate.3 ! x 2 /.2.x/ D 30x 2 ! 5x 4 and f 00 .x/ changes sign at x D 0 and at x D ˙ 3.x/ D 2 ! 6x !1=2 . since f 00 . 3. because f 00 . 1/. SOLUTION 7.x/ > 0 there.x/ has a point of inflection at x D 9. Œ0.x/ D 2x ! 12x 1=2 and f 00 . y D # ! 2 sin #.t/ changes sign at t D 2.t/ D t 3 ! 6t 2 C 4.#/ > 0 there.#/ D # C sin2 #.#/ has a point of inflection at # D ".t/ D 6t ! 12 D 0 at t D 2.x/ > 0 there. so that the graph is concave down. (c) (i) “Losing money” implies a downward curve. Then f 0 . f is concave down for "=4 < # < 3"=4 since f 00 . SOLUTION 4. Moreover. 2"% 8. 2/. y D x 2 ! 4x C 3 Let f . The phrase “.x/ changes sign at x D 9.x/ D 2 > 0 for all x. so the curve is concave down. Now. (f) (v) “Business had been picking up” implies that the graph started out concave up. Now. “Not as fast” implies that f 0 is becoming less negative. f is concave p p p p up for x < ! 3 and for 0 < x < 3 since f 00 . Then f 0 . p 9. y D 10x 3 ! x 5 Let f .x/ < p 0 there.x/ D 60x ! 20x 3 D 20x. Now.#/ < 0 there.. but not as quickly as before. SOLUTION 6. Œ0. Finally. Then f 0 . "% SOLUTION Let f . and it’s getting worse as time goes on.!1. Therefore. (d) (iii) “We’re doing well” implies that f is increasing.t/ > 0 there. Then f 0 . but now it’s cooling off” implies that the graph ends up concave down. In Exercises 3–18. Moreover. so that f 00 . Thus. (b) (iv) “Losing money” implies a downward curve.#/ D # ! 2 sin #. . We’re doing well.x/ D 2x ! 4 and f 00 . f is concave down for " < # < 2" since f 00 .x/ < 0 there. f is concave up for 0 < # < "=4 and for 3"=4 < # < " since f 00 .x/ D 10 C 12x 2 > 10 for all x. The phrase “. Finally. Finally. y D 5x 2 C x 4 Let f . and there are no points of inflection. and so a graph that is concave up.#/ D 2 cos 2#. Then f 0 .x ! 8 x/ D x 2 ! 8x 3=2 .#/ changes sign at # D ".S E C T I O N 4. Now. Business had been picking up. Now. f is concave up for all x and has no points of inflection.4 2.now it’s picking up” implies that the end of the graph is concave up.#/ > 0 there. SOLUTION 5. f is concave p down for ! 3 < x < 0 and for x > 3 00 00 since f . f .t/ D 3t 2 ! 12t and f 00 .x/ has a point of inflection at x D 0 and at x D ˙ 3. SOLUTION . but “the growth rate is leveling off” implies that f 0 is decreasing.#/ changes sign at # D "=4 and at # D 3"=4. but our growth rate is leveling off. f is concave up everywhere.. Moreover.t/ < 0 there. Let f . f is concave up on . f is concave 00 down for 0 < x < 9 since f .#/ has a point of inflection at # D "=4 and at # D 3"=4. y D # C sin2 #. Then f 0 . because f 00 . “Getting worse” implies that f 0 is becoming more negative.x/ D 5x 2 C x 4 .x/ > 0. f is concave up for x > 9 since f 00 . We’re losing money. Finally.x/ D x 2 ! 4x C 3. but now it’s cooling off. f is concave down on .x/ D 10x C 4x 3 and f 00 . Moreover. Then f 0 . We’re losing money. f .x % 0/ p SOLUTION Let f .#/ D 1 C 2 sin # cos # D 1 C sin 2# and f 00 . f .#/ D 1 ! 2 cos # and f 00 . Business had been cooling off.#/ < 0 there. The use of “had” implies that only the beginning of the graph is that way. since f 00 . y D t 3 ! 6t 2 C 4 Let f .t/ has a point of inflection at t D 2.x/ D 10x 3 ! x 5 . Moreover.x ! 8 x/ .

f is concave p down for x < !3 3 and for 0 < x < 3 3 since f 00 . Finally.x/ changes sign at both x D 0 and x D 1.x 2 C 9/.x C 9/2 and .1 ! 3x/e !3x ! 3e !3x D is concave down for x < 23 since f 00 . Moreover. y D 2 x C9 SOLUTION Let f .2x/ 9 ! x2 D 2 2 2 .2/. f is concave down for !5 < x < 1 since f 00 .x/ < 0 there.x/ has a point of inflection at both x D !1 and x D 1. y D x ! ln x .x/ < 0 there. because f 00 .x/ D x ! ln x.x/ > 0 there. f is concave up for all x > 0 and has no points of inflection. SOLUTION Let f .x/ > 0 there. f has a point of inflection at x D 21 . f is concavepup for !3 3 < x < 0 and for x > 3 3 since f 00 .x 2 ! 27/ D : 2 4 . f 00 . y D x 7=5 !3=5 .x/ D 4x C x !1 and f 00 .x ! 2/ 1 ! x 3 D x ! x 4 ! 2 C 2x 3 . Finally. Finally.x/ < 0 there. f 18. Moreover.1 ! 3x/e !3x and f 00 . f is concave up on . x 14. f is concave down for x < 0 since Let f . SOLUTION . because f 00 .x/ D x 7=2 ! 35x 2 . because f 00 .x/ D 7 5=2 x ! 70x 2 and f 00 . Then f 0 . Now.x/ D x 7=5 .!1.x/ > 0 there.x 2 C 3/ 6x 2 ! 6 D 2 : 2 4 . Finally. f 16. SOLUTION Let f .2x C 2/e x D . Then f 0 .x 2 ! 7/e x C 2xe x D . Now.x/ has a point of inflection at x D 0 and at x D ˙3 3. Then f 0 . Then f 0 .x/ D 14 25 x there. y D .x/ D . 17. Moreover.x 2 C 2x ! 7/e x C .1.x/ D ! 2 and x2 C 3 . Finally. f .x/ changes sign at x D 0 and at x D ˙3 3.x/ D .x/ D 75 x 2=5 and f 00 .x C 9/ .x 2 ! 7/e x SOLUTION Let f .1 ! x 3 / % & Let f . because f 00 . f .x C 9/ . f is concave down for x < 12 since is concave up for x > 12 since f 00 .x > 0/ Let f .x 2 C 9/.x/ < 0 there. y D x 7=2 ! 35x 2 SOLUTION Let f .x C 5/. Then f 0 .x ! 2/.x/ < 0 there. Moreover. Moreover. because f 00 .9 ! x 2 /.x/ D x !2 > 0 for all x > 0.x/ D 1 ! 1=x and f 00 .x/ D 12x ! 12x 2 D 12x. Now. Then f 0 . y D 2x 2 C ln x .x/ changes sign at both x D !1 and x D 1.0. f is concave down on .1 ! x/ D 0 at x D 0 and x D 1.x/ D 4 ! x !2 .x/ D !3.x/ D !3xe !3x C e !3x D . Moreover.x/ D ! 2.x/ > 0 there.x C 3/3 Now. SOLUTION 12.9x ! 6/e !3x .x/ > 0 there. 11. f is concave up for x > 4 since f 00 . f has a point of inflection at x D !5 and at x D 1. Moreover. y D xe !3x D xe !3x . because f 00 . f . f is concave down for jxj < 1 since f 00 .x/ D x . Now.x/ has a point of inflection at x D 4.x/ <p0 there.x 2 C 9/2 .x/ has a point of inflection at x D 0. f is concave up for x > 23 since f 00 . because f 00 . f is concave up for x < !5 and for x > 1 since f 00 .x/ changes sign at x D !5 and at x D 1.x/ < 0 there.x ! 1/e x .x/ > 0 there. Now.x 2 ! 7/e x .x C 3/ . 1/ since f 00 . because f 00 .x/ D 15.x/ D 1 2x .x/ . Then f 0 .x/ D 35 3=2 x ! 70: 4 Now.x 2 C 3/2 ! 8x 2 .x 2 C 2x07/e x and f 00 .x/ D .x C 3/2 f 00 . Then f 0 . 1/ since f 00 .x/ D 1 ! 4x 3 C 6x 2 and f 00 . Moreover. f is concave down for 0 < x < 4 since f 00 .x/ D . SOLUTION f 00 .x/ D . f is concave up for jxj > 1 since f 00 .x/ changes sign at x D 0. y D x2 SOLUTION 1 C3 Let f .x/ > 0 there.x/ has a point of inflection at both x D 0 and x D 1. x D 23 is a point of inflection.x/ < 0 13.!2x/ ! .x/ changes sign at x D 12 . Finally.2x/ 2x. f is concave up for x > 0 since f 00 .404 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 10. Finally. x 2 C9 Then f 0 .x/ changes sign at x D 4.x 2 C 9/3 p p p Now. Finally.1/ ! x.x/ D 2x 2 f 00 .x > 0/ C ln x.x/ > 0 there. 0/ [ . Thus. f .x/ changes sign at x D 32 . f . y D .

this occurs at x D b and at x D e.x/ has an inflection point at x D b and another at x D e.4 The Shape of a Graph 405 19. The graph is concave down for x < c.t/ shown in Figure 3. The growth rate at the point of inflection is thus 240 ! 20 220 D D 5:5 cm/day: 60 ! 20 40 Because the logistic curve changes from concave up to concave down at t D 40.x/ is decreasing.60. respectively. the growth rate at this point is the maximum growth rate for the sunflower plant. and on which interval is f . Repeat Exercise 20 but assume that Figure 4 is the graph of the derivative f 0 . The function f .x/.x/ changes from increasing to decreasing or from decreasing to increasing.S E C T I O N 4. Thus. Height (cm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 20 40 60 80 100 t (days) Sketches of the first and second derivative of h. Estimate the growth rate at the point of inflection and explain its significance. f . Consequently. therefore. In Figure 4. hʹ′ hʹ′ʹ′ 6 5 0. there is a single point of inflection at x D c. Where do the points of inflection of f . 240/.20. The graph below shows the logistic curve with an approximate tangent line drawn at t D 40. 21.t/ are shown below at the left and at the right. . SOLUTION Points of inflection occur when f 00 .x/ occur.t/. The approximate tangent line passes roughly through the points . The growth of a sunflower during the first 100 days after sprouting is modeled well by the logistic curve y D h. 20/ and . points of inflection occur when f 0 .x/ concave down? y a b c d e f g x FIGURE 4 SOLUTION The function in Figure 4 changes concavity at x D c.1 1 20 40 60 80 100 t 20.x/.x/ changes sign. Then make a rough sketch of the first and second derivatives of h.x/ < 0 or when f 0 . f . Assume that Figure 4 is the graph of f . Height (cm) 300 250 200 150 100 50 20 40 60 80 100 t (days) FIGURE 3 SOLUTION The point of inflection in Figure 3 appears to occur at t D 40 days.x/ is concave down for b < x < e. therefore.x/ will be concave down when f 00 .1 4 3 20 2 40 60 80 100 t −0.

f is concave down where f 0 is decreasing.x/ D 6x ! 24.x 2 ! 4/. Thus.x/. Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sales 2 30 50 60 90 150 230 340 SOLUTION Note that in successive months. however. however. and f .406 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 22. Moreover. 23.1.3/ D !6 < 0 and f 00 . Then f 0 . This occurs at x D 0:4.x/ D 3x 2 ! 24x C 45 D 3. 60.2/ D !15 are local minima. 1:2%. which is inconclusive.x/ has the following properties: (a) Increasing (b) Decreasing (c) Concave up (d) Concave down y y = f'(x) 0.x/ on Œ0. f 00 . the rate of increase in sales was decreasing. and the critical points are x D 3 and x D 5.x ! 3/. and the critical points are x D 0 and x D ˙2. therefore.x/ D x 3 ! 12x 2 C 45x Let f .64 1 1.x/ and the points where the local minima and maxima occur. There are no local minima. 0:17/ [ . and x D 1.5x 2 ! 3/ D 0 at x D 0.1/ D 0. f . by the second derivative test. which is inconclusive. Leticia began using pay-per-click advertising in month 5. This occurs on .2/ D 32 > 0 and f 00 .” In which month did that occur? Explain. This occurs on .x/ D x 4 ! 8x 2 C 1.x/ D x 3 ! 12x 2 C 45x.x/ D x 5 ! x 3 . Figure 5 shows the derivative f 0 .3/ D 54 is a local maximum.x/ D 3x 4 ! 8x 3 C 6x 2 SOLUTION Let f . x D ˙ 35 and f 00 . 0:64/ [ .0/ is a local minimum. Repeat Exercise 20 but assume that Figure 4 is the graph of the second derivative f 00 . f . Hence.1. (a) f is increasing when f 0 is positive. f is decreasing on .2 x FIGURE 5 SOLUTION Recall that the graph is that of f 0 .0/ D !16 < 0.17 0.x/ D x 4 ! 8x 2 C 1 SOLUTION Let f . Thus. f 00 .x/ D 12x 3 ! 24x 2 C 12x D 12x. f . (b) f is decreasing when f 0 is negative.x ! 5/. Therefore. In a report to investors.x ! 1/2 D 0 at x D 0. (c) Now f is concave up where f 0 is increasing. the rate of increase in sales increased. After month 5. which implies f a local minimum. 0:4/. which 5 5 5 # q $ implies that f ! 35 is a local maximum. SOLUTION .x/ D #q $ # q $ #q $ 3 3 00 ! 3 0.x/ has inflection points at x D a. f . f is increasing on . not f . Then f 0 . Then f 0 .0. f . Thus. so f 00 . with monthly sales as recorded below. f 00 . The inflection points of f occur where f 0 changes from increasing to decreasing or vice versa because it is at these points that the sign of f 00 changes. Then f 0 . x D d and x D f .20x 2 ! 6/. “Sales reached a point of inflection when I started using pay-per-click advertising. 1:2/.0:4/ is a local maximum. x D 0:64. From the graph we conclude that f has points of inflection at x D 0:17. 1/.x/ D 3x 4 ! 8x 3 C 6x 2 . SOLUTION Inflection points occur when f 00 .4 0.x/ D 36x 2 ! 48x C 12. and f . f 00 . The function f .x/ is concave down for x < a and for d < x < f . f . The local extrema of f occur where f 0 changes sign. SOLUTION 26. find the critical points and apply the Second Derivative Test (or state that it fails). 1 and f 00 . Therefore.0:64. Determine the intervals on which f . 30. f .x/ D 5x 4 ! 3x 2 D x 2 . 27. 10.0/ D 0.x/ D 12x 2 ! 16. 20. 24. (d) Moreover. so f 00 .x/ changes sign.0:17. f 00 > is < 0. sales increased by 28. f 00 .0. she states. Hence. Leticia has been selling solar-powered laptop chargers through her website. 1/ [ . 80 and 110. Until month 5.5/ D 6 > 0. 1:2/.5/ D 50 is a local minimum. 25. which implies f .0/ > 0.x/ D 4x 3 ! 16x D 4x. Locate the points of inflection of f . by the Second Derivative Test.x/ D x 5 ! x 3 q Let f . 28. In Exercises 25–38. and f 20x 3 ! 6x D x.0:4.0/ D 1 is a local maximum. Because the sign of f 0 changes from C to !.!2/ D !15 and f . Moreover. f .!2/ D f 00 .

2"% Let f . f 00 . by the second derivative test. so f .4 29. so there are two critical points: x D 0 and x D 29 . Then xC1 f 0 . f .x/ D ! cos x ."=2/ > 0.x/ D 21x 4=3 ! xD and f 00 . sin x C 4 SOLUTION Œ0. 2 Thus.x/ D and 2. Let f . "%.x 2 ! x C 2/ C 2. !3 / < 0.x 2 C 2x ! 8/ : .9x ! 2/. Finally.2/ > 0. y D 1 . Therefore.x/ D 1 !2x C 1 . 33.x/ D 9x 1=2 ! 2x !1=2 D x !1=2 . f . f which implies f 21 !1=2 2 x 00 # $6=11 ! 1 > 0.x ! x C 2/2 f 00 .x/ D 28x 1=3 C 21 !3=2 .2 cos x ! 1/.sin x C 4/3 Now.x C 1/3 Thus.x/ D 0 at x D 0.x/ D 1 x2 ! x C 2 SOLUTION Let f . Since f 00 . f 00 . "% SOLUTION Let f . Then f 0 .x/ D 2 cos2 x C sin2 x C 4 sin x : .x/ D Thus f 00 ! " 1 2 ! " 1 2 < 0. which implies f 29 is a local minimum.x/ D SOLUTION The Shape of a Graph 407 x 2 ! 8x . so f .x 2 ! x C 2/3 is a local maximum. it follows that f .2/ D !4 is a local minimum. so f . !3 / is a local maximum. f 00 . so the Second Derivative Test cannot be applied there.x/ D 0 when x D "=2 and when x D 3"=2. f 00 . so f . f 0 . Now.x/ D sin2 x C cos x.x/ D x 2 ! 8x xC1 Let f . 2 is a local minimum.x/ D 6x 3=2 ! 4x 1=2 . 4 x #! " $ 6=11 1 2 D 0 when # $6=11 1 .sin x C 4/!1 . Now. Then f 0 .x/ is undefined at x D 0.!4/ < 0 and f 00 . Then f 0 . Then f 0 . . f 00 .x/ D sin2 x C cos x.2x ! 1/2 : . the critical points are x D !4 and x D 2. 32."/ > 0.!4/ D !16 is a local maximum and f .S E C T I O N 4. f 00 . Moreover.x C 1/2 ! 2. On the other hand.sin x C 4/2 and f 00 .3"=2/ < 0.x/ D . f 00 .0/ is a local minimum. 34. f . f 0 . On the other hand.x/ D 9 !1=2 1 x C x !3=2 D x !3=2 . y D 9x 7=3 ! 21x 1=2 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D 2 D 0 at x D x2 ! x C 2 . which implies that f 31. f ."/ is a local minimum.x/ D 9x 7=3 ! 21x 1=2 .9x C 2/: 2 2 ! " ! " Thus. SOLUTION f 00 .x C 1/2 f 00 . 30. Then f 0 . x D !3 and x D ".x/ D 2 cos2 x ! 2 sin2 x ! cos x: Thus. y D 6x 3=2 ! 4x 1=2 1 2 and !2.3"=2/ is a local maximum."=2/ is a local minimum. f 00 29 > 0. Œ0.x/ D x 2 C 2x ! 8 .x/ D 2 sin x cos x ! sin x D sin x. On the interval Œ0.0/ > 0.

3x ! 1/ D 0 yields x D 1 and x D 1 3 as candidates for extrema. ` The function (f .x/ D 6x ! 4 D 0 gives a candidate for a point of inflection at x D 23 .!2x/ 1 8 C 2x 2 ! D! 2 ! : 2 2 2 x . 36. 1 .x/ D 3x C 2x. g.0. f 00 ! p " 2 3 3 < 0.x/ D 3x 2 ! 4x C 1 D . 2 2 2 2 2 Let f .x/ D ln x C ln. f 00 22 < 0. Then f 0 . and the local minima and maxima.) is concave down on the given interval. etc. etc. Thus.2/ ! 2x. etc. etc. f 00 .x/ D xe !x SOLUTION p ˙ 22 . g.) is decreasing on the given interval. I The function (f . g. m The function (f .x/ D xe !x . 0 The entity is zero at the specified point. a The function (f . % The function (f . so f e !1=3 is a local minimum. f 00 e !1=3 > 0. find the intervals on which f is concave up or down.x/ D 1 2x ! . so f ! 22 is a local minimum. so there are two critical points: x D 2 2 2 f 00 .1 ! 2x 2 /e !x . In Exercises 39–52. etc.x > 0/ Let f .x/ D e !x ! 4e !2x SOLUTION Let f .3 ln 2/ is a local maximum. & The function (f . . Now. g. g.x/ D !2x 2 e !x C e !x D .) is increasing on the given interval. g.x/ D x 3 ln x. M The function (f . f . Now.4 ! x 2 /. f 00 . f 00 . Moreover.x/ D .) has a local maximum at the specified point. f . x 4 ! x2 so there is only one critical point on the interval 0 < x < 2: x D f 00 . SYMBOL MEANING ! The entity is negative on the given interval. etc. Then f 0 .) has an inflection point here.4 ! x 2 /2 is a local maximum. so f 22 is a local maximum. On the other hand. so f 00 . f . f .4 ! x 2 /. . SOLUTION Here is a table legend for Exercises 39–52. 37. the critical points. f 00 ! 22 > 0. .408 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 35.x/ D x 3 ln x SOLUTION Now.x/ D ! Thus.x/ D x 3 ! 2x 2 C x.4 ! x 2 /. : There is no local extremum or inflection point here.x/ D ln x C ln.4x 3 ! 2x/e !x ! 4xe !x D .5 C 6lnx/: ! " ! " Thus. the points of inflection.4 ! x / x .1 C 3 ln x/.x/ D !e !x C 8e !2x D 0 when x D 3 ln 2. f . Then f 0 .x/ D e !x ! 16e !2x . U The entity is undefined at the specified point. Then f 0 .) has a local minimum at the specified point. so f ! p " 2 3 3 p 2 3 3 .x ! 1/. f . 38. Then f 0 .4x 3 ! 6x/e !x : !p " !p " ! p " ! p " Thus. g. C The entity is positive on the given interval. 39.x/ D x 2 C 3x 2 ln x D x 2 .) is concave up on the given interval. 2/ SOLUTION Let f .x/ D x 3 ! 2x 2 C x SOLUTION " " Let f . etc.x/ D e !x ! 4e !2x . Now.3 ln 2/ < 0. so there is only one critical point: x D e !1=3 .1 C 3 ln x/ D x.

& x p p " 3 2 .t/ D t 2 ! t 3 . 12 ! I ` ! 0.2/2=3 .4x 2 ! 3/ D 0 yields x D 0 and x D ˙ Moreover.x % 0/ Let f .4 % x f0 ! 1. Note that the domain of f is x % 0. 00 .1 0 I C ` .!1.The Shape of a Graph S E C T I O N 4. ! " Then f 0 .x/ D x 3=2 ! 4x !1=2 SOLUTION Let f .2/2=3 as candidates for extrema.x/ D 2x 4 ! 3x 2 C 2. Then f 0 . t .1 Moreover. Then f 0 . D 2 ! 6t D 0 gives a candidate for a point of inflection at t D 13 . ! 6. f 00 . 13 C f %1 1 3 0 ! I ` & 3.x/ x .0 0 C 0 M % & ! 12 0 % ! 12 .x/ D 3 1=2 x C 2x !3=2 > 0 2 409 . f 8 3 as candidates for extrema.3x ! 8/ D 0 yields x D 0 and x D Moreover.x/ D 2x 4 ! 3x 2 C 2 SOLUTION " " Let f .t/ D t 2 ! t 3 SOLUTION " " Let f . ! 1/ D 0 gives candidates for a point of inflection at x D ˙ 12 . SOLUTION " " " 3 2 .x ! 4/ SOLUTION " " Let f . a p 3 2 ! " p 3 2 0 m & & %1 1 2 !p C % & 2. f 00 .x/ D x 2 ! 8x 1=2 ! p ! m % 3 2 as candidates for extrema.x/ D x 2 . f . 43 ! f %4 4 3 0 C I a & 3. 83 ! & %8 8 3 0 m & & 3. 1 a 42. ! 12 C f 43.x/ D 8x 3 ! 6x D 2x.x/ D 2x ! 4x !1=2 D x !1=2 2x 3=2 ! 4 D 0 yields x D 0 and x D . Then f 0 .1 C 0 % M ! % t f 00 & & ! 1.2/2=3 . f . f .t/ 2 3 as candidates for extrema.t/ D 2t ! 3t 2 D t. 1 ` 41. ! " ! " x 0 0. which means there are no inflection points.x/ D 24x 2 ! x f0 !6D !1. Then f 0 . 2 3 ! & %2 2 3 0 I a & 3. .!1. f . 13 f C & %1 1 3 0 M % & 3. 0/ 0 f0 ! 0 f & m % 2& 0.x/ D x 2 ! 8x 1=2 .x/ D 2 C 2x !3=2 > 0 for all x % 0.x/ D 3x 2 ! 8x D x.x > 0/ x 3=2 ! 4x !1=2 .4x 2 p 3 2 ! f " ! f 00 3 2 0 ! 1. f .1 C % x f 00 % & ! 1. 0/ 0 f0 C 0 f % M % 0. 1 44.x/ D x 2 . f 00 .2/2=3 .2 ! 3t/ D 0 yields t D 0 and t D Moreover. 3 %2 2 3 & 3.1 C ` 40.x/ D f0 U ! 0 C f M & m % . 1 m & % x C f 00 % f ! 1.x ! 4/ D x 3 ! 4x 2 .1 1 ! 0 % & 1. D 6x ! 8 D 0 gives a candidate for a point of inflection at x D 43 .

0. !3 3 !3 3 !3 3. 2/ 1 x4 C 1 Let f . Now. x f 00 f 45. f .2.x/ D SOLUTION " " x x 2 C 27 Let f .27 ! x 2 /. 3 3 3 3 3 3. x 2 C 27 x " . 1/ ! 0 C a I ` p 27 ! x 2 &2 D 0 yields x D ˙3 3 as candidates for extrema. .x/ D ! % &2 D 0 yields x D 0 as a candidate for an extremum. f . 0/ 0 . 2 x C 27 % &2 % & % & !2x x 2 C 27 ! . x4 C 1 Moreover.2/ x 2 C 27 . f is always increasing and there are no local extrema. 1 Then f 0 .0 0 # ! " $ 1=4 0.9.x/ D .!1. !9/ !9 . 35 ! "1=4 3 5 #! " 1=4 3 5 f 00 C 0 ! 0 ! 0 C f ` I a : a I ` $ .x/ D 3 !1=2 x ! 3x !5=2 4 so x D 2 is a candidate point of inflection.x/ D D % &4 % &3 D 0 gives candidates for a point of x 2 C 27 x 2 C 27 inflection at x D 0 and at x D ˙9. 9/ 9 .x/ D % f0 ! 0 C 0 ! f & m % M & f 00 . % 4 &2 % & % &% & % & x C 1 !12x 2 ! .x/ D D % % &4 &3 D 0 x2 C 1 x4 C 1 gives candidates for a point of inflection at x D 0 and at x D ˙ x f f x # !1.0. f 00 .1 . ! ! p p " ! p " p " p p x !1. 1/ ! 0 C 0 ! 0 C a I ` I a I ` f 46. 0/ 0 . 1/ C 0 ! % M & # ! " $ 1=4 ! 35 .!4x 3 / & 2 x 4 C 1 4x 3 4x 2 5x 4 ! 3 00 f .!1. ! ! "1=4 $ 3 5 ! ! "1=4 3 5 0 ! "1=4 3 5 .410 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 for all x > 0.0. x4 C 1 4x 3 Then f 0 .x/ D 1 .x/ D SOLUTION " 2 x . f 00 .2x/ 2x x 2 ! 81 Moreover.!9. Thus.

3! 2 .x/ D e !x cos x on ! !2 .!4 ! !4 C 0 % M % ! & !2.x/ D !4 cos 2x D 0 when x D "=4 and x D 3"=4. x f0 f x f 00 f 51. 3! 2 SOLUTION " " C f 00 % ! & !2 . f . !2 % & Let f . 2 " 2 2. f 00 .#/ D 1 C cos # D 0 yields # D " as a candidate for an extremum. x f0 % ! !& !2. 4 C I a " ! 3! 4 0 I ` 3! 4 .S E C T I O N 4.x/ D sec2 x % 1 > 0 on ! !2 . f 00 .x/ D e !x cos x.0 ! 0 % f a I x 0 % 0. "/ 0 f " .#/ D # C sin #.x/ D !e !x .#/ D ! sin # D 0 gives candidates for a point of inflection at # D 0. "/ " . 2"%.x 2 ! 2/e !x . % & Then f 0 . 2"/ # 0 . and at # D 2".x/ D cos2 x. ! 4 ! f & ! ! 4 0 ! 3! 4. 2"% Let f . f 00 . 3! 4 ! " 3! 4 0 m & 0 . Moreover. Moreover. SOLUTION " " Moreover.0. 2 f ( ) 50. "/ " ! 0 C 0 a I ` I ! ". f . f . Then f 0 .x/ D !e !x sin x ! e !x cos x D !e !x . Œ0. f .sin x C cos x/ D 2e !x sin x D 0 gives x D 0 and x D " as inflection point candidates.x/ D !2 cos x sin x D !2 sin 2x D 0 when x D 0. 2"/ 2" 0 ! 0 C 0 : a I ` : 00 C 0 C f % : % f 48. Then f 0 . # f ." SOLUTION x f 00 f0 0 ! 0 C 0 f M & m % M % 0. Then. 2 C % " .4 47.x/ D cos2 x. y D . ! !2 .x/ D 2 sec x & sec x tan x D 2 sec2 x tan x D 0 gives a candidate for a point of inflection at x D 0. 3! 2 ! a " ! 3! 3! 4 . All three are candidates for extrema. !2 . Both are candidates for a point of inflection.".cos x ! sin x/ C e !x .x/ D tan x. !2 . at # D ".0. "% Let f .#/ D # C sin # on Œ0.0 ! ! !4 . f 00 ." ! " a % & 49. ! !2 .x/ D tan x on ! !2 . % !& %! & ! x 0 0. ! 2 C & ` h i Let f .x > 0/ % ! !& !2 . x D "=2 and x D ". 3! 4 as candidates for extrema.". f 0 .sin x C cos x/ D 0 gives x D ! !4 and x D Moreover.0. SOLUTION " " The Shape of a Graph 411 Œ0.

412

SOLUTION
"
"

APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE

CHAPTER 4

Let f .x/ D .x 2 ! 2/e !x .

p
Then f 0 .x/ D !.x 2 ! 2x ! 2/e !x D 0 gives x D 1 C 3 as a candidate for an extrema.
Moreover, f 00 .x/ D .x 2 ! 4x/e !x D 0 gives x D 4 as a candidate for a point of inflection.
x
f0
f

!
p "
0; 1 C 3

1C

p

C

0

%

M

!

3

p

1C

"
3; 1

x
f

!

.0; 4/

4

.4; 1/

!

0

C

a

I

`

00

f

&

52. y D ln.x 2 C 2x C 5/
SOLUTION

Let f .x/ D ln.x 2 C 2x C 5/. Then
f 0 .x/ D

2x C 2
D0
x 2 C 2x C 5

when x D !1. This is the only critical point. Moreover,
f 00 .x/ D !

2.x ! 1/.x C 3/
;
.x 2 C 2x C 5/2

so x D 1 and x D !3 are candidates for inflection points.
x
f

0

.!1; !1/

!1

.!1; 1/

!

0

C

&

m

%

f
x
f

00

.!1; !3/

!3

.!3; 1/

1

.1; 1/

!

0

C

0

!

a

I

`

I

a

f

53. Sketch the graph of an increasing function such that f 00 .x/ changes from C to ! at x D 2 and from ! to C at x D 4. Do the
same for a decreasing function.
SOLUTION The graph shown below at the left is an increasing function which changes from concave up to concave down at
x D 2 and from concave down to concave up at x D 4. The graph shown below at the right is a decreasing function which changes
from concave up to concave down at x D 2 and from concave down to concave up at x D 4.
y

y

2

6
4

1
2
2

x

4

2

4

x

In Exercises 54–56, sketch the graph of a function f .x/ satisfying all of the given conditions.
54. f 0 .x/ > 0 and f 00 .x/ < 0 for all x.
SOLUTION

Here is the graph of a function f .x/ satisfying f 0 .x/ > 0 for all x and f 00 .x/ < 0 for all x.
y

0.5

1
−0.5

55. (i) f 0 .x/ > 0 for all x, and
(ii) f 00 .x/ < 0 for x < 0 and f 00 .x/ > 0 for x > 0.

2

x

S E C T I O N 4.4
SOLUTION

The Shape of a Graph

413

Here is the graph of a function f .x/ satisfying (i) f 0 .x/ > 0 for all x and (ii) f 00 .x/ < 0 for x < 0 and f 00 .x/ > 0

for x > 0.
y
10
5

−2

1

−1

x

2

−5
−10

56. (i) f 0 .x/ < 0 for x < 0 and f 0 .x/ > 0 for x > 0, and
(ii) f 00 .x/ < 0 for jxj > 2, and f 00 .x/ > 0 for jxj < 2.
SOLUTION

Interval

.!1; !2/

.!2; 0/

.0; 2/

.2; 1/

Direction

&

&

%

%

Concavity

a

`

`

a

One potential graph with this shape is the following:
y

x
10

−10

57.
An infectious flu spreads slowly at the beginning of an epidemic. The infection process accelerates until a majority of
the susceptible individuals are infected, at which point the process slows down.
(a) If R.t/ is the number of individuals infected at time t, describe the concavity of the graph of R near the beginning and end of
the epidemic.
(b) Describe the status of the epidemic on the day that R.t/ has a point of inflection.
SOLUTION

(a) Near the beginning of the epidemic, the graph of R is concave up. Near the epidemic’s end, R is concave down.
(b) “Epidemic subsiding: number of new cases declining.”
58.
Water is pumped into a sphere at a constant rate (Figure 6). Let h.t/ be the water level at time t. Sketch the graph of
h.t/ (approximately, but with the correct concavity). Where does the point of inflection occur?

R
h

FIGURE 6
SOLUTION Because water is entering the sphere at a constant rate, we expect the water level to rise more rapidly near the bottom
and top of the sphere where the sphere is not as “wide” and to rise more slowly near the middle of the sphere. The graph of h.t/
should therefore start concave down and end concave up, with an inflection point when the sphere is half full; that is, when the
water level is equal to the radius of the sphere. A possible graph of h.t/ is shown below.
h(t)
Water level

2R

R

Time

t

414

CHAPTER 4

APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE

59.
Water is pumped into a sphere of radius R at a variable rate in such a way that the water level rises at a constant
rate (Figure 6). Let V .t/ be the volume of water in the tank at time t. Sketch the graph V .t/ (approximately, but with the correct
concavity). Where does the point of inflection occur?
SOLUTION Because water is entering the sphere in such a way that the water level rises at a constant rate, we expect the volume
to increase more slowly near the bottom and top of the sphere where the sphere is not as “wide” and to increase more rapidly near
the middle of the sphere. The graph of V .t/ should therefore start concave up and change to concave down when the sphere is half
full; that is, the point of inflection should occur when the water level is equal to the radius of the sphere. A possible graph of V .t/
is shown below.
V

t

%
&
60. (Continuation of Exercise 59) If the sphere has radius R, the volume of water is V D " Rh2 ! 31 h3 where h is the water
level. Assume the level rises at a constant rate of 1 (that is, h D t).
(a) Find the inflection point of V .t/. Does this agree with your conclusion in Exercise 59?
(b)

Plot V .t/ for R D 1.

SOLUTION

(a) With h D t and V .t/ D ".Rt 2 ! 13 t 3 /. Then, V 0 .t/ D ".2Rt ! t 2 / and V 00 .t/ D ".2R ! 2t/. Therefore, V .t/ is concave
up for t < R, concave down for t > R and has an inflection point at t D R. In other words, V .t/ has an inflection point when the
water level is equal to the radius of the sphere, in agreement with the conclusion of Exercise 59.
(b) With h D t and R D 1, V .t/ D ".t 2 ! 13 t 3 /. The graph of V .t/ is shown below.
V(t)
4π/3

2π/3

1

2

t

61. Image Processing The intensity of a pixel in a digital image is measured by a number u between 0 and 1. Often, images can
be enhanced by rescaling intensities (Figure 7), where pixels of intensity u are displayed with intensity g.u/ for a suitable function
g.u/. One common choice is the sigmoidal correction, defined for constants a, b by
g.u/ D

f .u/ ! f .0/
f .1/ ! f .0/

where

%
&!1
f .u/ D 1 C e b.a!u/

Figure 8 shows that g.u/ reduces the intensity of low-intensity pixels (where g.u/ < u) and increases the intensity of high-intensity
pixels.
(a) Verify that f 0 .u/ > 0 and use this to show that g.u/ increases from 0 to 1 for 0 $ u $ 1.
(b) Where does g.u/ have a point of inflection?

y
1.0
y = g(u)

0.8

y=u
0.6
0.4
0.2

Original

Sigmoidal correction
FIGURE 7

u
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

FIGURE 8 Sigmoidal correction with

a D 0:47, b D 12.

then f !1 .c C h/ (a) Show that f 00 .u/ > 0 f .u/ D !.x/ is concave down.c/ D lim . observe that g.a!u/ /!2 & !be b.1/ ! f . modify the statement to make it correct. then f !1 .x/ is decreasing.1 C e b.x/ < 0 if a < x < c and f 0 .c/ D 0 or f 0 . 63.a!u/ ! 1 D 0 or uDaC 1 ln 2: b 62.4 The Shape of a Graph 415 SOLUTION (a) With f .c/ exists.1/ ! f .a!u/ .u/ has a point of inflection when 2e b.0/ D f . then f !1 . Next.x/ is increasing. (b) Working from part (a).x/ is concave up.0/ and g 0 . f .1 C e b. however. If false. (a) If f . f 0 .0/ g.x/ is decreasing. Use graphical reasoning to determine whether the following statements are true or false. Should be: If f .0/ it follows that g. Further Insights and Challenges In Exercises 63–65. we find f 00 .c C h/ ! f 0 .c/ does not exist.1 C e b. (c) If f . h h!0 (b) Use (a) to show that there exists an open interval . True.0/ for all u.x/ is decreasing.c/ > 0 (the case f 00 .x/ is concave up.u/ D .a.c/ D lim .x/ is increasing.1/ D f . so f 0 . Thus.u/ D b 2 e b. (d) If f . either f 0 . (b) If f . assume that f . b/ containing c such that f 0 . SOLUTION (a) Because c is a critical point. g. f 00 .c/ must also exist.a!u/ /!1 .0/ D 0.u/ D 1 f 00 .x/ is differentiable.0/ ! f . f 0 .x/ is increasing.u/.2e b.c/ is a local minimum. it follows that f 0 .x/ is concave up. then f !1 .c/ D 0. Proof of the Second Derivative Test Let c be a critical point such that f 00 .a!u/ ! 1/ : . from the definition of the derivative.a!u/ >0 . False.c C h/ f 0 .x/ > 0 if c < x < b.u/ D 1 f 0 .0/ D 1. True. Now.c/ < 0 is similar). we have f 0 . f .S E C T I O N 4.x/ is concave up.a!u/ /2 for all u.1/ ! f .1/ ! f .x/ is concave down.a!u/ D be b.a!u/ /3 Because g 00 . f .1/ ! f .u/ increases from 0 to 1 for 0 $ u $ 1. Conclude that f . Therefore. then f !1 .c/ D lim : h h h!0 h!0 f 00 . then f !1 .1 C e b. SOLUTION (a) (b) (c) (d) False. Should be: If f .

This implies that G.x/ ! f 0 . (a) For any c.x/ changes from negative to positive at x D c.c/. then so does G 00 .x/ D f . Then 3x 2 C 1 f 0 . FIGURE 9 Tangent line crosses graph at point of inflection.c/.x ! c/ C f . so G. then f 0 . G 00 .c/ is the equation of the line tangent to the graph of f .c C h/ > 0I h h!0 lim in other words.x/ exists and f 00 . then f 0 . Finally.c/ and G 0 .c ! c/ ! f .x/ D 1 ! 3x 2 . because G 0 . to prove that the graph of f .x/ > 0 for x > c. and the tangent line at x D c crosses the graph of the function.x/ is decreasing for x < c and increasing for x > c.x/.x/ “sits above” its tangent lines.c/. there exists an open interval .c/. If f 00 .x/.x ! c/ ! f .x/ > 0 for x > c. This in turn implies that G.x/ < 0 for x < c and G. Explain why with a sketch. Then deduce. if h is sufficiently small but negative. It is sufficient to prove that G. Thus.a.c/ D 0.x/ > 0 for all x. consequently G.x/ > G. x (b) Let f .x/ is increasing.c/ D 0 and G 00 .c/ D G 0 .x/ > 0 for all x. Therefore.c/ D 0 for x ¤ c.c C h/ > 0: h Now. G 0 .x/ < 0 for x < c and that G 0 . it is sufficient to prove that G. because f 0 .x/ changes sign at x D c.x/ at x D c and G.c/ D 0. Then y D f 0 .x/ D f 00 .x/ D f . G. set G.x/ ! f 0 . This in turn implies that G.x/ ! f 0 .x/ % 0 for all c. Now.c/.x/ < 0 for x < c and G 0 .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D c. G.x ! c/ ! f . (a) Use the method of Exercise 64 to prove that the tangent line at x D c crosses the graph (Figure 9). SOLUTION (a) Let c be any number. 64.x/ % 0 for all c. for sufficiently small h.x/ > 0 for x < c but G.x/ is decreasing. using the MVT.3x 2 C 1/3 . G 0 .x/ D f 0 . By part (a). Thus.x/ is increasing.x/ > 0 for x > c.c/ D G 0 . 65.416 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE (b) We are given that f 00 .x/ and the tangent line at each inflection point on the same 3x 2 C 1 set of axes. if f 00 . b/ containing c such that f 0 .c/ must be a local minimum.x/ < 0 for x > c. Hint: Show that G.c C h/ must also be negative (so that the ratio f 0 .c/ measures the amount by which the value of the function exceeds the value of the tangent line (see the figure below).x/ D f .c/ ! f 0 . SOLUTION (a) Let G.c/.x/ and G 0 .x/ > 0 for all x.c/ D 0 and G 00 .c/ D f 0 .x/ changes from negative to positive at x D c. Conclude that G 0 . then so does G 00 .c/ for x ¤ c.x/ D . if h is sufficiently small but positive. that G.x/ D by graphing f .x/ is decreasing for x < c and increasing for x > c.c C h/ must also be positive and c C h > c.c/ ! f 0 .x/ < 0 for x < c and G 0 .x/ and G 0 . Moreover. In either case.x/ > 0 for x > c.x/ < 0 for x > c. On the other hand. Prove that if f 00 . f .x/ > 0 for x < c and G 0 .c/. it follows that f 0 . as in Exercise 63. Assume that f 00 . so G. x (b) Verify this conclusion for f .x ! c/ ! f . This means that G 0 . then the graph of f . On the other hand. it must be true that G 0 . Thus.x/ exists and let c be a point of inflection of f .x/ changes sign at x D c.x/ is increasing for x < c and decreasing for x > c.c/ D 0 and G 0 . Then.c C h/= h will be positive) and c C h < c.x/ < 0 for a < x < c and f 0 . f 0 .x/ ! f 0 .c/ > 0 for c < x < b. G. (b) Show that G.x/ “sits above” its tangent lines.c/ > 0.x/ D !18x.x/ > G. y x (b) Note that G.3x 2 C 1/2 and f 00 .c/ D 0 is a minimum.x/ D f 00 .1 ! x 2 / : .c/ D f .

b/ D b 2 sin.x/ and its tangent lines at each of the points of inflection.x ! x0 / C C. Let f .x/ will then have a point of inflection at x D c.x/ has at least one root c such that f 00 .1=x/ for x ¤ 0 SOLUTION Let f .x0 / D x02 C 00 . Then give an example to show that f . The figure below shows the graph of y D f .x0 / D A. but it is not true in general. (b) Show that f .x/ ! f . 0/ and .x/ D 0 for x D 0 (a) Use the limit definition of the derivative to show that f 0 . C.x0 / ! 0 C.x/ D n.x0 / which is the tangent line to C at x0 .x0 / D 0. A.x0 /.x/ is a polynomial of odd degree.x0 / D C.x/=x be the average cost and let x0 be the production level at which average cost is minimized.x0 / A0 .x0 / D C 0 . 67.x0 // is tangent to the graph of C. 0/ and . C. Therefore f 00 .0/ is neither a local min nor a local max.x ! x0 / C C.x0 C 0 . Critical and Inflection Points If f 0 .x/ D nan x n!1 C .x/ need not have a point of inflection if n is even.4 The Shape of a Graph 417 Therefore f .x0 / ! C.0/ D lim D lim D lim x sin D 0 by the Squeeze Theorem: as x ! 0 we have x!0 x!0 x!0 x!0 x x ˇ ˇ ˇ # $ˇ # $ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇx sin 1 ! 0ˇ D jxj ˇsin 1 ˇ ! 0. Let ( x 2 sin x1 for x ¤ 0 f . b1 / > 0.x0 / or average cost equals marginal cost at production level x0 . x 4 and x 8 are polynomials of even degree that do not have any points of inflection. Accordingly. in any open interval .x/ D . (a) Let A. (b) The line between . (b) Since sin. Then x0 C 0 . (c) Show that f 0 . To confirm that x0 corresponds to a local minimum of A. y x 66.x/ D x 2 .x0 /=x0 D A. Show that f .x/.0.x0 .!ı. Let C.x0 /.x/ has a point of inflection at x D 0 and at x D ˙1.c/ is neither a local min nor a local max.x/ be the cost of producing x units of a commodity.x/ be the cost of producing x units of a certain good.x0 / D . It follows that f 00 .x ! x0 / C C.x/ D an x n C an!1 x n!1 C & & & C a1 x C a0 be a polynomial of degree n.1=x/ 1 0 (a) Now f .x0 / D C 0 . x0 corresponds to a local minimum.0/ x 2 sin .x0 / ! C.x ! x0 / C C. ( x 2 sin . whence C 0 . Conclude that x D 0 is not a point of inflection.x0 / ! C. Assume that the graph of C. must x D c be a point of inflection? This is true for “reasonable” functions (including the functions studied in this text).n ! C & & & C 2a2 x C a1 and f 00 . we use the Second Derivative Test. x1 / oscillates through every value between !1 and 1 with increasing frequency as x ! 0.x0 / x0 ! 0 x0 D C 0 . a1 / < 0 and f . .n ! 1/. In other words.S E C T I O N 4. The function f .x/ must take on both positive and negative values.x0 /. Then f 0 . (a) Show that the average cost A. ˇ ˇ ˇ x x ˇ since j sin uj $ 1.c/ D 0 and f . Let f .x/ D C.0/ exists and f 0 . the functions f .x0 / D D 0 implies x0 C 0 .x0 / . 0 for x D 0 # $ f .x0 /. x02 A.x0 . then n ! 2 is also odd and f 00 .n ! 2/an!1 x n!3 C & & & C 6a3 x C 2a2 .x0 / ! 2. It is clear that each tangent line crosses the graph of f .x/ D C.x/=x is minimized at the production level x0 such that average cost equals marginal cost—that is. Hence. (b) Show that the line through .x/ changes sign at c.x0 / >0 x0 because C is concave up.0/ D 0 can neither be a local minimum value nor a local maximum value of f .x/ be a polynomial of degree n % 2. ı/ there are points a and b such that f . SOLUTION 1/an!1 x n!2 68. We find SOLUTION A00 . Assume the graph of C is concave up.a/ D a2 sin.x0 // x03 D C 00 .x/ changes sign infinitely often near x D 0.0/ D 0.x/ is concave up.x0 // is C. f . On the other hand.x/ has at least one point of inflection if n is odd. Let C. If n % 3 and is odd.x/ at the inflection point.0.n ! 1/an x n!2 C .

For x ¤ 0.x/ D x 2 cos ! 2 C 2x sin D 2x sin ! cos : x x x x x As x ! 0. 16 C 16 32 x 2 C 16 ˇxD4 3.x/ changes sign infinitely often near x D 0. we have # $# $ # $ # $ # $ 1 1 1 1 1 f 0 .5 L’Hopital’s Rule Preliminary Questions x 2 ! 2x ? x!0 3x ! 2 1. !1 C 2 ! 1 0 x 5 ! 2x ! 1 ˇxD!1 4. consequently. From this we conclude that f . lim L’Hˆopital’s Rule does not apply. ˇ x 3 ! 64 ˇˇ 64 ! 64 0 D D .418 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 (c) In part (a) it was shown that f 0 . or state that L’Hˆopital’s Rule does not apply.x/g. 5 C 20 ! 25 0 5 ! 4x ! x 2 ˇxD!5 2. We find x 4 C 2x C 1 4x 3 C 2 2 !4 C 2 D lim D D! : x!!1 x 5 ! 2x ! 1 x!!1 5x 4 ! 2 5!2 3 lim . is not of the form 0 0 or 1 1. ˇ x 2 ! 25 ˇˇ 25 ! 25 0 D D .x/ if f . Exercises In Exercises 1–10. lim so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. but the quotient is indeterminate at x D !1. ˆ 4. We find x 2 ! 25 2x !10 5 D lim D D! : x!!5 5 ! 4x ! x 2 x!!5 !4 ! 2x !4 C 10 3 lim x 3 ! 64 x!4 x 2 C 16 SOLUTION Because the quotient is not indeterminate at x D 4. What is wrong with applying L’Hˆopital’s Rule to lim SOLUTION As x ! 0.x/ both approach 1 as x ! a? x!a SOLUTION No.0/ D 0. 2. x 4 C 2x C 1 x!!1 x 5 ! 2x ! 1 SOLUTION The functions x 4 C 2x C 1 and x 5 ! 2x ! 1 are differentiable. f 0 .x/ and g. Does L’Hˆopital’s Rule apply to lim f . ˇ 2x 2 ! 5x ! 3 ˇˇ 18 ! 15 ! 3 0 D D . 2x 2 ! 5x ! 3 x!3 x !4 SOLUTION Because the quotient is not indeterminate at x D 3. but the quotient is indeterminate at x D !5. ˇ x!4 3 ! 4 !1 xD3 1.x/ does not have a point of inflection at x D 0. use L’Hˆopital’s Rule to evaluate the limit. L’Hˆopital’s Rule only applies to limits of the form 0 0 or 1 1. lim so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. ˇ 1!2C1 x 4 C 2x C 1 ˇˇ 0 D D . x 2 ! 25 x!!5 5 ! 4x ! x 2 SOLUTION The functions x 2 ! 25 and 5 ! 4x ! x 2 are differentiable.x/ oscillates increasingly rapidly. f 0 . lim L’Hˆopital’s Rule does not apply. x 2 ! 2x 3x ! 2 so L’Hˆopital’s Rule cannot be used.

lim SOLUTION Because the quotient is not indeterminate at x D 0.S E C T I O N 4. ˇ x 1=2 C x ! 6 ˇˇ 3C9!6 6 D D . but the quotient is indeterminate at x D 3. We find ˇ x C 1 ! 2 ˇˇ 2!2 0 D D . lim x!0 cos 2x ! 1 sin 5x SOLUTION The functions cos 2x ! 1 and sin 5x are differentiable. lim SOLUTION Because the quotient is not indeterminate at x D 9. sin 5x ˇxD0 0 0 so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. We find lim x!0 cos 2x ! 1 !2 sin 2x 0 D lim D D 0: sin 5x x!0 5 cos 5x 5 cos x ! sin2 x x!0 sin x 10. p xC1!2 6.5 ˆ L’Hopital’s Rule x 1=2 C x ! 6 x!9 x 3=2 ! 27 5. 2 0C0C1 1 x C 3x C 1 ˇxD0 L’Hˆopital’s Rule does not apply. ˇ sin x ! x xD0 0!0 0 so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. ˇ 3=2 27 ! 27 0 x ! 27 xD9 L’Hˆopital’s Rule does not apply. ˇ x 3 ˇˇ 0 0 D D . ˇ cos x ! sin2 x ˇˇ 1!0 1 D D . lim x!0 sin 4x x 2 C 3x C 1 SOLUTION Because the quotient is not indeterminate at x D 0. ˇ sin x 0 0 xD0 419 . ˇ cos 2x ! 1 ˇˇ 1!1 0 D D . lim x!0 x3 sin x ! x SOLUTION The functions x 3 and sin x ! x are differentiable. 27 ! 21 ! 6 0 x 3 ! 7x ! 6 ˇxD3 p p1 1 x C1!2 1 2 xC1 D D 4 D : 3 2 x!3 x ! 7x ! 6 20 80 3x ! 7 lim 7. ˇ ˇ sin 4x 0 0 ˇ D D . Here. 8. L’Hˆopital’s Rule does not apply. but the quotient is indeterminate at x D 0. we use L’Hˆopital’s Rule three times to find x3 3x 2 6x 6 D lim D lim D lim D !6: x!0 sin x ! x x!0 cos x ! 1 x!0 ! sin x x!0 ! cos x lim 9. p so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. but the quotient is indeterminate at x D 0. lim 3 x!3 x ! 7x ! 6 p SOLUTION The functions x C 1 ! 2 and x 3 ! 7x ! 6 are differentiable.

lim p ! x!4 x !2 x!4 SOLUTION lim x!4 * p x2 2x 2 D lim x D lim x D 0: x!1 e x!1 e ex 1 !1=2 2 .1=x/ cos. the quotient ln. evaluate the limit. so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies.420 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 In Exercises 11–16. show that L’Hˆopital’s Rule is applicable to the limit as x ! ˙1 and evaluate. 2x ! 3 !1 6 *p + + 1 4 xC2 4 ! D lim ! D lim x!4 x!4 x!4 x !4 x!2 x!4 1 p 2 x 1 D 1 . we use L’Hˆopital’s Rule twice to x e 1 lim x!1 In Exercises 17–54.8 C x/ 1 ! x !2=3 !1 5 D 6 D . we use L’Hˆopital’s Rule x 1 ln.1=x/ D cos 0 D 1: x!1 x!1 x!1 x!1 x 1=x !1=x 2 SOLUTION 13. the quotient x2 1 is of the form . the rewritten expression is of the form as x ! 1. We find 1 x 1=2 ln x D lim x!1 x 1=2 x!1 lim x!1 1 x 1 !1=2 2x D lim x!1 1 D 0: 2x 1=2 x ex SOLUTION As x ! 1. Here. lim x!1 As x ! 1. We find 3 ! 2x 1 lim x!1 12.1=x/ 0 .x 4 C 1/ lim D lim x!1 x!1 x 16. lim x!1 9x C 4 3 ! 2x SOLUTION As x ! 1. so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. so L’Hˆopital’s Rule does not immediately apply. 11. so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. We find 1=x 0 # $ 1 sin. Here. We find ex 1 lim x!1 15. the quotient x 1 is of the form . as ln x x 1=2 SOLUTION 14. the quotient ln x 1 is of the form . If we rewrite x sin sin. 4 .x 4 C 1/ x!!1 x lim SOLUTION twice to find As x ! 1. lim 1 x x 1 D lim x D 0: x!1 e ex ln. lim x!1 x 2 ! 3x C 2 p 8 C x ! 3x 1=3 SOLUTION lim D lim x!1 x 2 ! 3x C 2 x!1 * + 1 4 18. lim x!1 4x 3 x 4 C1 1 12x 2 3 D lim D 0: x!1 4x 3 x!1 x D lim x2 ex SOLUTION find As x ! 1.1=x/. lim x sin x!!1 1 x 1 x is of the form 1 & 0. the quotient 9x C 4 1 is of the form . so L’Hˆopital’s Rule now applies.x 4 C 1/ 1 is of the form . x sin 9x C 4 9 9 D lim D! : x!1 !2 3 ! 2x 2 As x ! 1. p 8 C x ! 3x 1=3 17.!1=x 2 / lim x & sin D lim D lim D lim cos.

lim SOLUTION 25. lim cot x ! x!0 x SOLUTION lim SOLUTION lim x!0 # 1 cot x ! x $ D lim x!0 D lim x!0 x cos x ! sin x !x sin x C cos x ! cos x !x sin x D lim D lim x!0 x!0 x cos x C sin x x sin x x cos x C sin x 0 !x cos x ! x D D 0: !x sin x C cos x C cos x 2 421 . x!!1 9 ! 3x 2 x!!1 !6x x!!1 !6 3 3x 3 C 4x 2 22. 73 /.1 C 3x/1=2 ! 2 23. lim SOLUTION Apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule once: . x!1 x 5=3 ! x x!1 1 ! 1 1!0 x 2=3 lim 7x 2 C 4x x!!1 9 ! 3x 2 7x 2 C 4x 14x C 4 14 7 SOLUTION lim D lim D lim D! .S E C T I O N 4. x!!1 !5 1 ! 5x 5 20. x!0 x x!0 1 # $ 1 28. lim SOLUTION 1 3 x 2=3 C 3x 0C0 x C x 2=3 D lim D D 0.1 C 3x/1=2 ! 2 D lim x!1 . lim x!!1 SOLUTION 3x ! 2 1 ! 5x lim x!!1 x 2=3 C 3x x!1 x 5=3 ! x ˆ L’Hopital’s Rule 3x ! 2 3 3 D lim D! . lim x!0 D 4 5 D x!!=2 lim x!!=2 lim !10 sin 5x cos 5x sin 10x D lim !8 sin 4x cos 4x x!!=2 sin 8x 10 cos 10x 5 D! : 8 cos 8x 4 tan x x tan x sec2 x D lim D 1.1 C 7x/1=3 ! 2 21. x!0 7 cos 7x sin 7x 7 tan 4x tan 5x SOLUTION tan 4x 4 sec2 4x 4 cos2 5x D lim D lim 2 5 x!!=2 cos2 4x x!!=2 tan 5x x!!=2 5 sec 5x lim 27. sin 2x sin 7x SOLUTION 26. x!1 4x 3 ! 7 x!1 x!1 24x 24 4 12x 2 .1 C 3x/ 7 !2=3 3 . 41 / D 9 7 24.1 C 7x/ . x 5=3 ! 2x ! 16 D lim x!8 x!8 x 1=3 ! 2 lim lim x!!=2 lim x!0 sin 2x 2 cos 2x 2 D lim D .1 C 7x/1=3 ! 2 x!1 lim D x 5=3 ! 2x ! 16 x!8 x 1=3 ! 2 3 !1=2 2 . lim x!0 5 2=3 !2 3x 1 !2=3 3x D 20 3 !2 1 12 D 56. lim x!1 . 32 / 21 .5 19. lim x!1 4x 3 ! 7 3x 3 C 4x 2 9x 2 C 8x 18x C 8 18 3 SOLUTION lim D lim D lim D D .

!x 2 / "x 2 " ! csc 2 2 2 SOLUTION lim .3 ! 2x 2 / cos 2x !4 cos 2x 1 D! : 3 ! 4x sin 2x C !12x sin 2x C 6 cos 2x x!!=2 SOLUTION lim! . x!2 x ! 2 x!2 1 ! "x " 37. x!0 1 ! cos x x!0 sin x x!0 cos x cos x 33.sec x ! tan x/ sin 2x ! 2x x 2 sin 2x C 2x sin2 x D lim x!0 cos 2x ! 1 x 2 cos 2x C 2x sin 2x C sin2 x !2 sin 2x !2x 2 sin 2x C 2x cos 2x C 4x cos 2x C 2 sin 2x C 2 sin x cos x !2 sin 2x C 6x cos 2x x!0 . lim e x! 2 # 1 sin x ! cos x cos x $ D lim! x! 2 # 1 ! sin x cos x $ D lim! x! 2 ! ! cos x " D 0: ! sin x x2 x!2 ! e4 x!2 2 2 ex ! e4 2xe x D lim D 4e 4 .x C x!0 cos x D lim ! 2/ D !1. lim ! 2/ cos.x C x!0 sin x lim SOLUTION ! 2/ ! sin. sin. lim ! csc2 x x!0 x 2 lim SOLUTION x!!=2 SOLUTION lim x!0 # 1 ! csc2 x x2 $ D lim x!0 D lim x!0 D lim x!0 D lim x!0 sin2 x ! x 2 x 2 sin2 x 2 sin x cos x ! 2x 2x 2 sin x cos x C 2x sin2 x 2 cos 2x ! 2 35. !x / x!1 x!1 x!1 x!1 cot. x2 x!0 1 ! cos x 32. lim . sec x ! tan x/ D lim! x! 2 36.422 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 29. lim x2 2x 2 D lim D lim D 2.2x/ lim SOLUTION cos x ! sin x 1 D lim D .2x/ # $ 1 34. lim x!!=2 sin.x C x!0 sin x 31. lim tan ln x x!1 2 1 ! "x " ! " !2 ln x 2 x 2 " SOLUTION lim tan ln x D lim D lim D lim sin x D! . lim x ! tan x 2 x!!=2 lim x!0 SOLUTION ! "" x ! "=2 x ! "=2 1 x! tan x D lim D lim D lim D lim ! sin2 x D !1: 2 x!!=2 x!!=2 1= tan x x!!=2 cot x x!!=2 ! csc2 x x!!=2 lim cos. ! 2 .3 ! 2x 2 / sin 2x x!0 x!0 2x 2 cos 2x C 2x sin 2x C 4x sin x cos x C 2 sin2 x D lim D lim D lim 2.2x/ 2 x!!=2 2 cos. lim x!0 sin x ! x cos x x ! sin x SOLUTION sin x ! x cos x x sin x sin x C x cos x cos x C cos x ! x sin x D lim D lim D lim D 2: x ! sin x x!0 1 ! cos x x!0 sin x x!0 cos x ! " " 30.

ln x ! 1/ C 1 .x ! 1/.1 C ln x/1=. x!1 ln x x!1 x 1 lim e 2x ! 1 ! x x!0 x2 41. lim .1 C ln x/ x!1 lim . Hence.ln x ! 1/ x. x!0 x!0 x 1 lim 46. lim ex x!0 1 x 1 x2 C 1 x D 1 1 D : 1C1 2 !1 sin x SOLUTION ex ! 1 ex D lim D 1.x!1/ x!1 SOLUTION lim ln. lim x!1 ˆ L’Hopital’s Rule x.sin t/.1 C ln x/1=. Hence. x!1 2x 2 x2 2 lim x 1=x D lim e ln x x!1 x!1 1=x 2 D e 0 D 1: 47.ln t/ D lim t !0C 44.x ! 1/ ln x x!1 . lim SOLUTION ex ! e ex e D lim !1 D D e. lim x!1 e !x . lim .x!1/ D e: 423 .x!1/ D lim x!1 x!1 ln.1 C ln x/1=.ln t/ t !0C SOLUTION 1 ln t ! sin2 t !2 sin t cos t t D lim D lim D lim D 0: t !0C csc t t !0C ! csc t cot t t !0C t cos t t !0C cos t ! t sin t lim . x1 / C . lim x!0 x SOLUTION (a > 0) ax ! 1 ln a & ax D lim D ln a.x 3 ! x 2 C 9/ SOLUTION x3 ! x2 C 9 3x 2 ! 2x 6x ! 2 6 D lim D lim D lim x D 0: x!1 x!1 x!1 e x x!1 e ex ex lim e !x . lim SOLUTION e 2x ! 1 ! x 2e 2x ! 1 D lim 2 x!1 x!1 2x x lim 4e 2x D 1: x!1 2 D lim 43. lim x 1=x 2 x!1 2 SOLUTION lim ln x 1=x D lim x!1 x!1 ln x 1 D lim D 0.x!1/ D lim e . x!0 x!0 2x x2 lim e 2x ! 1 ! x x!1 x2 42.x ! 1/ ln x SOLUTION x. x!1 x.S E C T I O N 4. lim SOLUTION e 2x ! 1 ! x 2e 2x ! 1 D lim which does not exist. x!0 sin x x!0 cos x lim ex ! e x!1 ln x 40.5 38. 1 / C ln x x!1 1 ! 1 C ln x x!1 x x lim 39.sin t/.1Cln x/ x!1 x!1 1=.ln x ! 1/ C 1 ln x D lim D lim D lim x!1 .x 3 ! x 2 C 9/ D lim x!1 ax ! 1 45.1 C ln x/ 1 D lim D 1.

lim sin!1 x SOLUTION lim D lim x!0 x!0 x 52. SOLUTION lim x ln x!1 # x xC1 $ D lim ln x!1 % x xC1 1=x & ! D lim x!1 xC1 x "# 1 . tan!1 x ! !4 D lim x!1 tan.x/ D tan!1 . APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 lim x sin x x!0C SOLUTION lim ln.cos x/3=x D lim x!0 x!0 3 ln cos x x2 D lim ! 3 tan x 2x D lim ! 3 sec2 x 3 D! : 2 2 x!0 x!0 Hence.x/ and g. limx!0 h.x/ D .x/ ."x=4/ D 1 2 ! 2 D 1 .cos x/ x!0 50.x/ where f . 53. tan!1 x sin!1 x SOLUTION lim x!0 tan!1 x sin!1 x 1 1Cx 2 x!0 p 1 1!x 2 D lim tan!1 x ! !4 ! x!1 tan 4 x ! 1 D 1. lim SOLUTION 54. f 0 .cos x/3=x ln x 1 sin x D lim x!0C 1 x ! cos x. so we apply L’Hˆopital’s rule to h.x sin x / D lim sin x.x/ D 1 ln x .424 48. g.xC1/2 !1=x 2 $ D lim ! x!1 x D !1: xC1 Hence.x/ D 1 1 C x2 lim f 0 ."x=4/ ! 1 x!1 lim 1 1Cx 2 ! 2 4 sec . lim x!1 # x xC1 3=x 2 $x D e !3=2 .x x!0C sin x / x!0C 49. 2 x!0 SOLUTION 2 lim ln. " lim ln x tan!1 x x!0C SOLUTION Let h. lim .x/ D 1 x!0 f .ln x/ D lim x!0C x!0C x!0C D lim ! x!0C Hence. lim x!1 sin!1 x x!0 x # x xC1 $x D 1 : e 51.x/ D !1 & 0. lim .x/ D ln x tan!1 x.sin x/!2 sin2 x 2 sin x cos x D lim ! D 0: x!0C x cos x !x sin x C cos x D e 0 D 1. lim x sin x D lim e ln. lim x!0 p 1 1!x 2 1 D 1.

x/ limx!0 f 0 .!1/k!l : cos nx n x!!=2 !n sin nx To summarize.1 C x/1=x ! ej $ 0:001: SOLUTION Using L’Hˆopital’s Rule.1 C x/1=x D e 1 D e. For x D 0:0005. lim D ˆ x!!=2 cos nx 0 ˆ ˆ : .5 g 0 .x/ D !1 x!0 Hence.1=x/ ? Does a graphical or numerical investigation suggest that the limit x!0C . suppose m is odd and n is even. n ¤ 0 are integers. x!0 x!0 x x!0 x and lim .1 C x/1=x ! e ˇ D j.!1/.x/ 1 lim 55. n ¤ 0.x/ 1 D D! D 0: x!0 g. L’Hˆopital’s rule yields: f . lim x!!=2 cos mx !m sin mx m D lim D .1:0005/2000 ! ej " 6:79 # 10!4 < 0:001: Can L’Hˆopital’s Rule be applied to lim x sin.S E C T I O N 4.1 C x/1=x x!0 Then find a value of x such that j. suppose m and n are odd. Then lim x!!=2 cos mx cos nx does not exist (from one side the limit tends toward !1.1 C x/ lim ln . x!0 58. Evaluate cos mx . Evaluate lim xm ! 1 mx m!1 m D lim D . ˆ ˆ ˆ < cos mx does not exist. This is the only case when the limit is indeterminate. ! " 1 ln. Then cos mx lim D 0: x!!=2 cos nx Finally. exists? ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ. 8 .x/ limx!0 g 0 . n odd m odd. n even m even. Third. Then there exist integers k and l such that m D 2k and n D 2l and lim cos mx cos k" D D . n even m.1 C x/1=x D lim ln. suppose m is even and n is odd. n odd xm ! 1 for any numbers m.m!n/=2 m n.!1/.1 C x/ D lim x!0 x x!0 lim 1 1Cx 1 D 1: Thus. n x!1 x ! 1 x!1 nx n!1 n 57. Then there exist integers k and l such that m D 2k C 1.1 C x/ D lim D 1. x!!=2 cos nx SOLUTION Suppose m and n are even.x/ D ! ˆ L’Hopital’s Rule 425 1 x. x!1 x n ! 1 56. by L’Hˆopital’s Rule. m. where m.m!n/=2 .!1/k!l : cos l" x!!=2 cos nx lim Now.ln x/2 lim g 0 . ln. while from the other side the limit tends toward C1). Prove the following limit formula for e: SOLUTION lim e D lim . n D 2l C 1 and.

x/ D x 1=x . L’Hˆ opital’s Rule cannot be applied.1 ! ln x/ x x x Thus.x/ D x 1=x and verify that it confirms the conclusions of (a). x!1 x x 1 x ln x. two solutions if 1 < c < e 1=e . but only one solution for 0 < c $ 1. y 1 0.2975 0.e.0001 0. Both of these factors force x 1=x toward 0. x 1 0.x/ D log10 x and g.6626 y 20 15 10 5 0 0. Thus.1 0.001 0. the base of the function tends toward 0 and the exponent tends toward C1. this line will intersect the graph of y D f .x/ ! 2 C 2 D 2 .x/ D f . f is increasing for 0 < x < e.e/ D e 1=e " 1:444668.3 0.x/ increases from 0 to e 1=e as x goes from 0 to e and then decreases from e 1=e to 1 as x goes from e to C1. Both numerical and graphical investigations suggest that the limit does not exist due to the oscillation.1=x/ 1 3.x/ D ln x dx dx x 1 ln x 1 f 0 .x/ and lim f . (b) Plot the graph of f .x/ D x!1 ln x 1 D lim D 0. Note that limx!0C x 1=x is not indeterminate.00001 x sin.x/ is indeterminate.003316 16.1 0. Determine whether f << g or g << f (or neither) for the functions f . There are no points of intersection for c > e 1=e .x/ D e 0 D 1. (b) Again. e 1=e / is the only maximum. and determine the intervals on which f . The maximum value is f . is decreasing for x > e and has a maximum at x D e.x/.x/ only once for 0 < c $ 1 and c D e 1=e and will intersect the graph of y D f . let f .x/ twice for 1 < c < e 1=e . SOLUTION (a) Because .x/ x x # $ ln x 1 x 1=x f 0 . x!0C x!1 (b) Find the maximum value of f .2 0.x/ D x 1=x for x > 0. To find the derivative f 0 .x/ D lim x!1 so limx!1 f .1=x/ oscillates as x ! 0C. limx!0C f . and no solutions if c > e 1=e .x/ D ln x. it follows that there are two solutions for 1 < c < e 1=e .01 0. (b) Observe that if we sketch the horizontal line y D c. Moreover.5 0 5 10 15 20 x 61.x/ is increasing or decreasing. we apply the derivative to both sides: # $ d d 1 ln f .4996 10.426 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE SOLUTION Since sin.x/ D x 1=x . SOLUTION (a) Let f . limx!1 f . . (a) Use the results of Exercise 59 to prove that x 1=x D c has a unique solution if 0 < c $ 1 or c D e 1=e . We calculate this limit as follows: lim ln f . Let f . (a) Calculate lim f . 60.4 x 59. On the other hand. no solution exists for c > e 1=e and only one solution exists for c D e 1=e .6900 0. because f . As x ! 0C. so that ln f .x/ D ! 2 C 2 f .x/ D 0.x/.

then x D e u .ln x/N << x a for all N and all a > 0. the logarithm functions grow particularly slowly.ln x/ x 1=10 D lim x!1 40. Show that .ln x/ x D lim 1 10x 9=10 120 2 x .ln x/N << x a for all N and for all a > 0.ln x/N !1 If we continue in this manner.x/ x!1 ln x x!1 ln x ln 10 lim neither f << g or g << f is satisfied.u=2/ and lim lim e u!1 and e p ln x << p x.ln x/N !1 D lim x!1 ax a D &&& N.ln x/ x 1=10 D lim x!1 24000 ln x x!1 D lim 1 10x 9=10 24000 x x 1=10 x!1 1200. SOLUTION xa D lim x!1 .ln x/N x!1 lim ax a!1 N x . Thus.ln x/N so .ln x/2 << x and .ln x/4 << x 1=10 . ln x << . p p p p 65. So lim x!1 e p p ln x p x p u e u D lim e u! 2 : u!1 e u=2 u!1 D lim p We need to examine lim . Show that . p u! u 2 De !1 D 0 so lim x!1 e p ln x p x D0 . x!1 g. SOLUTION Using L’Hˆopital’s Rule: lim x!1 ln x x !1 1 D lim D lim x !a D 0I a a!1 x!1 x!1 x a ax hence. u ! u2 /. 64. p 62. L’Hˆopital’s Rule will give a factor of x a in the numerator.ln x/4 x!1 lim 1 10x 9=10 4 3 x . SOLUTION " .ln x/4 << x 1=10 : x 1=10 D lim x!1 .5 SOLUTION ˆ L’Hopital’s Rule 427 Because ln x f .ln x/2 << p x: p x D lim x!1 . Show that ln x << x a for all a > 0. lim x!1 xa D 1. SOLUTION Let u D ln x.S E C T I O N 4. u ! 1. .ln x/2 D lim x 1=10 D 1: x!1 240000 D lim 63. but the power on ln x in the denominator will eventually be zero. and as x ! 1. Thus u!1 2 u D o. Hint: Use the substitution u D ln x instead of L’Hˆopital’s Rule. Just as exponential functions are distinguished by their rapid rate of increase.x a /. Determine whether x << e ln x or e ln x << x.ln x/3 x!1 D lim 1 10x 9=10 x!1 2400 .x/ log10 x 1 D lim D lim ln 10 D .ln x/2 x!1 lim " p x D lim x!1 4 ln x x!1 1 p 2 x 2 x ln x D lim 1 p 2 x 4 x p x D 1: x!1 8 D lim . Since u!1 u=2 lim p D lim u!1 u!1 u p 1 2 1 p 2 u D lim u!1 p u D 1. !p u" u! D !1.

Assumptions Matter Let f . x!1 x (a) Show that H.x/ D 1. suppose 0 < b < 1. x!1 SOLUTION xn nx n!1 D lim x x!1 e x!1 e x lim x n e !x D lim x!1 n. 3.1 C b x / for b > 0.x/ D 0. SOLUTION (a) 1 $ 2 C sin x $ 3. Then ln.x/ x!1 g .x/ does not exist.1 C b x /1=x together with the horizontal line y D G. (a) Show directly that lim f .1 C b x / b x ln b 0 D lim D D 0: x!1 x!1 1 C b x x 1 H.2 C sin x/ D lim x!1 g 0 . so x x.b/ D ln b if b % 1 (b) Determine H. x!1 (b) Show that lim f .x/ x!1 2x lim does not exist since cos x oscillates.2 C sin x/ D 0: x2 C 1 (b) lim f . 0:5.x/ D lim 0 x!1 g. x!1 (a) Use the result of Exercise 68 to evaluate G.b/ D lim (b) Now.1 C b x /1=x .” ln.x/ f 0 . Let H.x/ x.x/=g. Then ln. Show that lim x n e !x D 0 for all whole numbers n > 0.cos x/ C .x/ D x.b/ D lim SOLUTION (a) Suppose b % 1. lim x!1 x 3x D lim 2 D 0. x!1 x!1 x!1 Do (a) and (b) contradict L’Hˆopital’s Rule? Explain.x/ D lim g. 2.b/ D lim .2 C sin x/ % lim x D 1 and lim g.b/ D lim 69.x/ D x 2 C 1. x!1 x C 1 x2 C 1 it follows by the Squeeze Theorem that lim x!1 x. but x!1 x!1 x!1 x!1 x!1 f 0 .428 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 66.2 C sin x/ and g. but lim f 0 . Let G.x/=g 0 .b/ for the values b D 0:25.b/ for 0 < b $ 1.b/ for all b > 0.n ! 1/x n!2 x!1 ex D lim :: : D lim x!1 nŠ D 0: ex 67.x/ D lim x.x/ D lim .x 2 C 1/ D 1. (b) Verify your result graphically by plotting y D . .2 C sin x/ 3x $ $ 2 : x2 C 1 x2 C 1 x C1 Since. This does not violate L’Hˆopital’s Rule since the theorem clearly states f .x/ lim “provided the limit on the right exists.1 C b x / b x ln b b x ln b D lim D D ln b: x!1 x!1 1 C b x x bx H. 68.

S E C T I O N 4.5 1 5 10 x 15 5 y 10 15 x y 6 5 4 3 2 4 3 b = 2. SOLUTION Working from the definition. t !1 SOLUTION t !1 Because we are interested in the limit as t ! C1.0/ exists and is equal to zero.b/ D 1 if 0 $ b $ 1 and G.x/ D0 x4 429 . Show that lim x!0 lim x!0 1 xk e 1=x 2 D lim t !1 tk et 2 D0 by Exercise 70. Moreover.0/ D lim by the previous exercise. G.0/ 2 D lim e !1=x x!0 x!0 x!0 f 00 . (b) y y 4 4 3 3 2 2 b = 0. 2 0 $ t k e !t $ t k e !t : As lim t k e !t D 0. it follows from the Squeeze Theorem that t !1 2 lim t k e !t D 0: t !1 In Exercises 71–73.5 ˆ L’Hopital’s Rule SOLUTION (a) Using Exercise 68.0/ D lim x!0 f .0 1 5 10 x 15 5 10 15 x 2 70. we will restrict attention to t > 1. f . # 2 x4 $ D 2 lim x!0 f . f 00 . Thus. Let t D 1=x. verify that f 00 . Thus. As x ! 0.0 2 1 b = 3.b/ . Hint: Compare with lim t k e !t D 0.b/ D b if b > 1.x/ ! f 0 . for all k.x/ D 0 for all k. let ( 2 e !1=x f .0/ exists and is equal to zero. Hint: Let t D x !1 and apply the result of Exercise 70. Also. Show that lim t k e !t D 0 for all k. t ! 1.x/ D 0 for x ¤ 0 for x D 0 These exercises show that f . Then.0/ exists and is equal to 0. f 0 . 72.0/ exists and is equal to 0.x/ has an unusual property: All of its derivatives at x D 0 exist and are equal to zero. x!0 x k x!0 x k e 1=x 2 71.x/ D 0 for x D 0 Now. we see that G.25 1 b = 0. xk f . Show that f 0 .0/ f .x/ D lim D0 x!0 x!0 x by the previous exercise. Thus.x/ 1 SOLUTION lim D lim .x/ ! f . ! " ( 2 e !1=x x23 for x ¤ 0 0 f .b/ D e H. Thus. f 0 . f 0 .

by applying L’Hˆopital’s Rule n times.2 ! rx 2 /P .c/ is a local minimum if f .x ! c/ D lim x!c D lim x!c f 00 .x 2 C 1/1=2 lim p D lim D lim x!1 x!1 x.c/ > 0.x/ ! f .x/ f . This takes us back to the 2 x!1 x!1 x 1 x C1 original limit. that lim x!c f .n ! 1/.x ! c/n nŠ where nŠ D n.n ! 1/.n ! 2/.430 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 73.c/ D 0.k/ .c/ D & & & D f .x/e !1=x xr 2 for some polynomial P .c/ D 0. Suppose f . # $ !1=x 2 2 2 .kC1/ . f 0 .2/.x/ D x and the denominator g. so f . Suppose that We may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule again: lim x!1 f 0 .k/ .n/ .0/ exists and is equal to zero for all k % 1.c/ < 0. Therefore.c/ 1 .x/ D x 1 . so L’Hˆopital’s Rule is ineffective. Hint: If n is even.x/ ! f . Then xr x3 ! 2 x 3 P 0 .c/ > 0 and is a local maximum if f .0/ D 0.k/ .c/ f 0 . (b) Use (a) to show that if n is even. we can evaluate the limit directly by observing that x x !1 . f .x/ 1 x 1 p D p D p and hence lim p D lim p D 1: 2 !1 2 !2 2 x!1 x!1 x C1 x x C1 1Cx x C1 1 C x !2 75.x/ D 2 and r D 3.x/ D e !1=x .1/.x/ D lim n x!c n.x/ and some exponent r % 1.x/ D is nonzero for x > 0.x/ n.n/ D f . (c) Use (a) to show that if n is odd.n/ . Use the result of Exercise 71 to show that f . L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies: p x 2 C 1 tend to infinity as x ! 1.n ! 2/ & & & .c/ .n!1/ . Both the numerator f . Show that for k % 1 and x ¤ 0. The Second Derivative Test for critical points fails if f 00 .x ! c/n!2 f 000 . However.x/ ! f .0/ P . Show that L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies to lim p x!1 SOLUTION p x= x 2 C 1 x x2 C1 but that it does not help.x/ C .x/ ! f . Then evaluate the limit directly.x/ D P .x ! c/n!1 . Moreover. and g 0 . but f .c/ must be positive for x near c if f .x/ D e !1=x x rC3 which is of the form desired.x/ n. SOLUTION (a) Repeated application of L’Hˆopital’s rule yields lim x!c f .x 2 C 1/1=2 x.kC1/ .k/ .n/ . Then 2 f .x ! c/n > 0 for x ¤ a.x/ D P . This exercise develops a Higher Derivative Test based on the sign of the first nonzero derivative. f 0 .x 2 C 1/!1=2 x!1 x x2 C 1 .x ! c/n!3 D &&& 1 D f .0/ D lim Further Insights and Challenges 74.k/ .n/ .n/ .k/ .c/ nŠ . then .x/e SOLUTION For x ¤ 0. then f . Assume f .x/e !1=x f . Here P . from Exercise 72.0/ D 0.x 2 C 1/!1=2 x D lim D lim p . then f .0/ lim rC1 D 0: x!0 x!0 x!0 x x!0 x rC1 f .c/ ¤ 0 (a) Show.n ! 1/.x/ D lim D P .c/ D f 00 .c/ is neither a local minimum nor a local maximum.

Then . 77. We expended a lot of effort to evaluate lim x!0 sin x cos x sin x D lim D 1. we must be able to evaluate lim .*2 ! ! 2 / d! *t cos. it oscillates according to y.*t/ ! sin. x!0 x SOLUTION lim x!0 . 0.!t/ ! ! sin. Then explain why this method would involve circular reasoning.S E C T I O N 4.x ! c/n < 0 for x < c. Thus. f .x ! c/n > 0 for all x ¤ c.x/ > f .c/ for x near c and f .t/.!t/ ! ! sin. If f .!t/ ! sin.c/ is a local minimum.c/ for x near c and f .t/. Show that we could have evaluated it easily using x L’Hˆopital’s Rule. If f .t/j tends to 1 as t ! 1 (the system is said to be in resonance. it follows that f . and 0. f .*t// d! d . 0:99.n/ .n/ .* sin. D y 1.c/ for x near c and x < c. we must know that the derivative of x!0 1 x!0 x x sin x sin x is cos x.c/ for x near c and x > c but f . f . In other words. 0:999. On the other hand. When a spring with natural frequency *=2" is driven with a sinusoidal force sin.n/ .*t/ D lim *2 ! ! 2 !!# d . it follows that f .c/ must be negative for x near c.c/ > 0.5 ˆ L’Hopital’s Rule 431 (b) Suppose n is even.c/ is neither a local minimum nor a local maximum.t/ is not periodic.*t/ ! sin.t/ D lim y. f .x/ > f .t/ D where cos ( D p *t *2 t 2 C 1 and sin ( D p 1 .9. the spring is stretched beyond its limits). y0 . We obtain a similar result if f .x/ ! f . In other words.c/ < 0.n/ .t/ D !!# *t cos. if f .*t/ D !2! !2* (b) From part (a) y0 . Moving from left to right and from top to bottom.8. (b) Show that y0 . 0:8.999. To use L’Hˆopital’s Rule to evaluate lim . but to determine the derivative of sin x.c/ < 0.x/ < f .*t/ : !2* This may be rewritten as y0 . (c) Plot y. In other words.c/ > 0. Since the amplitude varies with t. 0:9. Also note that *2 t 2 C 1 p *2 t 2 C 1 ! 1 as t ! 1: !2* (c) The graphs below were produced with * 0:5. (c) If n is odd.*t/ *t cos.t/ D lim !!# !!# D lim !!# * sin. 1.c/ must be positive for x near c.c/ is a local maximum. then .t/ D lim y.x/ < f .c/ must be positive for x near c and x > c but is negative for x near c and x < c.!t/ with ! ¤ *.t/ D *2 Let y0 . 76.x/ ! f . 0.t/ ceases to be periodic and that its amplitude jy0 . it follows that f . % & 1 * sin.x/ ! f . ! 100 5 2 60 −2 −5 −4 y 100 x 100 x x −1 y 40 y 40 100 x D y y 4 1 20 p *2 t 2 C 1 cos.x ! c/n > 0 for x > c but .*t C (/.99. !2* 20 40 100 x 20 −20 −20 −20 −40 −40 −40 100 x sin x in Chapter 2. Do the graphs confirm your conclusion in (b)? SOLUTION (a) lim y.*t/ 2 !! !!# (a) Use L’Hˆopital’s Rule to determine y0 .!t/ ! ! sin.t/ for * D 1 and ! D 0. eventually.

a/ D g. we find # $ 2x ! 2 sin x cos x 2x ! 2 sin 2x x 2 ! sin2 x 1 1 D lim D lim lim ! D lim x!0 x 2 .841471 0. g.846481 x Note that e !1=6 " 0:846481724.x/ .a/: x!a L’Hˆopital’s Rule stated for f and g is: if limx!a g 0 .x ! a/g1 . 79.x/ f 0 .x/=g.a/ x!a and lim g 0 .x/ C f1 . g are polynomials such that f .x/ D f1 .a/ ¤ 0.x/ x!a g1 . Then. By a fact from algebra. (b) Repeatedly using L’Hˆopital’s Rule and simplifying.x ! a/g10 .846435 0.x/ D .x/.x/ f1 .x/ ¤ 0.a/ exactly as predicted by L’Hˆopital’s Rule.a/ D 0.x/ g.x/ g 0 .x/ D g1 .a/ ¤ 0. so that g1 .a/ D lim D lim D .a/ D lim 0 D : x!a g .x ! a/f1 . x!a . lim x!a f .x/ f1 .x/ D .sin x/ ! ln x : x2 Repeatedly using L’Hˆopital’s Rule.a/ D 0.x ! a/g1 .x ! a/f1 .x/ so lim f 0 . we have the following facts.2 sin x cos x/ C 2x sin2 x x!0 x 2 sin 2x C 2x sin2 x x!0 x 2 sin2 x x!0 sin2 x x2 D lim x!0 D lim x!0 2x 2 cos 2x 2 ! 2 cos 2x C 2x sin 2x C 4x sin x cos x C 2 sin2 x 2 ! 2 cos 2x 2x 2 cos 2x C 4x sin 2x C 2 sin2 x .x/ D . g1 such that f .x/ and g1 .x/ and g.x/ be the polynomials such that f . By the product rule.x/.x ! a/f10 .x ! a/g1 .x/ D . x!a As in the problem statement. then there are polynomials f1 .01 ! sin x "1=x 2 0.x/ g.x/ g1 . by direct computation. SOLUTION f 0 . lim x!0C ! sin x "1=x 2 x !x cos x ! sin x !2 cos x C x sin x D lim x!0C 12 cos x ! 2x 2 cos x ! 12x sin x 8x cos x C 4 sin x ! 2x 2 sin x 2 1 D! : 12 6 D e !1=6 . if f .x/ be two polynomials such that f .a/ Suppose g1 . Numerically we find: x 1 0. and let f1 .x ! a/f1 .432 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 78.x/ D . Patience Required Use L’Hˆopital’s Rule to evaluate and check your answers numerically: # $ 2 # $ sin x 1=x 1 1 (a) lim (b) lim ! x!0C x x!0 sin2 x x2 SOLUTION (a) We start by evaluating lim ln x!0C # sin x x $1=x 2 D lim x!0C ln.a/ D g.1 0.x/ g1 .x/ Use this to verify L’Hˆopital’s Rule directly for lim f .x/.x/ D . let f .x/ C g1 .x/ and g.x/ f1 . we find lim ln x!0C # sin x x $1=x 2 cot x ! x !1 x cos x ! sin x !x sin x D lim D lim x!0C 2x x!0C x!0C 2x 2 cos x C 4x sin x 2x 2 sin x D lim D lim x!0C D! Therefore. lim x!a f .

SOLUTION An arc with the sign combination CC (increasing.334001 0. In the following cases.x/ D x 6 ! x 3 .4/ < 0.6 Graph Sketching and Asymptotes Preliminary Questions 1.1/ D 0I f 000 .4/ . An arc with the sign combination !C (decreasing.1/ D 0I f .c D 0/ SOLUTION (a) Let f .12 ! 8x 2 / cos 2x ! 8x sin 2x C 12 cos 2x ! 24x sin 2x Numerically we find: x 1 sin2 x ! 1 x2 1 0.x/ D .x/ D x 5 ! 6x 4 C 14x 3 ! 16x 2 C 9x C 12 . The second derivative of the function f .0/ D !6 ¤ 0: Thus.0/ D 0I f 000 . f . Sketch an arc where f 0 and f 00 have the sign combination CC.0/ is neither a local minimum nor a local maximum.6 D lim x!0 D lim x!0 D lim x!0 433 4 sin 2x !4x 2 sin 2x C 4x cos 2x C 8x cos 2x C 4 sin 2x C 4 sin x cos x 4 sin 2x . Then f 0 .x ! 4/!3 . Now.x/ D 2. so f 0 . then (choose the correct answer): (b) f .x/ D 20x 3 ! 72x 2 C 84x ! 32 so f 00 .x/ changes sign at x D 4.1/ is a local maximum.4/ .1/ D 5 ! 24 C 42 ! 32 C 9 D 0 and c D 1 is a critical point. Now.Graph Sketching and Asymptotes S E C T I O N 4.x ! 4/!1 is f 00 .c/ is a local max Because the sign of the second derivative changes at x D c.c D 1/ (b) f . f 0 .333340 80.c/ is a local minimum or a local maximum.1/ D !24 ¤ 0: Thus.x/ D 5x 4 ! 24x 3 C 42x 2 ! 32x C 9. Why not? SOLUTION The function f does not have a point of inflection at x D 4 because x D 4 is not in the domain of f.0/ D 0 and c D 0 is a critical point.x/ D 30x 4 ! 6x so f 00 .x/ D x 6 ! x 3 . Although f 00 .x/ D 6x 5 ! 3x 2 . (a) f . n D 3 is odd.x/ D x 5 ! 6x 4 C 14x 3 ! 16x 2 C 9x C 12. . the correct response is (c): c is a point of inflection. Then. concave up) is shown below at the right.6 ! 4x 2 / sin 2x C 12x cos 2x 8 cos 2x 1 D : 3 . concave up) is shown below at the left.01 0.412283 0. so f . so f . Do the same for !C. f 00 .x/ D 120x ! 144 so f .1 0. so f 0 .x/ D 60x 2 ! 144x C 84 so f 000 . check that x D c is a critical point and use Exercise 75 to determine whether f . (b) Let f .c/ is a local min (c) c is a point of inflection SOLUTION 00 x changes from CC to C! at x D c. y y x 0 2. f 00 .x/ D 120x ! 6 so f 000 . n D 4 is even and f . 4.x/ does not have a point of inflection at x D 4. 3. If the sign combination of f and f (a) f .

y y = f(x) A B C D E F x G FIGURE 1 SOLUTION " " " " " " " In A. At E. y −1 1 −0. CC. 0 −1 1 x −1 y 4. so f 0 > 0 and f 00 > 0. In C. In E.4 −0. the graph changes from concave down to concave up. so f 00 goes from C to !. the graph changes from decreasing to increasing. so f 0 < 0 and f 00 > 0. f is decreasing and concave down. f is increasing and concave up.6 2 x . the graph changes from decreasing to increasing. In G. Example: f 0 . f is increasing and concave down. the graph changes from increasing to decreasing. so f 0 goes from C to !. so f 0 > 0 and f 00 < 0. In B. so f 0 goes from ! to C.2 −0. At C.434 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Exercises 1. so f 00 goes from ! to C. Determine the sign combinations of f 0 and f 00 for each interval A–G in Figure 1. In F. f is decreasing and concave up. At F. so f 0 goes from ! to C. SOLUTION !C This function changes from increasing to decreasing at x D 0 and from concave down to concave up at x D 1. so f 0 > 0 and f 00 > 0. so f 0 goes from C to !. C!. f is decreasing and concave up. C!.x/ goes from C to ! at A. so f 0 < 0 and f 00 > 0. 2. f is increasing and concave up. so f 0 > 0 and f 00 < 0. !!. SOLUTION !! This function changes from concave up to concave down at x D !1 and from increasing to decreasing at x D 0. f is increasing and concave down. At G. so f 00 goes from ! to C. y y = f(x) x A B C D E F G FIGURE 2 SOLUTION " " " " " " " At A. In Exercises 3–6. the graph changes from concave up to concave down. draw the graph of a function for which f 0 and f 00 take on the given sign combinations. State the sign change at each transition point A–G in Figure 2. At D. the graph changes from concave down to concave up. At B. In D. so f 0 < 0 and f 00 < 0. the graph changes from increasing to decreasing. 3.

x/ D 3x 2 ! 6x D 3x. SOLUTION y 0. It is concave down on . 1/ and concave up on . Sketch the graph of y D x 2 ! 5x C 4. 1/. Thus f is concave down for x < 1.x/ D !4. Hence f is increasing for x < !5=4. SOLUTION Let f .x/ D 2x ! 5 and f 00 . has a local maximum at x D 0.x/ D x 3 ! 3x 2 C 2.x ! 2/ D 0 yields x D 0. . is decreasing for x > !5=4.x/ D x 3 ! 3x 2 C 2. has a local minimum at x D 5=2 and is concave up everywhere. SOLUTION Let f .1.x/ D !5 ! 4x and f 00 . 2:73). is increasing for x > 5=2.!1.x ! 1/ C 1 > 0 for all values of x and f 00 . Hence f is decreasing for x < 5=2. and has a local minimum at x D 2. y 15 10 5 x 2 4 6 8. is increasing for x < 0 and for x > 2. has a local maximum at x D !5=4 and is concave down everywhere. y 0.6 5. Hence f is everywhere increasing and has an inflection point at x D 1.x/ D x 2 ! 5x C 4. which are x D 1 and 1 ˙ !0:73. Then f 0 . y 2 −6 −4 x −2 −20 −40 9. !C. Include the zeros of f . is decreasing for 0 < x < 2.S E C T I O N 4. Sketch the graph. Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 435 !C The function is decreasing everywhere and changes from concave up to concave down at x D !1 and from concave down to concave up at x D ! 12 . has an inflection point at x D 1. p 3 (approximately SOLUTION Let f . SOLUTION C! This function changes from decreasing to increasing at x D 0 and from concave up to concave down at x D 1.x/ D 6x ! 6. Sketch the graph of y D 12 ! 5x ! 2x 2 .x/ D x 3 ! 3x 2 C 6x has a point of inflection but no local extreme values. Then f 0 . 2 and f 00 . Show that f .x/ D 3x 2 ! 6x C 6 D 3 .2 1 −1 2 x 7.4 0.6 0. Sketch the graph of f .x/ D 12 ! 5x ! 2x 2 .x/ D x 3 ! 3x 2 C 6x. !!.05 x 0 −1 6. CC.x/.x/ D 2. is concave up for x > 1.x/ D 6x ! 6. Then f 0 . ! " 2 SOLUTION Let f . y 2 1 1 −1 2 3 x −1 −2 10. !C. Then f 0 .

a local minimum at x D 0.x/ D 1: x!!1 x!1 Here is a graph of f with these transition points highlighted as in the graphs in the textbook.x/ D x 4=3 . ! 5! 13! 17! 25! 6. and an inflection point at x D !8.x/ D 23 x !1=3 and f 00 .x/ D cos x C 12 x.x/ D ! sin x C 12 D 0 yields critical points at x D 5! 7! 9! D ! cos x so there are points of inflection at x D !2 .x/ D 6x C 48. concavity. 5"%.x/ D x 3 C 24x 2 . 9x x Thus f is decreasing and concave up for x < 0 and y 2 1 −2 1 −1 2 x In Exercises 13–34. SOLUTION " Let f .x/ D x 2=3 .0.x/ D ! 29 x !4=3 . 3! 2 . !16/ . y 3000 2000 1000 x −20 −15 −10 −5 5 . 6 . Then f 0 . y D x 3 C 24x 2 SOLUTION Let f . Interval Signs of f 0 and f 00 . Moreover.x/ D 3x 2 C 48x D 3x . 2 . y 2 1 −2 " 1 −1 Let f . and y 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 x 8 10 12 14 12. f . This shows that f has critical points at x D 0 and x D !16 and a candidate for an inflection point at x D !8. Then f 0 . !8/ . 0/ . Then f 0 .x/ D !1 and lim f . find the transition points. 1/ C! !! !C CC Thus. intervals of increase/decrease.436 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE y 15 10 5 x −1 1 2 3 −5 11. Sketch the graphs of y D x 2=3 and y D x 4=3 .x C 16/ and f 00 . 2 4 !2=3 . and asymptotic behavior.x/ D 43 x 1=3 and f 00 . lim f . 13. with this information indicated.!1.!16. 6 . SOLUTION Let f . there is a local maximum at x D !16. Thus f is decreasing and concave down for x < 0 and increasing and concave down for x > 0. and 2 . Moreover. Extend the sketch of the graph of f .x/ D increasing and concave up for x > 0. Then f 0 . Then sketch the graph. 6 .x/ 29! 00 6 . 6 . 2 .x/ D cos x C 21 x in Example 4 to the interval Œ0. neither of which exist at x D 0.!8.

1/ C! !! !C CC Thus. and f 00 . y D x 2 ! 4x 3 SOLUTION and x D 16 . f . Moreover. f .2 −0. 12 . y D 4 ! 2x 2 C 16 x 4 % & Let f . y D x 3 ! 3x C 5 SOLUTION Let f .0.x/ D x 2 ! 4x 3 . lim f .x/ D 2x 2 ! 4. 1/ . y D 31 x 3 C x 2 C 3x Let f .x/ D 6x. Moreover.x/ has an inflection point at .1.x/ D 1: x!˙1 Here is the graph of f with transition points highlighted as in the textbook: y 0.x/ has no critical points and is always increasing).x/ D 2x C 2 D 0 if x D !1. Then f 0 . y 20 10 −2 1 −1 2 x −10 15. Let f . f . and that f 00 .1 ! 6x/ and f 00 .x/ changes from negative to positive at x D !1.!1. 1/ C! !! Thus.04 16.x/ D !1 and lim f .x/ D 23 x 3 ! 4x D 23 x x 2 ! 6 and f 00 .x/ lim f . This shows that f p p has critical points at x D 0 and x D ˙ 6 and has candidates for points of inflection at x D ˙ 2.x/ D x 3 ! 3x C 5.04 x 0.x/ D !1 and lim f .x/ D 61 x 4 ! 2x 2 C 4. Critical points are at x D 0 1 and the sole candidate point of inflection is at x D 12 .!1.2 −0.!1. Sign analysis shows that f D . 0/ .x/ D 1: x!!1 x!1 Here is the graph of f with the transition points highlighted as in the textbook.x/ D 1: x!!1 x!1 A graph with the inflection point indicated appears below: y 10 5 −1 1 −2 2 x −5 17. f .S E C T I O N 4.x/ D 3x 2 ! 3 and f 00 .0. !1/ . f . Interval 0 Signs of f and f 00 . Then f 0 .x/ D 13 x 3 C x 2 C 3x. and there is a point of inflection at x D 1 12 . and there is a point of inflection at x D 0. Interval . 61 / is a local maximum.!1/ is a local maximum.0/ is a local minimum. Then f 0 . Critical points are at x D ˙1 and the sole candidate point of inflection is at x D 0. lim f .x/ D 2x ! 12x 2 D 2x. implying that the graph of f .x C 1/2 C 2 > 0 for all x (so that f . SOLUTION .x/ D x 2 C 2x C 3. Then f 0 .!1//.6 Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 437 14.x/ D 2 ! 24x.1/ is a local minimum.!1. SOLUTION 0 . 6/ . 0/ Signs of f 0 and f 00 . !C 1 12 / CC 1 1 . Moreover. 16 .

2.x/ D 0 at x D 0. ! 7 7 / .2x 2 ! 9/. ! 2/ p .!1.0. p 21 7 . . p 2/ p p . f has local minima at x D ˙ 21 7 and candidates for points of inflection at x D ˙ p 21 7 / . y 40 20 −2 −1 −20 1 2 x −40 20. ! 6/ p p . y 1.x/ D 1: x!˙1 Here is a graph of f with transition points highlighted. ! Signs of f 0 and f 00 Thus. 0/ !C CC C! .! p !C p 21 7 .! 6.x/ changes from negative to positive at x D 0.x/ D 84x 2 ! 12. p 7 7 / !! p . Then f 0 .x/ D 5x 4 C 5 D 5. 1/ CC Moreover.5 19. p 21 7 . 1/ !C CC !! p p Thus. Moreover. Moreover. 7 / !C a local maximum at x D 0. y D x 5 C 5x SOLUTION Let f .x/ D !1 and lim f . f 0 . Sign analyses reveal that f 00 .x/ D 1: x!!1 x!1 Here is a graph of f with transition points highlighted. 6/ p . Then f 0 .x/ D x 5 C 5x. y D 7x 4 ! 6x 2 C 1 SOLUTION % & Let f . so the graph has no critical points and is always increasing. lim f .0. This shows that f has critical points at x D 0 and x D ˙ Interval p . y D x 5 ! 15x 3 Let f .x/ D 5x 4 ! 45x 2 D 5x 2 .x/ has an inflection point at .0.5 1 −1 x −0. 0/.x/ D x 5 ! 15x 3 . lim f . and inflection points at x D ˙ p 7 7 .x/ D 1: x!˙1 Here is a graph of f with transition points highlighted. f has local minima at x D ˙ 6.! CC p 7 7 . f 00 . p p 7 21 7 . is negative on either side of x D 0 and changes from negative to positive at x D 3. y 10 5 2 −2 x 18. The graph therefore has a local maximum at x D !3 and a local minimum at x D 3. 0/ C! . Then f 0 . a local maximum at x D 0. p This shows that f has critical points at x D 0 and x D ˙3 and candidate inflection points at x D 0 and x D ˙3 2=2.438 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Interval Signs of f 0 and f 00 p . 6.x/ D 20x 3 ! 90x D 10x. and inflection points at x D ˙ 2. Sign analyses reveal that f 0 .x/ D 28x 3 ! 12x D 4x 7x 2 ! 3 and f 00 .x 4 C 1/ and f 00 .!1. lim f .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D !3.x/ D 20x 3 . Further sign SOLUTION . 7 7 .! 2. so that the graph of f .x 2 ! 9/ and f 00 .x/ > 0 for all x.x/ D 7x 4 ! 6x 2 C 1.

x/ transitions from positive to negative at x D 0 and from negative to positive at x D ˙3 2=2. Therefore.x/. are at 2 ˙ 648 D 2 ˙ 2 3 3 .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D 0 and from negative to positive at x D 32 . Candidate inflection points are at solutions of 4. lim f .x/ with transition points highlighted.x/ changes from positive to negative at p p 2! 2 3 3 and from negative to positive at 2 C 2 3 3 .x/ D x 4 ! 3x 3 C 4x. . p and x D 2.6 Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 439 p analyses show that f 00 . Therefore.x/ D 1: x!˙1 Here is a graph of f . Then f 0 . from positive to negative at x D 1C8 33 .x/ changes from negative to positive at x D 1! 8 33 . Moreover. Sign analyses reveal that f 0 . Then f 0 . 1C8 33 / is a local maximum. Further sign analyses reveal that f 00 . p which. of f .x ! 4/2 C 2x 2 . and f .x/ D 2x.x/ D 4x 3 ! 9x 2 C 4 D .2/ a local maximum.3x 2 ! 12x C 8/: Critical points are therefore at x D 0.x ! 4 C x/ D 4x. Also.x/ D !1 and x!!1 lim f .x/ D 1: x!˙1 Here is a graph of f .x/ D 12x 2 ! 18x D p 1 ˙ 33 6x. Therefore there are points of inflection at both x D 2 ˙ lim f . 1! 8 33 / and f . f .x ! 4/. from the quadratic formula.x ! 4/2 . Sign analyses reveal that f 0 . f .x/ D 1: x!1 Here is a graph of f with transition points highlighted. x D 4. The graph p therefore has points of inflection at x D 0 and x D ˙3 2=2.S E C T I O N 4. y 200 2 −6 −4 x −2 4 6 −200 21.x/ with transition points highlighted.0/ and f .x ! 2/ and f 00 .x ! 4/ D 2x. Moreover. y D x 4 ! 3x 3 C 4x Let f . Moreover.x/ changes from negative to positive at x D 0 and x D 4. y D x 2 . andpf . This shows that f has critical points at x D 2 and x D and candidate points of inflection at x D 0 and 8 p p x D 32 . SOLUTION p p and again from negative to positive at x D 2. y 25 20 15 10 5 −1 1 2 3 4 5 x 2 3 3 . and from positive to negative at x D 2.x/ D x 2 .x ! 4/.2/ are local minima of f . lim f .x ! 4/2 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D 12x 2 ! 48x C 32 D 4. so that there are points of inflection both at x D 0 and x D 32 .3x 2 ! 12x C 8/ D 0.4/ are local minima.x/.4x 2 ! x ! 2/. y 6 4 2 −1 1 −2 x 2 22. f 00 .x ! 2/ and f 00 .2x ! 3/.

x/ D x 7 ! 14x 6 . Moreover. y D p xC p 16 ! x 10 5 −2 15 20 p p 1=2 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D !1 and x!!1 lim f . p p This shows that f has critical points at x D 0 and x D ˙ 6 and candidate inflection points at x D 0 and x D ˙3 10=5.x/ D x 6 ! 9x 4 . lim f . x D 8 and x D 16. Sign p analyses reveal thatpf 0 .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D 0 and from negative to positive at x D 12. from positive to negative at p x D 0 and from negative to positive at x D 6. and candidate inflection points are at x D 0 and x D 10. Because f 0 .0. y D x 7 ! 14x 6 SOLUTION Let f . Critical points are at x D 0 and x D 12. Moreover.x/ changes from negative to positive at x D 10. y 4 2 x 26. Then f 0 . 16/. Moreover. so the graph is always concave down. Here is a graph of f with the transition point highlighted.x ! 10/.x/ D ! 14 x !3=2 ! 14 .440 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 23. Therefore.x/ D 6x 5 ! 36x 3 D 6x 3 . Sign analyses reveal that f 0 . lim f .16 ! x/ . Now. Therefore f . Also. Now f 00 . Thus.x/ > 0 for 0 < x < 8 and f 0 . Note that the domain of f is Œ0. so the graph is always concave up. y 400 200 −2 2 x −200 p 25.x/ < 0 on . Sign analysis 2 .x/ D x ! 4 x D x ! 4x 1=2 .x/ D 1 ! 2x !1=2 .x/ D 1: x!˙1 Here is a graph of f with transition points highlighted.0/ is a local maximum and f .x/ D 12 x !1=2 ! !1=2 1 and f 00 . The graph therefore has points of inflection at x D ˙3 10=5.x/ < 0 for 0 < x < 4 and f 0 . y 1 × 107 5 × 106 x −5 5 10 6 −5 × 10 24.16 ! x/!3=2 . y D x 6 ! 9x 4 SOLUTION Let f . there is a point of inflection at x D 10.x/ transitions from positive topnegative at x D !3 10=5 and from negative to positive at x D 3 10=5. Then f 0 .5x 2 ! 18/.12/ is a local minimum. lim f . 16%. f .x/ < 0 for 8 < x < 16. Further.4/ is a local minimum. so f has a local maximum at x D 9.x 2 ! 6/ and f 00 . y D x ! 4 x p SOLUTION Let f .x/ changes from negative to positive at x D ! 6. the critical points are x D 0.x/ > 0 for x > 4. f 00 .x/ D 30x 4 ! 108x 2 D 6x 2 .x/ D 7x 6 ! 84x 5 D 7x 5 . f 0 .x/ D 1: x!1 Here is a graph of f with transition points highlighted. The graph therefore has a local maximumpat x D 0 and local minima at x D ˙ 6. Then f 0 .x/ D x C 16 ! x D x 1=2 C .16 ! x/ reveals that f 0 . y 6 5 4 3 2 1 x 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 .x/ D x !3=2 > 0 for all x > 0. f 00 . Further p sign analyses show that f 00 .x/ D 1: x!1 Here is a graph of f with transition points highlighted. This shows that f has critical points at x D 0 (where the derivative does not exist) and at x D 4 (where the derivative is zero).x/ D 42x 5 ! 420x 4 D 42x 4 .x ! 12/ and f 00 .

x/ D x . y D xe !x SOLUTION 2 2 Let f .x 2 ! 4x/!5=3 3 3 ! " 2 2 D .x/ D !1: x!˙1 Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted.8 ! x/5=3 : Critical points are at x D 8 and x D 6. and candidate inflection points are x D 8 and x D 12.8 ! x/!2=3 . y 4 2 x −4 2 −2 6 8 −2 29.x/ remains negative on either side of x D 8.1 ! 2x 2 /e !x . y D x. the graph of f .x/ D !2x 2 e !x C e !x D . Moreover. Sign analyses reveal that f 00 .x 2 ! 4x/!2=3 3 and # $ 2 4 . Since . Therefore. Then 2 2 2 f 0 . f has a local maximum at x D 6 and inflection points at x D 8 and x D 12.x 2 ! 4x/!2=3 ! .x/ D . while f 00 .x 2 ! x/!2=3 is positive wherever it is defined.x 2 ! 4x/!5=3 .x 2 ! 4x/!5=3 3. lim f .x/ D 4x ! 48 9 .4x 3 ! 2x/e !x ! 4xe !x D 2x. Hence.8 ! x/2=3 and similarly f 00 . the sign of f 0 .2/ is.x 2 ! 4x/1=3 .x/ are x D 2 (where the derivative is zero) an x D 0 and x D 4 (where the derivative does not exist). candidate points of inflection are x D 0 and x D 4. f . lim f . y x −5 5 10 15 −10 −20 −30 28.x/ D Critical points of f .x/ changes from negative to positive at x D 8 and from positive to negative at x D 12.x 2 ! 4x/ ! 4.x/ D 1: x!˙1 Here is a graph of f .x/ has points of inflection at x D 0 and x D 4.x ! 2/.x/ D xe !x .x 2 ! 4x/1=3 SOLUTION Let f .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D 6 and f 0 .x ! 2/2 . Therefore.x ! 2/2 D ! .6 Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 441 27.x/ < 0 for x < 0 and for x > 4.x/ does not change sign at x D 0 or x D 4. and goes from negative to positive at x D 2.x/ depends solely on the sign of x ! 2. f 0 . Then f 0 .8 ! x/1=3 & 1 D 24 ! 4x 3 . Moreover.2x 2 ! 3/e !x : .8 ! x/1=3 SOLUTION Let f . Moreover. f 00 .x/ D x & 1 3 . Then f 0 . in that case.x/ D .S E C T I O N 4. y D .x/ with the transition points indicated.x 2 ! 4x C 16/: 9 9 f 00 .x/ D 2 . a local minimum. and 2 2 2 f 00 .!1/ C .8 ! x/1=3 .x/ > 0 for 0 < x < 4. Sign analyses reveal that f 0 .

8 −1. y D x ! 2 ln x SOLUTION Let f . Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted.6 ! 12x 2 /e !x D 2. Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted.2 1 2 3 −0. f 00 .6 −0. f 00 . lim f . Moreover. and 2 2 2 f 00 .4 0.4 30.x/ D 1 ! 2 x and f 00 . a local minimum at q p x D 0 and points of inflection at x D ˙ 3˙2 6 .x/ changes from and from positive to negative at x D 0.0 31. Sign analysis shows that f 0 . a Moreover.x/ changes from positive to negative at x D ˙ 23 and from q p q p negative to positive at x D 0. Therefore. and x D 0 and x D ˙ f 0 .x/ D . x!˙1 so the graph has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0.x/ D x ! 2 ln x. so f .2 1 2 3 −0.x/ D 0. Therefore.4x 4 ! 12x 2 C 3/e !x : p There are critical points at x D 0 and x D ˙ 23 .2x 2 ! 1/e !x SOLUTION 2 2 Let f .x/ D .x/ changes from negative to positive at x D 2.x/ D 1: x!1 Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted. Moreover. . Note that the domain of f is x > 0. f has local maxima at x D ˙ 23 . Sign analysis shows that f 0 .x/ D 0. Moreover.x/ changes from positive to negative at x D ! 3C2 6 and at x D 3!2 6 and from q p q p p negative to positive at x D ! 3!2 6 and at x D 3C2 6 . lim f .2/ is a local minimum. f 00 . y D . xD . p 2 2 .x/ D . Then 2 2 2 f 0 .3 ! 2x 2 /e !x .x/ > 0 for x > 0.2x 2 ! 1/e !x . Sign analysis shows that and from positive to negative at x D p 2 2 . Moreover.2x ! 4x 3 /e !x C 4xe !x D 2x. x!˙1 so the graph has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0. y 0.x/ changes from negative to positive at x D ! negative to positive at both x D ˙ local maximum at x D p 2 2 p 3 2 p 2 2 p 3 2 are candidates for inflection points. lim f .8x 4 ! 12x 2 /e !x C .2 x −3 −2 −1 −0.4 −0. f 0 .2 x −3 −2 −1 −0. xD 2 2 2 2 p are candidates for inflection points. f has a local minimum at x D ! and inflection points at x D 0 and at x D ˙ p 3 2 . and s s s s p p p p 3C 6 3! 6 3! 6 3C 6 xD! . so the graph is always concave up. xD! .x/ D 2 : x2 The only critical point is x D 2. Now.442 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 There are critical points at x D ˙ p 2 2 . y 0.4 0. Further.

Graph Sketching and Asymptotes S E C T I O N 4. f has a local maximum at x D 2 ! 3.x/ D 1 and lim x!0C x!i nf ty f . and x D ˙1 are candidates for inflection p points.x/ changes from positive to negative at x D 2 ! 3 and from negative to positive at x D 2 C 3. the graph is always q x D 32 . Now. Sign analysis shows that f 0 . so there is a point of inflection at x D 32 . f 0 . a local minimum at x D 2 C 3 and points of inflection at x D ˙1.x/ < 0 for all x > 0. On the other hand.x/ D x ! 2 ln. Moreover.x/ D 1 ! f 00 . f has a local maximum at x D 1 and a point of inflection at x D e !3=2 .4 ! x/ ! 3 ln x.x/ D x ! x 2 ln x. lim f . y D x ! 2 ln. y D x. so f has a vertical asymptote at x D 0.x 2 ! 1/ D 2 : 2 2 .x/ changes from positive to negative at q f .x C 1/ .x/ changes from positive to p negative at px D !1 and from negative to positive at x D 1.x 2 C 1/. y x 0. Therefore.4/ ! .0 2.x/ D 1: x!!1 x!1 Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted. lim f .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D 1 and that f 00 . and x D e !3=2 " 0:223 is a candidate inflection point.5 −2 −4 −6 34. y D x ! x 2 ln x SOLUTION Let f . Note that the domain of f is x > 0. f 00 . lim f .x 2 C 1/ SOLUTION Let f .x C 1/2 p There are critical points at x D 2 ˙ p3.0 1.x/ D !3 ! 2 ln x.x/ D 4 ! 2x ! 3 x and f 00 .5 1.6 443 y 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 x 8 32.x/ D x.x/ D !2 C 3 : x2 0 Because decreasing. Moreover.x/ D ! 4x . f 00 . Finally. There is a critical point at x D 1. Sign analysis shows that f 0 .x/ D !1.x/ D !1: x!1 Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted. Then f 0 .4x/. Moreover.x 2 C 1/.x/ D !1 and lim f .4 ! x/ ! 3 ln x SOLUTION Let f .5 2.2x/ 4. Then f 0 . Therefore.x/ D 1 ! x ! 2x ln x and f 00 .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D e !3=2 . Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted. and x2 C 1 . y x −2 2 −2 −4 4 6 8 . y 15 10 5 1 2 3 4 x 33.

0 0 C 0 ` I ! p " 0.x/ D x!˙1 1 1 & 1 ! x2 .x/ D . f 00 . x!˙1 1 ! x2 Now f 0 .4. ! 3 p ! 3 ! 0 a I x . % & 2x x 2 ! 3 00 f .x/ D 30. y D 0 is a horizontal asymptote for f .x ! 1/1=3 yields critical points at x D 59 . 95 . x D 1.x/ D ! p " !1.x/ D x . 1/ CC !C CC The graph has an inflection point at x D 35 .x/ D x using the formulas x2 C 1 f 0 . x2 C 1 lim f .x ! 35 / . Moreover.x ! 1/1=3 .1 C x 2 /2 f 00 .x/ D 20. y −2 40 −1 20 1 2 3 x −20 −40 −60 −80 36. The sketch looks something like this.) x f 00 f " Here is a graph of f .x 2 C 1/3 lim x !1 D 0. has a local minimum value at x D !1 and a local maximum value at x D 1.1. 35 / C! . similar to those constructed in various exercises in Section 4. Interval signs of f 0 and f 00 .x/ D % &2 is negative for x < !1 and x > 1. and 0 at x D ˙1. 1/ .x/ D . 3 p ! 0 a I 3 !p " 3. f 00 .x/ D SOLUTION " " " Because Let f .!1. x2 C 1 ! p " ! 3.x ! 1/4=3 SOLUTION f 0 . 1 C ` .x/ D 18. 35 .444 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 35.x ! 3/.x 2 ! 3/ . x D 1.x ! 95 / . is increasing for !1 < x < 1.x/ D % &3 : x2 C 1 Here is a sign chart for the second derivative.x/ D 2x. positive for !1 < x < 1. (The legend is on page 408.x ! 1/4=3 yields potential inflection points at x D 53 . and a local minimum at x D 95 . Accordingly. Sketch the graph of f . a local maximum at x D 1 (at which the graph has a cusp).x ! 1/2=3 using the formulas % & % & 30 x ! 95 20 x ! 35 f 0 . . Sketch the graph of f . f is x2 C 1 decreasing for x < !1 and x > 1. 95 / .

Moreover. Sign analysis reveals that f 0 .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D 2:345751 and that f 00 . Then f 0 . Then f 0 . Therefore. use a graphing utility or computer algebra system to locate the transition points numerically.x/ D e !x=2 1 !x=2 ! e ln x D e !x=2 x 2 # 1 1 ! ln x x 2 $ and # 1 f 00 . y D e !x=2 ln x SOLUTION Let f . lim f .x/ D 2 ! y 5 x −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 −10 38. 37.x/ D e !x=2 ! 2 ! x # 1 D e !x=2 ! 2 ! x 1 2x $ 1 ! e !x=2 2 $ 1 1 C ln x : x 4 # 1 1 ! ln x x 2 $ There is a critical point at x D 2:345751 and a candidate point of inflection at x D 3:792199.x 2 C 1/.6 Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 445 y 0.x 2 C 1/ SOLUTION 20x .20x/. Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted.5 In Exercises 37–40. and x2 C 1 Let f . y D x 4 ! 4x 2 C x C 1 4 6 8 . f has a local maximum at x D 0.x 2 C 1/2 p p There are critical points at x D 0 and x D ˙3. Sign analysis shows 0 that f . f has a local maximum at x D 2:345751 and a point of inflection at x D 3:792199.x/ changes from negative at x D ˙3 and from positive to negative at x D 0. y D x 2 ! 10 ln.x/ D 2x ! .x C 1/ . local minima at x D ˙3 and points of inflection at x D ˙ !6 C 3 5. f 00 . and x D ˙ !6 C 3 5 are candidates for inflection points. Moreover. If necessary.2x/ x 4 C 12x 2 ! 9 D : 2 2 . y x 2 −1 −2 −3 39.x/ D x 2 ! 10 ln.x/ D !1 and x!0C lim f .x/ changes from p to positive p p p positive to negative at x D ! !6 C 3 5 and from negative to positive p at x Dp !6 C 3 5. indicating all transition points.20/ ! . Therefore. f 00 .x/ changes from negative to positive at x D 3:792199.5 −10 −5 5 x 10 −0.x/ D e !x=2 ln x.x 2 C 1/.S E C T I O N 4. sketch the graph of the function.x/ D 0: x!1 Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted.

". with all transition points indicated. The critical points are q x D !1:473.x/ D 2 x ! sin x.x/ D x C sin x. y D 2 x ! sin x. y 5 4 3 2 1 x 1 2 3 4 5 6 In Exercises 41–46.x/ changes from positive to negative at x D 5:167866. Then 1 f 0 .x/: y 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x . f has a local maximum at x D 5:167866 and points of inflection at x D 0:790841 and x D 3:047468.x/ changes from negative to positive at x D 0:790841 and from positive to negative at x D 3:047468.x/ D 4x 3 ! 8x C 1 and f 00 . f 00 . and no local maxima or minima. sketch the graph over the given interval. y 20 15 10 5 x −2 −1 1 −5 2 p 40. Œ0. x D 0:126 and x D 1:347.x/ D 1 C cos x D 0 yields cos x D !1. Here is a sketch of the graph of f . Setting f 00 . so that x D " is the lone critical point on the interval Œ0. there is a critical point at x D 5:167866 and candidate points of inflection at x D 0:790841 and x D 3:047468. Sign analysis reveals that f 0 . Therefore. SOLUTION Interval signs of f 0 and f 00 . Therefore. while the candidates for points of inflection are x D ˙ 23 . 2"% Let f .x/ changes from positive to negative at x D ! 23 and from negative to positive at q x D 23 . 2"%. from positive to negative at x D q 0:126 and from negative to positive SOLUTION at x D 1:347.446 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Let f . f has local minima at x D !1:473 and x D 1:347.x/ D 12x 2 ! 8. while f 00 . 41. 2" on the interval Œ0.x/ D ! sin x D 0 yields potential points of inflection at x D 0. 2"%. Moreover. "/ C! .x/ D p ! cos x x 1 f 00 . Then f 0 . a local maximum at x D 0:126 and points of inflection at q x D ˙ 23 . lim f . Setting f 0 .x/ D ! x !3=2 C sin x: 2 and On 0 $ x $ 2". Sign analysis reveals that f 0 . Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted.x/ D x 4 ! 4x 2 C x C 1.0. y D x C sin x. For the second derivative.x/ D 1: x!˙1 Here is a graph of f with the transition points highlighted.x/ changes from negative to positive at x D !1:473. 0 $ x $ 2" p SOLUTION Let f . ". 2"/ CC The graph has an inflection point at x D ".

signs of f 0 and f 00 Interval The graph has a local maximum at x D sketch of the graph of f .x/ D cos x C potential points of inflection at x D 0. Œ0. Setting f 0 . or 2 ! 2x D x ˙ 2n". so that ! tan x D 1. 6 % 3! 2 CC C! & 3! 2 . !4 . Here is a y 2 1 3 1 2 4 5 6 x −1 −2 44. so that 2 sin. and 7! Setting f 00 . 2"% Let f . so ! ! 00 that x D !2 or 3! 2 .x/: ! 4. 2"% Let f . Œ0. Œ0. 2"/ C! a local minimum at x D 5! 4 . . 5! 4 / !C . y D sin x C 21 x. 7! 4 . 5! 4 .x D 4 . SOLUTION signs of f 0 and f 00 Interval % !& 0.x/ D ! sin x ! cos x D 0 yields sin x D ! cos x.6 447 42. 7! 4 / CC .x/ D 2 cos 2x ! 2 sin x. 6 % 5! . so that tan x D 1. Let f . Then f 0 .x/ D 0 yields 2 cos 2x D 2 sin x.x/ D 2 cos x ! 2 cos x . 2"% SOLUTION x D !4 . 3! 4 .x/ D sin x C cos x. 6 %! ! 6.x/ D cos x ! sin x D 0 yields sin x D cos x. y D 2 sin x ! cos2 x. y D sin x C cos x. 2". and inflection points at x D 3! 4 and x D 7! 4 . 5! 4 . Setting f 0 . so that 2 sin x cos x D !2 cos x. This ! ! 5! 9! 3! yields 3x D 2 C 2n". 2" !! & !C & CC The graph has a local maximum at x D !2 . 2 ! 2x/ D 2 sin x. and inflection points at x D ! 6 and x D 5! 6 .x/ D 0 yields sin 2x D !2 cos x. 3! 2 . Setting f . SOLUTION 1 2 D 0 yields x D 2! 3 or 4! 3 .Graph Sketching and Asymptotes S E C T I O N 4. and x D 3! 4 . ". 6 D 2 . Setting f 0 .x/ D ! sin x D 0 yields . 2 %! & 5! 2. ! 4/ C! .x/ D sin x C 12 x. a local minimum at x D graph of f without transition points highlighted. Setting f 00 .0. or x D 6 .! sin x/ D sin 2x C 2 cos x and f 00 . Here is a y 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 x −1 43. This implies cos x D 0 or sin x D !1. 3! 4 / !! . 6 .x/ D 2 sin x ! cos2 x.

448 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE signs of f 0 and f 00 Interval % 2! & 0." & 2! 3 & Sign of f 0 and f 00 CC C! !! and a point of inflection at x D cos!1 14 . % 4! 3 The graph has a local maximum at x D without transition points highlighted.cos x ! 1/ D 0. y D sin x C p 3 cos x. SOLUTION % Interval % & 0. "% Let f . Hence. Setting f 0 . 2" !C & CC a local minimum at x D 4! 3 . 3 p p the solution is x D !6 . 3 % 2! 3 % ". cos!1 14 cos!1 14 . . SOLUTION Let f .x/ has a local maximum at x D 2! 3 . "%. . 2"=3/ !! . this gives 2 cos2 x ! 1 D cos x or .x/ D cos x ! 3 sin x D 0 yields tan x D p1 . and an inflection point at x D ". "%. x D " and x D cos!1 41 " 1:31812. Using the double angle formula for cosine. Œ0. Setting f 00 .0. "/ !C and a point of inflection at x D 2! 3 . Œ0.x/ D ! sin x C 2 sin 2x D 0 yields 4 sin x cos x D sin x. "% 1 2 3 4 5 x 6 p 3 cos x.2"=3.x/ D cos x ! cos 2x D 0 yields cos 2x D cos x. In the interval Œ0.x/ D sin x C p The graph has a local maximum at x D given below: ! 6 Interval signs of f 0 and f 00 . Setting f 00 . In the interval Œ0.2 cos x C 1/. we find x D 0 or 2! 3 .x/ D ! sin x ! 3 cos x D 0 yields tan x D ! 3."=6. y D sin x ! 1 2 sin 2x. so sin x D 0 or cos x D 41 . Setting f 0 .x/ D sin x ! 12 sin 2x. "=6/ C! . Here is a graph of f y 3 2 1 0 45. A plot without the transition points highlighted is y 2 1 1 2 3 x −1 −2 46." 4! 3 C! & !! & . % 2! 3 The graph of f . 2! 3 . Solving for x 2 Œ0. "%. the lone solution is x D 2! 3 . there are potential points of inflection at x D 0.

x 2 /.x 2 / > 0.x 2 /.x 2 / C 4x 2 f 00 .) SOLUTION In both cases. and so g 00 .x 2 / > 0 and f 0 .x/ D f . This gives g. and (iii) f 00 . Sketch a possible graph of g.x/ D 2f 0 . If g 0 .x/ < 0 for x < 0 and f 00 . Then g 0 .x/ > 0. and so f 00 . Suppose that f is twice differentiable satisfying (i) f . y y y x x x (A) (B) FIGURE 3 (C) . Which of the graphs in Figure 3 cannot be the graph of a polynomial? Explain.x/ < 0 for x < 0 and g 0 . Thus g 00 .x/ D 0. Interval . x 2 > 0. which implies that x D 0 as well. either x D 0 or f 0 .x/ does not change sign.x/ D 2xf 0 . this sketch shows a unique local minimum at x D 0. Let g.x/ based on the sketch we made for f . SOLUTION (a) To produce a possible sketch.0/ D 1.x/ follows: indeed.x 2 / > 0 for all x ¤ 0. A sketch of g. Are all sign transitions possible? Explain with a sketch why the transitions CC ! !C and !! ! C! do not occur if the function is differentiable.x/ > 0 for x > 0.x 2 / D 0.x 2 /. For all x ¤ 0. (a) Sketch a possible graph of f .6 Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 449 y 1 0 1 2 x 3 47. Since f 0 .!1.x/ a unique local extreme value at x D 0.x/. g 0 . (b) Prove that g.x/. there is a point where f is not differentiable at the transition from increasing to decreasing or decreasing to increasing.x/ D f .x 2 /. y 2 x 1 −1 49.x/ > 0 for all x ¤ 0. we give the direction and concavity of the graph over every interval. y y x x 48. a minimum. 1/ Direction % % Concavity a ` A sketch of one possible such function appears here: y 2 −2 1 −1 2 x (b) Let g. and can have no inflection points. (See Exercise 76 for a proof.0.S E C T I O N 4. 0/ .x/ has no points of inflection and a unique local extreme value at x D 0.x/ > 0 for x > 0. (ii) f 0 . g 00 .

1 x!˙1 !1 x!˙1 x 2 3x 3x has a horizontal asymptote of y D 0. so the left curve is the graph of f . Which curve in Figure 4 is the graph of f . signifying nondifferentiability at that point. 2 1 x!˙1 x !1 x!˙1 x ! 1 3x 2 the right curve is the graph of f . 1 C x4 y y 2 −4 2 2 −2 4 x −4 −1. hence. the left curve is the graph of f . the graph of y D 2 has a horizontal asymptote of y D 3. x2 ! 1 x !1 52.5 2 −2 x 4 −1.x/ D 2 .x/ D 2 . Since x !1 SOLUTION Since lim lim 3x 3 D & lim x !1 D 0.x/ D 51. Match the graphs in Figure 5 with the two functions y D 3x 3x 2 and y D 2 . 1 C x4 (A) x 1 −1 (B) FIGURE 5 3x 2 3 3x 2 D & lim 1 D 3. 50.450 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 SOLUTION Polynomials are everywhere differentiable. Match the functions with their graphs in Figure 6. !1 x !1 x2 y y x 1 −1 2x 4 ! 1 . hence.5 (A) (B) FIGURE 4 SOLUTION Since 2x 4 ! 1 2 D & lim 1 D 2 1 x!˙1 x!˙1 1 C x 4 lim the graph has left and right horizontal asymptotes at y D 2. graph (B) cannot be the graph of a polynomial. Accordingly.x/ D 2x 4 ! 1 ? Explain on the basis of horizontal asymptotes. since the function in (B) has a cusp (sharp corner). Explain. 1 x2 (a) y D 2 (b) y D 2 x !1 x C1 1 x (c) y D 2 (d) y D 2 x C1 x !1 the graph of y D y y y y x x x (A) x (B) (C) FIGURE 6 (D) .

x/ D . Moreover. is (B). so that f is decreasing for all x ¤ 2. so that f is decreasing for all x ¤ 13 . the graph of x2 x 2 C1 1 x 2 C1 is (A). Indicate the transition points and asymptotes. f has a vertical asymptote at x D 2 with SOLUTION Let f . Finally.x ! 2/2 .x ! 2/3 xC3 so that f is concave up for x > 2 and concave down for x < 2. the graph of (b) The graph of (c) The graph of x2 x 2 C1 1 x 2 C1 x x 2 !1 1 x 2 !1 is (D). Then f 0 . f has a horizontal . x !2 . f 00 .x/ D .x/ D .x/ D lim x! 1 3! 1 D !1 3x ! 1 and 1 D 1: 3x ! 1 lim x! 1 3C y 5 x −2 2 −5 54. f has a vertical asymptote at x D 3 with SOLUTION Let f . Further. Because lim D 1. Hence.x/ D lim x!2! xC3 D !1 x !2 and lim x!2C y 10 5 −10 −5 −5 −10 5 10 x xC3 D 1: x !2 . the graph should consist of positive values for !1 < x < 0 and x > 1 and negative values for x < 1 and 0 < x < 1. y D 1 3x ! 1 1 !3 . Finally. f has a horizontal asymptote at x!˙1 x ! 3 y D 1. Finally.x/ D lim x!3! x!2 D !1 x!3 and lim x!3C x !2 D 1: x !3 y 5 −2 2 4 6 x −5 55. Moreover.x/ D . f 00 .x/ D 3x ! 1 . should have a horizontal asymptote at y D 1 and no vertical asymptotes. y D x!2 x!3 x!2 !1 2 .3x ! 1/3 x!˙1 3x ! 1 asymptote at y D 0.x/ D .3x ! 1/2 18 1 . (d) The graph of should have a horizontal asymptote at y D 0 and vertical asymptotes at x D ˙1. the graph should consist of positive values for jxj > 1 and negative values for jxj < 1. Hence. Because lim D 0. Hence. x!3 .S E C T I O N 4. f 00 . sketch the graph of the function.x ! 3/3 x!2 so that f is concave up for x > 3 and concave down for x < 3. Moreover. 53. y D xC3 x!2 xC3 !5 10 . Because lim D 1. so that f is decreasing for all x ¤ 3. the graph of x 2x!1 is (C).6 Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 451 SOLUTION (a) The graph of 1 x 2 !1 should have a horizontal asymptote at y D 0 and vertical asymptotes at x D ˙1. In Exercises 53–70. f has a vertical asymptote at x D 31 with SOLUTION Let f . f has a horizontal asymptote at x!˙1 x ! 2 y D 1. Further. Then f 0 . Hence.x ! 3/2 . so that f is concave up for x > 13 and concave down for x < 13 . Then f 0 . the graph of should have a horizontal asymptote at y D 0 and no vertical asymptotes.

x/ D 2x !3 . so that f is concave up for x > 0 and concave down for x < 0. Moreover. f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0.x ! 1/2 % 3 & 2 2x ! 3x 2 C 3x ! 1 f 00 . Finally. so that f is increasing for x < !1 and x > 1 and decreasing for !1 < x < 0 and 0 < x < 1. Finally. Then f 0 . Because lim C D 0.x/ D . so that f is concave up for 0 < x < 12 and x > 1 and concave down for x < 0 and x 3 . 1. so that f is concave up for 0 < x < 1 and concave 3 3 # $ x . Then f 0 .x/ D 1 ! x !2 .x/ D and lim x!1! # 1 1 ! x x!1 $ and D1 lim x!1C # y 5 1 −1 −5 2 x 1 1 ! x x !1 $ D !1: .x/ D and lim x!1! # 1 1 C x x!1 $ and D !1 lim x!1C # 1 1 C x x!1 $ D 1: y 5 −1 58.x C x !1 / D 1: and x!0! x!0C y 5 −2 −1 1 2 x −5 57.x/ D . f . Then f 0 . f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0.x/ D x C x !1 . y D −5 1 2 x 1 1 ! x x!1 1 1 2x ! 1 ! . f 00 .x ! % 1/2 & 2 3x ! 3x C 1 1 00 increasing for 2 < x < 1 and x > 1. y D x C lim .452 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 1 x SOLUTION Let f . Because lim ! D 0. y D 1 1 C x x!1 1 1 2x 2 ! 2x C 1 C .x/ D ! . so that f is decreasing for x < 0 and 0 < x < 21 and 2 x x!1 x 2 .x ! 1/3 # $ 1 1 1 < x < 1. f has no horizontal asymptote and has a vertical asymptote at x D 0 with 56.x C x !1 / D !1 lim . f has vertical asymptotes at 2 x !1 x!˙1 x x D 0 and x D 1 with # $ # $ 1 1 1 1 lim C D !1 and lim C D1 x!0! x x !1 x!0C x x!1 SOLUTION Let f . so that f is decreasing for all x ¤ 0. Moreover. x x!1 x 2 . Moreover. f has vertical x!1 x!˙1 x asymptotes at x D 0 and x D 1 with # $ # $ 1 1 1 1 lim ! D !1 and lim ! D1 x!0! x x!0C x x !1 x!1 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D ! .x ! 1/ 1 1 down for x < 0 and x > 1.

Because x lim D 0.x/ D . with x!˙1 x 2 ! 9 ! x " ! x " lim D !1 and lim D1 2 x!!3! x ! 9 x!!3C x 2 ! 9 SOLUTION Let f .x ! 2/ 1 2.3x ! 6x C 4/ for 1 < x < 2 and x > 2.x/ D % &2 .x ! 2/ $ D 1: y 5 −2 x 4 −5 60. so that f is decreasing for all x ¤ ˙3. Then f 0 . f has vertical asymptotes at x!˙1 x.x ! 4/ x 2 ! 6x C 8 x 2 ! 6x C 8 and for 2 < for 3 < x < 4 and for x > 4. y D x2 −2 −10 2 4 1 ! 6x C 8 1 1 6 ! 2x D .x/ D ! 2 . f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0. f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0.x 2 ! 9/3 so that f is concave down for x < !3 and for 0 < x < 3 and is concave up for !3 < x < 0 and for x > 3.6 59. so that f is increasing for x < 0 and 0 < x < 1 and decreasing x.x ! 2/ x D 0 and x D 2 with # $ # $ 1 1 lim D C1 and lim D !1 x!0! x.x ! 2/ x!0C x. Moreover. Then f 0 .1 ! x/ .S E C T I O N 4.x ! 2/3 # $ 1 for 0 < x < 2. so that f is increasing for x < 2 . Finally. Then f 0 . Finally.x 2 C 6/ . f 00 .x/ D x2 and lim x!3! ! x2 x " D !1 !9 and lim x!3C ! x2 x " D 1: !9 y 10 x −4 61. Bex 2 ! 6x C 8 1 cause lim D 0.x ! 2/ . so that f is concave up for x < 0 and x > 2 and concave down x 3 . y D x x2 ! 9 x x2 C 9 6x. Moreover. f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0. is decreasing & 2 3x ! 18x C 28 f 00 . Finally.x/ D 2 . Moreover. f 00 . f has vertical asymptotes at x D 2 and x D 4.x ! 2/2 2 2.x ! 2/ x .x/ D and lim x!2! # 1 x. % x2 < 3. f has vertical asymptotes at x D ˙3. Because lim D 0. y D Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 453 1 x. x!˙1 x 2 ! 6x C 8 with $ # $ # 1 1 D 1 and lim D !1 lim x!2C x 2 ! 6x C 8 x!2! x 2 ! 6x C 8 SOLUTION Let f . 2 !9 . so that f is concave up for x < 2 and for x > 4 and is concave down for 2 < x < 4.x ! 2/ SOLUTION Let f .x ! 9/ .x/ D .x/ D and lim x!4! # 1 x 2 ! 6x C 8 $ D !1 and lim x!4C # 1 x 2 ! 6x C 8 $ D 1: .x ! 2/ $ and D !1 lim x!2C # 1 x.x/ D % &3 . and has a local maximum at x D 3.

x/ D 2x ! x !2 .x/ D 3 12 3. Because SOLUTION Let f . 2 x x x4 so that f is increasing for jxj > 2 and decreasing for !2 < x < 0 and for 0 < x < 2.x/ D x3 C 1 D 1. f has a vertical asymptote at x D 0 with # $ # $ 3 4 3 4 lim 1 ! C 3 D !1 and lim 1 ! C 3 D 1: x!0! x!0C x x x x y 6 4 2 −6 −4 −2 −2 −4 −6 2 4 6 x .454 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE y 5 3 1 2 4 5 x 6 −5 62. Moreover. while f is concave up for x < !2 2 and for 0 < x < 2 2. f 00 . 6 48 6. Finally.x/ D 2 C 2x !3 . so that f is decreasing for x < 0 and for 0 < x < xp p 3 1=2 and increasing for x > 3 1=2.x C 2/ ! 4 D . f has a vertical asymptote at x D 0 with x3 C 1 D !1 x!0! x lim x3 C 1 D 1: x!0C x and lim y 20 10 x −4 −2 2 −10 4 −20 63. y D x3 C 1 x x3 C 1 D x 2 C x !1 . Finally. 3 x x x5 p p p p so that f is concave down for !2 2 < x < 0 and for x > 2 2. Then x x f 0 .x/ D 1 ! 3 4 C 3 . x x x!˙1 f 00 . so f is concave up for x < !1 and for x > 0 and concave down for !1 < x < 0. x x!˙1 lim f has no horizontal asymptotes. Then f 0 . Moreover.8 ! x 2 / C 5 D .x/ D ! f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 1. Because # $ 3 4 lim 1 ! C 3 D 1. y D 1 ! 3 4 C 3 x x SOLUTION Let f .x ! 2/.

x ! 2/2 $ and D !1 lim x!2C # 1 1 ! x 2 .x ! 2/!3 .x 2 ! 2x C 4/ . y D 1 1 C x2 . Then x2 .x ! 2/2 x!˙1 x 2 has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0. f .x ! 2/2 $ D !1: y 4 2 1 2 3 4 x −2 −1 −2 −4 66.x/ D !2x !3 C 2 .x/ D 6x !4 C 6 .S E C T I O N 4. x 3 .x ! 2/2 $ and D1 lim x!2C # $ 1 1 C x2 .x ! 2/!4 . Then f 0 .x/ D Graph Sketching and Asymptotes 455 1 1 C .x/ D !2x !3 ! 2 . f 00 .x ! 2/2 1 1 ! .x ! 2/3 so that f is increasing for x < 0 and for 1 < x < 2.6 64.x ! 2/!4 D ! 48.x 2 ! 2x C 2/ .x ! 2/2 . x 4 .x ! 1/.x ! 2/2 x!˙1 x 2 x D 0 and x D 2 with # $ # $ 1 1 1 1 lim ! D 1 and lim ! D1 x!0! x 2 x!0C x 2 . Because lim C D 0. so that f is increasing for x < !3 and for !3 < x < 0. 1 1 Moreover. and has a point of inflection 1 1 at x D 1.x/ D 6x !4 ! 6 .x ! 2/2 D 1: y 2 1 −2 −1 65.x/ D .x/ D % &3 . y D 2 3 4 x 1 1 ! 2 x .x ! 2/2 and lim x!2! # 1 1 ! x 2 .x ! 2/2 . Then f 0 .x ! 2/!3 D ! 4. so that f is increasing for x < 0 and for x > 2 x 2 . is 2 x2 ! 9 x !9 % & 24 x 2 C 3 decreasing for 0 < x < 3 and for x > 3. f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0. SOLUTION Let f .x/ D ! % &2 .x ! 2/2 and is decreasing for 0 < x < 2. Finally. f 00 .x ! 2/2 SOLUTION Let f . Moreover.x ! 2/4 so that f is concave up for #x < 0 and for 0 < $ x < 1. is decreasing for 0 < x < 1 and for x > 2.x ! 1/. f has vertical asymptotes at . 2. Because lim ! D 0. so that f is concave up for all x ¤ 0.x/ D f 00 .x ! 2/2 f 0 . f has vertical asymptotes at x D 0 and x D 2 with # $ # $ 1 1 1 1 lim C D 1 and lim C D1 x!0! x 2 x!0C x 2 . Finally. so that f is x2 ! 9 SOLUTION Let f . Moreover. and has a local maximum at x D 0. and has#a local minimum$at x D 1. is concave down for 1 < x < 2 and for x > 2. y D 4 x2 ! 9 4 8x .x ! 2/2 and lim x!2! # 1 1 C x2 .

456

APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE

CHAPTER 4

concave up for x < !3 and for x > 3 and is concave down for !3 < x < 3. Because

lim

x!˙1

4
D 0, f has a horizontal
x2 ! 9

asymptote at y D 0. Finally, f has vertical asymptotes at x D !3 and x D 3, with
#
$
#
$
4
4
lim
D
1
and
lim
D !1
x!!3! x 2 ! 9
x!!3C x 2 ! 9
and
lim

x!3!

#

4
x2 ! 9

$

and

D !1

lim

x!3C

#

4
x2 ! 9

$

D 1:

y
2
1
−5

x
5

−1
−2

67. y D

1
.x 2 C 1/2

1
!4x
. Then f 0 .x/ D 2
, so that f is increasing for x < 0, is decreasing for x > 0 and
.x 2 C 1/2
.x C 1/3
has a local maximum at x D 0. Moreover,
SOLUTION

Let f .x/ D

!4.x 2 C 1/3 C 4x & 3.x 2 C 1/2 & 2x
20x 2 ! 4
D 2
;
2
6
.x C 1/
.x C 1/4
p
p
p
so that f is concave up for jxj > 1= 5, is concave down for jxj < 1= 5, and has points of inflection at x D ˙1= 5. Because
1
lim
D 0, f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0. Finally, f has no vertical asymptotes.
x!˙1 .x 2 C 1/2
f 00 .x/ D

y
1
0.8

−4

68. y D

.x 2

SOLUTION

2

−2

4

x

x2
! 1/.x 2 C 1/
Let
f .x/ D

.x 2

x2
:
! 1/.x 2 C 1/

Then
f 0 .x/ D !

.x

2x.1 C x 4 /
;
C 1/2 .x 2 C 1/2

! 1/2 .x

so that f is increasing for x < !1 and for !1 < x < 0, is decreasing for 0 < x < 1 and for x > 1, and has a local maximum at
x D 0. Moreover,
f 00 .x/ D

2 C 24x 4 C 6x 8
;
.x ! 1/3 .x C 1/3 .x 2 C 1/3

so that f is concave up for jxj > 1 and concave down for jxj < 1. Because

lim

x!˙1 .x 2

asymptote at y D 0. Finally, f has vertical asymptotes at x D !1 and x D 1, with
x2
D1
x!!1! .x 2 ! 1/.x 2 C 1/
lim

and

x2
D 0, f has a horizontal
! 1/.x 2 C 1/

x2
D !1
x!!1C .x 2 ! 1/.x 2 C 1/
lim

Graph Sketching and Asymptotes

S E C T I O N 4.6

457

and
lim

x!1! .x 2

x2
D !1
! 1/.x 2 C 1/

and

lim

x!1C .x 2

x2
D 1:
! 1/.x 2 C 1/

y
2
1
−2

1

−1

x
2

−1
−2

69. y D p
SOLUTION

1
x2 C 1

Let f .x/ D

p 1
.
x 2 C1

Then
f 0 .x/ D ! p

x
.x 2

C 1/3

D !x.x 2 C 1/!3=2 ;

so that f is increasing for x < 0 and decreasing for x > 0. Moreover,
3
f 00 .x/ D ! x.x 2 C 1/!5=2 .!2x/ ! .x 2 C 1/!3=2 D .2x 2 ! 1/.x 2 C 1/!5=2 ;
2
so that f is concave down for jxj <

p

2
2

and concave up for jxj >
lim

x!˙1

p

p

2
2 .

1
x2 C 1

Because
D 0;

f has a horizontal asymptote at y D 0. Finally, f has no vertical asymptotes.
y
1
0.8

0.2
−10

70. y D p
SOLUTION

5

−5

10

x

x
x2

C1
Let
x
f .x/ D p
:
x2 C 1

Then
f 0 .x/ D .x 2 C 1/!3=2

and f 00 .x/ D

!3x
:
.x 2 C 1/5=2

Thus, f is increasing for all x, is concave up for x < 0, is concave down for x > 0, and has a point of inflection at x D 0. Because
lim p

x!1

x

x2

C1

D1

and

lim

x!!1

x
p
D !1;
2
x C1

f has horizontal asymptotes of y D !1 and y D 1. There are no vertical asymptotes.
y
1

5

−5
−1

x

458

APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE

CHAPTER 4

Further Insights and Challenges
In Exercises 71–75, we explore functions whose graphs approach a nonhorizontal line as x ! 1. A line y D ax C b is called a
slant asymptote if
lim .f .x/ ! .ax C b// D 0

x!1

or
lim .f .x/ ! .ax C b// D 0

x!!1

x2
(Figure 7). Verify the following:
x!1
(a) f .0/ is a local max and f .2/ a local min.
(b) f is concave down on .!1; 1/ and concave up on .1; 1/.
(c) lim f .x/ D !1 and lim f .x/ D 1.

71. Let f .x/ D

x!1!

x!1C

(d) y D x C 1 is a slant asymptote of f .x/ as x ! ˙1.
(e) The slant asymptote lies above the graph of f .x/ for x < 1 and below the graph for x > 1.
y
10

f(x) =

x2
x−1

y=x+1
10

−10

x

−10

FIGURE 7

x2
x.x ! 2/
2
. Then f 0 .x/ D
and f 00 .x/ D
.
x!1
.x ! 1/2
.x ! 1/3
(a) Critical points of f 0 .x/ occur at x D 0 and x D 2. x D 1 is not a critical point because it is not in the domain of f . Sign
analyses reveal that x D 2 is a local minimum of f and x D 0 is a local maximum.
(b) Sign analysis of f 00 .x/ reveals that f 00 .x/ < 0 on .!1; 1/ and f 00 .x/ > 0 on .1; 1/.
(c)
SOLUTION

Let f .x/ D

1
D !1 and
x!1! 1 ! x

lim f .x/ D !1 lim

x!1!

1
D 1:
x!1C x ! 1

lim f .x/ D 1 lim

x!1C

x2
1
division, f .x/
D
D
x C 1 C
. Then
x !1
x!1
1
1
lim .f .x/ ! .x C 1// D lim x C 1 C
! .x C 1/ D lim
D 0.
x!1
x!˙1
x!˙1
x!˙1 x ! 1
1
(e) For x > 1, f .x/ ! .x C 1/ D
> 0, so f .x/ approaches x C 1 from above. Similarly, for x < 1, f .x/ ! .x C 1/ D
x !1
1
< 0, so f .x/ approaches x C 1 from below.
x!1
(d) Note

that

using

polynomial

72.

If f .x/ D P .x/=Q.x/, where P and Q are polynomials of degrees m C 1 and m, then by long division, we can write
f .x/ D .ax C b/ C P1 .x/=Q.x/

where P1 is a polynomial of degree < m. Show that y D ax C b is the slant asymptote of f .x/. Use this procedure to find the
slant asymptotes of the following functions:
x2
x3 C x
(a) y D
(b) y D 2
xC2
x CxC1
SOLUTION

Since deg.P1 / < deg.Q/,
P1 .x/
D 0:
x!˙1 Q.x/
lim

Thus
lim .f .x/ ! .ax C b// D 0

x!˙1

and y D ax C b is a slant asymptote of f .

x C 2/ 2 . f .x C 1/3 x > 0. Since f . y D x ! 1 is a slant asymptote of 2 .x/ D 3x C x !2 .x/ approaches the slant asymptote from above in both directions. Thus. similarly.x/ D 1 ! x2 . Then 2!x x!2 # $ 3 3 3 lim . < 0 for x < 2 so f . Determine whether f .x/ D 3 > 0 for x > 2.x/ D x ! 1 C x2 D 1: x!!1C x C 1 and 1 and xC1 # lim x!1C x!˙1 lim $ 1 ! .x/ ! 3x D x !2 > 0 as x ! ˙1.f .x/ D x2 : xC1 Proceed as in the previous exercise to find the slant asymptote.x/ approaches the slant asymptote from below x!2 . f is increasing for x < !2 and for xC1 . f 0 . has a local minimum at x D 0. f . x2 x.x/ ! .x/.x/ D . Show that y D 3x is a slant asymptote for f .x/ D x C 2 C . hence. Sketch the graph of f . f . 1/. y 5 −4 2 −2 4 x −5 75. Sign analyses reveal a local minimum ! "!1=3 at x D 32 " 0:87358 and that f is concave up for all x ¤ 0.!1. y 4 2 −4 −2 −2 2 4 x −4 −6 74. Limit analyses give a vertical asymptote at x D 0.x C 2// D lim . Limit analyses give a vertical asymptote at x D !1. with SOLUTION Let f .6 459 x2 4 x2 Dx !2C . xC2 xC2 xC2 3 x Cx xC1 x3 C x (b) 2 D .x/ D and f 00 .!1. Since f . !1/ and concave up on . Using polynomial division.x C 2/ C ! . x CxC1 x !1 x CxC1 73.x C 2/ D lim D & lim x !1 D 0 x!2 1 x!˙1 x!˙1 x!˙1 x!˙1 x ! 2 SOLUTION Let f .x C 2/ D x !2 3 the slant asymptote from above for x > 2. xC1 which implies that the slant asymptote is y D x ! 1.x/ D 6x !4 .x/ D 3 ! 2x !3 and f 00 .x ! 1/ C 2 . Then lim .Graph Sketching and Asymptotes S E C T I O N 4. Sketch the graph of (a) f .x/. Then f 0 .x/ D x2 D !1 x!!1! x C 1 lim By polynomial division. SOLUTION Let f . hence y D x ! 2 is a slant asymptote of .x/ ! 3x/ D x!˙1 lim .f .3x C x !2 ! 3x/ D x!˙1 lim x !2 D 0 x!˙1 which implies that 3x is the slant asymptote of f . Moreover. 2!x 1 ! x2 3 .x ! 1/ D 0.x/ approaches the slant asymptote from above or below and make a sketch of the graph.x C 1/2 .x/ D 3x C x !2 . is concave down on . f . is decreasing for !2 < x < !1 and for !1 < x < 0. has a local maximum at x D !2.x/ approaches which implies that y D x C 2 is the slant asymptote of f . Notice that f approaches the slant asymptote as in exercise 71.x/ ! .

x/.x1 / ! g.4.8 77.b/ ¤ 0.x/ > 0 for x < c and f 0 . so no function can transition from CC to !C.x/ and f 00 .460 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE p x 2 ! 4x C 1 !6 for x < 2.x/ exists and f 00 . The previous statements indicate that g. so f 00 .x0 / > 0 for some x0 < c.x1 / ! g. 2/ and concave up on .x/ D and f 00 . f 0 .2 ! x/ p local maximum at x D 2 ! 3 and that f is concave down on . If not. and g.b/ : f 0 .2 ! x/ .c/ D 0.b/ ! f .x/ be a function such that f 00 .2. Because x1 > c > x0 and g. such a function can be found. Moreover.b/. On the other hand. The following is a graph of f .x/ be a function such that f 00 . f 0 . f . 1/.x/ > f .x/ exist for all x and let c be a critical point of f .x/ cannot be negative for all x.c0 / > 0. If we drop the requirement that f 0 . f .!1. and f 0 .x/ D .b/ < 0.x1 / < 0 < g. Show that f . Assume that f 0 . Assume that f 00 .b/ .c0 /. y 10 5 −10 5 −5 10 x −5 −10 76. By the Mean Value Theorem.x/.x1 / < 0 for some x1 > c.x/ > f .x0 / D g 0 . f . By the result of Exercise 64 in Section 4.x ! b/ > 0 whenever x< For such an x.x/ > 0 for all x and such that it transitions from CC to !C at a critical point c where f 0 .b/.x ! b/ > 0 whenever SOLUTION x> bf 0 .b/ ! f .b/.x ! b/.x0 / < 0: x1 ! x0 But. f 0 .x/ D 0. Let f . on the other hand g 0 .x0 /. f 00 . so there is a contradiction. Hint: Show that f 0 . Since f 00 .x/ cannot make a transition from CC to !C at x D c.5 1 x −0.x/.b/.b/ a condition that must be met for some x sufficiently large. This means that our assumption of the existence of such a function f . if f 0 . Let g.x/ > 0 for all x. f 0 . y −1 −0.x/ > 0 wherever f 00 .b/ C f 0 .b/.b/ . x1 ! x0 for some c0 between x0 and x1 . Limit analyses give a vertical asymptote at x D 2. g. g.c/ D 0. we find that f . Hint: Apply the MVT to f 0 . SOLUTION Let f . bf 0 . g.x/ D !x 2=3 . Sign analyses reveal a local minimum at x D 2 C 3.x/ exists and f 00 .x/ > 0 for all x.x/ > 0. That is.x/ must be in error. if f 0 .b/ C f 0 .x/ < 0 for x > c.b/ C f 0 .x ! b/ > 0.b/ C f 0 .x/ D 0 for all x. we find that f .b/ > 0.c/ is defined.x ! b/ > 0. Show that f .x/ % f .5 0.c/ exist.x/ D f 0 . a 2 3 .c0 / D f 00 . Now. For such x. there is at least one point x D b such that f 0 .x/ is defined.b/ ¤ 0 for some b and use the result of Exercise 64 in Section 4.x/ transitions from positive to negative at x D 0.b/ C f 0 . f 0 .4.

32 ! x/ D 3 2x ! x 2. A D xy D x. SOLUTION If the function tends to infinity at the endpoints of the interval. (d) A0 .a. Describe a way of showing that a continuous function on an open interval . since both x and y must be non-negative. Wire of length 12 m is divided into two pieces and the pieces are bent into a square and a circle.0/ D A.x/ D 32 ! 2x D 0. which yields x D 34 and consequently.0/ D A. optimization over the closed interval Œ0.x/ D ! x "2 4 C ! y "2 4 D ! x "2 4 C # 12 ! x 4 $2 x 4 D and the area is % x &2 4 . (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the dimensions x and y of the rectangle of maximum area that can be formed using 3 meters of wire. What is the constraint equation relating x and y? Find a formula for the area in terms of x alone. Exercises 1.4/ D 49 m2 . (c) This problem requires optimization over the closed interval Œ0.7 461 4. 12% suffices.5625 m2 is achieved with x D y D 34 m.7 Applied Optimization Preliminary Questions 1. Wire of length 12 m is divided into two pieces and each piece is bent into a square. (b) What is the constraint equation relating x and y? (c) What is the interval of optimization? Is it open or closed? (d) Solve the optimization problem. Because A. (b) x C y D 12. so 3 D 2x C 2y. The requirement that the perimeter be 10 translates to the constraint equation p b C h C b 2 C h2 D 10: SOLUTION 2.3=2/ D 0 and A. SOLUTION No. y D maximum area 0. then the length of the hypotenuse is b 2 C h2 and the perimeter of the triangle is P D b C h C p b 2 C h2 . the area of the 1 2 3 x ! x C 9: 8 2 (c) Since it is possible for the minimum total area to be realized by not cutting the wire at all. SOLUTION Let x and y be the lengths of the pieces. How should this be done in order to minimize the sum of the areas of the two squares? (a) Express the sum of the areas of the squares in terms of the lengths x and y of the two pieces. we can take one of the dimensions as large as we like thereby allowing the perimeter to become as large as we like. whereas A. the height and the hypotenuse. Accordingly. Then A. How should this be done in order to minimize the sum of their areas? . What is the constraint equation relating the base b and height h of the triangle? The perimeter of a right triangle is the sum of the lengths of the base. b/ has a minimum value. 32 %. 3 4. Then the sum of the areas is given by A D x4 C y4 . (d) Solve A0 . so that y D 12 ! x. 43 / D 0:5625. The problem is to find the right triangle of perimeter 10 whose area is as large as possible. SOLUTION (a) The perimeter of the rectangle is 3 meters. Even by fixing the area at 100. which implies the length of each side is % &2 % &2 % &2 second square is y4 . the 2. Is there a rectangle of area 100 of largest perimeter? Explain. What is the interval of optimization? Is it open or closed? Solve the optimization problem. the sum of the areas of the squares is minimized if the wire is cut in half.12/ D 9 m2 .x/ D 14 x ! 32 D 0 to obtain x D 6 m. which is equivalent to y D (b) Using part (a). (a) The perimeter of the first square is x. If the base has p length b and the height is h.Applied Optimization S E C T I O N 4. Now A. then the function must take on a minimum value at a critical point. Similarly. 3. 3. 3 2 ! x.

1/ D 2 at x D 1. Find the dimensions that maximize the area of the corral.x/ D # $ x 1 1 ! 3! x D0 2" 2 4 when xD 12" m " 5:28 m: 4C" Because A. (b) If S D 2x 2 C 4xy D 20.x/ D 5 ! 32 x 2 for x > 0 to obtain x D 330 . FIGURE 1 . 4. SOLUTION 1 ! x !2 D 5. Find the dimensions of the box with square base with: (a) Volume 12 and the minimal surface area.462 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE SOLUTION Suppose the wire is divided into one piece of length x m that is bent into a circle and a piece of length 12 ! x m that is bent into a square. (b) Surface area 20 and maximal volume. 10/ D 0 and V D 10 9 30 . Because the circle has circumference x.x/ D x 2 y D 5x ! 12 x 3 . the distance between the ends of L is q p h. Solve S 0 . Since V . Note that x must lie on the closed interval p p !p " p p 30 Œ0. A. Its volume is V D x 2 y and its surface area is S D 2x 2 C 4xy. We may equivalently minimize the square of the distance. Then # $ x2 1 2 A.4 ! x/2 This is easier computationally (when working by hand). y > 0.x/ D 4x ! 48x !2 D 0 to obtain x D 121=3 .0/ D 9 m2 .4 ! x/2 . then y D 12=x 2 and S. Here we require optimization over the open interval .0/ D V . whereas f . 7. Solve f 0 . the area of the circle is ! x "2 x2 " D : 2" 4" As for the square. the minimum surface area is S. when x D and y D 9 3 3 . the length of each side is 3 ! x=4 and the area is . 1/.x/ ! 1 as x ! 0C and as x ! 1. therefore.2/ D 8. Since S. we conclude that f has an absolute minimum of f . y > 0 be lengths of the side of the L. Hence the distance between the two ends of the L is minimized when the bend is made at the middle of the wire.x/ D 2x 2 C 4x 12=x 2 D 2x 2 C 48x !1 . Where should the bend be made to minimize the distance between the two ends? Let x.x/ D x 2 C y 2 D x 2 C .x/ D x 2 C y 2 D x 2 C . % & (a) If V D x 2 y D 12. it follows that the radius of the circle is x=2".x/ ! 1 as x ! 0C and as x ! 1. Since x C y D 4 or y D 4 ! x.12/ D 36=" " 11:46 m2 . SOLUTION f .12/2=3 " 31:45. A flexible tube of length 4 m is bent into an L-shape. 330 / D 10 30 " 6:086.28 m of the wire is allotted to the circle. Solve f 0 .x/ D x C x !1 .4/ D 16.x/ D 0 for x > 0 to obtain x D 1. A rancher will use 600 m of fencing to build a corral in the shape of a semicircle on top of a rectangle (Figure 1). and # $ 12" A " 5:04 m2 . when x D 121=3 and y D 121=3 . 6. then y D 5x !1 ! 12 x and V . Find the positive number x such that the sum of x and its reciprocal is as small as possible.0. 4C" we see that the sum of the areas is minimized when approximately 5. SOLUTION A box has a square base of side x and height y where x. Does this problem require optimization over an open interval or a closed interval? Let x > 0 and f .0/ D f . Solve V 0 .3 ! x=4/2 . Since f . Now f .x/ D C 3! x : 4" 4 Now A0 . because the perimeter is 12 ! x. the 3 p p p p 30 30 maximum volume is V . 10%.x/ D 4x ! 8 D 0 to obtain x D 2 m.121=3 / D 6 .

The area of the corral is the sum of the area of the rectangle and semicircle. we have 0 $ x $ 2r. Thus the area of the rectangle is A. The area of the rectangle is thus A. y > 0 be the lengths of sides of the inscribed rectangle along the axes. 3 3 3 11. y D 12 600 ! . A D xy C !8 x 2 .1C !4 / " 25204:5 m2 " 168:029746 m. # 600 1 C "=2 and A and yD $ " 21390:8 m2 . What is the maximum area of a rectangle inscribed in a right triangle with 5 and 8 as in Figure 2. Then the perimeter of the corral can be expressed by the equation 2y C x C !2 x D 2y C .1 C !2 /x . Solve A0 .x/ D xy D 8x ! 58 x 2 . Allowing for degenerate rectangles. A. with its side of length 8 along the positive y-axis. By similar triangles. we must restrict x to the interval Œ0. A0 . 1C!=2 %. 8 5 FIGURE 2 SOLUTION Position the triangle with its right angle at the origin.x/ D 8 ! 16 5 x D 0 to obtain x D 2 . 0/. To guarantee both x and y are real and nonnegative. r FIGURE 3 Place the center of the circle at the origin with the sides of the rectangle (of lengths 2x > 0 and 2y > 0) parallel to p 2 2 2 2 the coordinate axes. the maximum area is A 52 D 10 when x D 52 and y D 4. By pthe Pythagorean Theorem. it follows that the corral of maximum area has dimensions xD 300 m 1 C "=4 150 m: 1 C "=4 8.x/ D 2x & 2y D 4x 16 ! x 2 . With A. y we have 85 D 5!x or y D 8 ! 85 x. y2 /2 D r 2 .Applied Optimization S E C T I O N 4. Find the dimensions x and y of the rectangle inscribed in a circle of radius r that maximizes the quantity xy 2 . p / D 9 3r when x D p and y D 2 23 r. Solve f 0 . SOLUTION Place the center of the circle of radius r at the origin with the sides of the rectangle (of lengths x > 0 and y > 0) parallel to the coordinate axes.x/ D 4r 2 ! 3x 2 q for x % 0 to obtain p 3 2r 2r 2r 16 x D p .x/ D 300 ! 1 C & ! 2 A xC # 1 ! " " " 1! "" 2 " 2 x 600 ! .0/ D A.5/ D 0 ! " and A. Hint: It is equivalent and easier to minimize the square of the distance.0/ D A.7 463 SOLUTION Let x be the width of the corral and therefore the diameter of the semicircle. and side of length 5 along the positive x-axis. To guarantee that both x and y 5 remain nonnegative. Since x and y must both be nonnegative. we have . x2 /2 C . 5%. 9.1 C !2 /x D 600 m or % & equivalently. p4 2 p 4x 2 A0 . so that y D 16 ! x . Since A. Let f . and let y be the height of the rectangular section.1. 52 / D 10. Since f . Find the point on the line y D x closest to the point . we must restrict x to the interval Œ0.2r/ D 0. Let x. .2 2/ D 32. Solve SOLUTION for x > 0 to obtain x D p 2x D 2y D 4 2. Making the substitution for y from the constraint equation. Find the dimensions of the rectangle of maximum area that can be inscribed in a circle of radius r D 4 (Figure 3). whence y 2 D 4r 2 ! x 2 . By the Pythagorean Theorem. Since A. 4%.x/ D % Now. it follows that x must be restricted to the interval 600 Œ0. the rectangle of maximum area has dimensions 10. The sides of the rectangle are parallel to the legs of the triangle.x/ D 4 16 ! x 2 ! p D0 16 ! x 2 p p D 2 2.0/ D 0 m2 .x/ D xy 2 D 4xr 2 ! x 3 .0/ D f . x C y D r D 16.1 C /x C x 2 D 300x ! 1C x C x : 2 2 8 2 2 8 ! 4x D 0 implies x D 300 1 C "=4 $ 300 .4/ D 0 and A. the maximal value of f is f .

P D . f . Since f . Find a good numerical approximation to the coordinates of the point on the graph of y D ln x ! x closest to the origin (Figure 5). 8%. 0/.x/ D 4x ! 2 D 0 to obtain x D 12 .2a ! 8/ D !2a3 C 24a2 ! 64a: p where a 2 Œ0. Problem of Tartaglia (1500–1557) Among all positive numbers a. so that f 0 . 1/ is the point on y D x 2 closest to . 3 and p 4 3 b D8!a D4! : 3 .x/ D 2x C 2. 12 / is the point on y D x closest to . ln x ! x/ on the graph of y D ln x ! x is d D usual.x ! 1/. 12 .x/ D 0 when x D 1 (plus two complex solutions. 0/.x.2x 2 C 2x C 3/.1. Thus.0/ D f . y y = x2 P x 3 FIGURE 4 SOLUTION With y D x 2 . . Then # $ 1 f 0 . !1:090410/. 0/ (Figure 4).8 ! a/.464 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE With y D x. 13.x/ D x 2 C .x ! 3/2 C y 2 D x 4 C x 2 ! 6x C 9: Then f 0 . find those for which the product of the two numbers and their difference is largest. Thus. f . let’s equivalently minimize the square of the distance. let’s equivalently minimize the square of the distance. SOLUTION The product of a.a ! b/.0:632784. b maximizing the product are p 4 3 a D4C . Let d 2 D f .a/ D a.x/ D . while # # $ $ 4p 4p f 4! 3 < 0 and f 4 C 3 > 0: 3 3 Hence the numbers a. b D 8 ! a and a ! b D 2a ! 8. Since f . y x y = ln x − x FIGURE 5 The distance from the origin to the point .ln x ! x/2 . SOLUTION 12.x/ D .b and their difference is ab.x/ D 4x 3 C 2x ! 6 D 2. Setting f 0 .3. the point on the graph of y D ln x ! x that is closest to the origin is approximately . 14. f .x/ ! 1 as x ! ˙1. Since a C b D 8. Solve f 0 . we will minimize d 2 .a/ D !6a2 C 48a ! 64 D 0 yields a D 4 ˙ 43 3.1. we need to solve 4x C 2 ln x ! 2 ln x ! 2 D 0: x This yields x " :632784. which is computationally easier (when working by hand). Now.8/ D 0.x ! 1/2 C y 2 D 2x 2 ! 2x C 1. let f .3.x/ ! 1 as x ! ˙1.ln x ! x/ !1 : x SOLUTION p x 2 C .ln x ! x/2 . b whose sum is 8. Find the point P on the parabola y D x 2 closest to the point . As To determine x. which we discard).

Applied Optimization

S E C T I O N 4.7

465

15. Find the angle # that maximizes the area of the isosceles triangle whose legs have length ` (Figure 6).

FIGURE 6
SOLUTION

The area of the triangle is
1 2
` sin #;
2

A.#/ D
where 0 $ # $ ". Setting
A0 .#/ D

1 2
` cos # D 0
2

Since A.0/ D A."/ D 0 and A. !2 / D 12 `2 , the angle that maximizes the area of the isosceles triangle is # D !2 .
p
16. A right circular cone (Figure 7) has volume V D !3 r 2 h and surface area is S D " r r 2 C h2 . Find the dimensions of the
cone with surface area 1 and maximal volume.
yields # D

!
2.

r

h

FIGURE 7
SOLUTION

p
We have " r r 2 C h2 D 1 so " 2 r 2 .r 2 C h2 / D 1 and hence h2 D

1!! 2 r 4
!2r2

and now we must maximize

!
p
2 4
1 2
1
1 p
2 1!" r
V D "r h D " r
D r 1 ! " 2r 4;
3
3
"r
3

p
where 0 < r $ 1= ". Because

p
d p
1 !4" 2 r 3
r 1 ! "2r 4 D 1 ! "2r 4 C r p
dr
2
1 ! "2r 4
the relevant critical point is r D .3" 2 /!1=4 .
To find h, we back substitute our solution for r in h2 D .1 ! " 2 r 4 /=." 2 r 2 /. r D .3" 2 /!1=4 , so r 4 D
hence, " 2 r 4 D

1
3

and " 2 r 2 D

!
p
,
3

and:
h2 D

From this, h D

p ! 1=4 p "
2= 3
" . Since
lim V .r/ D 0; V

r!0C

#

1
p
"

$

# $,#
$
2
"
2
D p :
p
3
3
3"

and

D0

!

2 !1=4

V .3" /

"

D

the cone of surface area 1 with maximal volume has dimensions
1
rD
p
31=4 "

and

hD

p

2
p :
31=4 "

17. Find the area of the largest isosceles triangle that can be inscribed in a circle of radius r.

1
37=4

r

2
;
"

1
3! 2

and r 2 D

p1 ;
3!

466

APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE

CHAPTER 4

SOLUTION

Consider the following diagram:

r


2

r

r

The area of the isosceles triangle is
1
1
1
A.#/ D 2 & r 2 sin." ! #/ C r 2 sin.2#/ D r 2 sin # C r 2 sin.2#/;
2
2
2
where 0 $ # $ ". Solve
A0 .#/ D r 2 cos # C r 2 cos.2#/ D 0
to obtain # D

!
3 ; ".

Since A.0/ D A."/ D 0 and A. !3 / D

in a circle of radius r is

p
3 3 2
4 r .

p
3 3 2
4 r ,

the area of the largest isosceles triangle that can be inscribed

18. Find the radius and height of a cylindrical can of total surface area A whose volume is as large as possible. Does there exist a
cylinder of surface area A and minimal total volume?
Let a closed cylindrical can be of radius r and height h. Its total surface area is S D 2" r 2 C 2" rh D A, whence
q
A
A
hD
! r. Its volume is thus V .r/ D " r 2 h D 21 Ar ! " r 3 , where 0 < r $ 2!
. Solve V 0 .r/ D 12 A ! 3" r 2 for r > 0 to
2" r r
q
A
A
obtain r D
. Since V .0/ D V . 2!
/ D 0 and
6"
r !
p 3=2
A
6A
V
D
p ;
6"
18 "
SOLUTION

the maximum volume is achieved when
rD

r

A
6"

and h D

1
3

r

6A
:
"

For a can of total surface area A, there are cans of arbitrarily small volume since lim V .r/ D 0.
r!0C

cm2

19. A poster of area 6000
has blank margins of width 10 cm on the top and bottom and 6 cm on the sides. Find the dimensions
that maximize the printed area.
SOLUTION Let x be the width of the printed region, and let y be the height. The total printed area is A D xy. Because the total
area of the poster is 6000 cm2 , we have the constraint .x C 12/.y C 20/ D 6000, so that xy C 12y C 20x C 240 D 6000, or
288x!x 2
y D 5760!20x
xC12 . Therefore, A.x/ D 20 xC12 , where 0 $ x $ 288.
A.0/ D A.288/ D 0, so we are looking for a critical point on the interval Œ0; 288%. Setting A0 .x/ D 0 yields

20

.x C 12/.288 ! 2x/ ! .288x ! x 2 /
D0
.x C 12/2
!x 2 ! 24x C 3456
D0
.x C 12/2
x 2 C 24x ! 3456 D 0
.x ! 48/.x C 72/ D 0

Therefore x D 48 or x D !72. x D 48 is the only critical point of A.x/ in the interval Œ0; 288%, so A.48/ D 3840 is the maximum
value of A.x/ in the interval Œ0; 288%. Now, y D 20 288!48
48C12 D 80 cm, so the poster with maximum printed area is 48 C 12 D 60 cm.
wide by 80 C 20 D 100 cm. tall.
20. According to postal regulations, a carton is classified as “oversized” if the sum of its height and girth ( perimeter of its base)
exceeds 108 in. Find the dimensions of a carton with square base that is not oversized and has maximum volume.
SOLUTION Let h denote the height of the carton and s denote the side length of the square base. Clearly the volume will be
maximized when the sum of the height and girth equals 108; i.e., 4s C h D 108, whence h D 108 ! 4s. Allowing for degenerate
cartons, the carton’s volume is V .s/ D s 2 h D s 2 .108 ! 4s/, where 0 $ s $ 27. Solve V 0 .s/ D 216s ! 12s 3 D 0 for s to obtain
s D 0 or s D 18. Since V .0/ D V .27/ D 0, the maximum volume is V .18/ D 11664 in3 when s D 18 in and h D 36 in.

S E C T I O N 4.7

Applied Optimization

467

21. Kepler’s Wine Barrel Problem In his work Nova stereometria doliorum vinariorum (New Solid Geometry of a Wine Barrel),
published in 1615, astronomer Johannes Kepler stated and solved the following problem: Find the dimensions of the cylinder of
largest volume that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius R. Hint: Show that an inscribed cylinder has volume 2"x.R2 ! x 2 /,
where x is one-half the height of the cylinder.
SOLUTION Place the center of the sphere at the origin in three-dimensional space. Let the cylinder be of radius y and half-height
x. The
Theorem states, x 2 C y 2 D R2 , so that y 2 D R2 ! x 2 . The volume of the cylinder is V .x/ D "y 2 .2x/ D
% 2Pythagorean
&
2
2" R ! x x D 2"R2 x ! 2"x 3 . Allowing for degenerate cylinders, we have 0 $ x $ R. Solve V 0 .x/ D 2"R2 ! 6"x 2 D 0
q
p
for x % 0 to obtain x D pR . Since V .0/ D V .R/ D 0, the largest volume is V . pR / D 49 " 3R3 when x D pR and y D 23 R.
3

3

3

22. Find the angle # that maximizes the area of the trapezoid with a base of length 4 and sides of length 2, as in Figure 8.

2

2
4

FIGURE 8
SOLUTION Allowing for degenerate trapezoids, we have 0 $ # $ ". Via trigonometry and surgery (slice off a right triangle
and rearrange the trapezoid into a rectangle), we have that the area of the trapezoid is equivalent to the area of a rectangle of base
4 ! 2 cos # and height 2 sin #; i.e,

A.#/ D .4 ! 2 cos #/ & 2 sin # D 8 sin # ! 4 sin # cos # D 8 sin # ! 2 sin 2#;
where 0 $ # $ ". Solve
A0 .#/ D 8 cos # ! 4 cos 2# D 4 C 8 cos # ! 8 cos2 # D 0
for 0 $ # $ " to obtain
# D #0 D cos
Since A.0/ D A."/ D 0 and A.#0 / D 31=4 .3 C

!1

p !
1! 3
" 1:94553:
2

! p "
p p
3/ 2, the area of the trapezoid is maximized when # D cos!1 1!2 3 .

23. A landscape architect wishes to enclose a rectangular garden of area 1;000 m2 on one side by a brick wall costing $90/m and
on the other three sides by a metal fence costing $30/m. Which dimensions minimize the total cost?
SOLUTION Let x be the length of the brick wall and y the length of an adjacent side with x; y > 0. With xy D 1000 or y D
the total cost is

1000
x ,

C.x/ D 90x C 30 .x C 2y/ D 120x C 60000x !1 :
p
!2 D 0 for x > 0 to obtain x D 10 5. Since C.x/ ! 1 as x ! 0C and as x ! 1, the minimum
Solve C 0 .x/p
D 120 ! 60000x
p
p
p
cost is C.10 5/ D 2400 5 " $5366:56 when x D 10 5 " 22:36 m and y D 20 5 " 44:72 m.
24. The amount of light reaching a point at a distance r from a light source A of intensity IA is IA =r 2 . Suppose that a second light
source B of intensity IB D 4IA is located 10 m from A. Find the point on the segment joining A and B where the total amount of
light is at a minimum.
SOLUTION Place the segment in the xy-plane with A at the origin and B at .10; 0/. Let x be the distance from A. Then 10 ! x
is the distance from B. The total amount of light is
#
$
I
IB
1
4
f .x/ D A2 C
D
I
C
:
A
x
x2
.10 ! x/2
.10 ! x/2

Solve
f 0 .x/ D IA
for 0 $ x $ 10 to obtain
.10 ! x/3
4D
D
x3

#

#

8
.10 ! x/3

$3
10
!1
x

or

!

2
x3

xD

$

D0

10
" 3:86 m:
p
3
4

1C

Since f .x/ ! 1 as x ! 0C and x ! 10! we conclude that the minimal amount of light occurs 3.86 m from A.

s/ D 0 gives. Find the maximum area of a rectangle circumscribed around a rectangle of sides L and H .L cos #/ D LH C 12 .!2 C 2 3/ " 1:0718.H cos #/ C 2 & 12 . 26. The tangent line to the curve .L sin #/. be a point on the graph of the curve y D . so this Since we are finding the pis our lone critical point.L2 C H 2 / when # D !4 because sin 2# achieves its maximum when # D !4 .H sin #/.3 ! 3t/ D0 4.0/ D 14 .t/ D for 0 $ t to obtain t D 1. Because A.s/ D s 4!s 2Cs . 2 . . A.L2 C H 2 / sin 2#. Find the maximum area of a rectangle inscribed in the region bounded by the graph of y D 4!x and the axes (Figure 9).s/ D . by the quadratic formula.xC1/ 2 2 in the first quadrant.2 C s/. Let # be the angle the base of the circumscribed rectangle makes with the positive x-axis. which has a maximum value of LH C 21 .t/ ! 0 as t ! 1.4 ! 2s/ ! . . where 0 $ # $ !2 .t C 1/4 and A.t C 1/3 3t C1 .3t C 1/2 ab D : 2 4. A0 .0/ D A.t C 1/ . 27.s/ doesn’t exist is s D !2 which isn’t under consideration.1/ D 12 .3t C 1/.1/ D 1 2 . The height of the rectangle is h D A.x ! t/ ! .4s ! s 2 / s 2 C 4s ! 8 D! : 2 . It is obvious from the pictures that A. A. the maximum area is A. Setting A0 .x C 1/!2 with x > 0. H L FIGURE 10 SOLUTION Position the L # H rectangle in the first quadrant of the xy-plane with its “northwest” corner at the origin.t C1/3 A. 2Cx y 2 y= 4−x 2+x 4 x FIGURE 9 SOLUTION Let s be the width of the rectangle.t C 1/3 Solve A0 . so that the area is 4!s 4s ! s 2 D : 2Cs 2Cs We are maximizing on the closed interval Œ0. 4%. Then the area of the circumscribed rectangle is A D LH C 2 & 21 . Find the maximum area of a triangle formed by the axes and a tangent line to the graph of y D . Hint: Express the area in terms of the angle # (Figure 10). ! " 1 1 SOLUTION Let P t. p p !4 ˙ 48 sD D !2 ˙ 2 3: 2 p p Of these. p maximum over a closed interval and !2 C 2 3 is the only critical point. it follows that the maximum area is A. so we look for critical points of A.4/ D 0. only !2 C 2 3 is positive.468 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 25.t/ D The area of the triangle in question is 1 .2 C s/ .!2 C 2 3/ " 1:0718 > 0.s C 2/2 The only point where A0 .t C1/ at P is L.x/ D which has x-intercept a D 3t C1 2 and y-intercept b D 1 2.

29. Now. The midpoint of the line segment connecting H and W is thus P . 2b/ and W . b/ lie in the first quadrant.0. This is the equation of a downward opening parabola. For m D !b=a.x/ at x D 119=3 and x D 120=3 D 40. Since A ! 1 as m ! !1 or m ! 0!. 6400 3 27 r. !1 < m < 0. Since A ! 1 as m ! !1 or m ! 0!. A contractor is engaged to build steps up the slope of a hill that has the shape of the graph of y D x 2 .m/ D # $ 1 12 . The equation of the line through P D . Because the stair must start at a location of the form n=3 for some integer n. Let P D . be a line through P that cuts the positive x. 12/ is y D !3.x ! a/ C b.a. What is the maximum vertical rise of a stair if each stair has a horizontal length of one-third meter.a. 0/."and y-axes.25 meters.x/ D m.x/ D x 2 .4.x ! 4/ C 12 D !3x C 24. Because the horizontal length of each stair is one-third meter. Then show that P is the midpoint of the hypotenuse of this triangle. 12/ be a point in the first quadrant and y ! 12 D m.and"y-axes.4. the maximum occurs when r 0 . the vertical rise of # $ # $ # $ 1 1 1 2 359 1 2 xC ! f . Then y D L. b/ be a point in the first quadrant (thus a. Hence the area of the triangle is A.x/ intersects the y-axis at H .x ! 4/ C 12. Find the equation of the line through P D .x/ D f where x denotes the location of the beginning of the stair.0. we have H. the maximum vertical rise of any stair is just below 0.120 ! x/=6400. b ! am/ and ! b the x-axis at W a ! m . 0 . We find # $ 119 43199 r D r.x/ D xC !x ! x .x/ D !2x C D0 6400 3 when x D 239=6. b > 0) and y ! b D m. Thus.120 ! x/ 3 6400 3 3 6400 # $ 1 239 359 D !x 2 C xC . 12 ! 4m/ and the x-axis at W 4 ! 12 m .2a. The line L. The line L.x ! 4/.x/ intersects the y-axis at H .12 ! 4m/ 4 ! D 48 ! 8m ! 72m!1 : 2 m Solve A0 .4. we conclude that the minimal triangular area is obtained when m D !3.a. Then y D L.S E C T I O N 4.7 Applied Optimization 469 28.b ! am/ a ! D ab ! a2 m ! b 2 m!1 : 2 m 2 2 Solve A0 .m/ D # $ 1 b 1 1 . 0 . SOLUTION Let P .m/ D 12 b 2 m!2 ! 12 a2 D 0 for m < 0 to obtain m D ! ba .x/ D m. SOLUTION Let P D . . we conclude that the minimal triangular area is obtained when m D ! ba .40/ D " 0:249994 3 172800 meters. 30. !1 < m < 0. be a line through P that cuts the positive ! x. b/.x ! a/.120 ! x/=6400 for 0 $ x $ 80 with x in meters (Figure 11). 12/ such that the triangle bounded by this line and the axes in the first quadrant has minimal area. we evaluate r. # $ 1 239 r 0 . y 40 20 20 40 60 80 x FIGURE 11 SOLUTION each stair is Let f .0. Find the slope of the line through P such that the triangle bounded by this line and the axes in the first quadrant has minimal area.x/ D 0. thus.m/ D 72m!2 ! 8 D 0 for m < 0 to obtain m D !3. Hence the area of the triangle is A.

1 C csc #/. Archimedes’ Problem A spherical cap (Figure 12) of radius r and height h has volume V D "h2 r ! 31 h and surface area S D 2" rh. multiply through by cos2 # sin # to obtain !2 cos2 # C sin # C 1 D 0. Since A. Because S D 2" rh. or 2 sin2 # C sin # ! 1 D 0: This is a quadratic equation in sin # with roots sin # D !1 and sin # D 1=2. we see that the minimum area occurs when the triangle is an equilateral triangle.!2 csc # C sec2 #.#/ D 1 hb D .#/ ! 1 as # ! 0C and as # ! "!. h r FIGURE 12 SOLUTION Consider all spherical caps of fixed surface area S.1 C csc #/2 tan #. it follows that rD S 2"h and V .h/ D when h2 D S 2" or hD S D r: 2"h Hence. To find the roots of the second factor. 32. a calculus text that appeared in 1750). Only the second solution is relevant and gives us # D "=6. We now set the derivative equal to zero: A0 . 2 where 0 < # < ". we see that the height h and base b of the triangle are h D 1 C csc # and b D 2h tan # D 2. .1 C csc #// D 0: The first factor gives # D 3"=2 which is not in the domain of the problem.1 C csc #/ tan #. Thus. Find the isosceles triangle of smallest area (Figure 13) that circumscribes a circle of radius 1 (from Thomas Simpson’s The Doctrine and Application of Fluxions. 1 FIGURE 13 SOLUTION From the diagram.470 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE % & 31. the hemisphere encloses the largest volume among all spherical caps of fixed surface area S.#/ D .h/ D "h2 # $ S 1 S " ! h D h ! h3 : 2"h 3 2 3 Now S ! "h2 D 0 2 V 0 . the area of the triangle is A. Prove that the hemisphere encloses the largest volume among all spherical caps of fixed surface area S.

7 Applied Optimization 471 33. SOLUTION 36. 000. This yields r D 1 .000 D 500. Then V D s 2 h D 72 or hD 72 : s2 The cost of the box is C D 40s 2 C 120sh D 40s 2 C 8640 . the area of the warehouse is maximized when each compartment has length of 600 m and width of 400 m. The wall materials cost $500 per linear meter and your company allocates $2..4!/1=3 " 0:430127. 000 square meters. .x/ D 2400 ! 4x D 0 yields x D 600 and consequently y D 400. Suppose.2" rh/ D 2" r.x/ D 2400 ! .r/ D 8" r ! dimensions that minimize cost are 2 r2 D 0 yields 8" r D rD 1 m. Because C.0/ D A.400. where 0 $ x $ 1200.2" r 2 / and the cost of the sides is 1. (b) The area of one compartment is 600 & 400 D 240.000 D 500. r2 hD so that r 3 D 1 4! . Thus the maximum area is given by nC1 n $# $ # 1200 28. Let C. we are looking for critical SOLUTION points of C.4"/1=3 2 .s/ D 80s ! p p when s D 3 3 4 m and h D 2 3 4 m. cost D 2. Since A.600/ D 720.n C 1/x C 2ny/ and y D A D nxy D x 4800 ! . 2n 4800 ! .n C 1/x D 0 yields x D .S E C T I O N 4. 34.r/. we conclude that the critical point gives the minimum cost.000 2400 D : ADn nC1 n nC1 and A0 . Since V D " r 2 h D 1. The 1 D 42=3 " !1=3 m: "r2 35. we get h D !1r 2 . Because C ! 1 as s ! 0! and as s ! 1.4x C 6y/.n C 1/x . The cost of the top and bottom is 2.1200/ D 0 and A.r/ ! 1 as r ! 0C and as r ! 1. with x and y as before. and using only the proportion. SOLUTION Then For n compartments.000 for the project. s so 8640 D0 s2 C 0 .800. Then A0 .r/ D 4" r 2 C 2r . Then total length of the wall of the warehouse is P D 4x C 6y and the constraint equation is cost D 2.400. A box of volume 72 m3 with square bottom and no top is constructed out of two different materials. Ignoring the actual cost. which gives y D 800 ! 23 x. Your task is to design a rectangular industrial warehouse consisting of three separate spaces of equal size as in Figure 14.400. SOLUTION Let s denote the length of the side of the square bottom of the box and h denote the height of the box. !1r 2 / D 2r .n C 1/x nC1 2 D 2400x ! x 2 2 2400 1200 and consequently y D . Find the dimensions of the box that minimize total cost. (a) Which dimensions maximize the area of the warehouse? (b) What is the area of each compartment in this case? FIGURE 14 Let one compartment have length x and width y. Let h be the height in meters of the cylinder. ! " (a) Area is given by A D 3xy D 3x 800 ! 32 x D 2400x ! 2x 2 . Find the dimensions of a cylinder of volume 1 m3 of minimal cost if the top and bottom are made of material that costs twice as much as the material for the side. that the warehouse consists of n separate spaces of equal size. suppose that the sides cost 1 monetary unit per square meter and the top and the bottom 2. Let r be the radius in meters of the top and bottom of the cylinder. Setting C 0 . The cost of the bottom is $40/m2 and the cost of the sides is $30/m2 . in the previous exercise. Find a formula in terms of n for the maximum possible area of the warehouse.

so the maximum yield of corn occurs for N " 58:14 pounds and P " 77:33 pounds. According to a model developed by economists E.100 ! n/. 38. SOLUTION Let x denote the percentage reduction in crop size. Then the price for corn is 2:40 C 0:10x. we require that 0 $ N $ 120.n/ D . Y. so we have the constraint equation 0:25N C 0:2P D 30 or P D 150 ! 1:25N Substituting for P in the equation for Y .150 ! 1:25N / ! 0:001N 2 ! 0:002. Experiments show that the quantities x of corn and y of soybean required to produce a hog of weight Q satisfy Q D 0:5x 1=2 y 1=4 . we find that yD # 2:5 0:5x 1=2 $4 D 625 : x2 The cost is then C D 3x C 7y D 3x C 4375 : x2 Solving dC 8750 D3! 3 D0 dx x yields x D $64:29. All units in a 100-unit apartment building are rented out when the monthly rent is set at r D $900/month. From this. The overall cost is C D 3. Solve R0 . p 3 8750=3 " 14:29.n/ D 180 ! 20n D 0 when n D 9. Then the monthly profit is given by P . Suppose that one unit becomes vacant with each $10 increase in rent and that each occupied unit costs $80/month in maintenance.3:06/ " 39. Y. Which crop size results in maximum revenue and what is the price per bu? Hint: Revenue is equal to price times crop size.0/ D 67:5.14:29/ C 7. it follows that y D 625=14:292 " 3:06.N / D 7:5 C 0:6N C 0:7.150 ! 1:25N /2 C 0:001N. Pesek.58:14/ " 85:67. and Q is the cwt. SOLUTION With Q D 2:5. Thus. If nitrogen costs 25 cents/lb and phosphate costs 20 cents/lb.x/ D !0:002x C 0:076 D 0 . we find Y. then the yield of corn (in bushels per acre) is Y D 7:5 C 0:6N C 0:7P ! 0:001N 2 ! 0:002P 2 C 0:001NP A farmer intends to spend $30 per acre on fertilizer. Heady and J. then the price increases by 10x cents.150 ! 1:25N / D 67:5 C 0:625N ! 0:005375N 2 Both N and P must be nonnegative.!0:001x 2 C 0:076x C 2:4/.120/ D 65:1 and Y. where 0 $ x $ 100. monthly profit is maximized with a rent of $990. and P 0 .1 ! 0:01x/ D 8. An 8-billion-bushel corn crop brings a price of $2:40/bu. dY D 0:625 ! 0:01075N D 0 dN ) N D 0:625 " 58:14 pounds: 0:01075 Now. the crop size is 8. which combination of N and L produces the highest yield of corn? SOLUTION The farmer’s budget for fertilizer is $30 per acre.2:4 C 0:1x/8. y.472 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 37. Find the values of x and y that minimize the cost of a hog of weight Q D 2:5 cwt if corn costs $3/cwt and soy costs $7/cwt. Which rent r maximizes monthly profit? SOLUTION Let n denote the number of $10 increases in rent.x/ D . We know this results in maximum profit because this gives the location of vertex of a downward opening parabola. A commodity broker uses the rule of thumb: If the crop is reduced by x percent. The unit of x. if fertilizer made from N pounds of nitrogen and P pounds of phosphate is used on an acre of farmland. 40.1 ! 0:01x/ and the revenue (in billions of dollars) is R. Next.900 C 10n ! 80/ D 82000 C 180n ! 10n2 . Since P D 150 ! 1:25N % 0. an agricultural unit equal to 100 lbs.

all of the pipe is along the side of the plot and f . The cost of laying pipe along the side of the plot is $45/m and the cost through the plot is $80/m (since it is underground). . Pipe is to be laid from A to a point P on side BC and from there to C . Solve C 0 . we have L D . solve f 0 .180= 7/ D $15.x/ D 80 1002 C x 2 C 45. Because f . So we reduce the crop size to 8. then p f . Find the best route if Brandon can swim at 1.0/ D $19. 43. the cost of production is K2 C. and R.100/ D 0. the most economical way to lay the pipe is to place the pipe along the side of the plot. If x > 0.200/ D $17. f . the cost of the entire pipe is $45/ft).888:54.614:38 and f .500.K/ D L C K D K C 0:85 : K2 p 1:7 for K % 0 to obtain K D 3 1:7. (a) Let f .0/ D 45. Accordingly. The monthly output of a Spanish light bulb factory is P D 2LK 2 (in millions). If the cost of laying the pipe along the side of the plot is $65 per meter.x/ D p 80x 1002 C x 2 ! 45 D 0: p p We find x D ˙180= 7. Since R.888:54. where x is the distance from P to B. 41.500.7 Applied Optimization 473 to obtain x D 38 percent.200 C 100/ D $13.K/ ! 1 as K ! 0C and as K ! 1. the minimum cost of 3 K p production is achieved for K D 3 1:7 " 1:2 and L D 0:6.K/ D 1 ! 42.1 ! 0:38/ D 4:96 billion bushels: The price would be $2:40 C 0:10.200 ! x/: p 1002 C x 2 and the length of the pipe If x D 0.S E C T I O N 4. f . revenue is maximized when x D 38.500.x/.38/ D 30:752.5 m/s and run at 4 m/s.38/ D 2:40 C 3:80 D $6:20.200/ D $17.663:69 and f .37 meters to the right of B and continuing to C along the side of the plot. The rectangular plot in Figure 15 has size 100 m # 200 m. then the length of the underground pipe is along the side of the plot is 200 ! x. Since C.x/ D p 80x ! 65: 1002 C x 2 p The only critical point in the domain of the problem is x D 1300= 87 " 139:37. The total cost is p f .7 million units per month.x/ be the total cost. Note that only the positive value is in the domain of the problem. but note that f is discontinuous at x D 0 (when x D 0.139:37/ D $17.x/ D 80 1002 C x 2 C 65. the most economical way to lay the pipe is place the underground pipe from A to a point 139. Which values of L and K would minimize the total cost L C K? 0:85 SOLUTION Since P D 1:7 and P D 2LK 2 . Brandon is on one side of a river that is 50 m wide and wants to reach a point 200 m downstream on the opposite side as quickly as possible by swimming diagonally across the river and then running the rest of the way. (b) To locate the critical points of f .0/ D 19:2. Determine f . where L is the cost of labor and K is the cost of equipment (in millions of euros).200 ! x/ and f 0 . 000 euros in labor. The company needs to produce 1. Because f . (b) What is the most economical way to lay the pipe? What if the cost along the sides is $65/m? P B C 200 − x x 100 A 200 FIGURE 15 SOLUTION (a) Let x be the distance from P to B.0/ D $13. R. The company should invest 1:2 million euros in equipment and 600.

A h1 1 a 1 L−x x 2 b h2 2 B .x/ D yields x . it chooses the path that takes the least time.0/ " 83:3 and f .x/ D h21 h22 C ! "3=2 > 0 % & 3=2 v1 x 2 C h21 v2 . v1 v2 which is Snell’s Law.q x 2 C h21 v1 D x L!x q ! q D0 v1 x 2 C h21 v2 . 44.200/ " 137:4. 0 $ x $ 200: 1:5 4 Solve 2x 1 f 0 . Snell’s Law When a light beam travels from a point A above a swimming pool to a point B below the water (Figure 16).L ! x/ .L ! x/2 C h22 v2 (See diagram below.x/ D C D v1 v2 q x 2 C h21 v1 C q . times in seconds.474 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE SOLUTION Let lengths be in meters.x/ D p ! D0 2 3 x C 2500 4 5 to obtain x D 30 11 " 20:2 and f . Prove Snell’s Law of Refraction: sin #1 sin #2 D v1 v2 A h1 1 2 h2 B FIGURE 16 SOLUTION The time it takes a beam of light to travel from A to B is a b f . and speeds in m=s. Suppose that Brandon swims diagonally to a point p located x meters downstream on the opposite side. Since f .L ! x/2 C h22 . the minimum time is realized when Snell’s Law is satisfied.) Now f 0 . Let v1 be the velocity of light in air and v2 the velocity in water (it is known that v1 > v2 ).L ! x/2 C h22 or v2 sin #1 sin #2 D .L ! x/2 C h22 for all x. The total time of the trip is p x 2 C 2500 200 ! x f . This occurs when Brandon swims diagonally to a point located 20:2 m downstream and then runs the rest of the way.x/ D C .q . Then Brandon then swims a distance x 2 C 502 and runs a distance 200 ! x. we conclude that the minimal time is 80:9 s. Since f 00 .20:2/ " 80:9.

A ! 2h/. maximum volume is achieved with A D B D 30 cm. Now. Vascular Branching A small blood vessel of radius r branches off at an angle # from a larger vessel of radius R to supply blood along a path from A to B.000 V . the base of the box will have dimensions . A A where 20 $ A $ 45.20/ D V . the total resistance to blood flow is proportional to # $ a ! b cot # b csc # T D C R4 r4 where a and b are as in Figure 18.B ! 2h/ and the height of the box will be h. 46. R > 0 and R > r.h/ D h. B h A FIGURE 17 45.S E C T I O N 4.3/ D 486. The corresponding dimensions are 9 # 18 # 3. .#/ D T 0 .0/ D V . r. volume is maximized when h D 3.#/ D 1.B ! 2h/ D 4h3 ! 2. and we need to maximize over 0 $ h $ 15 2 .A ! 2h/ # . let T . Because V . According to Poiseuille’s Law. Find the value of h that maximizes the volume of the box if A D 15 and B D 24. SOLUTION ! r "4 R . V 0 .#/ D # Then % & b r 4 ! R4 cos # R4 r 4 sin2 # so that cos # D ! r "4 D 0. this gives V .A/ D 10. a box (with no top) is to be constructed from a piece of cardboard of sides A and B by cutting out squares of length h from the corners and folding up the sides (Figure 17).30/ D 1000 cm3 . .r=R/4 . Set R4 r4 ! b csc2 # b csc # cot # ! D 0: R4 r4 With a. the minimum value of T .A C B/h2 C ABh: When A D 15 and B D 24. Show that the total resistance is minimized when cos # D . the volume of the box is # $ 900 180.7 Applied Optimization 475 In Exercises 45–47.000 ! 200A ! .45/ D 0 and V . Now. Since lim T . b.15=2/ D 0 and V .h/ D 4h3 ! 78h2 C 360h.000 D0 A2 yields A D 30. What are the dimensions of this box? SOLUTION Once the sides have been folded up.#/ D 1 and lim T . solving V 0 .#/ occurs when cos # D R $ !0C $ !!! 47. B r b R A a FIGURE 18 SOLUTION $ a ! b cot # b csc # C .A ! 20/ ! 20 D 13. Which values of A and B maximize the volume of the box if h D 10 cm and AB D 900 cm.h/ D 12h2 ! 156h C 360 D 0 yields h D 3 and h D 10. Because h D 10 is not in the domain of the problem and V .A/ D !200 C 180. With h D 10 and AB D 900 (which means that B D 900=A). Thus V .

x/ D 2.x ! x1 /2 C . (c) Show that †QRB D †RCQ for the maximal angle . let O be the center of the circle. Note that the two angles labeled in Figure 19 are equal because they subtend equal arcs on the circle. This is because the height of the center is equidistant from points B and C and because the center must lie directly above R if the circle is tangent to the floor.!d. (c) Observe that the arc RB on the dashed circle is subtended by †QRB and also by †RCQ.b C h/ .x1 C x2 C x3 /. bx where b and h are constant. so that setting f 0 . For n D 2: Let f .x ! x2 / C 2. xn . : : : . Let R be the point of tangency. (b) To show that the two answers agree. One observes that if d is the distance from R to the wall.x ! x1 / C 2. find the value of x minimizing the sum of the squares: . The radius of the circle is clearly b2 C h. SOLUTION " " " Note that the sum of squares approaches 1 as x ! ˙1.x/ D . At what distance x should an observer stand from the wall to maximize the angle of observation #? C b B ψ A h ψ θ P P x R Q FIGURE 19 SOLUTION From the upper diagram in Figure 19 and the addition formula for the cotangent function.x/ D 2.476 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 48.x ! x1 /2 C . Since this is the only critical point. : : : . Note that the optimum value for x is the average of x1 . so the minimum must occur at a critical point. both are equal to one-half the angular measure of the arc. it is clear that # is at a maximum when †PBA D 0.x/ D .x ! x3 /2 . #.x ! xn /2 First solve for n D 2. Hint: Show that D # C †PBA where A is the intersection of the circle with PC.x ! x2 /2 .x/ D nkD1 . For n D 3: Let f . differentiate with respect to x and solve ! csc2 # d# x 2 ! h. Solve Exercise 49 again using geometry rather than calculus.x/ D 2 nkD1 .x ! xk /2 . P P P Let f . then O has coordinates .x ! x3 / D 0 yields x D 13 . From here. hence. SOLUTION (a) We note that †PAB is supplementary to both and # C †PBA. (b) Prove that this agrees with the answer to Exercise 49. Thus.b C h/ D D0 dx bx 2 p to obtain x D bhpC h2 . Now.x ! x1 / C 2. 3 and then try it for arbitrary n. Now we can solve for d . 49. There is a unique circle passing through points B and C which is tangent to the street. 50.x/ reaches its maximum at x D bh C h2 . xn . A billboard of height b is mounted on the side of a building with its bottom edge at a distance h from the street as in Figure 19. when A coincides with P . that is.x ! xk / D 0 to obtain x D xN D n1 nkD1 xk . . we see that cot # D x x bCh h x ! bCh 1C x h D x 2 C h. This occurs when P D R. Then setting f 0 .x1 C x2 /. (a) Show that the maximum value of # is # D .x ! x2 /2 C & & & C .x ! x2 /2 C . D # C †PBA. Given n numbers x1 . b2 C h/. Solve f 0 . by the distance formula: 2 OB D d 2 C # $2 # $2 b b Ch!h D Ch 2 2 This gives d2 D # $2 # $2 b b Ch ! D bh C h2 2 2 p or d D bh C h2 as claimed.x ! x2 / D 0 yields x D 12 . and since # ! 0 as x ! 0C and # ! 0 as x ! 1.x ! x1 /2 C .

Show that costs are minimized for N D sQ=d . Similarly.a.N / D d ! for N yields N D sQ D0 N2 p sQ=d .4 0. then the distance from . It follows that the minimum of S.2.4 4.x/ on this interval. the total storage costs per year are sQ=N . Restricting attention to this interval. so compare costs for the two integer values of N nearest the optimal value. 0/ to the points . A. 52. 3.9/ D $138. Plot S.x/ D . and this is confirmed in the plot. 0/ to the other three points can all be reduced by increasing the value of d . (a) Find the maximum value of A.6 0. On this interval.2 0. and s D 30 cents/gal-yr.d ! a/2 C b 2 p p p yields the critical point p d D a ! b= 3. Thus. then the minimum occurs at pthe endpoint d D 0.0/ D 800.9 1. the optimal number of deliveries per year is N D 9.000.7 1.d / for b D 0:5. Let .4 x 0 0.x C 10/2 .d ! a/2 C b 2 : Solving S 0 . 3 and describe the position of the minimum.000.6 0. 20%.5 2.7 Applied Optimization 477 51. the p p results of (a) indicate the minimum should occur for d D 1 ! 0:5= 3 " 0:711.20/ D 0.d / must occur for 0 $ d $ a. then d D a ! b= 3 > 0 and the minimum occurs at this value of d .667. Thus. Plots of S. Let A.000 and C.6 6.2 0.d / for b D 0:5. !b/. the maximum enclosed area is 800 square meters. y y y b = 0. Your answer should be a whole number. Optimal Delivery Schedule A gas station sells Q gallons of gasoline per year.a. Hint: Show that d D 0 when b % 3a. If b < 3a. (b) Which interval of x values is relevant to our problem? Find the maximum value of A.8 1. with x as in Figure 20.) Find the optimal number of deliveries if Q D 2 million gal.d. d D $8000.x/ is 900 square meters. (b) For our problem.a. (Hint: T D 1=N . if b % 3a. The answer depends on whether b < 3a or b % 3a.6 1. while A.5 x 0 0. on the relevant interval.d / be the sum of the distances from .0. which is delivered N times per year in equal shipments of Q=N gallons.d / is minimal.8 6. we find q S.6 0.20 ! x/ D 800 ! 20x ! x 2 D 900 ! .N / D dN C sQ=N .d ! a/ D0 . For the specific case Q D 2. . b/. p p (a) Find the p value of d for which S. the results of (a) indicate that the minimum should occur at d D 0. For b D 0:5. On the other hand.d.40 C x/.x/ has no critical points and A.x/. The yearly delivery costs are dN and the total costs is C.x/ be the area of the enclosure.000. wherep T is the length of time (a fraction of a year) between shipments and s is a constant. SOLUTION (a) If d < 0.1 2 1. Hence.8/ D $139. Victor Klee’s Endpoint Maximum Problem Given 40 meters of straight fence.1 4 b=3 6.8 1 x 0 0.000/ N D D 8:66: 8000 With C. then the distance from . b/ be a fixed point in the first quadrant and let S.d. For both b D 3 and b D 3. The cost of each delivery is d dollars and the yearly storage costs are sQT . p (b) Let a D 1.4 0. b D 3 and b D 3 are shown below. and . x 2 Œ0. C 0 .S E C T I O N 4.d / D d C 2 . r 0:30. the maximum value of A. A.8 1 b = !3 4. 0/ to the other three points can all be reduced by decreasing the value of d . and both of these conclusions are confirmed in the plots. d D 8000 and s D 0:30.4 0. SOLUTION There are N shipments per year. 0/. occurring when x D !10. so the time interval between shipments is T D 1=N years.8 1 . if d > a.2 0. 53.2 4. Solving. (b) Let a D 1. 40 x 20 − x 20 − x 40 + x FIGURE 20 SOLUTION (a) From the diagram.3 4. your goal is to build a rectangular enclosure using 80 additional meters of fence that encompasses the greatest area.d / D 1 C p 2.

0/ D 1.3:92m/ D 9:8m and F %! & 2 C 2 p2 5 29 D p 5 29 . The force F (in Newtons) required to move a box of mass m kg in motion by pulling on an attached rope (Figure 21) is F . 5 sin ˛ D p 29 2 cos ˛ D p : 29 and Therefore.#/ D cos # C f sin #. 29 5 2 p 55. Find the angle # that minimizes the required force F .˛/ D SOLUTION for 0 $ ˛ $ ! 2 3:92m sin ˛ C 2 5 cos ˛ . f is the coefficient of static friction.#/ by finding ! 2 %. g !" " 2 Df q 1Cf2 . F θ FIGURE 21 Let F . The angle # is restricted to the interval g 0 . SOLUTION We minimize F .#/ D ! sin # C f cos # D 0 We obtain f cos # D sin # ) tan # D f p p From the figure below we find that cos # D 1= 1 C f 2 and sin # D f = 1 C f 2 .˛/ D ! D0 "2 sin ˛ C 25 cos ˛ to obtain tan ˛ D 52 . assuming f D 0:4. Hence g. Solve ! " 3:92m 25 sin ˛ ! cos ˛ F 0 . at the critical point the force is 3:92m p5 29 Since F .0/ D 5 2 . we conclude that the minimum force occurs when tan ˛ D 52 . we note that when tan ˛ D 52 . We solve for the critical points: Œ0.#/ D f mg cos # C f sin # where # is the angle between the rope and the horizontal. the maximum value g. where 0 $ ˛ $ ! 2. Hint: Find the maximum value of cos # C f sin #. show that for any f the minimal force required is proportional to 1= 1 C f 2 . and g D 9:8 m/s2 . From the diagram below. In the setting of Exercise 54.478 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 54.#/ D The values at the endpoints are 1 f2 1Cf2 Cp D p D f 1Cf2 1Cf2 g.3:92m/ " 3:64m: 29 D 3:92m.

S E C T I O N 4.7

Both of these values are less than
is

Applied Optimization

479

p
p
1 C f 2 . Therefore the maximum value of g.#/ is 1 C f 2 and the minimum value of F .#/
F D

f mg
f mg
D p
g.#/
1Cf2
√1 + f 2
1

α
f

56. Bird Migration Ornithologists have found that the power (in joules per second) consumed by a certain pigeon flying at
velocity v m/s is described well by the function P .v/ D 17v !1 C 10!3 v 3 J/s. Assume that the pigeon can store 5 # 104 J of usable
energy as body fat.
(a) Show that at velocity v, a pigeon can fly a total distance of D.v/ D .5 # 104 /v=P .v/ if it uses all of its stored energy.
(b) Find the velocity vp that minimizes P .v/.
(c) Migrating birds are smart enough to fly at the velocity that maximizes distance traveled rather than minimizes power consumption. Show that the velocity vd which maximizes D.v/ satisfies P 0 .vd / D P .vd /=vd . Show that vd is obtained graphically as the
velocity coordinate of the point where a line through the origin is tangent to the graph of P .v/ (Figure 22).
(d) Find vd and the maximum distance D.vd /.
Power (J/s)

Minimum power
consumption

4
Maximum
distance
traveled
5

10

15
Velocity (m/s)

FIGURE 22
SOLUTION

(a) Flying at a velocity v, the birds will exhaust their energy store after T D
traveled is then D.v/ D vT D

5 & 104 v
.
P .v/

5 & 104 joules
5 & 104 sec
D
. The total distance
P .v/ joules=sec
P .v/

!
"1=4
17
(b) Let P .v/ D 17v !1 C 10!3 v 3 . Then P 0 .v/ D !17v !2 C 0:003v 2 D 0 implies vp D 0:003
" 8:676247. This critical
point is a minimum, because it is the only critical point and P .v/ ! 1 both as v ! 0C and as v ! 1.
0
P .v/ & 5 & 104 ! 5 & 104 v & P 0 .v/
4 P .v/ ! vP .v/ D 0 implies P .v/ ! vP 0 .v/ D 0, or P 0 .v/ D P .v/ .
(c) D 0 .v/ D
D
5
&
10
v
.P .v//2
.P .v//2
Since D.v/ ! 0 as v ! 0 and as v ! 1, the critical point determined by P 0 .v/ D P .v/=v corresponds to a maximum.
Graphically, the expression
P .v/
P .v/ ! 0
D
v
v!0

is the slope of the line passing through the origin and .v; P .v//. The condition P 0 .v/ D P .v/=v which defines vd therefore
indicates that vd is the velocity component of the point where a line through the origin is tangent to the graph of P .v/.
P .v/
(d) Using P 0 .v/ D
gives
v
!17v !2 C 0:003v 2 D

17v !1 C 0:001v 3
D 17v !2 C 0:001v 2 ;
v

which simplifies to 0:002v 4 D 34 and thus vd " 11:418583. The maximum total distance is given by D.vd / D
191:741 kilometers.

5 & 104 & vd
D
P .vd /

480

CHAPTER 4

APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE

57. The problem is to put a “roof” of side s on an attic room of height h and width b. Find the smallest length s for which this is
possible if b D 27 and h D 8 (Figure 23).

s
h
b

FIGURE 23
SOLUTION

Consider the right triangle formed by the right half of the rectangle and its “roof”. This triangle has hypotenuse s.

y

s
h
b/2

x

As shown, let y be the height of the roof, and let x be the distance from the right base of the rectangle to the base of the roof. By
similar triangles applied to the smaller right triangles at the top and right of the larger triangle, we get:
y!8
8
D
27=2
x

or

yD

108
C 8:
x

s; y; and x are related by the Pythagorean Theorem:
s2 D

#

27
Cx
2

$2

C y2 D

#

27
Cx
2

$2

C

#

$2
108
C8 :
x

Since s > 0, s 2 is least whenever s is least, so we can minimize s 2 instead of s. Setting the derivative equal to zero yields
#
$
#
$#
$
27
108
108
2
Cx C2
C8
! 2 D0
2
x
x
#
$
#
$#
$
27
8 27
108
2
Cx C2
Cx
! 2 D0
2
x 2
x
#
$#
$
27
864
2
Cx
1! 3 D0
2
x
p
3
The zeros are x D ! 27
2 (irrelevant) and x D 6 4. Since this is the only critical point of s with x > 0, and since s ! 1 as x ! 0
and s ! 1 as x ! 1, this is the point where s attains its minimum. For this value of x,
s2 D

#

$2 !
"2
p
p
27
3
3
C 6 4 C 9 2 C 8 " 904:13;
2

so the smallest roof length is
s " 30:07:
58. Redo Exercise 57 for arbitrary b and h.
SOLUTION

Consider the right triangle formed by the right half of the rectangle and its “roof”. This triangle has hypotenuse s.

y

s
h
b/2

x

As shown, let y be the height of the roof, and let x be the distance from the right base of the rectangle to the base of the roof. By
similar triangles applied to the smaller right triangles at the top and right of the larger triangle, we get:
y !h
h
D
b=2
x

or

yD

bh
C h:
2x

S E C T I O N 4.7

Applied Optimization

481

s; y; and x are related by the Pythagorean Theorem:
s2 D

#

b
Cx
2

$2

C y2 D

#

b
Cx
2

$2

C

#

$2
bh
Ch :
2x

Since s > 0, s 2 is least whenever s is least, so we can minimize s 2 instead of s. Setting the derivative equal to zero yields
#
$
#
$#
$
b
bh
bh
2
Cx C2
Ch
! 2 D0
2
2x
2x
#
$
#
$#
$
b
h b
bh
2
Cx C2
Cx
! 2 D0
2
x 2
2x
!
#
$
b
bh2
2
Cx
1! 3 D0
2
2x
The zeros are x D ! b2 (irrelevant) and
xD

b 1=3 h2=3
:
21=3

Since this is the only critical point of s with x > 0, and since s ! 1 as x ! 0 and s ! 1 as x ! 1, this is the point where s
attains its minimum. For this value of x,
!2
!2
b
b 1=3 h2=3
b 2=3 h1=3
2
s D
C
C
Ch
2
21=3
22=3
!2
!2
!3
2=3
b 2=3 b 2=3
b 2=3
2=3
2=3 b
2=3
2=3
D 2=3
Ch
Ch
Ch
D
Ch
;
2
22=3
22=3
22=3
so the smallest roof length is
sD

b 2=3
C h2=3
22=3

!3=2

:

59. Find the maximum length of a pole that can be carried horizontally around a corner joining corridors of widths a D 24 and
b D 3 (Figure 24).
b

a

FIGURE 24
SOLUTION In order to find the length of the longest pole that can be carried around the corridor, we have to find the shortest
length from the left wall to the top wall touching the corner of the inside wall. Any pole that does not fit in this shortest space cannot
be carried around the corner, so an exact fit represents the longest possible pole.
Let # be the angle between the pole and a horizontal line to the right. Let c1 be the length of pole in the corridor of width 24
and let c2 be the length of pole in the corridor of width 3. By the definitions of sine and cosine,

3
D sin #
c2
so that c1 D

24
;c
cos $ 2

D

3
:
sin $

and

24
D cos #;
c1

What must be minimized is the total length, given by
f .#/ D

24
3
C
:
cos #
sin #

Setting f 0 .#/ D 0 yields
24 sin #
3 cos #
!
D0
2
cos #
sin2 #
24 sin #
3 cos #
D
cos2 #
sin2 #

getting tan3 # D 81 .#/ D a b C : cos # sin # Setting the derivative equal to zero. so 2 cos #0 D p : 5 From this.#0 / D p p 24 3 24 p C D 5 C 3 5 D 15 5: cos #0 sin #0 2 60. adjacent 2 tan #0 D we draw a triangle with opposite side 1 and adjacent side 2.b=a/2=3 C b. we can divide both sides by cos3 #. then we have to minimize f . after all). Find the minimum length ` of a beam that can clear a fence of height h and touch a wall located b ft behind the fence (Figure 25). This implies that tan # D 12 (tan # > 0 as the angle is acute).b=a/2=3 and . we can tell that the minimum is attained at #0 where tan #0 D 12 . c D 1 sin #0 D p 5 and p 5.482 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 24 sin3 # D 3 cos3 # As # < !2 (the pole is being turned around a corner.#/ ! 1 as # ! 0C and as # ! !2 !. Redo Exercise 59 for arbitrary widths a and b.a2=3 C b 2=3 /3=2 61. and if # is the angle between the beam and the line perpendicular to the corridor of width a.b=a/2=3 p p D a2=3 a2=3 C b 2=3 C b 2=3 a2=3 C b 2=3 D . we get f .b=a/2=3 c (b/a)1/3 θ 1 This gives the minimum value as q q f .b=a/1=3 sin #0 D q : 1 C . Since f . h b x FIGURE 25 . SOLUTION If the corridors have widths a and b. Because opposite 1 D .#0 / D a 1 C . a sec # tan # ! b cot # csc # D 0.b=a/!1=3 1 C . By Pythagoras. we obtain the critical value #0 defined by tan #0 D # $1=3 b a and from this we conclude (witness the diagram below) that 1 cos #0 D q 1 C .

d D 15 ft. one can show that if the player releases the ball at an angle #.b 2=3 C h2=3 /3 and so ` D . 0 2 2 where 0 $ h $ A 2 (allowing for degenerate boxes). Use (f) Show with a graph that for fixed d (say.A ! 2h/2 D 4h3 ! 4Ah2 C A2 h.h2=3 C b 2=3 /2 D . Using physics.#/ D cos2 #. 2 / D 0 and V .tan # ! tan ˛/.0/ D V . 2 occurs at #0 D ˛2 C !4 . then the initial velocity required to make the ball go through the basket satisfies v2 D 16d cos2 #. Since `2 ! 1 as x ! 0C and as x ! 1. 62. volume is maximized when h D 6 . x D p 3 h2 b corresponds to a `2 D . A 2 or h D A 6.b C h2=3 b 1=3 /2 C . the distance of a free throw).tan # ! tan ˛/ (a) Explain why this formula is meaningful only for ˛ < # < !2 .b 2=3 C h2=3 /3=2 ft. (e) For a given ˛.b 2=3 C h2=3 /3=2 : A beam that clears a fence of height h feet and touches a wall b feet behind the fence must have length at least ` D . the optimal angle for shooting the basket is #0 because it minimizes v 2 and therefore minimizes the energy required to make the shot (energy is proportional to v 2 ).#/ D cos. Which value of h maximizes the volume of the box if A D B? SOLUTION When A D B. (c) Set F . the volume of the box is V . Show that the velocity vopt at the optimal angle #0 satisfies 2 vopt D 32d cos ˛ 32 d 2 D p 1 ! sin ˛ !h C d 2 C h2 2 is an increasing function of h. vopt this to explain why taller players have an advantage and why it can help to jump while shooting. h d FIGURE 26 . 0 .h C h1=3 b 2=3 /2 D b 2=3 .S E C T I O N 4. Let h and ˛ be as in Figure 26.#/ on ˛.b 2=3 C h2=3 /2 C h2=3 . For this value of x. Why does v approach infinity at the endpoints of this interval? (b) Take ˛ D !6 and plot v 2 as a function of # for !6 < # < !2 .b C x/ 1 ! 3 D 0: x x x The zeroes are b D !x (irrelevant) and x D minimum for `2 .h/ D hxy D h .b C x/ C 2 Ch ! 2 D 2.˛ ! 2#/ sec ˛ (you will need to use the addition formula for cosine) and show that the maximum value (d) Verify that ( F ) ! of F . 6 / D 27 A . Verify that the minimum occurs at # D !3 . we have p 3 h2 b. y !h h D b x or yD bh Ch x and by Pythagoras: `2 D . A basketball player stands d feet from the basket.7 SOLUTION Applied Optimization 483 Let y be the height of the point where the beam touches the wall in feet. Explain why v is minimized for # such that F . so setting the derivative equal to zero gives: ! # $# $ bh bh h2 b 2. Solve V .h/ D 12h ! 8Ah C A D 0 for h to obtain h D A A 2 3 A Because V . By similar triangles.b C x/2 C # $2 bh Ch : x We can minimize `2 rather than `.#/ is maximized. 63.

To find vopt cos2 #0 .x ! y// 2 to get cos. F .!˛=2 C "=4/ Now use the identity (that follows from the addition law): sin x cos y D 1 .484 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE SOLUTION (a) ˛ D 0 corresponds to shooting the ball directly at the basket while ˛ D "=2 corresponds to shooting the ball directly upward.˛ ! 2#/ A critical point of F . v2 D 16d 16d D : F .˛=2 C "=4/ sin. and this gives us # D ˛=2 C "=4.#0 / takes place at #0 D ˛=2 C "=4. so that ˛ ! 2# D ! !2 (negative because 2# > # > ˛).!˛=2 C "=4/ and so cos #0 .#/ D cos2 # .˛=2 C "=4/ sin. the ball is launched almost vertically.2#/ D cos2 # ! sin2 # D 1 ! 2 sin2 #I sin 2# D 2 sin # cos #.sin #0 cos ˛ ! cos #0 sin ˛/ cos ˛ By the addition law for sine: sin #0 cos ˛ ! cos #0 sin ˛ D sin.tan # ! tan ˛/. In neither case is it possible for the ball to go into the basket.#/ D 2 sin # cos # tan ˛ ! 2 sin # cos # tan # C 1 D 2 sin # cos # sin ˛ sin # ! 2 sin # cos # C1 cos ˛ cos # ! " D sec ˛ !2 sin2 # cos ˛ C 2 sin # cos # sin ˛ C cos ˛ ! ! " " D sec ˛ cos ˛ 1 ! 2 sin2 # C sin ˛ . as it can only fall an extremely short distance on the way to the basket. This requires the ball to travel a great distance upward in order to travel the horizontal distance. On the other hand.sin 2#// D sec ˛ cos. The minimum value F .tan # ! tan ˛/ Since ˛ $ #.#/ > 0. the ball has to travel at an enormous speed.cos ˛.2 sin # cos #/ D sec ˛ .tan #0 ! tan ˛/ D cos #0 .#/ is greatest.˛ ! 2#/ D 0. (b) π 6 π 4 π 3 5π 12 π 2 The minimum clearly occurs where # D "=3.cos 2#/ C sin ˛.1=2/.x C y/ C sin. 2 we must simplify (e) Plug in #0 D ˛=2 C "=4. (c) If F . In either one of these cases.#/ D !2 sin # cos # . so that it must be launched with great speed.#/ occurs where cos.!˛=2 C "=4/ D . We will apply all the double angle formulas: cos. if the angle ˛ is extremely close to "=2.#0 ! ˛/ D sin. hence v 2 is smallest whenever F .sin #0 cos ˛ ! cos #0 sin ˛/ D cos. If the angle ˛ is extremely close to 0. the ball is shot almost directly at the basket. getting: F 0 .#/ cos2 # . % & (d) F 0 .1 ! sin ˛/ .tan # ! tan ˛/ C cos2 # sec2 # D !2 sin # cos # tan # C 2 sin # cos # tan ˛ C 1.sin.

L D 2. . Let T be the point directly above Q on AB. L% in two cases: D D 2. By the Pythagorean Theorem applied to 4AQT and 4BQT . the only critical point occurs when s D D=2. L D 4 and D D 8.tan #0 ! tan ˛/ D . Assume that C is located directly below the midpoint of AB.x/ be theptotal length of cable used.x/ has a unique critical point c. then we can reduce the cable length by moving Q horizontally over to the point P lying above C . Show that f . when Q D P . This shows that the minimum velocity required to launch the ball to the basket drops as shooter height increases. Compute c and show that 0 $ c $ L if and only if D $ 2 3 L. Let ` be the total length of cable from A to Q and B to Q.x/ on Œ0.D ! s/2 C x 2 Since s and D ! s must be non-negative. (c) Find the minimum of f .7 Applied Optimization 485 So we finally get cos2 #0 . (a) First show that P must lie directly above C .1=2/. From Figure 26 we see that cos ˛ D p d and d 2 C h2 sin ˛ D p h d 2 C h2 : 2 yields Substituting these values into the expression for vopt 2 vopt D 32d 2 p : !h C d 2 C h2 2 versus h for d D 15 feet is given below: v 2 increases with respect to basket height relative to (f) A sketch of the graph of vopt opt the shooter. it follows that total cable length is minimized at Q D P . let f . (b) With x as in Figure 27(A). As dds` changes sign from negative to positive at s D D=2. we get: q p ` D s 2 C x 2 C .D ! s/2 C x 2 : From here. that is. it follows that d` s D!s D p !p : 2 2 ds s Cx . D A B A B x Cable P x L C Q P C (A) (B) FIGURE 27 SOLUTION (a) Look at diagram 27(B). Hint: Use the result of Example 6 to show that if the junction is placed at point Q in Figure 27(B). Since it is obvious that P C $ QC (QC is the hypotenuse of the triangle 4PQC ).1 ! sin ˛/ cos ˛ and therefore 2 vopt D 32d cos ˛ 1 ! sin ˛ as claimed. it follows that ` is minimized when s D D=2. Three towns A.S E C T I O N 4. Let s D AT and D D AB so that TB D D ! s. B. Find the junction point P that minimizes the total amount of cable used. a taller shooter need not shoot the ball as hard to reach the basket. and C are to be joined by an underground fiber cable as illustrated in Figure 27(A). 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 64. This shows one of the ways height is an advantage in free throws.

2 3L D 4 3 < D.x/ ! xf 0 .c/ D 4 ! . Ali views a billboard represented by the segment BC along the y-axis.x 2 C . L%.b ! c/ # . p p p p p " D D 2.f . y C = (0. Show that # is maximized at the value of x for which the angles †QPB and †QCP are equal. the total length is minimized where x D L.2 3/ D 3=3 2 Œ0.xf 0 . so c does not lie in the interval Œ0. so c D D=.x//2 / (b) Show that the y-coordinate of Q is f . Tom and Ali drive along a highway represented by the graph of f . f .0/ D L C D D 6. 2 3L D 8 3 > D. f .x//2 /. and f .f .x/ D !1 C p D0 2 x C D 2 =4 gives 2x D or q x 2 C D 2 =4 4x 2 D x 2 C D 2 =4 and the critical point is p c D D=2 3: This is the only critical point of f .x/ D . or p D $ 2 3L: p (c) The minimum of f will depend on whether D $ 2 3L. L D 2. p p p " D D 8.c ! f . we get: q f .b ! f .c ! .L/ D 2 L2 C D 2 =4 D q p p p 2 17 " 8:24621. Further Insights and Challenges 65. From diagram 27(A). Hints: (a) Show that d#=dx is equal to .b ! .x/. the total length is minimized p where x D c D 3=3.x/ ! xf 0 . This generalizes Exercise 50 (c) (which corresponds to the case f . or where P D C . L%.L ! x/ C 2 x 2 C D 2 =4: Then 2x f 0 .x/ in Figure 28. c) billboard B = (0. (c) Show that the condition d#=dx D 0 is equivalent to PQ2 D BQ & CQ (d) Conclude that 4QPB and 4QCP are similar triangles.x/. f (x)) x x highway FIGURE 28 . Therefore.x/// . During the trip. L D 4. and f . b) y = f (x) P = (x. 3=3/ C 2 13 C 1 D 4 C 3 " 5:73204.x 2 C . f .x//2 / ! .x/ D 0).0/ D 2 C 2 64=4 D 10.x///.486 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE (b) Let f .x/ ! xf 0 . It lies in the interval Œ0. L% if and only if c $ L.L/ D p p p 0 C 2 4 C 64=4 D 2 20 D 4 5 " 8:94427: Therefore.x/ be the total cable length. Let Q be the y-intercept of the tangent line to y D f .x 2 C .

f .x/ at point P .) (c) Show that t2 is minimized when sin # D v1 =v2 . Geologists send two sound pulses from point A to point D separated by a distance s.f . it follows that triangles !QCP and !QPB are similar. (c) From the figure. The equation of this tangent line is Y ! f .b ! f .x// C .xf 0 .x 2 C .x//2 /.x//2 / .x 2 C . As †PQB D †CQP .x// and PQ D q x 2 C .f .x///.x/ D f 0 . 2 .x/f 0 .x// ! .f .x/ ! xf 0 .f .x// c ! .x/ ! xf 0 .b C c/. as in Figure 29.x//2 ! .xf 0 .b ! f .x/ D b ! . we see that #. the sides CQ and PQ from the triangle !QCP are proportional in length to the sides PQ and BQ from the triangle !QPB.x/ ! .f .b C c/. we see that BQ D b ! .f .f .c ! f .x///2 D Comparing these expressions with the numerator of d#=dx.x/ .x/.x/ D tan!1 c ! f .x//2 C 2xf .x/ ! tan!1 : x x Then # 0 .x// ! x 2 C .x//2 x 2 C .f . The second pulse travels down to the rock formation.x 2 C .b ! c/ D .c ! f .X ! x/: The y-coordinate of Q is then f .x//2 : d# D 0 is equivalent to dx PQ2 D BQ & CQ: (d) The equation PQ2 D BQ & CQ is equivalent to PQ CQ D : BQ PQ In other words. (b) Show that the time required for the second pulse is t2 D 2d s ! 2d tan # sec # C v1 v2 provided that tan # $ s 2d (Note: If this inequality is not satisfied.x/ ! xf 0 . then along its surface.x 2 C .S E C T I O N 4.x/ ! xf 0 .f .x//2 /.c ! .x 2 C .b ! .x/ b ! f .x/ ! xf 0 .c ! f . A s D d Soil B C Rock FIGURE 29 66.c ! f . The first pulse travels directly from A to D along the surface of the earth.x//2 / (b) The point Q is the y-intercept of the line tangent to the graph of f .b ! f . and then back up to D (path ABCD). The pulse travels with velocity v1 in the soil and v2 in the rock.x/// : .x/ ! xf 0 .x 2 C . then point B does not lie to the left of C . (a) Show that the time required for the first pulse to travel from A to D is t1 D s=v1 .x/ ! xf 0 .x//.x//2 D .x 2 C .x/ ! xf 0 .x//2 / .b ! c/ x 2 ! bc C .x//2 / .b ! f . CQ D c ! .xf 0 .f . it follows that q x 2 C .x/ ! xf 0 .x/ ! xf 0 .f .x//2 ! .x/.b ! c/ D .x 2 C . Seismic Prospecting Exercises 66–68 are concerned with determining the thickness d of a layer of soil that lies on top of a rock formation.x/ ! xf 0 .7 Applied Optimization 487 SOLUTION (a) From the figure.bc ! .x//2 /.

In this exercise.d=s/2 . (c) Conclude that 2d s . assume that v2 =v1 % 1 C 4. (a) Show that inequality (2) holds if sin # D v1 =v2 . it follows that s # s 2d v2 v1 $2 !1% s # $2 d 2d 1C4 !1D : s s as required. we have sin # D t2 D v1 v2 v1 from which sec # D q and tan # D q . t1 s SOLUTION (a) If sin # D v1 v2 .1 ! k 2 /1=2 C v1 v2 t2 2d. Thus v2 2 2 2 v2 ! v1 v2 ! v12 2d s ! 2d tan # 2d v2 sec # C D q C v1 v2 v1 2 v2 ! v12 0 1 s ! 2d q v2 v2 2d B v2 s C ! q 1 @q AC v1 v 2 2 2 2 2 v2 ! v1 v2 v2 ! v1 0 1 0q 1 2 ! v2 2 2 v 2d B v2 ! v1 C s 2d B s 2 1C D D @ q AC @ q AC v1 v v 2 ! v 2 v2 v1 v 2 2 v2 2 2 1 D 2d D v1 (c) Recall that t1 D s 1! # v1 v2 $2 % &1=2 2d 1 ! k 2 s s C D C : v2 v1 v2 s . Hence d t2 D tAB C tCD C tBC D h h s ! 2p 2d s ! 2d tan # C C D sec # C v1 v1 v2 v1 v2 dt2 2d sec # tan # 2d sec2 # tan # sec # sin #= cos # v1 v1 D ! D 0 to obtain D . Moreover.488 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE SOLUTION (a) We have time t1 D distance=velocity D s=v1 . (b) Show that the minimal time for the second pulse is (c) Solve t2 D where k D v1 =v2 . ds /2 . tan # D p gives p D d tan #. We therefore have v1 1=2 t2 D t1 2d .1 ! k 2 /1=2 D C k. Then cos # D dh and h D d sec #. (b) Let p be the length of the base of the right triangle (opposite the angle #) and h the length of the hypotenuse of this right triangle. tan # $ q 1 C 4. Therefore D or sin # D .1!k 2 / v1 s v1 C s v2 % &1=2 % &1=2 2d 1 ! k 2 2d 1 ! k 2 v1 D C D C k: s v2 s v1 v22 !v12 . d# v1 v2 v1 v2 1= cos # v2 v2 p 67. (b) For the time-minimizing choice of #. then v1 1 tan # D q D r! " : v2 2 v22 ! v12 !1 v1 Because v2 v1 % Hence.

it follows that PB and P C are of equal length.x/ has two critical points x1 < x2 in . Thus. Which value of x yields the least expensive design [the minimum value of S. so triangles 4PNB and 4PNC are congruent by side–angle–side. assuming that v1 D 0:7v2 . t2 =t1 D 1:3. 400 # $ 1 t2 (b) If several experiments for different values of s showed that plots of the points . (c) The same reasoning used in parts (a) and (b) lead us to conclude that 4QNB and 4QNC are congruent and that QB and QC are of equal length. did not lie on a straight line. Note that x D 0 and x D r correspond to a cone and cylinder. t2 =t1 / did not lie on a straight line? SOLUTION (a) Substituting k D v1 =v2 D 0:7.1=s. (d) Consider triangle 4AQC . The upper radius x can take on any value between 0 and r. p (b) Show that if r < 2. Solving for d yields d " 168:03 m. Finally.x/ is an increasing function. (d) Conclude that the minimum occurs at x D 0 or x2 . paths AQB and AQC are of equal length. respectively. BC is orthogonal to QM .0. 70. t2 =t1 D 1:3. Continue with the assumption of the previous exercise.0:7/2 1:3 D C 0:7. By definition. Conclude that the shortest path AQB occurs for Q D P . Show that S.r C x/ 1 C . and that S. (e) Find the minimum in the cases r D 1:5 and r D 2. In this exercise we use Figure 30 to prove Heron’s principle of Example 6 without calculus. Therefore #1 D #2 (b) Because 4PNB and 4PNC are congruent. where s is the slant height as indicated in the figure. the path AP C is shorter than AQC for all Q ¤ P . (b) The paths APB and AP C have equal length. the surface area (not including the top and bottom) is S. (b) The times t1 and t2 are measured experimentally. then S. (a) Find the thickness of the soil layer. A jewelry designer plans to incorporate a component made of gold in the shape of a frustum of a cone of height 1 cm and fixed lower radius r (Figure 31).x/ D ".x/ D "s. p (c) Assume that r > 2. r/. paths APB and AP C have equal length. The equation in Exercise 67(c) shows that t2 =t1 is a linear function of 1=s. t1 s 69. then we s t1 t2 1 would suspect that is not a linear function of and that a different model is required. C is the reflection of B across the line MN (so that BC is perpendicular to MN and BN D CN . Use geometry to justify: (a) 4PNB and 4PNC are congruent and #1 D #2 . Conclude that the cone (x D 0/ has minimal area in this case. B A h2 h1 θ1 M Q θ2 P θ1 N h2 C FIGURE 30 SOLUTION (a) By definition. Thus.r C x/.S E C T I O N 4. (c) Similarly AQB and AQC have equal length. and S. Let P be the intersection of AC and MN . . (d) The path AP C is shorter than AQC for all Q ¤ P . Thus.r ! x/2 .x1 / is a local maximum. and s D 400 into the equation for t2 =t1 in Exercise 67(c) gives q 2d 1 ! . As a function of x.x/ for 0 $ x $ r]? p (a) Show that S. the shortest path AQB occurs for Q D P . By the triangle inequality. the length of side AC is less than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the sides AQ and QC .x2 / is a local minimum.7 Applied Optimization 489 68. and s D 400 m. What might you conclude if experiments were formed for several values of s and the points .

so that r 2 ! 2 D u. (f) Take a deep breath. Sign analysis reveals that S.S. Since S.S.x2 /=" D 3r C r ! 2 1 C . SOLUTION (a) Consider a cross-section of thepobject and notice a triangle can be formed with height 1.5 C 3 3/=4 " 1:597.x2 / is a local minimum.S. and r D u C 2.r 2 ! r r 2 ! 2 ! 1/ 2 2 ! " ! " p p 2 1 .0/="/2 . # $r 3 1p 2 1 1p 2 S. hypotenuse p s.0/ D 14:0496 cm2 . r 2 D u C 2. S.x1 / is a local maximum. decreasing for x1 < x < x2 and increasing for x2 < x < r.x2 /="/2 D 3r C r 2 ! 2 r2 ! r r2 ! 2 C 1 To solve the equation S.0/ D 8:4954 cm2 .490 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE q p p (f) Challenge: Let c D .0/). S. x1 D 12 r ! 12 r 2 ! 2 and x2 D 12 r C 12 r 2 ! 2.0/.0/ D " r 1 C r 2 .x2 /="/2 D 3r C r 2 ! 2 2 C .x2 / D " rC r !2 1C.r 2 ! r r 2 ! 2 ! 1/ 2 2 From this.x2p/="/2 D 8.S. !p " 2x 2 ! 2rx C 1 (b) S 0 . S. and S. Hence. S. since x2 D 12 r C 12 r 2 ! 2.r C x/. If r < and thus the minimum must occur at the left endpoint.x2 / D S. By means of a p of algebraic labor and a clever substitution.1 C r 2 / D 8r 2 C 8r 4 . there are two critical points. Setting S.x1 / is a local maximum and S increases for x2 < x < r.x2 / D S.x2 /="/2 is.u C 2/ C 6 u u C 2 C u p p D 10u C 6 u u C 2 C 18 "! ! " p p p p p p 10u C 6 u u C 2 C 18 u ! u u C 2 C 3 D 10u2 C 6u3=2 u C 2 C 18u ! 10u3=2 u C 2 ! 6u2 ! 12u p p p p ! 18 u C 2 u C 30u C 18 u C 2 u C 54 . If r D 2 cm.p we solve thep equivalent equation 8.x2 / D 12:852 cm2 and S.r ! x/2 ! .r 2 ! 2r r 2 ! 2 C r 2 ! 2/ 2 4 r ! " p p " 1 D 3r C r 2 ! 2 1 C .x2 / D 8:8357 cm2 and S. s D 1 C .S. we simplify by squaring and taking out constants: "r p p 1! 1 2 S.0/ D 8:4954 cm2 is the minimum (cone).x2 /="/2 D 3 u C 2 C u . Both values are on the interval p Œ0. so S. then: ! p " p p "2 ! p 8.S.S. and so is S. Then. 8.r C x/ 1 C .u C 2/.r ! x/2 . so S.u C 3/ D 8u2 C 40u C 48: We compute: ! p p "2 p p 3 u C 2 C u D 9.r C x/s D ".r ! x/2 and the surface area is S D ". while.1 C .x/ D " 1 C .x/ is increasing everywhere 2 r ˙ 2 r ! 2.u C 2/ ! u C 2 u C 1 while 8. by the Pythagorean Theorem.x/ is increasing for 0 < x < x1 . but the minimum occurs at x D x2 if r > c. we are going to solve for r. Let u D r 2 ! 2.x/ > 0 for x > 0. and base r ! x. r% since r > r 2 ! 2. (e) If r D 1:5 cm.0/="/2 D 8r 2 .0/ produces an equation in r (x2 is given great deal pin r.r 2 ! r r 2 ! 2 ! 1/ 8 ! "2 ! " p p 8.r ! x/ D " p D 0 yields critical points x D 1 C . Hence.r ! x/2 /!1=2 .x2 / D 12:852 cm2 is the minimum. p p p (c) For r > 2.r ! x/2 p p 1 1 2 2 then there are no real critical points and S 0 . S.0/="/2 D 8r 2 C 8r 4 D 8. x s 1 cm r FIGURE 31 Frustrum of height 1 cm. x D 0. The expression for 8. Prove that the minimum occurs at x D 0 (cone) if 2 < r < c.S. we conclude that the minimum of S must occur either at x D 0 or at x D x2 . (d) The minimum value of S must occur at an endpoint or a critical point. r ! r ! 2/2 2 2 2 2 "r p p "! 1 D 3r C r 2 ! 2 1 C .

x/ is a linear function? SOLUTION Remember that Newton’s Method uses the linear approximation of a function to estimate the location of a root.0/ D S.x2 / is the minimum value.x2 /="/2 p p 8u2 C 40u C 48 D 4u2 ! 4u.x2 / for r > 2.u/.8 Newton’s Method Preliminary Questions 1.x0 / D x0 ! 0 D x0 I f 0 . but for r D 2 > c.S E C T I O N 4.8 D 4u2 ! 4u Therefore the equation becomes: Newton’s Method 491 !p p " u u C 2 C 36u C 54 8. S. SOLUTION Yes. If Newton’s Method is started with an initial guess such that f 0 .72/ !12 C 12 3 !3 C 3 3 D D : 16 16 4 Therefore r2 ! 2 D p !3 C 3 3 . it follows that S. 3. that is a reasonable description.S. 4 so r2 D This gives us that S.0/ when rDcD p 5C3 3 : 4 s p 5C3 3 : 4 From part (e) we know that for r D 1:5 < c. then only one iteration of Newton’s Method will be required to compute the root. then the derivative is zero at a local maximum or a local minimum. How many iterations of Newton’s Method are required to compute a root if f . What happens in Newton’s Method if your initial guess happens to be a local min or max of f ? SOLUTION Assuming that the function is differentiable. 4. Is the following a reasonable description of Newton’s Method: “A root of the equation of the tangent line to f . 4. u u C 2/ 16u4 C 32u3 ! 32u2 ! 48u C 36 D 16u2 .x/ at x0 for its x-intercept.x0 / in other words.x2 / provides the minimum when r > c.S.x2 / D S. then x1 D x0 ! f . the tangent line will be parallel to the x-axis and will never intersect it.u C 2/ 16u4 C 32u3 ! 32u2 ! 48u C 36 D 16u4 C 32u3 !32u2 ! 48u C 36 D 0 8u2 C 12u ! 9 D 0: The last quadratic has positive solution: uD !12 C p p p 144 C 4. .x0 / D 0. What happens in Newton’s Method if your initial guess happens to be a zero of f ? SOLUTION If x0 happens to be a zero of f.0/ is the minimum value for S. That is. The iteration formula for Newton’s Method was derived by solving the equation of the tangent line to y D f .0/ provides the minimum value for 2 < r < c and S. S.0/="/2 D 8. 2. every term in the Newton’s Method sequence will remain x0 . If the original function is linear. p p Since r D c is the only solution of S. u u C 2/ C 36u C 54 p p 4u2 C 4u ! 6 D !4u.x/ itself”? Explain.x/ is used as an approximation to a root of f . then Newton’s Method will fail in the sense that x1 will not be defined.

x/ D cos x ! 4x and define xnC1 D xn ! f .x/ D x 3 ! 10 and define xnC1 D xn ! f .xn / 2xn ! 3 With x0 D 3.16666667 2.15450362 2.61904762 2.44948980 2. f . x3 . x0 D 3 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D x 3 C x C 1 and define xnC1 D xn ! f . SOLUTION n 1 2 3 xn 2.15443469 4.x/ D x 2 ! 3x C 1.45 2. SOLUTION x0 D 2 Let f .x/ D cos x ! 4x.xn / 3xn2 C 1 With x0 D !1 we compute 5.xn / xn3 C xn C 1 D x ! : n f 0 .xn / x 3 ! 10 D xn ! n 2 : 0 f . x0 D !1 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D x 3 ! 10. we compute 3.24288009 0. In Exercises 1–6.x/ and initial guess x0 to calculate x1 . f .61803445 x0 D 2 Let f .x/ D x 2 ! 6.xn / cos xn ! 4xn D xn ! : f 0 .xn / xn2 ! 3xn C 1 D x ! : n f 0 . apply Newton’s Method to f .xn / ! sin xn ! 4 With x0 D 1 we compute n 1 2 3 xn 0. f .x/ D x 2 ! 3x C 1 and define xnC1 D xn ! f . we compute n 1 2 3 xn 2.x/ D x 2 ! 6 and define xnC1 D xn ! f .x/ D x 3 C x C 1.492 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 Exercises In this exercise set.24267469 . all approximations should be carried out using Newton’s Method. x2 . SOLUTION n 1 2 3 xn !0:75 !0:68604651 !0:68233958 x0 D 1 Let f .xn / x2 ! 6 D xn ! n : 0 f .28540361 0.xn / 2xn With x0 D 2. 1. f .xn / 3xn With x0 D 2 we compute n 1 2 3 xn 2.66666667 2.5 2. f .

y −2 1 −1 2 x FIGURE 1 Graph of y D x 3 C 2x C 5. x0 D 7 SOLUTION Let f . based on the figure.xn / x 3 C 2xn C 5 D xn ! n 2 : 0 f .8 Newton’s Method 493 6.xn / !xn cos xn ! sin xn xnC1 D xn ! With x0 D 7 we compute n 1 2 3 xn 6. The exact root is 9. to three decimal places. Use Figure 1 to choose an initial guess x0 to the unique real root of x 3 C 2x C 5 D 0 and compute the first three Newton iterates.S E C T I O N 4.xn / 3xn C 2 We take x0 D !1:4. is 0:524. !2 to three decimal places.xn / sin xn ! cos 2xn D xn ! : f 0 . Approximate both solutions of ex ! 6. Approximate a solution of sin x D cos 2x in the interval 0.43911724 7.x/ D 1 ! x sin x.523775116 0.39354183 6. . and then calculate n 1 2 xn !1:330964467 3 !1:328272820 !1:328268856 ( ) 8.xn / cos xn C 2 sin 2xn n 1 2 xn 0.x/ D sin x ! cos 2x and define xnC1 D xn ! With x0 D 0:5 we find f . Then find the exact solution and compare with your approximation. which is equal to 0:524 to three decimal places. SOLUTION Let f . D 5x to three decimal places (Figure 2).x/ D x 3 C 2x C 5 and define xnC1 D xn ! f .xn / 1 ! xn sin xn D xn ! : f 0 .43930706 6. SOLUTION Let f .x/ D 1 ! x sin x and define f . y y = ex 20 y = 5x 10 1 2 3 x FIGURE 2 Graphs of e x and 5x. f .523598785 The root.

0:25917/ x3 " 0:25917 For the second root. Newton’s Method yields: n 1 2 3 xn 3. we use an initial guess of x0 D 2:5.0396842.x/ D x 3 ! 2.2:54264/ x3 " 2:54264 Thus the two solutions of e x D 5x are approximately r1 " 0:25917 and r2 " 2:54264.x/ D sin x. Use Newton’s Method to calculate " to four decimal places.709975947 A calculator yields 1. which is 51=3 .25993349 Thus.2:5/ x1 " 2:54421 x1 D 2:5 ! x2 D 2:54421 ! f . and let x0 D 2.guess/ f . and let x0 D 1. we have n 1 2 3 xn 3.x/ D e x ! 5x.31662479.31666667 3. Then f 0 .x/ D e x ! 5.guess/ f .0:2/ x1 D 0:2 ! x1 " 0:25859 x2 D 0:25859 ! f .0:25859/ x2 " 0:25917 x3 D 0:25917 ! f . 51=3 SOLUTION Let f .2:54264/ f 0 .141592654 Hence. so let f . 12. Here are approximations to the root of f .75 1.142546543 3.x/ D x 2 ! 11.709975947. . p 11.2:54421/ f 0 . and let x0 D 3.709976429 1.26388889 1. we Newton’s Method (First root) x0 D 0:2 . 13. A calculator yields 5. In Exercises 11–14. The first positive solution of sin x D 0 is x D ". Taking x0 D 3.0:2/ f 0 . 27=3 SOLUTION Note that 27=3 D 4 & 21=3 .31662479 A calculator yields 3.0:25859/ f 0 . 11 SOLUTION Let f . Newton’s Method yields: n 1 2 3 xn 1. " " 3:1416 to four decimal places. n 1 2 3 4 xn 1.33333333 3. SOLUTION Let f .494 CHAPTER 4 SOLUTION calculate APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE We need to solve e x ! 5x D 0.710884354 1. Newton’s Method (Second root) x0 D 2:5 .x/.141592653 3.x/ D x 3 ! 5. Let f . With an initial guess of x0 D 0:2.2:54421/ x2 " 2:54264 x3 D 2:54264 ! f .0:25917/ f 0 . 27=3 " 4 & 1:25993349 D 5:03973397. approximate to three decimal places using Newton’s Method and compare with the value from a calculator.2:5/ f 0 .33333333 1. 10.

15.x/ D x !4 ! 3. Now. Let f .5 −1.x/ D SOLUTION Figure 5 from the text x 4 ! 6x 2 C x C 5 and take x0 D 2. Newton’s Method gives n 1 2 3 xn 2.x/ D x 4 ! 6x 2 C x C 5 to within an error of at most 10!4 .75983569. the first three iterates of Newton’s Method are: SOLUTION n 1 2 3 xn !2:22536529 !2:22468998 !2:22468949 Thus. n 1 2 3 4 xn 2.x/ D x 3 ! 5x C 1. y x −2. to three decimal places. let f . Largest positive root of f . So let f . approximate the root specified to three decimal places using Newton’s Method. and let x0 D 0:8.x/ D x 5 ! 20x C 10.x/ D x 3 ! 5x C 1.093064358 The largest positive root of x 4 ! 6x 2 C x C 5 is approximately 2:093064358. SOLUTION Let f .x/.75983565 0. Negative root of f . 3!1=4 SOLUTION Let f .12842820 2. we see that the positive solution to the equation sin # D 0:8# is approximately x D 1:1. Positive solution of sin # D 0:8#.#/ D sin # ! 0:8# and define #nC1 D #n ! sin #n ! 0:8#n f .13110259 .x/ shown below suggests taking x0 D !2:2. Use a plot to choose an initial guess.12841906 The largest positive root of x 3 ! 5x C 1 is approximately 2:1284.S E C T I O N 4. Starting from x0 D !2:2. which is 3!1=4 . the negative root of f .13193277 2. Here are approximations to the root of f . The graph of f .x/ D x 5 ! 20x C 10 is !2:225.13235345 1.093568458 2. suggests the largest positive root of f .5 −2.0 −1. Approximate the largest positive root of f .8 Newton’s Method 495 14.x/ D x 5 ! 20x C 10.093064768 2.0 −0.111111111 2.75424 0. The graph of f . y 10 5 x −3 −2 −1 −5 1 2 3 −10 17. 16.x/ shown below suggests the largest positive root is near x D 2:2. In Exercises 16–19.13110447 1.x/ D x 4 ! 6x 2 C x C 5 is near 2.5 −50 −100 −150 18.75983569 A calculator yields 0. SOLUTION From the graph below.#n / cos #n ! 0:8 With #0 D 1:1 we find n 1 2 3 #n 1. Refer to Figure 5. n 1 2 3 4 xn 0.75973342 0.#n / D #n ! : f 0 . Taking x0 D 2:2.

x C 4/ ! x and define xnC1 D xn ! f . x2 be the estimates to a root obtained by applying Newton’s Method with x0 D 1 to the function graphed in Figure 3.5 1. Hint: Draw a plot.5 3.131. Solution of ln.0 19.496 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Thus.x1 .xn / ln. y 1. and draw the tangent lines used to obtain them.xn C 4/ ! xn D xn ! : 1 f 0 . to three decimal places.0 0.750111363 1. The tangent line to the curve at . 2.5 2.x C 4/ D x is 1. Estimate the numerical values of x1 and x2 .5 1 1. Let x1 .5 20. between x D The graph suggests an initial guess x0 D 5! 4 .xn / x C4 ! 1 n With x0 D 2 we find n 1 2 3 xn 1. SOLUTION From the graph below. the positive solution to the equation ln. we see that the positive solution to the equation ln. The tangent line to the curve at .x0 // has an x-intercept at approximately x1 D 3:0. Let f . f . the positive solution to the equation sin # D 0:8# is 1.x0 .5 x 0. SOLUTION 2 3 x Find the smallest positive value of x at which y D x and y D tan x intersect.5 1.5 0.5 2 2. Here is a plot of tan x and x on the same axes: y 5 1 2 3 4 x −5 The first intersection with x > 0 lies on the second “branch” of y D tan x.749. y 1 −1 21.x1 // has an x-intercept at approximately x2 D 2:2.0 1.5 2 y = ln(x + 4) 1.x C 4/ D x is approximately x D 2. y 1 −1 2 x 3 FIGURE 3 SOLUTION The graph with tangent lines drawn on it appears below.5 1 y=x 0.x/ D tan x ! x. from which we get the following table: 5! 4 and x D 3! 2 .749031407 1. to three decimal places. .x C 4/ D x.749031386 Thus.x/ D ln. f . Now. let f .0 2.

xr /. In Exercises 24–26.798386046 The point P has approximate coordinates .2:7984. so we are looking for a tangent line: y D ! sin.x/ D x C x 3 ! 12. which is approximately 1:4303". so we need to try a better initial guess. The slope of the tangent line is ! sin.8 n 1 2 3 4 xn 6. . Tartaglia. 23. then the value S of the account after N years is ! b 12N C1 ! b r S DP where b D 1 C b!1 12 You have decided to deposit P D 100 dollars per month. the mathematician Antonio Fior challenged his rival Niccolo Tartaglia to solve this problem: A tree stands 12 braccia high.x ! xr / C cos.49422 4. We try the point directly between 5! 4 and 2 .xr . This gives us the equation: ! sin. r denotes a yearly interest rate expressed as a decimal (rather than as a percent). We are looking for the first point x D r where f .50658 4. Using the initial guess x D 2 (it seems that most of the tree is cut away).x/ D cos x C x sin x. 22. so that x 3 is the part cut away.798395826 2. Note: This happens with Newton’s Method—it is sometimes 3! 11! difficult to choose an initial guess.60091 4. We are looking for a point where f .8 7456. was able to determine the exact answer: q #q $.xr / such that y D 0 when x D 0.14408201873 3 2.49341 4.xr /. so the 4th Newton’s Method approximation is accurate to at least 11 decimal places.r/ D 0. this gives that x C x 3 D 12. Since the tree is 12 braccia high.931781309 2.64662 4.49341 The first point where y D x and y D tan x cross is at approximately x D 4:49341. If P dollars are deposited every month in an account earning interest at the yearly rate r. !0:941684/.xr / D 0: Let f . who had discovered the secret of the cubic equation. Tartaglia’s exact answer is 2:14404043253. cos.85398 21. it is broken into two parts at such a point that the height of the part left standing is the cube root of the length of the part cut away.803636974 2. p 3 p 3 p 3 xD 2919 C 54 ! 2919 ! 54 9 Suppose that x is the part of the tree left standing. we get the following table: SOLUTION n xn 1 2. Find (to two decimal places) the coordinates of the point P in Figure 4 where the tangent line to y D cos x passes through the origin. 24. What is the height of the part left standing? Show that this is equivalent to solving x 3 C x D 12 and find the height to three decimal places.54662 4. x0 D 8 : n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 xn 4.14404043328 4 2. Newton’s Method is often used to determine interest rates in financial calculations. Let f .27 497 This is clearly leading nowhere.xr /. In 1535.xr // be the coordinates of the point P .Newton’s Method S E C T I O N 4. The sketch given indicates that x0 D 3"=4 would be a good initial guess. The following table gives successive Newton’s Method approximations: n 1 2 3 4 xn 2.14404043253 Hence x " 2:14404043253.15384615385 2 2.921 4480. y y = cos x 1 x 2π P FIGURE 4 SOLUTION Let .!xr / C cos.x/ D 0.

b/ D b 61 ! 101b C 100. 7%). Hint: Show that . The interest rate r required satisfies 1 C r=12 D 1:01569. (b) Show that to save $10.b ! 1/ D 12.01569 1.828% is required to have $10.000 when N D 5. multiply by b ! 1.498 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE (a) Determine S after 5 years if r D 0:07 (that is. An annual interest rate of 18. and : S D 100 . Let’s use the initial guess r D 0:2. your monthly payment of P dollars is calculated using the equation ! 1 ! b !12N r LDP where b D 1 C b!1 12 (a) Find P if L D $5000.000 after five years. but.L=P /b 12N C1 ! .1 C L=P /b 12N C 1 D 0.01576 1.01569 The solution is approximately b D 1:01569. Then find r. SOLUTION (a) b D . ! b 61 ! b 10. but you want the root satisfying b > 1. Use Newton’s Method to compute b and find the implied interest rate r of this loan. you must earn interest at a rate r determined by the equation b 61 ! 101b C 100 D 0. so that r D 0:01569 # 12 D 0:18828. n 1 2 3 xn 1.1 C L=P /b 12N C 1 D 0: Since L=P D 5000=200 D 25. N D 3. . 25. it does not satisfy the original equation. b!1 So that: ! " 10. SOLUTION (a) If r D 0:07. (b) You are offered a loan of L D $5000 to be paid back over 3 years with monthly payments of P D $200. Let f . Use Newton’s Method to solve for b. divide by P . we must solve 25b 37 ! 26b 36 C 1 D 0: Newton’s Method gives b " 1:02121 and r D 12.0:02121/ " 0:25452 So the interest rate is around 25:45%.1 C 0:08=12/ D 1:00667 P DL # b!1 1 ! b !12N $ D 5000 # 1:00667 ! 1 1 ! 1:00667!36 $ " $156:69 (b) Starting from LDP 1 ! b !12N b!1 ! . If you borrow L dollars for N years at a yearly interest rate r. Note that b D 1 is a root. and r D 0:08 (8%).000. so that x0 D 1 C r=12 D 1:016666.b ! 1/ D 100 b 61 ! b 100b ! 100 D b 61 ! b b 61 ! 101b C 100 D 0 b D 1 is a root.L=P /b 12N C1 ! . b D 1 C r=12 " 1:00583. we need S D 10.000 after five years.b 61 ! b/ D 7201:05: b!1 (b) If our goal is to get $10.000 after 5 years. multiply by b 12N and collect like terms to arrive at .000 D 100 . since b ! 1 appears in the denominator of our original equation.

Q D 10. 28.# ! e sin #/.000 per year for 25 years. 0.8 Newton’s Method 499 26. Has Mercury covered more than a quarter of its orbit at t D T =4? Auxiliary circle B P S O Sun A Elliptical orbit FIGURE 5 SOLUTION (a) The sector SAB is the slice OAB with the triangle OPS removed. N D 30 and M D 25 into the equation P . but you want the root satisfying b > 1.332 (Figure 6)."a2 /. SOLUTION 27. where b D 1 C r. Use Newton’s Method to compute b and then find r. and 2 therefore has area a2$ . where T is the period of the orbit. we get "a2 . and 3. Convert # to degrees. Assume that $2. Mercury has therefore traveled more than one fourth of the way around (from the point of view of central angle) during this time. Mercury has traversed an angle of approximately 1:76696 radians D 101:24ı . OAB is a central sector with arc # and radius OA D a. Introduce the auxiliary circle and angle # in Figure 5 (note that P determines # because it is the central angle of point B on the circle). Deduce Kepler’s Equation: 2" t D # ! e sin # T (c) The eccentricity of Mercury’s orbit is approximately e D 0:2.1 ! b !M /. we find that b must satisfy the equation b 55 ! 6b 25 C 5 D 0.b N ! 1/ D Q. Substituting P D 2000.7.000. Thus.t=T / D a2 =2 . The roots of f . 1.76696 1.000 is deposited each year for 30 years and the goal is to withdraw $10.#/ D # ! :2 sin # ! !2 .b N ! 1/ D Q. the area of the sector is a2 1 a2 # ! ea2 sin # D . There is no simple formula for the position at time t of a planet P in its orbit (an ellipse) around the sun. OPS is a triangle with height a sin # and base length OS D ea.a2 =2/.# ! e sin #/ 2" t D # ! e sin #: T (c) If t D T =4.55. Note that b D 1 is a root. the last equation in (b) gives: " D # ! e sin # D # ! :2 sin #: 2 Let f .x/ D 13 x 3 ! 4x C 1 to three decimal places are !3:583. the area of sector BSA is proportional to the time t elapsed since the planet passed point A. you must earn interest at a rate r satisfying P . (b) By Kepler’s Second Law. The answer shows that a small change in x0 can have a significant effect on the outcome of Newton’s Method.76696 1. Hence.# ! e sin #/: 2 2 2 (b) Since Kepler’s second law indicates that the area of the sector is proportional to the time t since the planet passed point A.#/ D 0.76696 From the point of view of the Sun. If you deposit P dollars in a retirement fund every year for N years with the intention of then withdrawing Q dollars per year for M years. and 1. Use Newton’s Method to find # after a quarter of Mercury’s year has elapsed (t D T =4). r " 0:05217 D 5:217%. n 1 2 3 4 xn 1.1 ! b !M / and then rearranging terms. Newton’s Method with a starting value of b0 D 1:1 yields b " 1:05217. (a) Show that sector BSA has area . and because the circle has area "a2 . .t=T /. BSA has area . Let a D OA and e D OS=OA (the eccentricity of the orbit). We will use Newton’s Method to find the point where f . Since a quarter of the year on Mercury has passed.7708 1. Determine the root to which Newton’s Method converges for the initial choices x0 D 1:85.251.S E C T I O N 4. a good first estimate #0 would be !2 .

and define xnC1 D xn ! " " " f . 2.x/ D 1 x ! c. SOLUTION (a) Let f .332 x −3. Define xnC1 D xn ! f . 8.488 0.x/ D x 3 ! 20x. which diverges by oscillation.2513 3. 30.x/ D 1 3 x ! 4x C 1.251320515 0. since xn D . !16.251322863 0. the sequence of iterates diverges spectacularly. What happens when you apply Newton’s Method to the equation x 3 ! 20x D 0 with the unlucky initial guess x0 D 2? SOLUTION Let f .x/ D x 1=3 ? Note that x D 0 is the only zero.583 −4 3 FIGURE 6 Graph of f . we have n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 xn !2:05 !33:40 !22:35 !15:02 !10:20 !7:08 !5:15 !4:09 !3:66 n 10 11 12 13 xn !3:585312288 !3:582920989 !3:58291867 !3:58291867 n 1 2 3 4 5 6 xn !0:928 0. 2. Define xnC1 D xn ! f .x// D 2x ! cx 2 . Then the sequence of iterates is !1.!2/n x0 .x/ D 13 x 3 ! 4x C 1. !4.x/=f 0 .x/ D x 1=3 .245 0. SOLUTION Let f . Let c > 0 and set f . Calculate the first three iterates of Newton’s Method with c D 10:3 and the two initial guesses x0 D 0:1 and x0 D 0:5. !64.xn / xn3 ! 20xn D x ! : n f 0 .x/ D x !1 ! c.500 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE y 4 0.f . : : : That is. Show that x ! . SOLUTION Let f . (a) (b) (c) Newton’s Method can be used to compute reciprocals without performing division. for any nonzero starting value. Explain graphically why x0 D 0:5 does not yield a sequence converging to 1=10:3. we have 29.x/ !x .251322863 Taking x0 D 1:55. What happens when you apply Newton’s Method to find a zero of f . 2. Thus limn!1 jxn j D limn!1 2n jx0 j D 1.x/ D x ! x !2 D 2x ! cx 2 : 0 f .xn / 3xn2 ! 20 Take x0 D 2.xn / D xn ! f 0 . we have n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 xn !5:58 !4:31 !3:73 !3:59 !3:58294362 !3:582918671 !3:58291867 Taking x0 D 1:7. Then the sequence of iterates is !2. !2.xn / 1=3 xn 1 !2=3 3 xn D xn ! 3xn D !2xn : Take x0 D 0:5.xn / 1 3 3 xn ! 4xn C 1 xn2 ! 4 : Taking x0 D 1:85.xn / D xn ! f 0 . Then x! 1 !c f . 32. : : :. Further Insights and Challenges 31.

L C m D 2R#. Thus. . the rod will bow up into a circular arc of radius R (unknown).5 x . f . n xn " Newton’s Method 1 0. In Exercises 32 and 33. If you cut the rod and weld on an additional segment of length m. If x0 D :5. n xn 1 !1:575 2 !28:7004375 3 !8541:66654 (c) The graph is disconnected. as indicated in Figure 7.1 ! cos #/ 2 sin # (b) Show that L C m D 2R# and then prove sin # L D # LCm 2 SOLUTION (a) From the figure. Dividing L D 2R sin # by L C m D 2R# yields L 2R sin # sin # D D : LCm 2R# # 33.5 1 1. L h R FIGURE 7 The bold circular arc has length L C m. y 0.1 −0. Hence h D R ! R cos # D R .2 0. consider a metal rod of length L fastened at both ends. we have sin # D L=2 R .#/ D sin $ $ ! 34 .0970873 3 0. we have f .2 0.1 ! cos #/ 2 sin # (b) The arc length L C m is also given by radius # angle D R & 2#. We want the solution of: sin # L D # LCm sin # L ! D0 # LCm sin # 3 ! D 0: # 4 Let f .x/ D " 1 x 501 ! 10:3 and thus xnC1 D 2xn ! 10:3xn2 .2 −0. leaving the ends fixed. (2) to estimate #.1 ! cos #/ D L .09708738 Take x0 D 0:5. so that L D 2R sin #. Let L D 3 and m D 1.S E C T I O N 4. (a) Show that L D 2R sin # and conclude that hD L.x1 // is on the other portion of the graph. which will never converge to any point under Newton’s Method. SOLUTION We let L D 3 and m D 1.097 2 0.x1 . Let h be the maximum vertical displacement of the rod. and use this to estimate h. 32.8 (b) For c D 10:3. Take x0 D 0:1.1 ! cos #/ D 1 2L sin # . Apply Newton’s Method to Eq.

By part (a). for all n % 0 we have enC1 D e2 words. Explain graphically. where a is the number such that L D 2a sinh M a . The sag s is the vertical distance from the highest to the lowest point on the chain. if x0 > p c. n n f 0 . y y = a cosh(x/a) s x 2M FIGURE 8 Chain hanging between two poles. Then xn C 1 D xn ! # $ f . Therefore by induction en > 0 for all n % 0.xn p 1 ! cos # " 1:11181: 2 sin # Let f .2 c/.x/ D x 2 ! c. then xn > p c for all n % 0. 2xn p p Thus enC1 > 0. p p (c) Show that if x0 > c. The x-intercept of the graph p is. In other 2xn 2 c In Exercises 35–37. . SOLUTION (a) Let f . p e2 whence xn > c % 0.xn / 2xn 2xn 2 xn as long as xn ¤ 0.. enC1 < pn for all n % 0. we have e0 D x0 ! c > 0.2756981 1.xn / xn2 ! c xn2 C c 1 c D x ! D D x C . en2 =2xn .x/ D x 2 ! c and let en D xn ! p c be the error in xn . (a) Show that C c=xn / and enC1 D p (b) Show that if x0 > c. By Newton’s laws. x D c. the chain describes a catenary y D a cosh xa . Accordingly.2757223 1.2756981 is approximately 1:2757. a flexible chain of length L is suspended between % &two poles of equal height separated by a distance % 2M & (Figure 8). the tangent line to the graph of f intersects the x-axis at a value xnC1 > c. 2 c en2 e2 < pn .e. We see that for any xn > c. of course. Therefore xn > c for all n % 0. i. we have for k D n C 1 that ek D enC1 D n > 0 since xn > 0.x/ D x 2 ! c. Hence en D xn ! c > 0 for all n % 0. Now assume that ek > 0 for k D n. then enC1 $ en2 =. Hence hDL 34. Quadratic Convergence to Square Roots xnC1 D 12 . then xn > c for all n. Then 0 < ek D en D xn ! c. p Thepfigure below shows the graph of f . The Newton’s Method approximations for the solution follow: The angle where sin $ $ D L LCm n 1 2 3 4 #n 1. y x (c) By part (b).502 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 The figure above suggests that #0 D 1:5 would be a good initial guess.2854388 1. xn > 0 and en > 0. Now % p &2 p p xn ! c en2 x 2 ! 2xn c C c 1 c D D n D xn ! c C 2xn 2xn 2xn 2 2xn # $ p p 1 c D xn C ! c D xnC1 ! c D enC1 : 2 xn p p p (b) Since x0 > c % 0.

Suppose that L D 120 and M D 50.M=a/ ! . ds ds da cosh. Assume that M is fixed. # M a $ ! a: . Starting with a0 D 47.2M=a/ cosh.M=a/ ! 1 D D dL da dL 2 sinh. a D 46:95. we find the following approximations using Newton’s method: a1 D 46:95408 and a2 D 46:95415 Thus.0/ D a cosh C C ! a cosh C C D a cosh ! a: a a a Using M D 50 and a D 46:95. da (b) Calculate dL by implicit differentiation using the relation L D 2a sinh (c) Use (a) and (b) and the Chain Rule to show that %M & a .M=a/. we find s D y.Newton’s Method S E C T I O N 4. % & ds (a) Calculate da . we find s D 29:24.M=a/ SOLUTION The sag in the curve is # M a $ with respect to a.0/ D a cosh (a) 3 # $ # $ ds M M M D cosh ! sinh !1 da a a a (b) If we differentiate the relation L D 2a sinh # 0D2 M a $ C C ! .a cosh 0 C C / D a cosh # $ # $ da M 2M da M sinh ! cosh : dL a a dL a Solving for da=dL yields # # $ # $$!1 da M 2M M D 2 sinh ! cosh : dL a a a (c) By the Chain Rule.M / ! y.8 503 35.M=a/ ! . Note that s D a cosh M a ! a. to two decimal places.a/ D 2a sinh # 50 a $ ! 120: The graph of f shown below suggests a " 47 is a root of f . ds ds da D & : dL da dL The formula for ds=dL follows upon substituting the results from parts (a) and (b). (b) Compute the sag s. (a) Use Newton’s Method to find a value of a (to two decimal places) satisfying L D 2a sinh.M / ! y. 36. y 6 4 2 0 −2 40 42 44 46 48 x (b) The sag is given by # $ # $ M 0 M s D y. SOLUTION (a) Let f .M=a/ sinh.

Suppose that L D 160 and M D 50. (3) and the Linear Approximation to estimate the increase in sag !s for changes in length !L D 1 and !L D 5. (3) that ds D 0:61: dL By the Linear Approximation.165/ ! s.160/ D 0:62. s.161/ ! s. Jacques needs to know the value of each function for a single value of x.x/ have the same derivative. !s " ds & !L: dL If L increases from 160 to 161.504 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 37. Knowing that the two functions have the same derivative is only good enough to tell Jacques that the functions may differ by at most an additive constant. when L D 161. Does Jacques have sufficient information to answer his question? SOLUTION No.160/ directly and compare with your estimates in (b). 3. If the two functions produce the same output value for a single input value. they must take the same value for all input values. (a) Use Newton’s Method to find a value of a (to two decimal places) satisfying L D 2a sinh.165/ ! s. we find using Eq. a " 28:46 and # $ 50 s.x/ D 0. Jacques was told that f . Since the derivative of any constant is zero. and he wonders whether f . .160/ D 3:02. Newton’s Method then yields: n 1 2 3 xn 28. R 2. Is there a difference between finding the general antiderivative of a function f .x/ D g. SOLUTION (a) Let f .161/ ! s.30622107 28. (c) When L D 160.161/ D 28:25 cosh # 50 28:25 $ ! 28:25 " 57:07: Therefore. again very close to the approximation obtained from the Linear Approximation. Using the graph below. then !L D 5 and !s " 3:05. very close to the approximation obtained from the Linear Approximation. The indefinite integral is the symbol for denoting the general antiderivative.x/ D 0. we select an initial guess of x0 D 30. when L D 165. to two decimal places.165/ D 27:49 cosh ! 27:49 " 59:47I 27:49 thus.x/. a " 27:49 and # $ 50 s.45653356 28.9 Antiderivatives Preliminary Questions 1. a " 28:46.x/ and evaluating f . any constant function is an antiderivative for the function f .x/ D 2x sinh. Moreover. 4.M=a/. Find an antiderivative of the function f . To determine whether the functions are equal for all x.x/ and g. y = 2a sinh(50/a) 250 200 150 100 50 10 20 30 40 (b) With M D 50 and a " 28:46.45797517 Thus. a " 28:25 and s.50=x/ ! 160. (c) Compute s.160/ D 28:46 cosh ! 28:46 " 56:45I 28:46 whereas.x/ dx? SOLUTION SOLUTION No difference.160/ and s. then !L D 1 and !s " 0:61. s. if L increases from 160 to 165. (b) Use Eq.

then the antiderivatives F and G differ by a linear function: F . then f D g. (b) True. If f D g.x/.2x 4 ! 24x 2 C 12x !1 / dx D 2 Z x 4 dx ! 24 Z x 2 dx C 12 Z 1 dx x 1 1 D 2 & x 5 ! 24 & x 3 C 12 ln jxj C C 5 3 2 5 D x ! 8x 3 C 12 ln jxj C C: 5 As a check. Is y D x a solution of the following Initial Value Problem? dy D 1.x/ D 2x 4 ! 24x 2 C 12x !1 SOLUTION Z . f .6x 3 C C / D 18x 2 dx as needed. If F and G differ by a constant. the antiderivatives F and G may differ by an additive constant. then F D G. SOLUTION (a) False.0/ D 1 D 1. This follows from the fact that the derivative of any constant is 0. If f and g differ by a constant. 3. f .x/ D g. 2. 5.x/ D x takes the value 0 when x D 0. f . then F D G. the function f .x/ ! G. 1.x/. dx SOLUTION Although initial value problem. (a) (b) (c) Antiderivatives 505 Suppose that F 0 . Which of the following statements are true? Explain.9 4. so y D x is not a solution of the indicated Exercises In Exercises 1–8. d x dx y.x/ D x !3=5 SOLUTION Z x !3=5 dx D x 2=5 5 C C D x 2=5 C C: 2=5 2 As a check.S E C T I O N 4.x/ D 18x 2 SOLUTION Z 2 18x dx D 18 Z 1 x 2 dx D 18 & x 3 C C D 6x 3 C C: 3 As a check.x/ and check your answer by differentiating.x/ D f . If the functions f and g are different. we have d dx # 5 2=5 x CC 2 $ D x !3=5 as needed. we have d . we have d dx as needed. (c) False. Even if f . find the general antiderivative of f .x/ D ax C b for some constants a and b.x/ D g. # 2 5 x ! 8x 3 C 12 ln jxj C C 5 $ D 2x 4 ! 24x 2 C 12x !1 .x/ and G 0 .

7. 8.! sin x/ D 2 cos x ! 9 sin x dx as needed.!x !1 / C C D 12e x C 5x !1 C C: As a check.x/ D 4x 7 ! 3 cos x SOLUTION Z . we have " d ! 12e x C 5x !1 C C D 12e x C 5. f . f . & d % x e C 4 cos x C C D e x ! 4 sin x dx .x/ D 12e x ! 5x !2 SOLUTION Z .x/ D e x ! 4 sin x SOLUTION Z .!x !2 / D 12e x ! 5x !2 dx as needed. f .12e x ! 5x !2 / dx D 12 Z e x dx ! 5 Z x !2 dx D 12e x ! 5.2 cos x ! 9 sin x/ dx D 2 Z cos x dx ! 9 Z sin x dx D 2 sin x ! 9.2 sin x C 9 cos x C C / D 2 cos x C 9.x/ D 9x C 15x !2 SOLUTION Z .4x 7 ! 3 cos x/ dx D 4 Z x 7 dx ! 3 Z cos x dx 1 1 D 4 & x 8 ! 3 sin x C C D x 8 ! 3 sin x C C: 8 2 As a check.! cos x/ C C D 2 sin x C 9 cos x C C As a check. we have d dx # 9 2 x ! 15x !1 C C 2 $ D 9x C 15x !2 as needed. 6.! cos x/ C C D e x C 4 cos x C C: As a check. f . f .506 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 4. 5.9x C 15x !2 / dx D 9 Z x dx C 15 Z x !2 dx 1 x !1 D 9 & x 2 C 15 & CC 2 !1 9 D x 2 ! 15x !1 C C: 2 As a check.x/ D 2 cos x ! 9 sin x SOLUTION Z . we have d dx # 1 8 x ! 3 sin x C C 2 $ D 4x 7 ! 3 cos x.e x ! 4 sin x/ dx D e x ! 4 Z sin x dx D e x ! 4. we have as needed. we have d . as needed.

x 2 / D d (c) An antiderivative of sin .1 ! x/.x/ D ! cos x (iii) F .1 ! x/ (d) f .x /.x/ D sin x ! x cos x SOLUTION (a) An antiderivative of sin x is ! cos x.9x C 2/ dx D .9 Antiderivatives 507 9.5t 3 ! t !3 / dt SOLUTION 15.4 ! 18x/ dx D 4x ! 9x 2 C C . As a check. . Match functions (a)–(d) with their antiderivatives (i)–(iv). Z t !6=11 dt SOLUTION 14. Z .z !4=5 ! z 2=3 C z 5=4 / dz D z 1=5 z 5=3 z 9=4 3 4 ! C C C D 5z 1=5 ! z 5=3 C z 9=4 C C .1 ! x/ or (i).! sin x/ C cos x & 1/ D x sin x dx In Exercises 10–39.. !2 2 Z t !6=11 dt D t 5=11 11 5=11 CC D t C C.1 ! x/ D ! sin.18t 5 ! 10t 4 ! 28t/ dt SOLUTION 16. 9 2 x C 2x C C . by the Chain Rule. we have dx cos. which is (iv).x / & 2x D x sin. d dx . As a check.! sin x/ D sin x. . x !3 dx D 14s 9=5 ds SOLUTION 17. 1=5 5=3 9=4 5 9 . Z 10. This is because d . (a) f .x/ D sin.9x C 2/ dx SOLUTION 11. . 4 !2 4 2 Z .!1/ D sin.z !4=5 ! z 2=3 C z 5=4 / dz SOLUTION 18. (d) An antiderivative of x sin x is sin x ! x cos x.x . 14=5 . we have d dx ! " ! 12 cos.x/ D ! 12 cos. Z 3 dx 2 Z . This is because.x/ D x sin.! cos x/ D ! .x/ D sin x (b) f .5t 3 ! t !3 / dt D 5 4 t !2 5 1 t ! C C D t 4 C t !2 C C .x/ D cos. 2 x !3 dx SOLUTION 13. Z 14s 9=5 ds D 14 & s 14=5 C C D 5s 14=5 C C . . ! 12 cos.x 2 / (iv) F . 5=11 5 Z . which is (ii).x 2 / (c) f .1 ! x/ (ii) F .x 2 / (b) An antiderivative of is % & 1 2 2 ! 2 ! sin. which is (iii). we have x sin.18t 5 ! 10t 4 ! 28t/ dt D 3t 6 ! 2t 5 ! 14t 2 C C .1 ! x/ is cos . Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z x !2 1 C C D ! x !2 C C .4 ! 18x/ dx SOLUTION 12.S E C T I O N 4.x 2 /. evaluate the indefinite integral.1 ! x/ & .x/ D x sin x (i) F .sin x ! x cos x/ D cos x ! .

. !2 t . APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Z x. !1=3 x t !2 18 C C D ! 2 C C. dx x2 24. SOLUTION Z x 3 C 3x ! 4 dx D x2 D . 3 z Z 3 x C 3x ! 4 25. Z Z 12 sec x tan x dx D 12 sec x C C .t C 1/ dt SOLUTION Z . Z Z 36 dt t3 SOLUTION 22.x 2 ! 4/ dx SOLUTION 23. 4 . 2 2 x 2=3 3 C C D x 2=3 C C .x 3 ! 4x/ dx D 1 4 x ! 2x 2 C C .x 2 ! 4/ dx D Z x !1=3 3 C C D ! 1=3 C C .# C sec2 #/ d# D 1 2 # C tan # C C . 2=3 2 dx x 4=3 SOLUTION 21. Z Z 1 p dx 3 x Z SOLUTION 20. 3 4 3 4 Z 27.508 CHAPTER 4 SOLUTION 19.t C 1/ dt D Z Z . Z # Z SOLUTION 28. 12 sec x tan x dx 26.x C 3x !1 ! 4x !2 / dx 1 2 x C 3 ln jxj C 4x !1 C C 2 $ 1 1 sin x ! cos x dx 3 4 $ Z # 1 1 1 1 SOLUTION sin x ! cos x dx D ! cos x ! sin x C C . 2 .t 1=2 C 1/.# C sec2 #/ d# SOLUTION Z . 3 3 dx D x C C .t 1=2 C 1/.12z !1=2 ! z 1=2 / dz D 24z 1=2 ! z 3=2 C C .t 3=2 C t C t 1=2 C 1/ dt D t 5=2 1 t 3=2 C t2 C Ct CC 5=2 2 3=2 D 2 5=2 1 2 2 3=2 t C t C t Ct CC 5 2 3 12 ! z p dz z Z Z 12 ! z 2 SOLUTION p dz D . Z Z 1 p dx D 3 x Z x !1=3 dx D Z dx D x 4=3 Z x !4=3 dx D Z 36 dt D t3 Z 36t !3 dt D 36 x.

3 sec. 3 e 3t !4 dt SOLUTION 39. 3 Z .x C 5/ dx D sec.1 ! #/ C C .3#/ ! sec2 d# D sin.7 ! 3#/ d# SOLUTION 32.8x ! 4e 5!2x / dx D 4x 2 C 2e 5!2x C C . sin. ! e x dx x $ Z # 4 x SOLUTION !e dx D 4 ln jxj ! e x C C .csc t cot t/ dt SOLUTION 30.7 ! 3#/ d# D ! tan. 2 4 3 4 $ Z # 4 36.x C 5/ C C . 40. 1 sin.7x ! 5/ dx D ! cos.x C 5/ tan. # $$ # d# 4 # $$ # $ Z # 1 # 1 # SOLUTION cos. .x C 5/ tan. In Figure 1.3z C 1/ dz SOLUTION 34. .S E C T I O N 4.x/? y y y x x x f(x) (A) FIGURE 1 (B) Antiderivatives 509 .7x ! 5/ C C .9 29. Z Z Z Z Z Z 1 sec2 .3#/ ! SOLUTION 38.7x ! 5/ dx SOLUTION 31.1 ! #// d# D 1 2 # C sin. Z 1 sec2 2 Z .# ! cos.x C 5/ dx SOLUTION sec. 5 e 3t !4 dt D 1 3t !4 e C C. 7 .8x ! 4e 5!2x / dx SOLUTION Z .# ! cos. Z Z 25 sec2 . is graph (A) or graph (B) the graph of an antiderivative of f . Z Z .7 ! 3#/ C C . x Z 37.3z C 1/ dz D 25 tan. Z .3z C 1/ C C . Z sec2 . 2 25 sec2 .3#/ ! 2 tan C C.3e 5x / dx D 3 5x e C C. Z # Z cos.csc t cot t/ dt D ! csc t C C .1 ! #// d# SOLUTION 33.3e 5x / dx 35.

moving left to right. Hence.x/ D SOLUTION 1 3 . 47.0/ D 4 dx .x C 13/!5 as required. .4x C 13/3 C C 12 # $ d 1 1 SOLUTION .ax C b/n as required.x/ D F 0 .x/ provides information as to the increasing/decreasing behavior of F .x/ D 13 . F . In other words. Note that d d 1 F . verify by differentiation. which of graphs (A). (B).510 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 SOLUTION Let F .x C 13/2 : dx dx 3 Thus.x C 13/3 is an antiderivative of f . and (C) is not the graph of an antiderivative of f .x C 13/3 is an antiderivative of f . it follows that F . dx 12 4 Z 1 46.x/. This describes the graph in (A)! 41.ax C b/n dx D . dx 4 Z 1 45. By definition. dx 7 Z 1 44. f . solve the initial value problem.x/ D f .x/ be an antiderivative of f .x C 13/!4 C C 4 # $ d 1 SOLUTION ! .4x C 13/2 . Thus either could be an antiderivative of f .x C 13/7 C C 7 # $ d 1 SOLUTION .4x C 13/2 dx D .x/ be an antiderivative of f .4x C 13/3 C C D . a.x C 13/!4 C C D . Z 1 43.x/ D . Notice that f .x/ must transition from decreasing to increasing to decreasing to increasing. In Figure 2.ax C b/nC1 C C D .x C 13/2 .x/. .x/? Explain.x/ and therefore is not an antiderivative of f .n C 1/ # $ d 1 SOLUTION .x/. F . Since.4x C 13/2 as required.x/ changes sign from ! to C to ! to C.x/ transitions from ! to C to ! to C to ! to C. . Graph (B) does not have the same local extrema as indicated by f . this means F 0 .x/ must transition from decreasing to increasing to decreasing to increasing to decreasing to increasing. In Exercises 43–46.x C 13/2 .ax C b/nC1 C C (for n ¤ !1). y x f(x) y y y x x x (A) (B) (C) FIGURE 2 Let F . Show that F .x C 13/6 dx D . dx a.x C 13/6 as required. SOLUTION " " Both graph (A) and graph (C) meet the criteria discussed above and only differ by an additive constant.x/.n C 1/ In Exercises 47–62.x C 13/3 D .x/. y. dy D x 3 .x/ D .4/ D .x C 13/7 C C D . f .x/.x/ D . 42.x C 13/!5 dx D ! . .

Therefore. y.S E C T I O N 4.2t C 9t 2 / dt D t 2 C 3t 3 C C: Thus. Therefore.1/ D so that C D 13 . y D 23 t 3=2 C 13 .2/ D 0 dx dy SOLUTION Since D 8x 3 C 3x 2 .0/ D 3. we have dt yD Z 1 4 0 C C D C. we have dt zD Z 2 C C. D 3 ! 2t.3 ! 2t/ dt D 3t ! t 2 C C: Thus. we have yD Z x 3 dx D 1 4 x C C: 4 Thus. D 8x 3 C 3x 2 . 4 D y.8x 3 C 3x 2 / dx D 2x 4 C x 3 C C: Thus 0 D y. Therefore. dz 52. we have dt yD Z t 1=2 dt D 2 3=2 t C C: 3 Thus 1 D y. dy 49. 2 D y. Therefore y D t 2 C 3t 3 ! 2.9 SOLUTION Since dy dx D x 3 .0/ D !5 dt dy SOLUTION Since D 3 ! 2t. dy 48. z D !2t !1=2 . !5 D y.0/ D so that C D 4.4/ D !2. so that C D 0.4/ D !1 dt dz SOLUTION Since D t !3=2 . we have dt Z yD . so that C D !40.0/2 C C D C.0/ ! . y. y D 14 x 4 C 4. we have dx yD Z . so that C D !5. D t !3=2 . so that C D !2. Antiderivatives 511 . z. y D 2x 4 C x 3 ! 40. D t.2/4 C 23 C C. y. Therefore.2/ D 2. y. p dy 51. D 2t C 9t 2 . 3 t !3=2 dt D !2t !1=2 C C: Thus !1 D z. dy 50. y D 3t ! t 2 ! 5.4/!1=2 C C.1/ D 1 dt p dy SOLUTION Since D t D t 1=2 . Therefore.1/ D 2 dt dy SOLUTION Since D 2t C 9t 2 .1/ D 12 C 3.1/3 C C. 4 .

"/ D 0 C C . dy D cos 5x.3x C 2/3 dx D & . 1 D y. Therefore. y D1 dx 2 so that C D SOLUTION 1 28 . y D 1 ! cos x. Therefore. Therefore. y. y D 1 12 .4t C 3/!1 C !" " dy 55. y D 4 ! 57.3x 1 . 4 3 D ! 13 . y D4 dz 4 SOLUTION Since dy dz D sin 2z. Therefore.4t C 3/!2 .3x C 2/3 . 1 sin 2z dz D ! cos 2z C C: 2 Thus 4Dy so that C D 4. D sin x. we have Z 1 1 1 y D . D sin 2z. D sin x. we have yD Z sin x dx D ! cos x C C: Thus 1Dy so that C D 1. 12 C 2/4 ! 13 .3x C 2/3 .3x C 2/4 C C D .7/!1 C C. y D ! 41 ."/ D 3 dx SOLUTION Since dy dx D cos 5x. 1 0 D y. y.0/ D 1 dx SOLUTION Since dy dx D .1/ D ! . y D 3 C !" " dy 58. CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE dy D . 1 2 !" " 4 D 0 C C. we have yD Z !" " 2 D 0 C C.1/ D 0 dt SOLUTION Since dy dt D .512 53.2/4 C C.4t C 3/!1 C C D ! .4t C 3/!2 . 4 Therefore. !" " dy 56. we have Z 1 1 1 y D . y. cos 2z. Since dy dx 1 28 .0/ D so that C D 1 ! 54. D sec2 3x.4t C 3/!1 C C: !1 4 4 Thus. . we have yD Z cos 5x dx D Thus 3 D y.3x C 2/4 C C: 4 3 12 Thus. dy D . y D2 dx 4 1 5 1 sin 5x C C: 5 sin 5x.4t C 3/!2 dt D & . so that C D 3.

1 2 . we get: 1 tan. dy D 9e 12!3t .S E C T I O N 4. Therefore. 0 D y. y D !3e 12!3t C 10. 60. y D 2 t C 2e 77 2 .0/ D !e 0 C C.3x/ C C: 3 ! "" 1 tan 3 CC 3 4 1 2 D . 7 D y. Therefore. Therefore. we have Z yD Since y %! & 4 D 2. dy D t C 2e t !9 .9/ D 4 dt SOLUTION Since dy dt D t C 2e t !9 . dy D e x .2/ D e 2 C C. sec2 . so that C D 10.t C 2e t !9 / dt D 1 2 t C 2e t !9 C C: 2 Thus.9/ C 2e 0 C C. y. we have yD Z e x dx D e x C C: Thus. y D e x ! e 2 . we have yD Z e !t dt D !e !t C C: Thus. 2 Antiderivatives 513 .9/ D 1 2 t !9 ! so that C D ! 77 2 .4/ D !3e 0 C C. so that C D !e 2 . y.4/ D 7 dt SOLUTION Since dy dt D 9e 12!3t .3x/ dx D 1 3 tan. y D 59.9 SOLUTION Since dy dx D sec2 3x. so that C D 1. dy D e !t . 0 D y.!1/ C C 3 7 D C: 3 2D Therefore. 61.2/ D 0 dx SOLUTION Since dy dx D e x .3x/ C 73 . Therefore. we have yD Z 9e 12!3t dt D !3e 12!3t C C: Thus.0/ D 0 dt SOLUTION Since dy dt D e !t . y D !e !t C 1. y. we have yD Z . 4 D y. y. 62.

f 0 .0/ D 1. hence C D !3. f .t/ D t ! cos t. Hence f 0 . From g. Given f . f .t/ D !2 1=2 t C 2t C C D !4t C 2t C C . f 0 . f 00 .x/ D 14 x 4 ! x 2 C x C 1. so C D 0. first find f 0 and then find f .x/ D sec2 x have the same derivative.#/ we get g.1/ D 4 SOLUTION Let g.t/. From g 0 .#/ we get f . f . !" " 68.1/2 C C C C .t/ D C 2. Thus.x/ D 66. SOLUTION Let g.t/.x/ D 67.x/ D 2x C x C 2.#/ D f 0 . f . The 1 5 1 3 1 2 1 121 x ! x C x ! xC : 20 3 2 4 30 f .0/ D 1 gives us 1 D f .1/ 3 1 4 1 5 0 and C D 4 .x/ D 12x. f . The problem statement gives g 0 . This gives f .x/ D 6x 2 C C . Finally. From f . 1 5 1 3 1 2 x ! x C x C x: 20 3 2 f .x/ D 1 5 1 3 1 2 20 x ! 3 x C 2 x C x C C .t/ D g. 13 t 3 / C cos t C 2t C C . g. 5 x / ! 3 x C 2 x ! 4 x C C D 20 x ! 3 x C 2 x ! 4 x C C .x/ D 4 .0/ D !2.0/ D 0 00 .1/ D 4.x/ D 6x 2 C 00 . Hence f D g. g !" " 2 D 1: From g 0 .x/ D g. Hence.x/ D 20 x ! 13 x 3 C 34 x 1 1 3 23 1 5 1 3 3 23 5 3 20 .1/ ! 3 . we get g. Next. 2 SOLUTION f !" " 2 !2t !1=2 D6 Let g.4/ D 1 we get !1 C C D 1 so that C D 2. f .t/ D 12 .t/.x/ D 2x 3 C x C C . we get 0 D 4 ! 1 C 1 C C . Thus. we get 1 C C D !2. we get f .0/ D 2: From g 0 .x/ D 1 4 1 1 1 5 1 3 1 2 1 1 5 1 3 1 2 1 2 0 4 x ! x C x ! 4 .0/ D 0.x/ D x 3 ! 2x C 1.1/ D 0.0/ D 1. What can you conclude about the relation between F and G? Verify this conclusion directly. Given f 0 .x/ D g.x/ D 14 x 4 ! C .x/ D f 0 .4/ D 1.0/ D 2. g. .0/ D 2.#/ D ! cos # C C . f 0 D 1. f 0 . we get C D 2.#/.#/ D cos #. so that C D 4.x/. f .0/3 C 0 C C and C D 2.0/ D 1.x/ D x 3 ! 2x.t/ D 12 t 2 ! sin t C 2.4/ D 4 we get !8 C 8 C C D 4.t/. we get 1 1 1 1 ! C ! C C D 4. we get f . From f 0 .1/ D 0.1/ D 2.4/ D 1. Then f 0 .t/ D t !3=2 . f 0 .#/ D ! cos # C 6: f . From f . f 00 . so f .1/ D 0. we get g.x/ D x 3 ! 2x C 1. From f . Show that F . f 00 .x/.x/ D f The problem statement gives us g 0 . From f . f 0 .t/ D f 0 .x/ D 14 x 4 ! x 2 C x C 1.1/ C 4 C C and C D 15 . From g 0 . !2 / D 6 we get C D 6.x/ D 1 4 1 1 2 0 4 x ! x C x C C . Then f 0 .x/ D x 3 ! 2x C 1.t/ D t !3=2 . f . From f .t/ 1 t !1=2 !1=2 CC D C C . it follows that 0 D 14 .t/ we 1 1=2 1=2 get f . f . From f 0 . f 00 . f 00 . Hence f 0 .1/ D 2 SOLUTION Let f D ! 2x.#/ D sin #.x/ 64. SOLUTION Let f 0 . and f .x/.#/ D sin # C C . SOLUTION !2t !1=2 Let g.x/ D 14 x 4 ! x 2 C C . Given f 0 . f 0 . so that C D ! 4 . f 0 . f 00 . f .#/ D cos #.t/ we get g. g.0/ D 1.t/ D !4t 1=2 C 2t C 4.x/ D 4 x ! x 2 C 34 . From g. it follows that 1 D 6. The x 2 C x C C .4/ D 4 problem statement is g 0 .x/ D x 3 ! 2x C 1. From this. Hence. so SOLUTION Let g. f 00 . we get g. From f 0 . f . so 69.t/ D t ! cos t. g.514 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 In Exercises 63–69.x/ D tan2 x and G.t/ D 0 . 3 f .t/ D 1 3 t C cos t C 2t ! 3: 6 70.t/ D 12 t 2 ! sin t C C . it follows that 2 D 2.0/2 C C and C D 1.t/ D f 0 .0/ D !2 The problem statement gives g 0 .0/ D 2 f D 12x. From g. 0 .0/ D 0 gives C D 0. 1.x/. 20 3 2 4 so that C D 121 30 . !2 / D 1 we get 1 C C D 1.x/ x3 D 0.1/4 ! . it follows that 2 D statement gives us g 0 . Given f . 63. Finally. 65.x/ D 20 x ! 3 x C 4 x C 15 . Next. g. and from g. so f 0 .#/ D g.0/ D 2.

From the differential equation.1 ! cos. SOLUTION The differential equation satisfied by s. divide the identity sin2 x C cos2 x D 1 by cos2 x. sec2 x. This yields tan2 x C 1 D sec2 x. dt and the associated initial condition is s.2/ D 4. hence f 0 . 1 s.t/ D sin.x/ D tan2 x and g.x/. 1 3 s.t/ is ds D v.. From the differential equation. it follows that 0 D s. s.t/ D 6t 2 ! t.t/ is ds D v.x/ ! g. Find the particle’s position s. A mass oscillates at the end of a spring." t=2/ C C: " Using the initial condition. it follows that 0 D s. so that tan2 x ! sec2 x D !1. 71.2/ D 4.t/ D sin.S E C T I O N 4.t/ D 2 .t/ of the particle.x/ must differ by a constant.t/. Beginning at t D 0 with initial velocity 4 m/s. A particle moves along the x-axis with velocity v. A particle located at the origin at t D 1 s moves along the x-axis with velocity v.t/ assuming that s.0/ D 0.6t 2 ! t/ dt D 2t 3 ! t 2 C C: 2 Using the initial condition.t/ D .0/ D ! 2 CC " so C D 2 : " Finally.t/ D 3t 1=2 m/s2 . state the differential equation with initial condition satisfied by s.t/ D . SOLUTION The differential equation satisfied by s. From the differential equation.t/ D sin." t=2/.t/.x/ D tan2 x ! sec2 x D C for some constant C . Let s.6t 2 ! t/ m/s.2/ D 16 ! 2 C C so C D !10: Finally. Accordingly. we find Z 1 s.1/ D 0. a particle moves in a straight line with acceleration a. we find Z 1 s." t=2//: " 74. f .6t 2 ! t/ m/s. Then f 0 .x/ and g." t=2/ dt D ! cos.1/ D 2 ! 1 CC 2 3 so C D ! : 2 Finally.x/ D 2 tan x sec2 x and g 0 . Find the distance traveled after 25 seconds. State the differential equation with initial condition satisfied by the position s. . To see that this is true directly.6t 2 ! t/ dt D 2t 3 ! t 2 C C: 2 Using the initial condition.t/. i.t/ is ds D v.t/ D . it follows that 4 D s.t/ D 2t 3 ! t 2 ! 10: 2 73.t/ be the displacement of the mass from the equilibrium position at time t.x/ D 2 sec x & sec x tan x D f . SOLUTION The differential equation satisfied by s." t=2/ m/s.x/ D g 0 .t/ D . dt and the associated initial condition is s.t/ D 2t 3 ! t 2 ! : 2 2 72.9 Antiderivatives 515 SOLUTION Let f . and find s. Assuming that the mass is located at the origin at t D 0 and has velocity v.e.x/ D 2 tan x sec2 x.t/ D 6t 2 ! t. dt and the associated initial condition is s. we find Z 2 s. and find s.

0/ D 25: R From dv .!4t C 25/ dt D !2t 2 C 25t C C .2t 3=2 C 4/ dt D C D4 4 5=2 t C 4t C C: 5 Finally. From this. v. we find 72 D v.516 CHAPTER 4 SOLUTION APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Given a.t/ D !2t 2 C 25t: At stopping time t D 0:25 s. A car traveling 25 m/s begins to decelerate at a constant rate of 4 m/s2 .25/ D 2600 5 meters. we get v.t/ D 2t 3=2 C 4.t/ D 0: m s.0/ D 4: Thus.t/ satisfies dv D !t !1=2 .0/ D 2. it follows that v. so: ds D v.t/ D 3t 1=2 dt D 2t 3=2 C C: Using the initial condition.1/ D !2 C C so C D 74.t/ D !t !1=2 and a velocity of 72 m/s at t D 1 s. a particle is traveling at 72 m/s and begins to decelerate at the rate a.t/ D !4t C 25 dt car stops.0/3=2 C C and v. Since s. 75. the car has traveled s. Next. To find the time until the !4t C 25 D 0 4t D 25 t D 25=4 D 6:25 s: Now we have a differential equation for s. After how many seconds does the car come to a stop and how far will the car have traveled before stopping? SOLUTION Since the acceleration of the car is a constant !4m=s2 . the distance traveled after 25 seconds is s. Z v. sD Z v. it follows that v. we must solve v.0/ D 4 . v is given by the differential equation: dv D !4. we have s.6:25/2 C 25. dt v.t/ D .0/ D 0 by definition. C D 25. At time t D 1 s.25/5=2 C 4.t/ D !4 dt D !4t C C . we find 4 D v.25/ ! s.0/ D 0: R From this.6:25/ D 78:125 m: 76.1/ D 72: Thus.t/ D !4t C 25.t/ dt D Z so . and s.t/. Since v.0/ D 0. How far does the particle travel before stopping? SOLUTION With a. dt s.t/ D 3t 1=2 and an initial velocity of 4 m/s. v. The particle comes to rest when 74 ! 2t 1=2 D 0 or when t D 372 D 1369 . and v.t/ satisfies dv D 3t 1=2 .6:25/ D !2.t/ D Z !t !1=2 dt D !2t 1=2 C C: Using the initial condition. dt v. s.t/ D 74 ! 2t 1=2 . Since we want to know how far the car has traveled from the beginning of its deceleration at time t D 0.0/25. dt v.t/ D !t !1=2 until it stops. we have C D 0.

x/ C g. Let v.R2 ! r 2 / cm=s: If R D 10 centimeters.x/ be any antiderivatives of f . let F .x/ is and antiderivative of cf .x/ dx: . we get !0:03R2 C C D 0. dx dx dx it follows that F . Accordingly.x/ be any antiderivative of f .x/ C G.. v.m/ D !50m!1=2 d m D !100m1=2 C C .x/.R/ D 0.x/ dx C g. As it burns fuel. we get: v.x/.x/ C g. Z Z .x/ and g.r/ D Z !0:06r dr D !0:06 v.9 Antiderivatives 517 seconds. As water flows through a tube of radius R D 10 cm.x/ dx: To verify the Multiples Rule. Z Z Z .x/ and G. we have v. p v.t/ dt D Z 4 . A 900-kg rocket is released from a space station. s.1369/ ! 202612 4 ! 74 C D 33696 3 3 meters.x// dx D f .x// dx D c f .x/ D cf . v.102 ! r 2 /: 79. Verify the linearity properties of the indefinite integral stated in Theorem 4. the rocket’s mass decreases and its velocity increases..x/ C G. and C D 3000.x/ C g. dx dx it follows that cF .x/ C G.e. Because d d . again let F .x/ and let c be a constant.r/. Because d d d .x/ is an antiderivative of f . SOLUTION To verify the Sum Rule.729/ D 3000 ! 100 729 D 3000 ! 100.f . we get v. Thus 0 D v. Find the velocity when m D 729 if dv=d m D !50m!1=2 .900/ D !100 900 C dm p C D !3000 C C . The particles at the walls of the tube have zero velocity and dv=dr D !0:06r .cf .m/ D 3000 ! 100 m.r/ D 0:03.74 ! 2t 1=2 / dt D 74t ! t 3=2 C C: 3 The distance traveled by the particle before it comes to rest is then s. i. dr From dv dr D !0:06r. Now.x/. SOLUTION The statement amounts to the differential equation and initial condition: dv D !0:06r. i.t/ D Z v.r/ D !0:03r 2 C 0:03R2 D 0:03.x// D F .1369/ ! s.F . respectively.27/ D 300 meters/sec: 78.x/.x// D c F .e.x/. 77.x/ D f .m/ be the velocity (in meters per second) as a function of mass m. Determine v. p R dv SOLUTION Since D !50m!1=2 .R/ D 0: r2 C C D !0:03r 2 C C: 2 Plugging in v. so that C D 0:03R2 . Therefore. Therefore.S E C T I O N 4.1/ D 74.900/ D 0.cF . Assume that v. the velocity v of an individual water particle depends only on its distance r from the center of the tube.

x/. Then use L’Hˆopital’s Rule to prove that nC1 lim F .x/ dx D R !x dx ( 1 2 for x % 0 x CC D 21 2 for x < 0 !2x C C for x % 0 : for x < 0 85.x/ D f . (a) By the Chain Rule.2x/ & 2 D F 0 .x cos x C sin x/ ! c2 sin x D x cos x for all x.x/ D 13 x 3 and G. Find an antiderivative for f .. we have SOLUTION d dx # $ 1 1 F . Suppose F 0 . SOLUTION 83. suppose that g.x/ D x 2 and g.e. SOLUTION 86.x/G.x/ D 12 x equals H. F .x/ is a polynomial of degree at most n. so by repeated application of Theorem 1.x/ D c1 x sin x C c2 cos x. Thus. Then F . Let F .nC1/ .x/ and g.x/ is a polynomial of degree n.x/ D f . the coefficients of sin x are equal). (b) Find the general antiderivative of f . as required.x/ can differ from a polynomial of degree n by at most a constant term.x/ can differ from a polynomial of degree at most n by at most a constant term. although the Power Rule breaks down for n D !1.x/? Confirm or provide a counterexample.x/ D x cos x.2x/. we must have F 0 .x/ is an antiderivative of f .2x/. g. (a) Show that 12 F . we know that the derivative of a polynomial of degree n is a polynomial of degree n ! 1. Now.x/ is a polynomial of degree at most n. Hence the general antiderivative of f . we have c1 D 1 (i.x/ D f . If F .x/ is not an antiderivative of h.x/g.x/ where f . and hence an antiderivative of a polynomial of degree n ! 1 is a polynomial of degree n. Let F 0 .x/g. k where C is a constant..x/ D f .kx/ D F 0 .x/ D x 5 .x/.x/ is any function such that g . Now. 84.x/ D x nC1 ! 1 is an antiderivative of y D x n for n ¤ !1.x/.kx/ for k ¤ 0. g. Hence c1 .x/ D x sin x C cos x.x/.x/ D xe x . F .x/ D 0.and right-hand sides. Thus. (b) For nonzero constant k. then F . Suppose that F 0 .x/ D x cos x.x/ D f .x/ D 16 x 6 C C .2x/ D F 0 .2x/ is an antiderivative of f .x/ D f .x/ is !x for x < 0 F . respectively.x/ D x 3 .x/ D Z (R x dx f . Find constants c1 and c2 such that F .x/ D f . Using Theorem 1. Is it true that F . Find constants c1 and c2 such that F .x/ D jxj D .x/G.x/ D x cos x C sin x ! sin x D x cos x D f .2x/ is an antiderivative of f .x/ D 14 x 4 are antiderivatives for f .518 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Further Insights and Challenges 80. Accordingly. which is still a polynomial of degree n. Hence.x/. c1 D 1 and c2 D !1. Suppose that F 0 . Show that F .x/ D c1 x sin x C c2 cos x is an antiderivative of f .kx/ C C . Let F . the coefficients of x cos x are equal) and c1 ! c2 D 0 (i. SOLUTION 81.x/. we must have F 0 .x/ D c1 xe x C c2 e x is an antiderivative of f . 82.x/ is to be an antiderivative of f . Let h.n/ .x/ and G 0 .x/ is to be an antiderivative of f . Let f . we have F 0 .x/ is a polynomial of degree n ! 1. SOLUTION x.x/g.kx/.x/ for all x.x/ D f .x/ D jxj.kx/: dx k k Thus 1 F . then g. . x is fixed and n is the variable.kx/ is 1 F .x/ is any function such that g . This result shows that.x/ is a polynomial of degree n ! 1.kx/ & k D F 0 . As a check.x/ D ln x n!!1 In this limit. the antiderivative of y D x !1 is a limit of antiderivatives of x n as n ! !1. prove that if F 0 .x/ D c1 xe x C c2 e x . the Chain Rules gives # $ d 1 1 F .x/ where f .x/ for all c1 xe x C .x/ D g. Then the general antiderivative of f . Hence.x/G.2x/: 2 2 Thus 12 F . Then prove that if g.x/ D 0. Thus c1 D c2 D 1 and hence F .x/ D xe x . ( x for x % 0 SOLUTION Let f .x/.x/ D f . Equating coefficients on the left. the general antiderivative of which is H. If F . We know that the n C 1-st derivative of any polynomial of degree at most n is zero.e.2x/ D f .kx/ D f .c1 C c2 /e x D xe x D 1 & xe x C 0 & e x : Equating coefficients of like terms we have c1 D 1 and c1 C c2 D 0. by Theorem 1. There is no value of the 1 7 constant C for which F .kx/ is k an antiderivative of f .

0:002/j D 1:201 # 10!6 : 101 Let f .x ! 100/.a/!x D ! .101/ D 10:05.x/ D lim n!!1 n!!1 x nC1 ! 1 x nC1 ln x D lim D ln x: nC1 n!!1 1 CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISES In Exercises 1–6.0:1/ D 0:00833333: 12 Using a calculator.x/ D a D 100 is therefore SOLUTION p x and a D 100.a/ D 10. by the Linear Approximation. 1 . 20 101 D 10:049876. and use a calculator to estimate the error.x/ at 1 . Using a calculator.a/ D !f D 6241=4 ! 6251=4 " f 0 . The error in the Linear Approximation is therefore j0:00829885 ! 0:00833333j D 3:445 # 10!5 : 1 1 2.x/ D f . estimate using the Linear Approximation or linearization. a D 4 and !x D 0:1.x/ D ! 12 x !3=2 . The linearization of f .x/ D 14 x !3=4 . Then f 0 . p and f 0 .x/ is an antiderivative of y D x n . by the Linear Approxima- 1 1 1 !f D p ! " f 0 . Then f 0 . by the Linear Approximation. 1.x/ D 13 x !2=3 .x/ D 1 !1=2 2x L. 1 Let f . 6251=4 ! 6241=4 D 0:00200120: The error in the Linear Approximation is therefore 4. Then f . Then f 0 . 6251=4 ! 6241=4 SOLUTION Let f .Chapter Review Exercises SOLUTION If n ¤ !1.!0:00625/j D 1:148 # 10!4 : 3. f 0 . lim F .a/ D ! 16 and. 8:11=3 ! 2 D 0:00829885. so the error in the Linear Approximation is j10:049876 ! 10:05j D 1:244 # 10!4 : . f 0 . p ! 4:1 2 SOLUTION tion. f 0 . 8:11=3 ! 2 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D x !1=2 . then d d F . Using L’Hˆopital’s Rule.a/!x D 1 500 and.x ! a/ D 10 C and p 101 " L. a D 625 and !x D !1.a/ D 1 20 .a/ C f 0 . 1 1 p ! D !0:00613520: 4:1 2 The error in the Linear Approximation is therefore j ! 0:00613520 ! .x/ D dx dx x nC1 ! 1 nC1 ! 519 D x n: Therefore. 1 .x/ D x 1=4 . f 0 . Using a calculator.a/ D !f D 8:11=3 ! 2 " f 0 .a/.x/ D x 1=3 .!1/ D !0:002: 500 Thus 6251=4 ! 6241=4 " 0:002.a/!x D 1 12 and. F .0:1/ D !0:00625: 16 4:1 2 Using a calculator. p j0:00200120 ! . a D 8 and !x D 0:1.

a/ D 1.x/ D e !x of P . Using a calculator. Then y.x ! a/ D 2 C and p 5 33 " L.x/ D x 1=5 and a D 32. and P 0 . 5 33 Let f .x/ D y.x/ D f .x/ D a D 32 is therefore SOLUTION 1 !4=5 5x L.x ! 25/ D 5 C 1 10 . The linearization of y at a D 25 is 1 .t/ D 32 ! 8t and v 0 .a/ D ln. The . Then f .2e/ D 1 C ln 2.a/ C f 0 .a/ D 16.x ! a/ D e !1=2 ! e !1=2 .x/ D linearization of f .2 ! h/.h ! a/ D 8 ! 8. aDe SOLUTION Let f .a/. v. The linearization of V .h/ D 32 ! 64h C 24h2 and V 0 . Then v.a/ D 1 2e .a/ D !e !1=2 . Using a calculator.x/ at a D 1 L.a/.x ! 25/: 10 8.33/ D 2:0125.a/ D 8.a/ C v 0 .x/ D ln.x/ D ln.r/ D A.a/.x/ at a D 1 is therefore SOLUTION 2 =2 and a D 1.x/ at a D e is therefore L. APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 1 1:02 SOLUTION is therefore Let f .h/ D 4h.x ! 1/ D 2 ! x.x/ D e !x 2 =2 L. so the error in the Linear Approximation is j0:980392 ! 0:98j D 3:922 # 10!4 : p 6.r/ at L. A0 . y 0 D therefore 1 !1=2 2x and y 0 . f . P 0 . Then f .a/ D 36".x ! e/: 2e 1 xCe . P 0 .t ! a/ D 48 C 16. A.a/ D 48.a/ C P 0 . V 0 .1:02/ D 0:98.x C e/ and a D e.x ! 32/.4 ! 2h/. y D x.4 ! 2h/ D 32h ! 32h2 C 8h3 and a D 1.t/ D v. The linearization of f . The linearization of v.x ! a/ D 1 ! .h ! 1/ D 16 ! 8h: .r ! a/ D 36" C 36".a/ D !1. so the error in the Linear Approximation is j2:012347 ! 2:0125j D 1:534 # 10!4 : In Exercises 7–12.t/ D 32t ! 4t 2 .x/ at 1 .a/ D e !1=2 .x/ D f .a/ D 5. 1 1:02 D 0:980392.h/ at a D 1 is therefore 11. Then P .a/ C y 0 .r/ D a D 3 is therefore SOLUTION 4 3 3"r and a D 3. The linearization of f .x/ D !xe !x 2 =2 . a D 25 p SOLUTION Let y D x and a D 25. Then V . L.a/. p 5 and f 0 . aD1 SOLUTION Let V . Then f .x/ D x !1 and a D 1.r ! 2/: 10.r/ D 43 " r 3 . Then A. and P 0 . p 7.t ! 2/ D 16t C 16: aD3 Let A. v 0 .a/ C V 0 .h/ D V . V .h/ D 4h. 80 33 D 2:012347.a/ D L.x/ D f . The linearization of A.a/ D 1 80 .a/. a D 2 Let v.a/.2 ! h/.r/ D 4" r 2 and A0 . f 0 .a/.a/ C f 0 . find the linearization at the point indicated.x C e/. The linearization 1 L. P .x/ D P .a/ C A0 .a/ D 2.x/ D !x !2 and f 0 .x ! a/ D 1 C ln 2 C 1 .r ! 3/ D 36".520 5.a/ D !8. and 1 1:02 " L.t/ at a D 2 is therefore SOLUTION 9.a/ D 36".a/.2 ! x/: e 12. aD1 Let P . f 0 .x ! 1/ D p .a/ C f 0 .t/ D 32t ! 4t 2 and a D 2.

000 1=6 Y D 100 !1 P Verify that if P D $7500. A store sells 80 MP4 players per week when the players are priced at P D $75. (b) If p D 80. !V " dV 1 !C D C 2 !C. dC 2" 2 . dP 6 6 we estimate using the Linear Approximation that !Y " Y 0 .t C 1/!2 and s 0 .p/ D 1:5p ! 0:01p 2 (in thousands of dollars). assuming that dN =dP D !4. A small increase in price would thus result in a decrease in revenue.50/!p D .80/ D 1:5 ! 0:02. SOLUTION The 1 r D 2! C and volume of a sphere is V D 4 3 3"r and the circumference is C D 2" r.!4/.t/ D 0:8t ! . Estimate the maximum percentage error in V if the error in C is at most 3 cm.t/ D 0:4t 2 C .80/ D !0:1. use the Linear Approximation. SOLUTION (a) If the price is raised from $50 to $53.4:2/ ! s. 4:2%. SOLUTION Let P D $7500. The position of an object in linear motion at time t is s.000/1=6 P !7=6 D ! P . we estimate.t C 1/!1 . We therefore estimate that 104 MP4 players will be sold per week when the price is $69.a/ D 3:16.t C 1/!1 . Using the Linear Approximation. 17. a bus company takes in a monthly revenue of R.5/ D !20I dP therefore.0:2/ D 0:632: 14.Chapter Review Exercises 521 In Exercises 13–18.10. if the price is lowered to $69. Estimate N if the price is lowered to $69. where r is the radius of the sphere. using the Linear Approximation. With the assumption that dN=dP D !4. Then Y D 100 # 10. how will revenue be affected by a small increase in price? Explain using the Linear Approximation. a D 4 and !t D 0:2.000 7500 $1=6 ! ! 1 D 4:91%: If the price is raised to $7700.1:5 ! 0:02. then !P D !6 and !N " . The circumference of a sphere is measured at C D 100 cm. then !p D 3 and !R " R0 . that !N " dN !P D .50//. the distance traveled over the time interval Œ4.a/!t D 3:16. (a) Estimate !R if the price rises from $50 to $53.!4/. then !P D 200. Thus. SOLUTION If P is raised to $80. Estimate the distance traveled over the time interval Œ4. the Linear Approximation gives !R " !0:1!p. 4:2% is approximately SOLUTION !s D s. The percentage yield Y of the bond is ! # $ 10. 16. Estimate the number N sold if P is raised to $80.3/ D 1:5 We therefore estimate an increase of $1500 in revenue. Let s. then !P D 5. Estimate the drop in yield if the price rises to $7700. 13. then Y D 4:91%.4/ " s 0 . Then s 0 . (b) Because R0 . A bond that pays $10. When a bus pass from Albuquerque to Los Alamos is priced at p dollars.t/ D 0:4t 2 C .7500/!P D !0:46%: 15.000 in 6 years is offered for sale at a price P . V D 4 " 3 # C 2" $3 D 1 C 3: 6" 2 Using the Linear Approximation. On the other hand. With dY 1 108=3 !7=6 D ! 100. we estimate that only 60 MP4 players will be sold per week when the price is $80.!6/ D 24.

However f 0 . Rolle’s Theorem guarantees there exists c 2 .1. suppose that f . ! "" 3" f ! D !1 C >0 and f . 0/ such that f .a.1.! !2 / and f .c/ D D D ln 4. let a D 5 and b D 1. SOLUTION f 0 . 0%. On the interval Œ1. say a and b. so 1 f . this function is continuous and differentiable. we are given that f .8/ D f .x/ D 2x 3 C 2x C sin x C 1 has precisely one real root. and therefore f .x/ D x1 . the Intermediate Value Theorem guarantees there exists a c 2 .b/ D p : 2 a2 C b By the Linear Approximation.0/ are of opposite sign.!1/ D !3 C sin.0/b.522 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE so !V " V 1 C 2 !C 2! 2 1 C3 6! 2 D3 !C : C 3 With C D 100 cm and !C at most 3 cm.2/ D 19: . b/ and f . 4%. 20. so the MVT applies. f .a/ D f .x/ has two real roots. or Let f . Consequently.x/ % 2 for x % 1.x/ D ln x. f . 0/ and f .x/ D cos x C sin x ! 3 $ !1 for all x. Because f . Then 1 f 0 . Then p p 1 26 D 52 C 1 " 5 C D 5:1: 10 p The error in this estimate is j 26 ! 5:1j D 9:80 # 10!4 . Now. 8/ such that f 0 .!1/ D !3:84 < 0. Rolle’s Theorem guarantees that there exists c 2 . Show that a C b " a C 2a if b is small. b% and differentiable on . Next. the Mean Value Theorem guarantees there exists a c 2 . and observe that each root of this function corresponds to a solution of the equation sin x ! cos x D 3x.c/: Now.a/ ln 4 ! ln 1 1 D f 0 . Thus.8/ ! f . b%. p p b 2 18. Now.1/ C 7f 0 .1/ 8!1 or f .b/ " f . Use the MVT to show that f . 4/: ln 4 22.c/ D 0. f 0 .a.b/ D a2 C b. p SOLUTION Let a > 0 and let f . 8/.x/ D ln x on Œ1. Consequently.1. Because f is continuous on Œa. b/ such that f 0 . b/ and f .c/ D f . Use this to estimate 26 and find the error using a calculator.! !2 . the equation sin x ! cos x D 3x has at least one solution.x/ % 2 for x % 1. Show that f . SOLUTION Let f .1/ D 5 and that f 0 . say a and b.b/ ! f . Suppose that f . and use Rolle’s Theorem to show that this solution is unique.! !2 . We have reached a contradiction.x/ has a unique root and the equation sin x ! cos x D 3x has a unique solution. so p b a2 C b " a C : 2a p To estimate 26. SOLUTION We have f . 4%. However.x/ has a root in the interval Œ!1.a/ D f .c/ D 0.1/ D 5 and f 0 .b/ D 0. Therefore f . suppose that the equation sin x ! cos x D 3x has two solutions.b/ D 0. 21. Now.8/ % 5 C 7.0/ C f 0 .x/ D 6x 2 C 2 C cos x > 0 for all x (since 2 C cos x % 0). f . differentiable on .0/ D !1 < 0: 2 2 Because f is continuous on .x/ must have precisely one real root. 8% and differentiable on . we estimate that the maximum percentage error in V is 3 100 D 0:09. b/ such that f 0 .x/ D sin x ! cos x ! 3x. Verify the MVT for f . or 9%. cD SOLUTION Because f is continuous on Œ1.x/ is continuous on Œa. Therefore. 19.0/ D 1 and f . Use the Intermediate Value Theorem to prove that sin x ! cos x D 3x has a solution.x/ has two roots. f .a.a. We have reached a contradiction.8/ % 19.c/ D 0. c b!a 4!1 3 3 " 2:164 2 .

we are given that f .x/ $ 2 for x > 0. Then s 0 .#/ D 2 sin # cos # C 1 D 2 sin 2# C 1. 52 / is a local maximum. s 00 . Then f 0 . find the critical points and determine whether they are minima.x C 2/3 .0/ D !16 4t.0/ x!0 f 0 . x/ such that f . f .0.1 ! x/ D x 2=3 ! x 5=3 .0/ D 4.0/ is a local minimum.x C 2/3 D x.!2/ is neither a local maximum nor a local minimum. by the Second Derivative Test. the function f is increasing for all x.! 45 .2/ D 2x C 4: 1 24.c/ D f . < 0 and s 00 .0/ is a local maximum while s. Therefore.!2/ D 32 > 0. so that x D 23 and x D 2 are critical points. In Exercises 25–30.x/ D f .x/ D x 2=3 . A function f .t ! 2/. 23 / D !4 < 0 and f 00 .2/ are local minima.x ! 2/. f .x/ D x 3 ! 4x 2 C 4x.t/ D 4t 3 ! 16t D Next.x C 2/2 .0/ C xf 0 .x/ D x 3 ! 4x 2 C 4x Let f . Therefore.0/ is a local minimum and f . on the interval Œ1. f . by the Second Derivative Test. 25 / .!1. x/. so that t D 0. maxima.t/ D 12t 2 ! 16.!2.x/ D 3x 2 . 3 3 3x 1=3 so that x D 0 and x D 25 are critical points. Because f is continuous on Œ0. or neither. t D !2 and t D 2 are critical points.x/ has derivative f 0 . so the critical points are #D 3" C n" 4 .0/ D 4 and that f 0 . f 00 . the function f must take its maximum value at x D 4.t/ D t 4 ! 8t 2 SOLUTION Let s. f .t C 2/.x/ D 3x 2 ! 8x C 4 D . Interval Sign of f 0 .x C 2/2 . 1/ ! C ! 29. f . SOLUTION Let x > 0.x/ D 2 !1=3 5 2=3 2 ! 5x x ! x D . so that x D 0.x C 2/3 SOLUTION Let f .2/ is a local minimum. Therefore.Chapter Review Exercises 523 23.#/ D sin2 # C #.x/ D 6x ! 8. for all x % 0. f .0.x C 2/2 C 2x. g. !2/ .c/: or Now. 1/ C C ! C 28.x/ D 1 : x4 C 1 Because f 0 . then f . The sign of the first derivative on the intervals surrounding the critical points is indicated in the table below. 25. Based on this information.x/ is never 0 and exists for all x. 4% does f .x/ $ 2x C 4 for all x % 0. Then f 0 . as f 0 . Moveover. 0/ .!1. Then f 0 . so s 00 . 0/ . Based on this information.3x C 2x C 4/ D x.x/ take on its maximum value? x C1 SOLUTION Let f 0 .x/ $ 4 C x. Interval Sign of f 0 . x D !2 and x D ! 45 are critical points.t/ D t 4 ! 8t 2 . SOLUTION 26. 32 / is a local maximum while f . s.3x ! 2/.2/ D 32 > 0. the Mean Value Theorem guarantees there exists a c 2 .1 ! x/ SOLUTION Let f .! 54 / is a local maximum and f . x% and differentiable on .x/ D x 2 . The sign of the first derivative on the intervals surrounding the critical points is indicated in the table below. 4% and so must take its maximum value at one of the interval endpoints.x/ D x 2 . Then g 0 . s 00 . Use the MVT to prove that if f 0 .0.!2/ and s.x/ D x 2=3 .5x C 4/. Consequently. s.0. f .2/ D 4 > 0. Next. 25 . Where on the interval Œ1. 27.x/ D 4 . so f 00 .#/ D sin2 # C # SOLUTION Let g.x/ $ 2 for x > 0 and f . f .x/ > 0 for all x. 4%.x/ ! f . the function f has no critical points on the interval Œ1. ! 45 / .

3% is 21 while the minimum value is !11.2t C 1/ D 2 . Because g 0 .1 C 2 cos 2#/. Therefore. x D 0 and x D 1.t C t C 1/ . The table below lists the value of f at each of the critical points and the endpoints of the interval Œ!2. SOLUTION Let g. and h %! 3 ! " & C n" and h 2! 3 C n" are In Exercises 31–38. h00 . Based on this information.x/ D 6x 4 ! 4x 6 on the interval Œ!2. # 3" C n" 4 $ is neither a local maximum nor a local minimum for 30. 3% Let f .3/ D 3 13 . 2"% is !1 and the maximum value is 54 . by the Second Derivative Test. 31.524 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE for all integers n. 2"% sin2 # ! cos #.3/ D 21.10 ! x/ on the interval Œ!1.#/ on the interval Œ0. Œ!2. the minimum value of f . Then h0 . 2"%.#/ D 2 cos 2# C cos 4# SOLUTION Let h. Because f .!1/ D !11 and f .x/ D x.x/ D 10 ! 2x. 3 is a local maximum.0/ D 0. t 2 Ct C1 0 2"=3 " 4"=3 2" !1 5/4 1 5/4 !1 Then R0 .t/ D 1 ! t2 t 2 C t C 1 ! t. 2! 3 .2 cos # C 1/ D 0 4! when # D 0.#/ D 2 sin # cos # C sin # D sin #. the maximum value of f .#/ D Œ0.#/ D !4 sin 2# ! 4 sin 4# D !4 sin 2#. find the extreme values on the interval.#/ D sin2 # ! cos #.!1/n ! 16 < 0I " 2" C n" D !8 cos ! 16 cos 3 3 # $ 2" 4" h00 C n" D !8 cos ! 16 cos 3 3 h00 !" ! n" " for all integers n.t C t C 1/2 so that the critical points are t D ˙1.x/ 33. The table below lists the value of g at each of the critical points and the endpoints of the interval Œ0. SOLUTION !2 !1 0 1 2 !170 2 0 2 !170 x f .x/ D x.#/ 34. 3%. Then g 0 .x/ D 24x 3 ! 24x 5 D 24x 3 . R. % n! & 2 4" D 12 > 0I and 3 8" D 12 > 0. h. With R. we only need to check the value of f at the endpoints to determine the extreme values. 2 2 . Then f 0 . 2". Note that only t D 1 is on the interval Œ0. 2% is !170 and the maximum value is 2. f . it . so that the critical points are x D !1.#/ % 0 for all #.x/ D x. 3% is 0 and the maximum value is 31 . 1 3 and R. g.1 ! x 2 /.t/ D t .x/ D 6x 4 ! 4x 6 .10 ! x/.#/ D !8 cos 2# ! 16 cos 4#. R.#/ D 2 cos 2# C cos 4#.t/ on the interval Œ0.1/ D follows that the minimum value of R. f . Œ!1. it follows that g all integers n. ". the minimum value of g. # g. so h00 2 D !8 cos n" ! 16 cos 2n" D !8. Now. 2% Let f . Œ0. SOLUTION 32. 3%. 2%.x/ D 6x 4 ! 4x 6 . As this critical point is not in the interval Œ!1. Then f 0 . 3% t2 C t C 1 Let R. Based on this information. so that x D 5 is the only critical point. 3 . so the critical points are n" . h local minima for all integers n.10 ! x/ D 10x ! x 2 .t/ D SOLUTION t . 2 #D #D " C "n 3 and # D 2" C "n 3 for all integers n.

! !4 / D 4. (a) f . With f . 40. there is a point of inflection at x D 43 . Œ5. y 00 > 0 and y is concave up on each interval of # . ! !4 .0/ D 0. Then y 0 D 1 C 2 sin x and y 00 D 2 cos x. (b) If f .x/ is increasing and concave down. find the points of inflection. Find the critical points and extreme values of f .x/ D 4x ! tan2 x. (c) f . 41.0/ D 7. x<1 1$x<3: x%3 The derivative of f .x/ is never zero but does not exist at the transition points x D 1 and x D 3. then f 0 .x/ is decreasing and concave up.x/ D 1 ! x .8/ D 17.x/ is positive and decreasing. Note that f .x/ D 0 when tan x sec2 x D 2. Œ0.! !4 / ! tan2 .Chapter Review Exercises 35. it follows that the minimum value of f . Thus. f . y D x ! 2 cos x SOLUTION the form 4 3.x/ is decreasing and concave up. so that x D !4 is ( ) the only critical point on ! !4 .x/ is positive and increasing. the minimum value is !" ! 1 " !4:1416 and the maximum value is " ! 1 " 2:1416: 37.x/ D 4x ! tan2 x. Let y D x ! 2 cos x. With f . whence x D ln 20 is the only critical point.x/ with the graph of its derivative f 0 . and the maximum value is 40 ! 12 ln 40 " !4:266553. f . f . and the maximum value is e 5 ! 101 " 47:413159. 2 2 $ . SOLUTION 39. !3 SOLUTION ! SOLUTION Let f . SOLUTION (a) If f . SOLUTION Let 8 ˆ <7 ! 3x.x/ D jx ! 1j C j2x ! 6j D 5 ! x. whence x D 12 is the only critical point. 3% Let f . !3 / ! tan2 .x/ on the interval Œ!1. Then f 0 .1/ D !1 and f . The minimum value of f is then 12 ! 12 ln 12 " !17:818880.!1/ D 3.5/ D 5 ! 12 ln 5 " !14:313255.x/ on the interval Œ0.x/ in Figure 1. !4 / ! tan2 .x/ D 4 ! 2 tan x sec2 x.x/ D x ! 12 ln x.x 1=3 ! 1/. f . 8%. f . Thus. Note that f . Then f 0 . the critical points of f are x D 1 and x D 3.4n ! 1/" .4n C 1/" . 40% 12 SOLUTION Let f .x/ D e x ! 20.x/ is increasing and concave up. ( ) 36. Then f 0 .3/ D 3 9 ! 2 3 3 " !0:804. 525 Œ!1. 42. Since both sec x and tan x are positive and increasing on the given interval. !3 .x/ D jx ! 1j C j2x ! 6j in Œ0. (c) If f . f .0/ D 0.! !4 / D !" ! 1. 38. !4 / D 4. and f 00 . Match the description of f . then f 0 . 8% is 2 and the maximum value is 17. Then f 0 . Hence.x/ D ! 20x ! 1. Thus.1/ D 4. it is the only solution. x D 4 is clearly a solution. The minimum value of f is then 20 ! 20 ln 20 ! 1 " !40:914645. Then y 0 D 3x 2 ! 8x C 4 and y 00 D 6x ! 8. ˆ : 3x ! 7.x/ D x 2=3 ! 2x 1=3 . This matches the graph in (iii). This matches the graph in (i). . y 00 > 0 and y is concave up for x > 0 and y is concave down for x < 43 . With f .x/ D 23 x !1=3 ! 23 x !2=3 D 23 x !2=3 . then f 0 . y D x 3 ! 4x 2 C 4x SOLUTION while y 00 < Let y D x 3 ! 4x 2 C 4x.x/ is increasing and concave down.x/ is negative and increasing. f . f . In Exercises 41–46.x/ D x ! 12 ln x. (b) f . 3% is !1 and the maximum value is 3. This matches the graph in (ii). so that the critical points are p p x D 0 and x D 1. it follows that the minimum value of f . !3 / D 4! 3 ! 3.3/ D 2 and f .x/ is increasing and concave up. f . !3 / D 4. !4 / D " ! 1. and f .x/ D x 2=3 ! 2x 1=3 . y y y x x (i) (ii) x (iii) FIGURE 1 Graphs of the derivative. f .x/ D e x ! 20x ! 1. 5% ex Let f .

x 2 ! 4/2=3 D 1 x 2 ! 12 3 . there is a point of inflection at xD . Hence.ln x/2 D 2 ln x C . 45. y 00 > 0 and y is concave up for x < 1 and for x > 4.x/ D . Hence. !2 < x < 0. y 00 > 0 and y is concave up for 2 2 !p < x < p .x 2 ! x/e !x .x 2 ! 4/8=3 9.2n C 1/" 2 for each integer n.x 2 ! 4/1=3 ! 13 x.2x ! 3/e !x D e !x .ln x/2 . Then y 0 D x & 2 ln x & 1 C . 2 2 where n is any integer.4n C 3/" .x 2 ! 4/4=3 .4 ! 3x 2 / D : . Then y 0 D 2 and C4 x C4 . x .x 2 ! 4/1=3 SOLUTION Let y D x .x 2 ! x/e !x SOLUTION Let f . Hence. 3 3 while y 00 < 0 and y is concave down for 2 jxj % p : 3 Hence. Then y 0 D !.x 2 C 4/3 Thus.x ! 4/: Thus. y D x2 x2 C 4 SOLUTION Let y D x2 4 8x D1! 2 .x 2 ! 4/4=3 and y 00 D 1 .x 2 ! 4/1=3 y0 D . 2 < x < 6.x 2 ! x/e !x C . while y 00 < 0 and y is concave down for !6 < x < !2.x 2 C 4/ 8. there are points of inflection at x D 1 and x D 4. 43.526 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 while y 00 < 0 and y is concave down on each interval of the form # $ . 0 < x < 2. and y 00 D .8/ ! 8x.2x/.36 ! x 2 / D : 3 .2x/ 2x.4n C 1/" . f .x 2 C 4/2 . Note that x D ˙2 are not points of inflection because these points are not in the domain of the function.ln x/2 .x C 4/2 x2 y 00 D . x > 6. there are points of inflection at x D ˙6 and x D 0. there are points of inflection at 2 x D ˙p : 3 44.2/.x 2 ! 5x C 4/ D e !x . y D x .x 2 ! 4/1=3 .2x/ ! .ln x/2 SOLUTION Let f . 46.x 2 ! 12/ 43 . . while y 00 < 0 and y is concave down for 1 < x < 4.x ! 1/.x/ D x.x/ D x. Then . f .x 2 ! 4/!2=3 .x/ D .x 2 C 4/4 .2x/ .x 2 ! 4/7=3 Thus. y 00 > 0 and y is concave up for x < !6.x 2 ! 3x C 1/e !x ! .2x ! 1/e !x D !.x 2 ! 3x C 1/e !x .

x 3 ! 2x 2 C 3/ D 1. and x!!1 x!1 the graph has no horizontal asymptotes.8x 2 ! x 4 / D !1. Then y 0 D 12 ! 6x and y 00 D !6. It follows that the graph of y D 12x ! 3x 2 is increasing for x < 2. Hence. has a local maximum at x D 2 and is concave down for all x. Then y 0 D 16x ! 4x 3 D 4x. is concave up for x > 23 . decreasing for !2 < x < 0 and p x > 2.4 ! 3x 2 /. y D x 3 ! 2x 2 C 3 SOLUTION Let y D x 3 ! 2x 2 C 3.4 ! x 2 / and y 00 D 16 ! 12x 2 D 4. 1 e. y 00 > 0 and y is concave up for x > inflection at x D 1e . It follows that the graph of y D 8x 2 ! x 4 is increasing for x < !2 and 0 < x < 2. x!˙1 the graph has no horizontal asymptotes. haspa local minimum at x D 0. Then y 0 D 3x 2 ! 4x and y 00 D 6x ! 4. is concave up for jxj < 2= 3 and has inflection points at x D ˙2= 3. has local maxima at p x D ˙2. y D 8x 2 ! x 4 Let y D 8x 2 ! x 4 . sketch the graph. There are also no vertical asymptotes. Because lim . y 10 5 −1 −5 −10 50. 47. The graph is shown below. there is a point of In Exercises 47–56. has a local minimum at x D 43 . decreasing for x > 2. has a local maximum at x D 0.12x ! 3x 2 / D !1. The graph is shown below.x 3 ! 2x 2 C 3/ D !1 lim . There are also no vertical asymptotes. is concave down for x < 23 and has a point of inflection at x D 23 . The graph is shown below. Because lim . Because SOLUTION lim . y 15 10 5 −2 1 −1 2 x −5 49. y 10 5 x 1 −1 −5 2 3 4 5 −10 48. It follows that the graph of y D x 3 ! 2x 2 C 3 is increasing for x < 0 and x > 43 . is decreasing for 0 < x < 43 . noting the transition points and asymptotic behavior. 2 2 2 C ln x D . x!˙1 the graph has no horizontal asymptotes.Chapter Review Exercises 527 and y 00 D Thus. There are also no vertical asymptotes. y D 12x ! 3x 2 SOLUTION Let y D 12x ! 3x 2 . is concave down for jxj > 2= 3.1 C ln x/: x x x while y 00 < 0 and y is concave down for 0 < x < 1 e. y D 4x ! x 3=2 1 2 x .

x3 C 1 so x D !1 is a vertical asymptote.x 2 C 12/ 53 . The graph is shown below.x ! 4/2=3 SOLUTION Let y D .3x 2 / 1 ! 2x 3 D 3 3 2 .x 2 ! 4/8=3 x is increasing for !2 < x < 2.x 3 C 1/3 q q x It follows that the graph of y D 3 is increasing for x < !1 and !1 < x < 3 12 . lim x!!1! x D1 x3 C 1 x D 0.3x 2 / 6x 2 .x 3 C 1/2 . has a local x C1 q p p maximum at x D 3 12 . is concave down for x < !2.x C 1/ .2x/ ! .x 2 ! 4/5=3 and y 00 D ! 1 . Then x3 C 1 y0 D x 3 C 1 ! x.x 2 ! 4/5=3 .x 2 ! 4/4=3 D! 1 x 2 C 12 3 . y 4 2 −3 −2 −1 −2 1 2 3 x −4 x 52. . Now.2x/ . There are also no vertical asymptotes.x 2 ! 4/10=3 9.x C 1/ . y D x x3 C 1 SOLUTION Let y D x .528 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE Let y D 4x ! x 3=2 . x > 2. is decreasing for x > 3 12 .1 ! 2x 3 /. Note that x D ˙2 are neither local extreme values nor inflection points because x D ˙2 are not in the domain of the function. y 00 D lim x!˙1 x 3 so y D 0 is a horizontal asymptote. !2 < x < 0 and has a point of inflection at x D 0. Note that x D !1 is not an inflection point because x D !1 is not in the domain of the function.x C 1/2 and . First note that the domain of this function is x % 0. Because SOLUTION lim .2x/ 4x.x 2 C 36/ D : 3 .x 2 x . y D 2 .2 ! x 3 / D! : 3 4 .x 2 ! 4/2=3 . is concave down for !1 < x < 0 and 0 < x < 3 2 and has a point p of inflection at x D 3 2. 64 It follows that the graph of y D 4x ! x 3=2 is increasing for 0 < x < 64 9 . Then ! 4/2=3 y0 D .x 3 C 1/.x 2 ! 4/2=3 ! 23 x. Now. . y 0 D 4 ! 23 x 1=2 and y 00 D ! 34 x !1=2 .4x ! x 3=2 / D !1. is decreasing for jxj > 2. Moreover. is decreasing for x > 9 . The graph is shown below. y 5 5 10 x 15 −5 51.2/. has no local extreme values. C1 and lim x!!1C x D !1. Now.!6x 2 / ! .x 2 ! 4/!1=3 .x 2 ! 4/2=3 . x!1 the graph has no horizontal asymptotes. has a local maximum at 64 x D 9 and is concave down for all x > 0.x 2 ! 4/2=3 is concave up for 0 < x < 2. It follows that the graph of y D lim x!˙1 x D 0. is concave up for x < !1 and x > 3 2.

is concave down for "=3 < x < 4"=3 and has points of inflection at x D "=3 and x D 4"=3. y 00 D y 10 8 6 4 2 −4 −3 −2 −1 p 1 x 3 sin x ! cos x on Œ0.8 0. has a local minimum at x D 11"=6.!6x/ ! x 2 . is decreasing for 5"=6 < x < 11"=6.2 ! x 3 /!3=2 .x 2 529 x D !1 ! 4/2=3 while lim x!2! lim x!2C x D 1. Moreover.x 3 ! 8/ . The graph is shown below. With SOLUTION y0 D and 1 3x 2 .!3x 2 / D ! p 2 2 2 ! x3 1 3 3x. lim x!!2! x D !1 ! 4/2=3 and x D1 .6 0. Because jx C 2j C 1 lim x!˙1 1 D 0. is concave up for 0 < x < "=3 and 4"=3 < x < 2".2 ! x 3 /!1=2 .x 2 lim x!!2C . Moreover. y D 1 jx C 2j C 1 SOLUTION Let y D 1 . 55.x 2 ! 4/2=3 so x D ˙2 are vertical asymptotes. has a local maximum at x D 5"=6. The graph is shown below.2 54. the graph has no vertical and no horizontal asymptotes. is concave down for 3 0 < x < 2 and has a point of inflection at x D 0. It follows that the graph of p y D 3 sin x ! cos x is increasing for 0 < x < 5"=6 and 11"=6 < x < 2". Then y 0 D 3 cos x C sin x and y 00 D ! 3 sin x C cos x.3x 2 / D . Note that the domain of this function is x $ 3 2. 2"% p p p SOLUTION Let y D 3 sin x ! cos x. y D . The graph has no vertical asymptotes as jx C 2j C 1 % 1 for all x. y 1 0.2 ! x 3 /3=2 p it followsp that the graph of y D 2 ! x 3 is decreasing over its entire domain. jx C 2j C 1 the graph of this function has a horizontal asymptote of y D 0. 2 4 4.4 0. .x 2 ! 4/2=3 and . is concave up for x < 0.Chapter Review Exercises so y D 0 is a horizontal asymptote. y 4 2 1 −2 −1 2 3 x −2 −4 53. y D p 2 −8 −6 −4 −2 4 x 2 ! x3 p p Let y D 2 ! x 3 . The graph is shown below. From this graph we see there is a local maximum at x D !2.2 ! x 3 /!1=2 . The graph is shown below.

+ + −2 0 1 + + 3 + x 5 FIGURE 2 SOLUTION The figure below depicts a curve for which f 0 . Draw a curve y D f . has local minima at x D 3"=4 and x D 7"=4. is concave down for 0 < x < "=2 and " < x < 3"=2 and has an inflection point at x D ".x/ have the required signs. Moreover. y 15 10 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 x −5 57. has local maxima at x D "=4 and x D 5"=4. Find the dimensions of a cylindrical can with a bottom but no top of volume 4 m3 that uses the least amount of metal. The graph is shown below. 7"=4 < x < 2". 3"=2 < x < 7"=4. 2"% SOLUTION Let y D 2x ! tan x. 8 M . is decreasing for "=4 < x < "=2. "=2 < x < 3"=4. M must achieve its minimum for r 3 4 rD m: " r 3 4 : " .x/ for which f 0 and f 00 have signs as indicated in Figure 2. It follows that the graph of y D 2x ! tan x is increasing for 0 < x < "=4. 5"=4 < x < 3"=2. the graph has vertical asymptotes at x D "=2 and x D 3"=2. because lim . y D 2x ! tan x on Œ0.2x ! tan x/ D 1. 3"=4 < x < 5"=4. SOLUTION Let the cylindrical can have height h and radius r.r/ D ! 2 C 2" r D 0 when r 0 rD Because M ! 1 as r ! 0C and as r ! 1.2x ! tan x/ D !1 and lim .2x ! tan x/ D 1. Then y 0 D 2 ! sec2 x and y 00 D !2 sec2 x tan x.2x ! tan x/ D !1 and x!!=2! lim .x/ and f 00 . y −4 4 8 x 58. x!!=2C while x!3!=2! lim x!3!=2C . Then V D " r 2 h D 4 so h D 4 : "r2 The amount of metal needed to make the can is then M D 2" rh C " r 2 D 8 C " r 2: r Now. is concave up for "=2 < x < " and 3"=2 < x < 2".530 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE y 1 4 2 1 −1 x 3 6 5 56.

is decreasing for N > e a=b!1 and is therefore maximum when N D e a=b!1 . To determine when N changes most rapidly.x/ D !0:354x C 11:5 D 0 when x1 D 11:5 D 32:486 thousand corn plants=acre: 0:354 Because P 00 . Because C. The sign of N 0 .Chapter Review Exercises 531 The height of the can is hD 4 D "r2 r 3 4 m: " 59. . Two of the side faces are made of material costing $40/m2 . Note the planting levels obtained in parts (a) and (b) are different.x0 / ! 1:25x0 D 1:5.2bh/ C 20b 2 D 120bh C 20b 2 D 480 C 20b 2 : b Thus. (a) Compute P . C 0 . Thus.t/ changes from positive to negative at N D e a=b so the maximum value of N is e a=b .017 corn plants per acre.36:017/ D $203:94=acre: (b) As a function of planting level x. 61.a ! b/ ! b ln N: N SOLUTION Thus. 60.t/ D N ! C a ! b ln N D . Let P . The corn yield on a certain farm is Y D !0:118x 2 C 8:5x C 12:9 (bushels per acre) where x is the number of corn plants per acre (in thousands). x0 corresponds to a maximum value for Y .165:972/ ! 1:25. Let N.t/ is increasing for N < e a=b!1 .486 corn plants per acre. Show that the maximum value of N is e b and that the tumor increases most rapidly when a N D e b !1 . a maximum yield does not lead to maximum profit.x/ be the profit (revenue minus the cost of seeds) at planting level x. N 0 .x/ ! 1:25x D !0:177x 2 C 11:5x C 19:35: Then. A rectangular box of height h with square base of side b has volume V D 4 m3 .b/ D ! 480 C 40b D 0 b2 p p 3 when b D p 12 meters. yield is maximized for a planting level of 36. The remaining sides cost $20/m2 . Which values of b and h minimize the cost of the box? SOLUTION Because the volume of the box is V D b 2 h D 4 it follows that hD 4 : b2 Now. the critical points of N occur when N D 0 and when N D e a=b .x/ D !0:354 < 0 for all x.2bh/ C 20.x0 / for the value x0 that maximizes yield Y . Assume that corn seed costs $1:25 (per thousand seeds) and that corn can be sold for $1:50/bushel. Then Y 0 D !0:236x C 8:5 D 0 when x0 D 8:5 D 36:017 thousand corn plants=acre: 0:236 Because Y 00 D !0:236 < 0 for all x. Does maximum yield lead to maximum profit? SOLUTION (a) Let Y D !0:118x 2 C 8:5x C 12:9. the profit is 1:5Y. we calculate # $ b N 00 .t/ be the size of a tumor (in units of 106 cells) at time t (in days). According to the Gompertz Model. At this planting level. a the tumor increases most rapidly when N D e b !1 . dN=dt D N. it follows that cost is minimized when b D 3 12 meters and h D 31 3 12 meters.a ! b ln N /. Given dN=dt D N. Thus. Thus.b/ ! 1 as b ! 0C and as b ! 1. P 0 .a ! b ln N / a where a. x1 corresponds to a maximum value for P . the profit is P . Therefore. profit is maximized for a planting level of 32.x/. the cost of the box is C D 40.x/ D 1:5Y. (b) Find the maximum value of P . b are positive constants.

This mileage decreases by 0. The cost of the fuel is 3L 3L D I 10 ! 0:15.v ! 50/ 17:5 ! 0:15v the total cost is therefore C. 90 Cost ($) P = $3 85 80 P = $2 75 70 50 55 60 65 Speed (mph) 70 63. and the wages paid to the driver are 30L=v.50/ D 0:9L. The cost as a function of speed for P D 2 and P D 3 is shown below (with L D 100). it is better to drive faster and thereby save on the driver’s wages. (b) Plot cost as a function of v (choose the length arbitrarily) and verify your answer to part (a). the optimal speed is v D 70 mph. we see that the optimal speed is v " 64:2 mph. which is an increase over the optimal speed when P D 3. When gas is cheaper. but the optimal speed does not.17:5 ! 0:15v/2 yields p 175 6 vD p " 64:2 mph: 3 C 1:5 6 Because C. SOLUTION (a) If the truck travels L miles at a speed of v mph.v/ D 30L 3L C : v 17:5 ! 0:15v Solving # $ 30 0:45 C 0 .70/ " 0:857L. (a) If the truck driver is paid $30/hour and diesel fuel costs P D $3/gal. A cone of radius r and height h has volume 13 " r 2 h. The optimal speed is clearly around 64 mph.532 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 62. then the time required is L=v.64:2/ " 0:848L and C. C. H R FIGURE 3 . When P D 2. Find the maximum volume of a right-circular cone placed upside-down in a right-circular cone of radius R D 3 and height H D 4 as in Figure 3. which speed v between 50 and 70 mph will minimize the cost of a trip along the highway? Notice that the actual cost depends on the length of the trip.15 mpg for each mile per hour increase above 50 mph. (b) The cost as a function of speed is shown below for L D 100. 90 Cost ($) 89 88 87 86 85 84 50 55 60 65 Speed (mph) 70 (c) We expect v to increase if P goes down to $2 per gallon. A truck gets 10 miles per gallon of diesel fuel traveling along an interstate highway at 50 mph.v/ D L ! 2 C D0 v . (c) Do you expect the optimal speed v to increase or decrease if fuel costs go down to P D $2/gal? Plot the graphs of cost as a function of v for P D 2 and P D 3 on the same axis and verify your conclusion.

Thus.0/ D V .area of !ABC / : 4 2 2 2 . and the area of the parallelogram becomes AB & AC x. dV 1 3r 2 D "H 2r ! dr 3 R ! ! . B D A E F C FIGURE 4 SOLUTION that Let # denote the measure of angle BAC . By similar triangles.r/ D " r 2 h D " r 2 ! 3 3 3 for 0 $ r $ 3.1 ! x/AB.1 ! x/ achieves its maximum value of 14 when x D 12 . Show that the maximum area of a parallelogram ADEF that is inscribed in a triangle ABC . AD D . and the critical points are r D 0 and r D 2R=3. 3 3 9 the maximum volume of a right-circular cone placed upside down in a right-circular cone of radius 3 and height 4 is 16 ": 9 64.2/ D " 4 ! D ". dr 3 and the critical points are r D 0 and r D 2. ! " dV 4 ! D " 2r ! r 2 . Because V .r/ D " r 2 h D "H r 2 ! 3 3 R for 0 $ r $ R. 3 3 9 27 81 the maximum volume of a right-circular cone placed upside down in a right-circular cone of radius R and height H is 4 "R2 H: 81 65. we obtain the relation 4!h 4 D r 3 ! r" hD4 1! 3 so and the volume of the upside down cone is 1 4 r3 V . is equal to one-half the area of 4ABC . by similar triangles. Thus. By similar triangles.R/ D 0 and ! # $ 2R 1 4R2 8R2 4 V D "H ! D "R2 H. SOLUTION Let r denote the radius and h the height of the upside down cone.1 ! x/ sin #. Thus. Now.0/ D V . Because V . as in Figure 4. Then the area of the parallelogram is given by AD & AF sin #. suppose BE=BC D x: Then. AF D DE D xAC . Redo Exercise 63 for arbitrary R and H .Chapter Review Exercises SOLUTION 533 Let r denote the radius and h the height of the upside down cone.3/ D 0 and # $ 4 8 16 V . we obtain the relation H !h H D r R ! r" hDH 1! R so and the volume of the upside down cone is 1 1 r3 V . The function x. the maximum area of a parallelogram inscribed in a triangle !ABC is $ # 1 1 1 1 AB & AC sin # D AB & AC sin # D .

x.x0 . Let f .x.x/ D q . f . The slope of the segment joining P and Q is then f .s/ ! 1 as s ! 0C and as s ! 1.x0 / q 0 .x// to . remove a sector of angle # (Figure 6). The metal for the top and bottom costs $50/m2 and the metal for the sides costs $30/m2 . Which angle # produces the cup of largest volume? θ R FIGURE 6 . f . hence. 0/. Then V D s 2 h D 8 so h D 8 : s2 The cost of the box is then C D 100s 2 C 120sh D 100s 2 C 960 : s Now. the two lines are perpendicular.x/ be a function whose graph does not pass through the x-axis and let Q D . SOLUTION Let the square base have side length s and the box have height h.x/ closest to P . Hint: Find the minimum value of the square of the distance from .x/ to the point P . A box of volume 8 m3 with a square top and bottom is constructed out of two types of metal. The height 8 " 2:81 meters: s2 67.534 CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 66.x0 .x ! a/2 C .s/ D 200s ! p 960 3 D 0 when s D 4:8: s2 Because C.x0 / x0 ! a 0 In other words. and fold the remaining piece into a coneshaped cup. the slope of the segment joining P and Q is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the line tangent to the graph of y D f .x0 ! a/2 C .x0 // is the point closest to P .x0 / !1 f .x/ at x D x0 .x0 // be the point on the graph of y D f . C 0 . f . 0/ and let Q D .a. Take a circular piece of paper of radius R. f .x0 / D ! D! : f .x0 . Prove that PQ is perpendicular to the tangent line to the graph of x0 . Find the dimensions of the box that minimize total cost.f .a.x0 //2 # $ x0 ! a f . the distance from the arbitrary point . let q. we must have Thus.x// on the graph of y D f . 68.x0 / : x0 ! a Now.x//2 . 2.x0 // be the point on the graph closest to Q (Figure 5). hD y y = f(x) P = (x 0 .x0 / D p D 0: . Let P D . f .x0 ! a/ C 2f . it follows that total cost is minimized when s D of the box is p 3 4:8 " 1:69 meters. f(x 0)) Q = (a. 0) x FIGURE 5 SOLUTION Let P D . As .f . 0/.a.x0 /f 0 .

p 69.2" ! #/R remaining to form the circumference of the cup. SOLUTION Let f . 70.xn / x 2 ! xn ! 1 D xn ! n : 0 f .xn / xn3 ! 25 D x ! : n f 0 .924017738 25 D 2:9240.!2/ 1 ! $ ! 2! 2! # C 1! r ! "2 2" $ 1 ! 1 ! 2! # # ! "2 $ ! $ # $# $ 2 1 ! 1 ! 2! ! 1! # 1 D 1! ! r ! "2 2" 2" $ 1 ! 1 ! 2! so that # D 2" and # D 2" ˙ p 2! 6 3 $ 2! "2 .x/ are located near x D !1 and x D 2. y 10 8 6 4 2 −2 −1 2 3 x . 2" and the volume of the cup is # $ 1 # 2 V .Chapter Review Exercises 535 SOLUTION Let r denote the radius and h denote the height of the cone-shaped cup. to four decimal places p 3 n 1 2 3 xn 2.2" ! #/R # rD D 1! R: 2" 2" The height of the cup is then hD s # # R2 ! 1 ! 2" $2 s # $ # 2 R2 D R 1 ! 1 ! .x/ D x 2 ! x ! 1 to four decimal places. 3 27 p the volume of the cup is maximized when # D 2" ! 2!3 6 . hence # $ . Now. we find Thus. # $# $ dV # 1 D2 1! ! d# 2" 2" s # # 2" 1! 1! $2 s # $ # 2 1! 1! 2" ! "! " 1 $2 . With V . Having removed an angle of # from the paper.#/ D "R3 1 ! 3 2" for 0 $ # $ 2". are critical points.2"/ D 0 and p ! p 2" 6 2 3 V 2" ! D "R3 .0/ D V .x/ D x 3 ! 25 and define xnC1 D xn ! f .924018982 2. Use Newton’s Method to find a root of f . Use Newton’s Method to estimate 3 25 to four decimal places.925925926 2.xn / 2xn ! 1 The graph below suggests the two roots of f . there is an arc of length . SOLUTION Let f .xn / 3xn2 With x0 D 3.x/ D x 2 ! x ! 1 and define xnC1 D xn ! f .

618033989 Thus. the roots of f . we find n 1 2 3 4 xn !0:6666666667 !0:6190476191 !0:6180344477 !0:6180339889 On the other hand.# ! 8/ d# SOLUTION Z 2 . 4 13=4 x C C. Z Z . Z 6 . x 9=4 dx D cos. 5 3x 3 ! 9 dx x2 Z Z 3x 3 ! 9 3 SOLUTION D . 3 x 9=4 dx SOLUTION 73. Z sin. with x0 D 2.# ! 8/ C C . Z tan 3# sec 3# d# D 1 sec 3# C C .4x 3 ! 2x 2 / dx D x 4 ! x 3 C C .5 ! 7#/ C C .3x ! 9x !2 / dx D x 2 C 9x !1 C C: dx 2 x2 80. Z Z Z Z Z 1 cos.9t !2=3 C 4t 7=3 / dt SOLUTION 77. In Exercises 71–84. 3 .y C 2/4 dy D 1 . 13 . 4x ! 2x 2 dx SOLUTION 72. 7 Z . sin. sec2 x dx SOLUTION 78.y C 2/4 dy SOLUTION Z Z tan 3# sec 3# d# SOLUTION 79. Z .x/ D x 2 ! x ! 1 are !0:6180 and 1.536 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 With x0 D !1.666666667 1.9t !2=3 C 4t 7=3 / dt D 27t 1=3 C t 10=3 C C . Z % 3 & 71. .4t !3 ! 12t !4 / dt D !2t !2 C 4t !3 C C .5 ! 7#/ d# D ! sin.# ! 8/ d# D ! cos.4t !3 ! 12t !4 / dt SOLUTION 76. Z Z 74.618034448 1.6180. calculate the indefinite integral. 5 Z sec2 x dx D tan x C C . to four decimal places.619047619 1.5 ! 7#/ d# SOLUTION 75.y C 2/5 C C . we find n 1 2 3 4 xn 1.

0/ D 12 dt SOLUTION Let dy dt D 3t 2 C cos t.t/ D Z . D sec2 x.0/ D 03 C sin 0 C C D 12. Thus.0/ D 3 dx SOLUTION Let dy dx D e !x . dy D x !1=2 . Then y.4x ! 9/ dx SOLUTION Z 1 sin. 85. Then y. 537 .0/ D 12.x/ D 2x 1=2 ! 1. Thus. we find y. Z .0/ D 3.4x ! 9/ C C .e x ! x/ dx D e x ! x 2 C C .e x ! x/ dx SOLUTION 82.0/ D !e 0 C C D 3. we find y.1/ D 4 dy dx D 4x 3 . Thus. Then y.x/ D Z e !x dx D !e !x C C: Using the initial condition y. 4 4x !1 dx SOLUTION 84. sin. 1 . y. we find y. % & dy 88.1/ D 4. y.x/ D Z x !1=2 dx D 2x 1=2 C C: Z sec2 x dx D tan x C C: p Using the initial condition y.Chapter Review Exercises 81. we find y. y. 4 In Exercises 85–90. y.1/ D 1 dx SOLUTION Let dy dx D x !1=2 . y.1/ D 2 1 C C D 1. 87.4x ! 9/ dx D ! cos. dy D e !x .t/ D t 3 C sin t C 12. so C D 4. y !4 D 2 dx SOLUTION Let dy dx D sec2 x. Then y. !4 / D tan 89.x/ D Z 4x 3 dx D x 4 C C: Using the initial condition y. dy D 4x 3 . solve the differential equation with the given initial condition. 2 e !4x dx SOLUTION 83. we find y. Thus.1/ D 14 C C D 4. y. dx SOLUTION Let y.x/ D tan x C 1. dy D 3t 2 C cos t. ! 4 C C D 2. Z Z Z Z 1 e !4x dx D ! e !4x C C .x/ D Using the initial condition y.1/ D 1. so C D 12. Then y. so C D 1. y. 86. !4 / D 2. Z Z 4x !1 dx D 4 ln jxj C C . so C D !1.3t 2 C cos t/ dt D t 3 C sin t C C: Using the initial condition y.x/ D x 4 C 3. y. so C D 3. Thus.x/ D 4 ! e !x .

t/ D 0. we find f . it follows that f 00 . 10 10 10 leading to 93.!10/ dt D !10t C v0 . Z Z 1 1 f .t/ D Z v. y.x/ D SOLUTION e 2x C1 . . we find y. 1 2 1 3 t ! t ! t C 2: 2 3 92.0/ D 12 02 ! 13 03 ! 0 C C D 2.t/ dt D Z C 1 ! 14 e 4 .t/ dt D .1/ D 41 e 4 C C D 1. At time t D 0. we conclude that the point . Note the automobile comes to a halt when v. which occurs at tD v0 s: 10 The distance traveled during the braking process is s.x/ D e x!1 C e !x!1 .x/ D 1 4x 4e 91. Find f .x/ D Z 1 4x e C C: 4 e 4x dx D Using the initial condition y. y.0/ D !1. With f 00 .0. where v0 is the velocity of the automobile at t D 0.1 ! 2t/ dt D t ! t 2 C C: Using the initial condition f 0 .1/ D 1 dx SOLUTION Let dy dx D e 4x .0/ D e 0!1 C e !0!1 D 2e . CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE dy D e 4x .t/ D t ! t 2 ! 1. Thus. for some arbitrary constant C . we use the Second Derivative Test. We are given that the braking distance is 500 meters.x/ D e 2x C1 e xC1 using the Laws of Exponents: e 2x 1 C xC1 D e 2x!. .0/ D !1.1/ D 1.538 90.x/ D f .t/ dt D !5t 2 C v0 t C C. so C D !1. e xC1 v0 D 100 m=s: To simplify the differentiation.t/ D .t/ D Z f 00 .xC1/ C e !. we determine Z v. x ! 1 D !x ! 1 or x D 0: Next.t/ if f 00 . Then y.t/ D SOLUTION From the constant deceleration of !10 m/s2 .t/ D 1 ! 2t. f . Since f . f . so C D 1 ! 14 e 4 .t/ D 1 ! 2t. Thus. f 0 . Then f 0 .t ! t 2 ! 1/ dt D t 2 ! t 3 ! t C C: 2 3 Using the initial condition f .0/ D 2. so C D 2. we find f 0 . 2e / is a local minimum.0/ D !5 C v0 C C ! C D 500. we first rewrite f . SOLUTION Suppose f 00 . Find the local extrema of f .0/ D e !1 C e !1 D 2 > 0: e Hence. Thus. Now. x D 0 is a local minimum. Find the velocity at t D 0.xC1/ D e x!1 C e !x!1 : e xC1 e Now.0/ D 0 ! 02 C C D !1. so !v " ! v "2 !v " 0 0 0 s ! s.x/ D e x!1 ! e !x!1 : Setting the derivative equal to zero yields e x!1 ! e !x!1 D 0 or e x!1 D e !x!1 : Thus. and f 0 . a driver begins decelerating at a constant rate of !10 m/s2 and comes to a halt after traveling 500 m. f 0 .0/ D 2.t/ D f 0 .

x/ D 2x I and x2 C 1 % & 2 x 2 C 1 ! 2x & 2x . there are inflection points at x D 2 ˙ 2 2.x/ < 0 for x < !1 and for x > 1.4x 2 ! 4x ! 1/e x!x : Solving y 0 D 0 yields the critical point x D 12 . x 0 and y 00 D x1 . f 00 . As x ! ˙1. whereas y 00 < 0 and the function is concave down for p p p 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 ! 2 2 < x < 2 C 2 2. we find that y 00 D 0 when x D 12 ˙ 12 2. whereas f 00 . find the local extrema and points of inflection.x/ > 0 for !1 < x < 1. determine whether the concavity changes from up to down or from down to up. Since y 00 .e !1 / D e > 0.6 0. and at each point.4 0.x/ D ln. we find f 0 . Since y 00 # $ 1 D !2e 1=4 < 0. the function has a local minimum at x D e !1 .x/ D ln. hence. x ! x ! !1 so 2 lim e x!x D 0: x!˙1 The graph is shown below.8 0. As x ! 0C and as x ! 1. y D x ln x SOLUTION . and that the concavity of f changes from down to up at x D !1 and from up to down at x D 1. 95.x 2 C 1/.x > 0/ Let y D x ln x.2 –1 1 2 3 4 . Find the points of inflection of f . Solving y 0 D 0 yields the critical point x D e !1 .1 ! 2x/e x!x and 2 2 2 y 00 D . y D e x!x SOLUTION 2 3 4 x 2 2 2 Let y D e x!x . y 00 is positive for x > 0. Then # $ 1 y D ln x C x D 1 C ln x. In Exercises 95–98.1 ! x 2 / .!x/ D 0I x!0C x !1 x!0C !x !2 x!0C lim x ln x D lim x!0C lim x ln x D 1: x!1 The graph is shown below: y 6 4 2 1 96.x 2 C 1/ 2 Thus. SOLUTION With f .Chapter Review Exercises 539 94. y 00 > 0 p p and the function is concave up for x < 12 ! 12 2 and for x > 12 C 12 2. we find ln x x !1 D lim D lim . Use L’Hˆopital’s Rule to determine the limits as x ! 0C or x ! ˙1 if necessary.x 2 C 1/ 2 D 2.2 1 0.x 2 C 1/. and sketch the graph.1 ! 2x/2 e x!x ! 2e x!x D . 1. Then y 0 D .x/ D f 00 . hence the function is concave up for x > 0 and there are no points of inflection. It follows that there are points of inflection at x D ˙1. 2 p the function has a local maximum at x D 12 . Using the quadratic formula.

Because y 00 . As x ! ˙1. x and y 00 D 2 2 ln x 2 C D .2 C ln x/. Therefore.ln x/2 D 2 ln x C . Moreover.ln x/2 D ln x. whereas y 00 > 0 for !2 & 3!1=4 < x < 2 & 3!1=4 .4 0. Since y 00 .0/ D 12 > 0. 2 x C 16 8. the function has a local maximum at x D e !2 and a local minimum at x D 1.2 1.1/ D 2 > 0.ln x/2 D lim x!0C lim x. whereas y 00 > 0 and the function is concave up for x > e !1 .6 0.5 .8 0. y D tan!1 SOLUTION x2 4 ! Let y D tan!1 0.0 0.2 x −6 99.4 0.6 0.x 4 C 16/ ! 8x & 4x 3 128 ! 24x 4 D : .5 ! x2 4 " 1 1. we find . −4 −2 2 4 Explain why L’Hˆopital’s Rule gives no information about lim x!1 6 2x ! sin x .x 4 C 16/2 Solving y 0 D 0 yields x D 0 as the only critical point. there is a point of inflection at x D e !1 . As x ! 0C and as x ! 1. y 00 < 0 and the function is concave down for x < e !1 .8 0.540 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 97. Then y0 D x 2 ln x C . y 00 < 0 for x < !2 & 3!1=4 and for x > 2 & 3!1=4 .4 1.ln x/2 .x > 0/ Let y D x.ln x/2 D 1: x!1 The graph is shown below: 0. there are points of inflection at x D ˙2 & 3!1=4 .1 C ln x/: x x x Solving y 0 D 0 yields the critical points x D e !2 and x D 1. hence.x 4 C 16/2 .ln x/2 2 ln x & x !1 2 ln x 2x !1 D lim D lim D lim D lim 2x D 0I x!0C x !1 x!0C x!0C !x !1 x!0C x !2 x!0C !x !2 lim x.ln x/2 SOLUTION . Evaluate the limit by another method. we conclude the function has a local minimum at x D 0. we find ! 2 " !1 x lim tan D : 4 2 x!˙1 The graph is shown below: y 1.e !2 / D !2e 2 < 0 and y 00 . Then y0 D and y 00 D 1C 1 ! x2 4 "2 x 8x D 4 . 3x C cos 2x . y D x.2 98.

x/ D 1 : f 0 . 3x C cos 2x 2 ! cos x . We find D lim t !1 1 D 1: 1 C e !t .0// D f 0 . Let f .e t C 1/ lim D lim t !1 t !1 t et e t C1 1 1 1. lim x!!2 SOLUTION x 3 C 2x 2 ! x ! 2 x 4 C 2x 3 ! 4x ! 8 4x ! 12 4 D lim D 4: x!3 2x ! 5 x 2 ! 5x C 6 The given expression is an indeterminate form of type 00 . 101. we have 0 0. Prove that lim x!0 SOLUTION have f . By the Theorem on the derivative of the g 0 . we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule.x/f 0 . We find ln x 1=x x 1=2 D lim D lim ! D 0: x!0C x !1=2 x!0C 1=2 !3=2 x!0C 2 ! lim x 1=2 ln x D lim x!0C x ln. the limit is an indeterminate form of type inverse function. we have g . so L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies to lim x!1 541 2x ! sin x . verify that L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies and evaluate the limit.g. so we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule.0/f 0 .x/ D lim D lim f 0 .0/ D g .0// D 0: Therefore. lim x!3 4x ! 12 x 2 ! 5x C 6 SOLUTION The given expression is an indeterminate form of type 00 . We find x 3 C 2x 2 ! x ! 2 3x 2 C 4x ! 1 3 1 D lim D! D! : 4 3 x!!2 x C 2x ! 4x ! 8 x!!2 4x 3 C 6x 2 ! 4 12 4 lim 103.g. In particular. as ln x : x !1=2 therefore L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies.0/ & f 0 .e t C 1/ 104. does not exist due to the oscillation of sin x and cos x and further applications of 3 ! 2 sin 2x L’Hˆopital’s rule will not change this situation. To evaluate the limit. lim x 1=2 ln x x!0C SOLUTION First rewrite x 1=2 ln x The rewritten expression is an indeterminate form of type 1 1.0/ D f 0 .x/ D f 0 .g. therefore L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies. hence.0/2 : x!0 g. the resulting limit.Chapter Review Exercises SOLUTION As x ! 1. for x D 0 we g.x// Therefore.0/ D 0 and f 0 . We find lim x!3 102.0/ ¤ 0. both 2x ! sin x and 3x C cos 2x tend toward infinity. lim x!1 2 ! sinx x 2x ! sin x 2 D lim D : x!1 3x C cos 2x x!1 3 C cos 2x 3 x lim 100.f .x/ be a differentiable function with inverse g.g.x/ such that f . we note however. f .x// In Exercises 101–112.x/ f 0 .f .0/2 g.x// D x for all x in the domain of f . lim t !1 t SOLUTION The given expression is an indeterminate form of type ln.x/ Since g and f are inverse functions. therefore L’Hˆopital’s Rule applies.x// D f 0 .x/ x!0 0 1 x!0 lim f .

we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule. we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule.1 ! y 2 /!3=2 . lim x!0 sinh. We find p !p x 2 1 ! x2 1!x lim D lim D lim x D 1: x!1 cos!1 x x!1 ! p 1 x!1 1!x 2 111.4 C x/ ! 14 . hence. hence.x 2 / cosh x ! 1 SOLUTION The limit is an indeterminate form of type 00 .1 C x/ D ! 14 & 1 8 2 C 7 32 D 3 : 32 ln. lim p x!0 2 sin # ! sin 2# 2 cos # ! 2 cos 2# 2 cos # ! 2 cos 2# D lim D lim sin # ! # cos # # sin # $ !0 cos # ! .t C 2/ 107. we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule. lim y!0 sin!1 y ! y y3 The limit is an indeterminate form of type 00 .x 2 / C 4x 2 sinh. We find 1 t C2 1 t ln 2 D lim t !1 t ln 2 ln 2 D lim D ln 2: t !1 1 t C2 First rewrite the function as a quotient: SOLUTION ex 1 xe x ! e x C 1 ! D : ex ! 1 x x. lim $ !0 2 sin # ! sin 2# sin # ! # cos # The given expression is an indeterminate form of type 00 . We find SOLUTION lim $ !0 106.x 2 / 2 cosh. lim sin!1 y ! y D lim y!0 y3 p 1 1!y 2 3y 2 !1 D lim y!0 y. we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule. We find SOLUTION lim y!0 110. we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule. We find # x $ e 1 xe x C e x ! e x xe x lim ! D lim D lim x x x x x!0 e ! 1 x!0 xe C e ! 1 x!0 xe C e x ! 1 x xe x C e x 1 1 D D : x!0 xe x C e x C e x 1C1 2 D lim 109. hence.x 2 / sinh. We find SOLUTION p lim x!0 p 4Cx!28 1Cx D lim x!0 x2 1 !1=2 2 .t C 2/ D lim t !1 log2 t t !1 lim 108.1 ! y 2 /!3=2 1 D lim D : y!0 6y 6 6 p 1 ! x2 cos!1 x x!1 SOLUTION The limit is an indeterminate form 00 . lim x!0 # ex 1 ! ex ! 1 x $ 1 1. hence.e x ! 1/ The limit is now an indeterminate form of type 00 . we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule.x 2 / 2C0 D lim D lim D D 2: x!0 x!0 x!0 cosh x ! 1 sinh x cosh x 1 lim . hence. we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule.542 APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE CHAPTER 4 105. lim t !1 log2 t The limit is an indeterminate form of type SOLUTION ln. hence.cos # ! # sin #/ $ !0 D lim $ !0 p 4Cx!28 1Cx x2 !2 sin # C 4 sin 2# !2 cos # C 8 cos 2# !2 C 8 D lim D D 3: sin # C # cos # 1C1!0 $ !0 cos # C cos # ! # sin # The given expression is an indeterminate form of type 00 .1 C x/!7=8 2x ! 14 . hence. We find 2x cosh.4 C x/!3=2 C x!0 2 D lim 7 !15=8 32 .

a1 C a2 / D 0 when xD a1 C a2 : 2 We conclude that .x/ attains a maximum value at this point.x!a2 / : A Since e ! 2 y is a decreasing function of y.x!a1 / &e 2 !A 2 . hence.x/ attains its maximum value at x D n1 .x ! a2 / & & & f . : : : .x ! a1 /f . (b) Show that for any n. Given any n numbers a1 .x ! an / (a) Assume n D 2 and prove that ˆ. This fact is related to the role of f .x/ D f .x ! a1 / f . an .x ! an /2 : We find the critical points by solving: y 0 D 2 . where A > 0.x/ attains a maximum value at this point.x!an / De ! " 2 2 !A 2 .! sech x tanh x/ ! sinh x D lim D lim x!0 sin x ! x x!0 cos x ! 1 x!0 ! sin x lim 2 sech2 x tanh x C sinh x !4 sech2 x tanh2 x C 2 sech4 x C cosh x D lim x!0 sin x x!0 cos x D lim D 113.x!a2 / D e ! " 2 2 !A 2 .a1 C a2 C & & & C an /. set ˆ.Chapter Review Exercises 112. Therefore we must y D . Let f .x!an / : is a decreasing function of y. we must find the minimum value of y D .x ! a2 /2 C & & & C . We find tanh x ! sinh x sech2 x ! cosh x 2 sech x.x/ using logarithmic differentiation.a1 C a2 C & & & C an / xD a1 C & & & C an : n We verify that this point corresponds the minimum value of y by examining the sign of y 00 at this point: y 00 D 2n > 0.x!a1 / C###C. Therefore.x!a1 / & e ! 2 . y 0 D 4x ! 2. a2 .x/ (whose graph is a bell-shaped curve) in statistics.x/ attains its maximum value at the average x D 12 . n .x ! a1 / C 2 .a1 C a2 /.x/ D e !Ax 2 =2 !4 & 1 & 0 C 2 & 1 C 1 D 3: 1 .x ! an / D 0 2nx D 2 . ˆ. it attains its maximum value where y is minimum. hence . we may apply L’Hˆopital’s Rule.x ! a2 / C & & & C 2 .x ! a1 /2 C . Hint: Calculate ˆ0 .x!a2 / & &&& & e 2 !A 2 .x ! a2 / D e ! 2 .x!a1 / C.x/ D e !A 2y Since the function e minimize the function 2 !A 2 .x ! a2 /2 D 2x 2 ! 2 . lim x!0 543 tanh x ! sinh x sin x ! x SOLUTION The limit is an indeterminate form of type 00 . (b) We have .a1 C a2 / x C a12 C a22 : Now. SOLUTION (a) For n D 2 we have. We conclude n that y attains a minimum value at the point x D a1 C###Ca .x ! a1 /2 C .x/ D f . it attains a maximum value where y is minimum. 2 A A 2 .

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so the Intermediate Value Theorem says there is a rectangle with area exactly 5000 square yards. There is a c in (0. and so f (x) < 0 just to the left of x = 2. Since y > 0. thus f (x) is continuous for all x. y) be a point in the first quadrant on the ellipse. and since the runner is moving. y). –y). and (–x. A( x)  100000  4 x 2 50000  10 x 2 50000  10 x 2 . Apply the Mean Value Theorem to f (x) on [0. so 2 = 0 when x = 50 (remember x > 0) and changes sign from plus to minus. dt dt dx dx Or. 1) justifies maximum at x = 50. –y). so f (x) has a local minimum at x = 2. f (x) is continuous for all x.AP-4 Chapter 4: Application of the Derivative Preparing for the AP Exam Solutions Multiple Choice Questions 1) B 6) A 11) C 16) C 2) E 7) C 12) B 17) C 3) B 8) B 13) E 18) C 4) A 9) D 14) D 19) C 5) C 10) B 15) E 20) E Free Response Questions 1. Thus A has a maximum at x = 50. 1) x = 50. (x. (–x. dx dx  0 when y > 0 and  0 when y < 0 since the runner is going counterclockwise. 1) A(50) > 5000. A(50) = A  5000 10 .  0 when y = 0. 1) Reason (b) (2 pts) 1) Answer. x  x  f (2)  f (0) c)  1 . POINTS: (a) (2 pts) 1) Answer 2) Justification (b) (7pts) 1) A  4 xy . 2) with 20 f (c)  1  0 d) Note that f (2)  0 and f (2)  1  0 . dt dt For example. The area of R is A  4 xy . POINTS: (a) (2 pts) 1) Answer. b) Let P = (x. Next. y  A  2 x 50000  10 x 2 .2]. cannot be constantly zero. There are various justifications. 1) A  2 x 50000  10 x 2 1) A( x)  100000  4 x 2 50000  10 x 2 . which means there is not a vertical asymptote. a) No. Thus f (x) is decreasing just to the left of x = 2. A(1) < 5000 < A(50). 1) Reason . a) No. 1) uses IVT 2. We have no information about lim f ( x) or lim f ( x) . y). Then construct the rectangle R with vertices (x. b) Yes.

1) y  3  ( x  2) dx dx dx 8 8 (b) (1 pt) (c) (2 pts) 1) y  2. a) Differentiating with respect to x.850 . then f (0) = 30. 1) f (x) decreasing on some interval. Thus  dx dx dx 2 y  x dy 7 7  . ) (c) (2 pts) 1) k < –7. 1)   0. 1) k > 20 4. f(x) now is increasing for x > 2. . [ Note. The equation is y  3  ( x  2) . Experimenting. we know f(x) will be negative for some negative values of x. f (2)  20  k . line. dx 8 8 7 b) q  3  (2. Thus there is a c in (–3.853 8 c) Use our calculator to solve (2. For (i). and it appears the graph is concave down. ) . 0) with f(c) = 0. b) We have f ( x)  6 x 2  6 x  12  6( x  1)( x  2) Thus f(x) has a local maximum x = –1 and a local minimum at x = 2. f(x) is decreasing on [–1.  to get 2 256 dx 8 dx POINTS: (a) (3 pts) 1) 2 x  y  x dy dy dy 7 7 2  0. a) If k = 30. 2]. Choose the solution nearest 3. so there is no solution to f(x) = 0 in [-1.1] . Next substitute x = –2. 3. we get 2 x  y  x dy dy dy y  2 x . so there is no solution to f(x) = 0 in [2. 1) Uses MVT 20 (d) (3 pts) 1) local min at x = 2. At the point 2  0.  2 2 2 256 dx (2 y  x) dx 2 ( 1) Concludes concave down .168) 2  (2. y = 3 and   dx dx 2 y  x dx 2 (2 y  x) 2 ( 2 d2y 57 dy 7   0 . For (ii). c) We want the graph to intersect the x-axis exactly once.1] . 2]. 1) deals with (. we find f (–3) = –15. 2) conclusion of concave down dy dy  2)(2 y  x)  ( y  2 x)(2  1) d2y 57 d y dx dx (d) (3 pts) 1) . so we want either (i) the local maximum to be less than 0 or (ii) the local minimum to be greater than 0. 1) local min at x = 2. there are exactly two solutions. so the graph is below the tangent (–2. 1)  .168) y  y 2  19 . 3).849 . and f(2) = 10.168  2)  2.] POINTS: (a) (2 pts) 1) Finds a negative value of f(x) 1) Uses IVT (b) (5 pts) 1) local max at x = –1.2]. So f(x) = 0 has exactly one solution in (.1] and f(–1) = 37. for k = –7 or 20. This is less than the tangent line approximation. f(x) is increasing on (. 1) deals with [–1. dy dy  2)(2 y  x)  ( y  2 x)(2  1) d y dy y  2 x dx d) . to three decimal places y  2. 1) decreasing means f (x) < 0. Since f(x) is a cubic and the coefficient of x 3  0 . which confirms our answer of concave down in part (c). 1) deals with [2. so . so k > 20.AP-4 (c) (2 pts) 1) f (2)  f (0)  1 . With k = 30. f (1)  7  k so k < –7.